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A Comprehensive List of Fuel, Diesel and Lube Oil Tanks on a Ship

by Anish 25 January 2011 2 Comments A ship is a massive storage floating structure which is primarily used to store and transfer liquid or dry type of cargo from one port to another. A ship requires tonnes of oil- both fuel and lubricating, along with water so that its propulsion and other auxiliary systems can operate efficiently. In order to store different types of oils and water, the ship is designed and constructed with several tanks. These tanks help to store fuel oil, lube oil, hydraulic oil, drinking water, fresh water, ballast water etc. The size, number, type, and location of the tanks depend on the following factors:

Size and type of the ship Propulsion plant, auxiliary engines type and design of other machineries. Area of voyage

Tanks are spread all over the ship from forward to aft and port to starboard. Different types of tanks present on the ship are: Fuel & Diesel Oil Tanks:

Bunker tanks These are the biggest tanks in terms of capacity present on board a ship. They are used to store fuel and diesel oil received in bulk after bunkering. The locations of bunker tanks are normally outside the engine room and they are generally a wing or double bottom tank. Low sulphur oil and marine gas oil is bunkered in separate dedicated bunker tanks to avoid mix up of fuel. Settling tanks Generally, more than two settling tanks are present and located on a ship as part of the bulkhead of the engine room. Oil from the bunker tank is transferred into the settling tank. The diesel oil settling tank can be located as double bottom tank in the engine room. Settling tank for low sulphur oil and marine gas oil is kept separate from other fuel oil. Service tanks Service tanks onboard ships are used to store and supply treated oil to main engine, auxiliary engine and boilers. The number of such tanks can be one or more. Fuel oil and diesel oil service tanks are normally located as a part of the bulkhead of the engine room. Low service fuel oil (L.S.F.O) and marine gas oil (M.G.O) tanks are dedicated tanks to avoid mix up. Over flow tank Over flow tank is provided for both fuel and diesel oil system in the engine room for collecting the overflowed oil from bunker tank. Return lines and leak off lines may also be connected to overflow tank. It is a normal practice to have a common overflow tank for high and low sulphur system.

Emergency generator diesel oil tank: Fuel for emergency generator is supplied form a separate diesel oil tank with capacity derived by the regulation given in SOLAS. The location of the tank is in the emergency generator room which is outside the engine room. Lubricating oil tanks

It is almost impossible to think of any machinery operating without the use of lubricating oils. For this reason, various grades of lube oils are stored onboard ship. Different lube oil tanks present on board ship are: Main Engine Crank Case (M.E.C.C) Oil Tank The Main engine crank case oil is stored in one or more tanks and low sulphur system oil is kept in separate tanks. There are no other settling or service tanks in lube oil system and oil is taken directly from the main tank. Main Engine Cylinder Oil Tank The main engine cylinder oil is used inside the combustion chamber between the piston and the liner, and is stored in the cylinder oil tank. The bulk oil is bunkered directly into these tanks. The low sulphur oil is kept separate in different tanks. Main Engine Cylinder Oil Daily Tank The daily tank is located in the engine room and the oil is transferred from the storage tank to this daily tank. The capacity of daily tank is kept as per the main engine cylinder oil daily consumption. Main Engine Turbocharger Oil tank If the main engine comprises of a turbocharger system with forced lubrication, a turbocharger lube oil storage tank is provided. Maine Engine Turbocharger Daily Lube Oil Tank A daily oil tank is provided in the engine room. Oil as per the daily consumption of the turbo charging system is transferred from the storage tank. Auxiliary Engine Lube Oil Tank Auxiliary engine are 4 stroke engines and no separate cylinder lube oil is used. Therefore, only auxiliary engine main lube oil is bunkered and kept in storage tank. One or more tanks may be present as per the ships requirement.

rocedure for Cleaning Fuel Oil Tanks on a Ship

by Aditib 11 November 2010 No Comment Ships use heavy fuel oil which has a very high viscosity. When stored in fuel tanks, this oil tends to stick inside the tanks forming layers of semi-solid substance. Moreover, many impurities of the oil settle down and stick to the surface of the tanks. It is therefore imperative that the fuel oil tanks are cleaned on a regular basis on ships.

Generally, fuel oil tanks cleaning on the ship is done during dry dock and whenever the inspection of the fuel tanks is due. Cleaning is done for surveyor inspection or if there is any work to be done inside the tanks such as crack in fuel tank, leaking steam lines etc. For cleaning a tank various safety precautions are to be considered as it contains flammable gases and oil inside it.

Preparations Done before Cleaning The following steps are to be followed before starting the cleaning process: 1) Empty the tank as much as possible; strip the tank by trimming the ship forward or aft depending on the suction valve location. 2) When the ship is going for dry-dock the keel plan is to be sent to the shore facility so that they should not put any keel block in the way of the plug present in the bottom shell plating. 3) The tank has to be properly ventilated as it is an enclosed space and might contain flammable gases. 4) It is to be made sure that the steam connections are closed and proper signs and placards are displayed so that during cleaning nobody opens the valve and gets burnt or hurt. 5) The tank has to be checked for flammable gases. 6) The tank has to be checked for oxygen content with the help of oxygen analyser. 7) The tank is drained off left over oil with the help of plugs. 8 ) The location of plug can be found out in shell plating diagrams. 9) Generally this plug is covered with cement and made streamlined with the shell plating. 10) Enclosed space entry checklist is filled out so that no safety issues are compromised or left. During cleaning

1) Entry is only to be made inside the tank if the oxygen level is 21% by volume and flammable gases are vented out. 2) One person should always standby outside the manhole door and should be in communication with the person inside. 3) The person outside should continuously communicate with person inside and with the duty officer. 4) In case of hot work to be carried out, a fire line is to be carried inside. Also, a small fire extinguisher for small fire should be there. Inform Port state authority before commencing hot work. 5) The tank is cleaned manually with the help of brushes, rags etc. 6) The oxygen content is continuously monitored and in case the alarm indicates low level, the space has to be evacuated immediately without any delay. After cleaning 1) Make sure no tool are left inside which may get stuck in the valve or damage the transfer pump 2) The place where crack repair is done should be checked for leaks. 3) If it was a steam leak repair, the coils needs to be checked for steam leak inside. 4) In case of crack or plate renewal the tank has to be pressure tested and checked for leak. If the repair is major it has to be inspected by class surveyor before putting it in operation. 5) Close the manhole after inspection, repairs and cleaning. 6) Close and remove the sign permit to work.

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Important Lube Oil Properties to be Considered While Choosing Marine Lube Oil for Your Ship
by Anish 11 March 2011 No Comment Lube oil is a one of the essential elements for operating any kind of machinery on board ship. Lube oil is responsible for lubrication and cooling of the parts which are operating relative to

each other, giving rise to frictional and other types of stresses on the machinery. Without the use of lube oil, we cannot imagine any machinery operation on ship. Different types and grades of lube oils are available for machinery, depending upon the working condition, operation, and requirements of the machinery itself. When it comes to marine engines, it is very critical to select the best grade of lube oil that can be used as crank case oil or cylinder oil. The lube oil is selected based on the properties which will improve the engine operation and reduce the wear down rate and hence the maintenance cost of the machine.

Important Properties of Lube Oil The following are the most common and required properties of the lube oil used for marine machinery: Alkalinity The lube oil alkalinity plays an important part in marine engines. When fuel burns, the fumes carry sulphuric acid which can cause acidic corrosion. For a trunk piston engine or four stroke engines, the main lube oil is responsible for piston and liner lubrication; hence it comes directly in contact with the combustible fuel. Therefore alkalinity of lube oil is important for controlling acidic corrosion. For two stroke engines, separate grade of lube oil is used as cylinder oil and its alkalinity depends on the engine fuel grade (HFO or LSFO).

Oxidation resistant Lube oil is always in contact with air and thus oxygen presence in oil is inevitable. Moreover, at high temperature of the oil, the oxidation rate increases. After 85 degree C temperature, the increase in every 10 degree C of oil oxidation rates doubles itself leading to sludge formation, acid production and bearing corrosion. Hence additives are added to maintain keep these things in check. Lube oil temperature is controlled by passing it through lube oil cooler.

Load carrying capacity It is also one of the important characteristics of lube oil which mainly depends upon the viscosity of the oil. The load subjected to different internal parts of the marine engine is very high; hence the load carrying capacity must be enough to withstand the pressure inside the engine. If this is not achieved then oil will be forced out and metal to metal contact will result in wiping out and wear down of the machine.

Thermal conductivity The internal parts of marine engine are always in movement producing heat energy. This heat energy has to be carried away or else it might lead to wear down due to thermal stresses. The lube oil must cool down the internal parts to avoid such a situation and must have a good thermal conductivity.

Detergency Detergency of the oil is obtained by adding some metallic based additives which will prevent the build up of small deposits in the metal surface. In two stroke engine, the cylinder oil detergency is very important as it removes the deposits from the ring pack area and keeps the combustion space as clean as possible

Disperency It is the property of the lube oil which prevents impurities to mix up with itself and keeps them suspended on the surface. This makes it easy for the separator or clarifier to remove it from the oil.

High Flash Point

The flash point is the minimum temperature at which the oil vaporizes to give an ignitable mixture of air. The flash point should always be on the higher side so that in case of increase in temperature of the oil, fire hazard can be avoided. Normally for marine engine lube oils, the flash point is always higher than 220 C.

Low Demulsification Number It is not practically impossible to completely avoid contamination of oil with water. The low demulsification number of the oil helps in easy separation of water from the oil in the separator or when stored in the settling tank. 8Share 1 1digg Home General

List of Important and Not-So-Famous Tanks on a Ship

by Anish 26 January 2011 2 Comments Fuel oil, diesel oil, and lubricating oil tanks are the names of tanks everyone is aware of. But there are several tanks apart from them which also play an important part in the overall working of the ship. Moreover, there are also tanks of which many people are not aware of. In this article we will have a look at some important and some not-so-famous tanks present on the ship. Hydraulic Oil Tanks Hydraulic oil tanks for valves Separate tanks are used to store oil which is used for different valves on the ship. Valves such as ballast valves, fuel valves etc. are remotely operated by hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oil tanks for Winches Tanks for hydraulic oil are located outside the engine room to store winches oil. Hydraulic oil tanks for Steering gear Steering gear hydraulic oil tank is normally located in the steering room and is used as a storage tank to receive bulk oil.

Water tanks Fresh water tanks Fresh water tanks present onboard may be two or more in numbers, depending upon the size of vessel. They are used to store sanitary water for accommodation, engine room and deck use. Drinking water tank A separate drinking water tank may be present to store drinkable water received from shore or to store water produced by fresh water generator (F.W.G). Distilled Feed water tank A ships boiler needs distilled water to produce steam, and therefore water from fresh water generator (F.W.G) is stored in distilled water tank. Boiler feed water tank The boiler feed water system consist of a separate tank which receives water from distilled water tank. Cascade tank Cascade tank, also known as hot well, is a part of boiler feed water system. Water is pumped into the cascade tank from the feed water tank. The boiler water is treated in the cascade tank and the return from the steam heating system is also connected to the hot well. Ballast water tanks

Ballast water tanks are present all over the ship for ballasting and de-ballasting purpose for stabilizing the ship and for acquiring correct draught for port and canal crossing etc. Double bottom tanks are generally located outside the engine room.

Stern tube cooling water tank This tank is located around the stern tube of the propeller and acts as a cooling media for the same. It can be used as a fresh water water tank of the ship. Slop tanks Slop tank in tanker Slop tanks are present onboard tanker to store oily water mixture from cargo tank washing. The number of slop tanks depends on the Dead weight Tonnage (DWT) of the vessel. Sludge tank Located in engine room, this tank is used to store sludge produced after treating fuel or lube oil through purifiers.

Bilge tank The water and oil leakage in the engine room is collected in bilge wells and this oily water mixture is then transferred to primary bilge tank or bilge holding tank, where the mixture is settled down and then is transferred to secondary bilge tank.

The oily water separator is supplied through secondary or separated bilge tank and a shore connection is also connected to this tank to dispose off all the collected bilge to shore. Scavenge drain tank The sludge produced by the main engine in the scavenge area is collected in the small capacity scavenge drain tank. Oily Water Separator (O.W.S) Sludge tank When oily water separator operates, it separates oil from water and that oil is collected and discharged into a separate tank known as O.W.S sludge tank. Other Not-So-Famous yet Important Tanks Drain tank The drain tank is located in the engine room. All drip trays and other drains are connected to this tank. Leak off tank This is a small tank separately fitted in the main engine and all auxiliary engines to detect any fuel leakage. The tank consists of an orifice and a float. If the leak is very small, it will pass through the orifice; but if leakage increases, the oil will not be able to pass through the orifice and tank level would increase, rising the float and thus giving an alarm. Stuffing Box Tank The main engine stuffing box scraps the impure lubricating oil, which is collected in a separate tank known as stuffing box tank. Stern tube gravity tank

The stern tube system oil is circulated in the system by means of two tanks, lower gravity and upper gravity tanks. Waste oil tank The waste oil tank is a separate tank used to collect waste and impure oil produced onboard ship. Soot collecting tank When the economiser tube washing is done, the soot water is collected in a soot collecting tank. Sewage holding tank The sewage produced from the onboard crew is collected in a common tank known as sewage collecting tank. The sewage plant takes intake from the sewage holding tank.

Expansion tanks The jacket water system of main engine, auxiliary engine and some times main air compressor are provided with individual expansion to provide provision to compensate change in volume and maintaining positive pressure. Jacket water drain tank When any maintenance is to be done on the main engine, the jacket water is drained and collected into the jacket water drain tank. Rocker arm tank Many diesel generators are provided with separate rocker arm lubricating oil tank to avoid contamination. Share 0digg Home Marine Safety, Maritime Law

Important Features of Muster List on Ship

by Anish 2 February 2011 No Comment A ship crew must be prepared all the time to tackle and fight against any kind of emergencies which can arise due to reasons such as rough weather, machinery malfunction, pirate attack, human error etc. Such emergencies can lead to fire, collision, flooding, grounding, environmental pollution, and loss of life. To stress the importance of training for different emergency procedures and duties of personnel, muster list is provided onboard ship. A muster list is basically a list which is displayed in prominent areas of the vessel so that every crew member on onboard can read it on a go. Some of the important areas where the muster list is posted are- Bridge, Engine room, accommodation alleyways etc., areas where ships crew spends the maximum of their time.

The Important features which are displayed in the muster lists are: Types of Emergency and different alarms for the same Main emergencies like fire, man overboard, abandon ship, oil spill etc. are listed along with dedicated visual and audible alarms. Instruction to follow in case of different types of emergency Brief instruction is given in case the alarm for a particular emergency is sounded, which includes action to be taken by the crew onboard. Common Muster point for all the crew The common muster point is clearly described if any emergency alarm is sounded. Normally life boat deck area is made as a common muster point. Crew list of all crew member with assigned life boat

The crew name is displayed along with the assigned life boat for abandon ship emergency. Normally two life boats are assigned in between all the crew member i.e. port side and starboard side life boat. Assigned duties for abandon ship All the crew listed in the muster list are assigned with duties to perform in emergency situation like carrying EPIRB and SART, lifeboat and life raft launching etc. Different teams with assigned duties for the individuals of the team for emergencies Different teams are made to tackle emergencies like fire, flooding etc. these are 1.Command Team: operated from bridge. 2.Emergency team 1: Operates at the point of scenario. 3.Emergency team 2: Standby team and helping hand for emergency team. 4.Roving Commission: Team working along with all other team. 5.Engine room team: This team stand by in ECR.

Ship Specification and emergency communication equipment Ship specifications are displayed along with the communication methods and equipments to be used in case of emergency. Special and general instruction by master A separate section for general and special instructions is provided which is used by the master or the chief engineer of the vessel to keep inform or to instruct the crew of the ship. The muster list is posted to keep the crew aware of the different emergency situations and duties to be performed if such situations occur in reality. For this, regular training and drill must be conducted by the master of the ship to ensure that all crew members are familiar with life saving and fire fighting appliances.

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Different Types of Alarms on Ship.

by Anish 13 February 2011 No Comment An emergency does not come with an alarm but an alarm can definitely help us to tackle an emergency or to avoid an emergency situation efficiently and in the right way. Alarm systems are installed all over the ships systems and machinery to notify the crew on board about the dangerous situation that can arise on the ship. Alarm on board ships are audible as well as visual to ensure that a person can at least listen to the audible alarm when working in a area where seeing a visual alarm is not possible and vice versa. It is a normal practice in the international maritime industry to have alarm signal for a particular warning similar in all the ships, no matter in which seas they are sailing or to which company they belongs to. This commonness clearly helps the seafarer to know and understand the type of warning or emergency well and help to tackle the situation faster. The main alarms that are installed in the ship to give audio-visual warnings are as follows: 1) General Alarm: The general alarm on the ship is recognized by 7 short ringing of bell followed by a long ring or 7 short blasts on the ships horn followed by one long blast. The general alarm is sounded to make aware the crew on board that an emergency has occurred.

2) Fire Alarm: A fire alarm is sounded as continuous ringing of ships electrical bell or continuous sounding of ships horn.

3) Man Overboard Alarm: When a man falls overboard, the ship internal alarm bell sounds 3 long rings and ship whistle will blow 3 long blasts to notify the crew on board and the other ships in nearby vicinity. 4) Navigational Alarm: In the navigation bridge, most of the navigational equipments and navigation lights are fitted with failure alarm. If any of these malfunctions, an alarm will be sounded in an alarm panel displaying which system is malfunctioning. 5) Machinery space Alarm: The machinery in the engine room has various safety devices and alarms fitted for safe operation. If any one of these malfunctions, a common engine room alarm is operated and the problem can be seen in the engine control room control panel which will display the alarm. 6) Machinery Space CO2 Alarm: The machinery space is fitted with CO2 fixed with fire extinguishing system whose audible and visual alarm is entirely different from machinery space alarm and other alarm for easy reorganization. 7) Cargo Space CO2 Alarm: The cargo spaces of the ship are also fitted with fixed fire fighting system which has a different alarm when operated. 8) Abandon Ship Alarm: When the emergency situation on board ship goes out of hands and ship is no longer safe for crew on board ship. The master of the ship can give a verbal Abandon ship order, but this alarm is never given in ships bell or whistle. The general alarm is sounded and every body comes to the emergency muster station where the master or his substitute (chief Officer) gives a verbal order to abandon ship. 9) Ship Security Alarm System: Most of the ocean going vessels are fitted with security alert alarm system, which is a silent alarm system sounded in a pirate attack emergency. This signal is connected with different coastal authorities all over the world via a global satellite system to inform about the piracy.

Different Alarm signals of the vessel are clearly described in the muster list along with the action to be carried out so that all the crew member can perform there duties within no time in actual emergency. Share 0digg Home Procedures/Maintenance, Tech

What are Breaking-In and Running-In in Marine Diesel Engines?

by Anish 8 March 2011 No Comment One cannot imagine a ship unequipped with marine engines as they are responsible for propulsion and power generation for the vessel. Two or Four stroke engines are used for propelling a ship, depending upon the size of the ship. Four stroke engines are used as a prime mover for power generation because of their high speed characteristics. A two stroke or a four stroke marine engines require time-to-time maintenance for efficient and break free operation. When ever there is a change or renewal in the major combustion parts of the engine i.e. piston or liner and if the engine has gone under complete dcarb, then it is put back in operation under step running programmes known as Breaking in and Running in.

Why Breaking in and Running in? The newly fitted liner, piston, or piston rings are machined prepared in the workshop ashore. They have surface asperities and there is no bedding between the moving surface i.e. liner and rings. Under such situations, if proper step running is not followed then it may lead to heavy blow past of combustion gases. The blow past can be dangerous as it can lead to scavenge fire. Hence initially a step running program is required for newly fitted piston, piston rings and liner.

For a complete dcarb engine, it is important to keep an eye on various parameters of the engine under increasing load which can be achieved by breaking in and running in.

Breaking In and Running In Breaking in It is a short period of running of the marine engines under no load so that the piston rings are allowed to seat and lubricated properly. The breaking in time may differ from engine to engine and is provided in the engine manual by the makers An average breaking-in time for a four stroke engine is 48 hours. Breaking in is carried out to achieve maximum wear rate, so that asperities break faster. For this reason HFO and low TBN oil is used. If low sulphur fuel or marine diesel oil is used, the breaking in period will increase. A low jacket water temperature is maintained to increase the rate of wear. Running in It is a program followed after breaking in and it is a long run program with step by step increase in the load and speed of the engine. Just like breaking in, the running in schedules are also provided in the engine manuals and differ for parts to parts. In two stroke engine, the cylinder lubrication is kept in higher side in terms of oil quantity for proper lubrication of piston rings and liner. For four stroke engines with common sump lubrication, low TBN lube oil is used initially and after 30 % of load, the new recommended oil is used. Conclusion If the proper Breaking In and Running In period is not followed after the maintenance, it may lead to blow past of the combustion gases, leading to scavenge fire. It can lead to heavy scuffing resulting in increase in liner wear.

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Why 2-stroke Engines are Used More commonly than 4stroke on Ships?
by Anish 21 April 2011 No Comment When a ship is being constructed in a shipyard, the most important machinery that is to be selected is the main propulsion machinery. Both 2 stroke and 4 stroke engines are widely available in the market but for large ocean going merchant vessel, a 2 stroke engine is more commonly used as main engine and has much better market. Even with wide variety of advantages that 4 stroke engine offers like compact size of plant, much more RPM or speed etc, a 2 stroke engine outshines with few but vital advantages.

Some of the important reasons why 2 stroke engines are more popular than 4 stroke engines as main propulsion engine on ships

Fuel Selection: The fuel prices have gone sky high and better grade fuel is adding higher costs to vessel operation. A two stroke engine can burn low grade fuel oil and hence reduce running cost of the ship. Efficiency: The thermal and engine efficiency of 2 stroke engine is much better than that of a 4 stroke engine. Power: Most of the 2 stroke engines are now large stroke engines that produce more power. Hence they have high power to weight ration as compare to 4 stroke engine. More Cargo: Ship can carry more weight and hence more cargo with 2 stroke engines because of high power to weight ratio. Reliability: Two stroke engines are more reliable in operation as compare to 4 stroke engine.

Less Maintenance: The maintenance requirement of two stroke engine is much lesser than 4 stroke engine. Direction control: Direct starting and reversing is easier with two stroke engine. No reduction attachments: As two stroke engines are low speed engine, there are no requirement of reduction gear or speed reduction arrangement as required for high speed four stroke engine.

However, the ease-of-manoeuvring a two stroke engine is less than that of a four stroke engine and the initial cost of installation of a two stroke propulsion plant is also much higher than running and maintenance cost of a 4 stroke engine. In 2 stroke engine, the amount saved on high grade fuel can compensate all other disadvantages and also reduce the whole operating cost of a ship. Share 0digg Home Main Engine

Intelligent Engines The New Generation Machines

by Anish 28 November 2010 One Comment Today the world needs engines that can cope up with the stringent emission norms and higher demands for robust, reliable and smart engines with low operational cost. To achieve the above possibilities, a whole new generation of engine is being developed with a comprehensive use of electronics, hardware and software in large 2 stroke low speed cross head engines known as Intelligent Engines. The intelligent engine concept widens the reliability of traditional engines to facilitate new applications and concepts. The initial cost of such engine is quite high but the operational cost is lower than other engine used with proper operating procedure and trained crew. The first intelligent engine in the maritime world was delivered in October-1998 and was introduced in a chemical carrier M/T Bow Cecil.

Basic Concept of Intelligent Engine

A central electronic control system is incorporated which is the brain of the system and which monitors and evaluate the general condition to keep the operating parameter within limits and maintain the performance of the engine at the higher side. Central control system operates Engine control unit (ECU) and cylinder control unit (CCU). ECU controls the overall protection and efficient performance of the whole engine. CCU controls the each cylinder of the engine for safe and efficient working.

This control system saves the engine from damage due to overloading, malfunctioning, maladjustment and lack of maintenance. The intelligent engine provides flexibility in operation by replacing mechanical cam shaft for fuel pump and exhaust valve with common rail system and computer controlled system. To comply with the emission norms, system is incorporated with catalytic clean up system and fuel economy modes which can be selected from bridge. A reversing and crash mode option is provided in the bridge, controlled through the main central electronic control which sends signal to the engine when in operational mode. The central system consists of a program in which the protection system can be override in case of emergency.

Main goals The basic aim for developing intelligent engine is to reduce the operational cost of the propulsion plant, to have high fluctuation in operation and to cope up with the stringent emission norms imposed by regulating authorities under IMO . Apart from this, the following points to be considered for intelligent engines: 1) Reliability of engine increases

The central monitoring system keeps an eye on the fluctuation of load and distribute equally to all the cylinders. It consists of overload protection system which will give alarm and trips the engine, ruling out the possibilities of overload and thermal stresses. Any other abnormality is displayed with an early warning and alarm system so that the problem can be tackled before it hampers the operational aspects of the engine. 2) This system increases the emission control flexibility. Fuel and lube oil consumption cost reduces

The load operating efficiency increases as compared to normal engines which increases the life of the engine and maintenance schedule can be delayed which cut shorts the operational cost. The performance is fuel optimized. Fuel oil, lube oil and other lubricants consumption drastically decreases which reduces the operational cost. The engine and its performance is maintained as new for its lifetime.

The cylinder lubrication is one of the most expensive lubrication oil used in marine operation. The consumption is controlled with the help of mechatronic (incorporated with

mechanical and electronic controlled enhanced system) cylinder lubrication with advanced dosage of oil. 3) Follow up of stringent air pollution emission norms.

Now almost all the countries are following the stringent norms for emission from the ships propulsion plant. The intelligent engine gives the flexibility to cope up with different norms for different controlled bodies by enhancing the emission performance characteristics. To reduce the emission of harmful substance like Nox and Sox, catalytic controller and fuel control and consumption modes are incorporated in the control system. Share 0digg Home Main Engine

The Most Popular Marine Propulsion Engines in the Shipping Industry

by Anish 14 March 2011 No Comment Marine engines are one of the biggest and expensive engines in the world. It requires great engineering skills and resources to manufacture such massive machinery, which is responsible for propulsion of the ship. The criteria for purchasing a marine engine are to get higher speed along with economical fuel consumption and long machinery life. As more and more stringent environmental regulations are introduced, engine manufacturers are also working on their research and development to comply with stringent emission norms keeping in mind the economical factors for the ship owners or buyers. There are many engine manufacturer designs that you will see on a vessel, but the most prominent players in the engine manufacturing industry are SULZER, MAN and B&W. The famous marine engines which were widely used as a ship propulsion plant are as follows:


RD series It is the oldest engine series from SULZER and very rarely seen in shipping industry today.It is equipped with rotary exhaust valves and fuel valve with short spindle. The cylinder liner quills were of wet type and placed only at the upper part. It has pulse turbo charging system with no auxiliary blower fitted for supporting the scavenge pressure.

RND series One of the most famous design of SULZER with a slogan of Our Exhaust valves never burns as this engine doesnt have any. It has loop scavenging i.e. exhaust and inlet ports are provided in the liner. It was fitted with more liner quills at the bottom of exhaust port and is of dry type. Auxiliary blowers are provided and constant turbo charging system is adopted. It produces more power than the engines of RD series.

RTA series It is the modern day engine design with exhaust valves fitted. It has become very famous in modern shipping as it is a balanced blend of automation and mechanical engineering. It consumes less fuel and produces more power with three fuel valves in one cylinder.

RT Flex series It is the latest and the toughest engine from Wartsila Sulzer with maximum automation installed. It consists of a common rail fuel injection method and uses fully integrated electronic system based on a high performance computer eliminating parts like fuel pump, fuel cam, chain drive etc. resulting in reduced maintenance.


MAN B&W is another leading diesel engine manufacturer with the head office situated in Germany. It has different categories of engines for different users with latest ME-B series complying with the latest norms and taking care of ship owners economical criterion of selection.

KEF series It was introduced about 20 years ago and is incorporated with exhaust valves which are push rod operated and installed with pulse type turbo charging system. No servomotor was fitted in this engine and reversing is done with mechanical means.

KGF Series The KGF series was similar to KEF series and consists of exhaust valve rotator with roller bearing installed for that. In this engine the reversing cam is held in a hub which is keyed in to the shaft. Cam shaft is turned in the same direction for reversing and the pressure required for reversing is about 40 bars. There is no direct link between chain drive and engine cam shaft.

MC series The MC series engines are the most popular engines now and are fitted with electronic control unit for better and safe operation of the engine. This engine is installed with VIT for an economical fuel consumption and power production. Air is used for reversing of the engine which moves the fuel pump cam follower from ahead to astern position.

ME series It is the upgraded version of MC engine with electronic automation installed for safety and economy of the plant. They provide optimal combustion at all operations and speed with smokeless operation. This series also comes with liquid gas injection system for LPG fuel.

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How is Marine Engine Repair Done On board a Ship?

by Mohit 6 December 2010 No Comment Marine Engine Repair is one of the most important tasks carried on board a ship. It involves repairing and carrying out of routine maintenance tasks on the marine engine of the ship. The repairs are generally carried out by marine engine mechanics, famously known as marine engineers. Need of Marine Engine Repair Marine engine parts need to be checked on regular basis to avoid breakdown or heavy loss caused by ship going off charter. Marine engine repairs are carried out by the marine engineer as per his basic understanding of the machine, sound troubleshooting knowledge and correct techniques used for testing and overhauling.

Moreover, there are several agencies around the world that provide services for marine engine repairs, which cannot be done by marine engineers on board the ship due lack of special equipments and manpower. Some examples of heavy maintenance of marine engine repairs are metal stitching or metal locking, recondition of piston, honing of liners etc. Understanding Marine Engine Repair When we talk about marine engine repairs, they not just include maintenance and repair work on the mechanical parts of the engines but also include repairs on various electrical equipments as well. Thus, marine engine repair is categorized in two parts electrical and mechanical. For an effective performance of the marine engine and in order to prevent breakdown of the same proper procedures are to be followed as described in the manuals. Marine engine repairs

have to be done at specific running hours as described in the planned maintenance system of the ship. On board ship there is a team of marine engineers or marine mechanics, along with crew ratings such as motorman, oiler, fitter, etc. to carry out the work of marine engine repairs. The team of engineers includes chief engineer, second engineer, third engineer and fourth engineer. Chief and second engineer are management level officers, whereas third and fourth engineers are operational level engineers. The chief engineer looks after different surveys that are to be carried out on the marine engine and also plans out when they are to be carried out. The second engineer plans the marine engine repair work that is pending or scheduled to be due soon. The second engineer also looks after main engine and different pumps in the engine room. The fourth engineer looks after the repairs of compressors and purifiers whereas third engineer looks after the boiler and auxiliary engines along with the help of crew ratings. For electrical equipments the repairs are carried out by a separate dedicated electrical engineer, who looks after various motors, batteries, print card electronics etc. Important Points for Marine Engine Repair For marine engine repair, the most important thing is to make available several sets of spare parts on board the ship. If there is a shortage of any of these parts, then they need to be ordered by the respective engineer, who is looking after the particular machinery. Some special considerations also need to be given to emergency, safety and life saving equipments. Marine engineer also have to make sure that all the equipments are working fine without any problem. External agencies such as port state control and flag state will detain the ship if equipments like emergency generator, life boat engine, and fire fighting system are not working properly. The agencies may fine the ship heavily for these abnormalities. For this reason, proper checks and routine schedule have to be maintained to avoid unwanted circumstances related to marine engines on board a ship. Share 0digg Home Marine Safety, Maritime Law

What are the Essential Requirements for Unattended Machinery Space (UMS) Ship?
by Mohit 20 February 2011 No Comment Essential requirements for any unattended machinery space (UMS) Ship to able to sail at sea are enumerated in the SOLAS 1974 Chapter II-1, regulations 46 to regulation 53. The main points discussed in this chapter are discussed in this article.

Requirements for Unattended Machinery Space (UMS) Ship Fire Precaution A) a) b) Arrangement should be provided on UMS ship to detect and give alarm in case of fire. In the boiler air supply casing and uptake. In scavenge space of propulsion machinery.

B) In engines of power 2250 Kw and above or cylinders having bore more than 300mm should be provided with oil mist detector for crankcase or bearing temperature monitor or either of two. Protection against Flooding Bilge well in UMS ship should be located and provided in such a manner that the accumulation of liquid is detected at normal angle of heel and trim and should also have enough space to accommodate the drainage of liquid during unattended period.

In case of automatic starting of bilge pump, the alarm should be provided to indicate that the flow of liquid pumped is more than the capacity of the pump. Control of Propulsion Machinery from Navigation Bridge The ship should be able to be controlled from bridge under all sailing conditions. The bridge should be able to control the speed, direction of thrust, and should be able to change the pitch in case of controllable pitch propeller. Emergency stop should be provided on navigating bridge, independent of bridge control system.

The remote operation of the propulsion should be possible from one location at a time; at such connection interconnected control position are permitted. The number of consecutive automatic attempt which fails to start the propulsion machinery shall be limited to safeguard sufficient starting air pressure. Centralized control & instruments are required in Machinery Space Centralized control system should be there so that engineers may be called to the machinery space during emergencies from wherever they are. Automatic Fire Detection Alarms and detection should operate very rapidly and effectively. It should be placed at numerous well sited places for quick response of the detectors.

Fire Extinguishing System

There should be arrangement for fire extinguishing system other than the conventional hand extinguishers which can be operated remotely from machinery space. The station must give control of emergency fire pumps, generators, valves, extinguishing media etc. Alarm System A comprehensive alarm system must be provided for control & accomodation areas. Automatic Start of Emergency Generator Arrangement for starting of emergency generator and automatic connection to bus bar must be provided in case of blackout condition. Apart from that following points are also to be noted. 1) Local hand control of essential machineries like steering, emergency generator starting, emergency start for main engine etc. 2) 3) Adequate settling tank storage capacity. Regular testing & maintainence of machinery alarms & instruments.

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What is Nitrogen Oxides or NOx air pollution from Ships?

by Anish 1 April 2011 No Comment With more and more ships travelling each day to different parts of the world, the air pollution caused by them is on the rise and is one of the major global concerns. The two main pollutants from the ships emission are Nitrogen oxides (NOx) and Sulphur oxides (SOx). These gases have adverse effects on the ozone layer in the troposphere area of the earths atmosphere which results in the green house effect and global warming. Both NOx and SOx are combustion products that are emitted in to the environment in the form of smoke. MARPOL Annex VI is strictly followed to have the air pollution under control limits.

Nitrogen Oxides or NOx Pollution Marine fuel in an I.C engine is burnt inside the combustion chamber by the correct mixture of fuel and air in the presence of heat or ignition source. The ignition source in the marine engine is the compression stroke of the piston, after which, the combustion begins. As the air mixture is 21 % Oxygen and 78% Nitrogen, nitrogen reacts with oxygen under certain engine operating conditions to form Nitrogen oxides or NOx.

What Causes NOx in Marine Engines?

High Cylinder Temperature and Pressure during combustion proce Heavy Load on the engine or engine unit. Improper air and fuel ratio for combustion. High Temperature of intake or scavenge air inside the cylinder. Over heated cylinder jacket due to poor heat transfer by jacket cooler. Jacket water temperature is on the higher side. Bad quality of fuel used for engine.

Limits for NOx Emission For merchant vessel

-17.0 g/kwh when engine rpm (n) is less then 130 rpm. -4.50 x n (-0.2) g/kwh when n is between 130 rpm or above 130 rpm but less then 2000rpm. -9.8 g/kwh when n is 2000 rpm and above. Where; n- Rated engine speed g/kwh- gram per kilo watt hour rpm - revolution per minute Share 1 1digg Home Marine Electrical, Marine Environment

Electric Propulsion System for Ship: Does it have a Future in the Shipping?
by raunekk 16 May 2011 No Comment

With the increase in demand for alternate propulsion systems that not only improve the overall efficiency of the ship but also reduce the carbon footprints, innovators in the shipping industry are leaving no stone unturned to find a solution to this grave problem. With all the options presently available at hand, electric propulsion system seems to have a promising future. But as everything comes with a consequence, this system has its drawbacks too. Will or will it not make it to the engine room of every ship this only time can tell. But what we can do is weigh its pros and cons and see if it has the very necessary X factor that everyone is talking about. The Electrical propulsion system has got a lot of advantages over the conventional engine driven propulsion system, which is obviously increasing the demand for electrical propulsion for merchant vessels. With advancement in technology and research, electrical propulsion system is not limited to small boats and small vessels anymore.

We managed to list the main advantage of electrical propulsion system. They are as follows: A large amount of power is generated by the system and the excess power can be utilised by supplying it to cargo pumps, fire pumps and other important auxiliary machineries. The space required for installation of electrical propulsion machinery is very less and compact as compared to conventional system. There is no direct connection of propeller shaft and prime mover and hence transmission of severe stresses such as torsional and vibration is restricted. There is more flexibility in installation of machineries. It provides improved maneuverability and high redundancy Increased payload through flexible location of machinery components Environmental benefits from lower fuel consumption and emissions High performance in tough ice conditions due to maximum torque at zero speed Reduces lifecycle cost by less fuel consumption and maintenance cost Better comfort due to reduced vibration and noise

Yes, there are disadvantages of this system as well. They are: The efficiency of electrical plant is less than that of conventional system. The installation cost of electrical propulsion plant is much higher.

Different and improved training for ships crew as the system is completely different from mechanical system and involves major automation.

Putting advantages and disadvantages side by side, we can confidently say that the former easily surpasses the later ones. From a long term perspective, we feel that electric propulsion will not be a bad bet, keeping in mind the amount of initial investment that needs to be made, and which we think will definitely pay-off at a later stage. Share 0digg Home Maritime Law

SOLAS Requirements for Remote Control of Propulsion Machinery of Ships

by Anish 14 February 2011 No Comment It is important to learn about the basics of the engine telegraph system before operating one (Read article). However, most of the ships are now provided with a remote control for propulsion machinery and for controlling the pitch of the propeller (for CPP type) as they are mainly operated in UMS mode. This gives the ease to the navigation officer to control and maintain the speed and direction of the ship as per the navigational condition and requirement.

The propulsion machinery order given from the bridge must be indicated in the engine control room and at the local manoeuvring platform. For having a control of propulsion machinery from navigational bridge, the system must comply as per SOLAS chapter-II with the following requirements:

1. Starting and control of the speed must be provided and performed by single starting lever or a dedicated push button switch. 2. Remote control is possible from only one location at a time, with indication as to which location is in control both in navigational bridge and in engine control room. 3. The transfer of control must be possible from engine control room only. 4. No significant thrust change to take place during change over. 5. Remote control failure must be indicated with an alarm and still allow the machinery control from local control. 6. Manual override must be provided for local control. 7. Emergency stop of the Main engine must be provided on the bridge. 8. Following indications of the propulsion plant must be displayed on the bridge along with the alarm for the same:

ME alarms Starting and control air. Direction of rotation. Pitch position (CPP system). R.P.M of the engine.

9. Alarm power to be automatically changed over to stand by mode (batteries) in case of power failure of the ship occurs. Share 0digg Home Main Engine

What is Local or Emergency Manoeuvring on Ship?

by Anish 30 March 2011 No Comment

Most of the important machineries on ship are always provided with emergency backup or standby system which can be used in case of failure of the main unit. Even power supplies of the essential machineries are provided with emergency generator. Marine engine is also provided with emergency manoeuvring control system in case the remote control system fails to operate. Main marine engine is responsible for propulsion of the ship and its direction and rotation are controlled from either bridge or Engine Control Room (ECR) through telegraph and fuel lever control. This control system is a remote control type used for both sea voyage and manoeuvring of vessel. If the remote control manoeuvring system fails to operate from both the remote stations, i.e. bridge and ECR, or the governor of the main marine engine goes faulty, additional safety is given to main marine engine by providing a local manoeuvring control system. When the ship is in a narrow channel under manoeuvring, then it is very important for all engine room crew to know the change over and operating procedure for local or emergency control. Failure in knowing the remote control manoeuvring system, can lead to accident like collision and grounding.

Procedure for Local or Emergency Manoeuvring The changeover and operating procedure differs from engine to engine as different control systems are adopted for different engine types; however the basic remains the same. When there is automation or remote control failure alarm then changeover of control is to be done from remote (either wheelhouse or ECR) to Local control stand. The local control stand is normally located in the engine room near the fuel pump platform of the main marine engine.

Changeover Procedure

The change over procedure can be done with marine engine in stopped as well as running condition, but if the situation permits it is better to be done when the engine is stopped. First change control from wheel house to ECR and both the telegraph on wheel house and ECR are to be in stopped position. Bring the fuel lever of wheel house and ECR in stop position. A changeover switch is provided in the ECR. Operate the switch from ECR to Local. Go to the local control station and changeover the fuel pump control shaft from local to manual. A cone clutch arrangement or a mechanical lever arrangement may be provided, depending upon the engine type, which acts as manual control when attached to hand wheel for operating fuel rack. A locking pin or clip may be provided for the above arrangement as an additional safety so that it should not come out in normal operation.

Operating procedure

After the fuel rack is attached to the manual hand wheel control, wait for the wheel house order. Respond to the telegraph and give fuel and air to the engine via local control levers. If the engine fails to start, give extra amount of fuel and air as now it is controlled manually and the linkage requires more push for the fuel supply. Once the marine engine starts, follow the telegraph and maintain the speed from local fuel lever.

Checks and Maintenance

The remote control failure alarm is to be checked regularly. Local telephone and communication system are also to be checked and maintained. Local Telegraph bell and indication light are to be checked and maintained. All the linkages to be oiled and greased at regular interval of time. The safety clips or pins in the cone clutch or any other type of arrangement is to be checked. Emergency manoeuvring drills should to be conducted every month. Share 0digg Home Equipments, Marine Navigation

The Basics of Engine Order Telegraph

by Hiteshk 14 February 2011 No Comment In a sea going vessel, navigational officers control the ships navigation system from bridge and engineering officers control the propulsion plant from the engine room. Bridge is right on top of the ship, hence the officer on the bridge does not know about the condition of the propelling engine and marine engineer in the engine control room does not knows where the ship is heading as the engine room is situated below the water line of the ship. Hence a fail-safe communication is required in between the navigation and engineer officer to ensure smooth and safe sailing of the ship. As the word describes, the telegraph on board ship is used as a communicating device to transfer orders of change in speed or direction from the bridge to the engine control room. The engine order telegraph consists of a lever which can be moved over different speed positions for ahead and astern direction.

Location of Engine Telegraph The telegraph and its bell, also known as telegraph bell, are located both in the engine control room (ECR) and the bridge. A responsible officer from each of the departments handles the telegraph from these locations. One more telegraph is located on the emergency manoeuvring or local manoeuvring station of the main engine.

There is a changeover switch located in the ECR for telegraph selection which can be manually or automatically changed between the local control and engine control room telegraph. Different Position on Engine Telegraph Ahead Direction Movements: Navigation full Full Ahead Half Ahead Slow Ahead Dead Slow Ahead Stop Astern direction movements: Dead slow astern Slow Astern Half Astern Full Astern Emergency Astern Engine Telegraph Operation The initial movement of telegraph is always from the navigation bridge and is done by moving the lever in the required direction, which rings the telegraph bell of both the locations (Engine room and Bridge). After hearing the bell, the engineer officer acknowledges the telegraph of the engine room to the same position as that of the bridge which stops the ringing of the bell. This ensures that the correct movement is acknowledged and the engine speed and direction is controlled accordingly.

In modern ships with automation and controls, the bridge telegraph is directly connected with the engine controls and it doesnt require involvement of engine room personnel. Such type of telegraph is called remote controlled telegraph device. A provision is given to link both the telegraph so that manual operations can also be carried out in case of automation failure. Share 0digg Home Life At Sea, Marine Safety, Maritime Law

Types of Lifeboat Release Mechanisms & SOLAS Requirements for Lifeboats

by Anish 22 December 2010 No Comment

There are different types of lifeboats used on board a ship on the basis of the type of ship and other special requirements. Not all the lifeboats have the same type of releasing mechanisms, for the launching of a lifeboat depends on several other factors. In this article we will take a look at the main types of lifeboat releasing mechanisms and also learn about the SOLAS requirements for lifeboats. Types of lifeboat releases: On load and off load release. There are two types of lifeboat releasing mechanisms- on load and off load. These mechanisms release the boat from the davit, which is attached to a wire or fall by means of a hook. By releasing the hook the lifeboat can be set free to propel away from the ship. Off load mechanism: The off load mechanism releases the boat after the load of the boat is transferred to water or the boat has been lowered fully into the sea. When the boat touches the surface of water, the load on the fall and hence the hook releases and due to its mechanism the hook detaches from the fall. If the detachment dose not takes place, any of the crew members can remove the hook from the fall. Most of the times the offload mechanism is manually disengaged in case of malfunction; however, in case of fire, it is dangerous to go out and release the hook.

On load mechanism: On load mechanism can release the lifeboat from the wire, with the ship above the water level and with all the crew members inside the boat. The load will be still on the fall as the boat would not have touched the water. Normally the height of about 1 m is kept for the on load release, so that the fall is smooth without damaging the boat and harming the crew inside. A lever is provided inside the boat to operate this mechanism. As the lever is operated from inside, it is safe to free the boat without going of the out lifeboat, when there is a fire on ship.

Free Fall life boat release: In Free fall life boat, the launching mechanism is similar to on load release. the only difference is that the free fall lifeboat is not lowered till 1m above water level, it is launched from the stowed position by operating a lever located inside the boat which releases the boat from rest of the davit and boat slides through the tilted ramp into the water.

SOLAS and LSA code Requirements for lifeboat: -The size, number and the capacity of the lifeboat for a merchant vessel is decided by the type of the ship and number of ships crew, but it should not be less then 7.3 m in length and minimum two lifeboats are provided on both side of the ship (port and starboard). -The requirement for lifeboat of a cargo ship with 20,000 GT is that the boat must be capable of launching when the ship is heading with a speed of 5 knots. -The lifeboat must carry all the equipments described under SOLAS which can be used in survival at sea. It includes rations, fresh water, first aid, compass, distress signalling equipments like rocket etc.

-The ship must carry one rescue boat for rescue purpose along with other lifeboats. One lifeboat can be designated as a rescue boat if more then one lifeboat is present onboard ship. -The gravity davits must be hold and slide down the lifeboat even when the ship is heeled to an angle of 15 degree on either side. Ropes are used to hold the lifeboat in stowed position with cradle. These ropes are called gripes. -The wires which lift or lower the lifeboat are known as falls and the speed of the lifeboat descent should not be more then 36m/ min which is controlled by means of centrifugal brakes. -The hoisting time for the boat launching appliance should not be less then 0.3 m/sec with the boat loaded to its full capacity. -The Lifeboat must be painted in international bright orange color with the ships call sign printed on it. -The lifeboat station must be easily accessible for all the crew members in all circumstances. Safety awareness posters and launching procedures must be posted at lifeboat station. -Regular drills must be carried out to ensure that the ships crew members are capable of launching the boat with minimal time during real emergency. Share 0digg Home Marine Electrical, Marine Safety

Preferential Trips on Ship : Construction and Working

by Mohit 17 December 2010 No Comment Preferential trip is a kind of electrical arrangement on ship which is designed to disconnect the non-essential circuit i.e. non-essential load from the main bus bar in case of partial failure or overload of the main supply. The non-essential circuits or loads on ships are air conditioning, exhaust and ventilation fans, and galley equipments which can be disconnected momentarily and can be connected again after fault finding. The main advantage of preferential trip is that it helps in preventing the operation of main circuit breaker trip and loss of power on essential services and thus prevents blackout and overloading of generator. Construction and Working The preferential trip circuit consists of an electromagnetic coil and a dashpot arrangement to provide some delay to disconnect the non-essential circuits. Along with this, there is also an alarm system provided, which functions as soon as an overload is detected and trips start operating. There are some mechanical linkages also in the circuit which instantaneously operates the circuit and completes the circuit for preferential trips. The dashpot arrangement consists of a small piston with a small orifice and which is placed inside a small cylinder assembly. This piston moves up against the fluid silicon and the time delay is governed by the orifice in the piston. Working of Preferential Trip

The current passes through the electromagnetic coil and the linkages are kept from contacting using a spring arrangement. As soon as the current value increases the limit, the electromagnetic coil pulls the linkage up against the spring force and operates the instantaneous circuit and the alarm system. The lower linkage completes the circuit for the preferential trip circuit. The current passes through the coil in the preferential trip circuit which pulls the piston in the dashpot arrangement. The movement of this piston is governed by the diameter of the orifice and the time delay made by the same. The preferential trip operates at 5, 10 and 15 seconds and the load is removed accordingly. If the overload still persists, then an audible and visual alarm is sounded.

Conclusion The preferential trip is one of those important electrical circuit diagrams which help in removing the excessive load from the main bus bar, thus preventing situation like blackout which is a dangerous incident to ship, especially when the ship is sailing in restricted or congested waters.

Man Overboard Situation on Ship and Ways to Tackle it

by Anish 4 April 2011 No Comment Man overboard is a situation where in a ships crew member falls out at sea from the ship, no matter where the ship is sailing, in open seas or in still waters in port. A seafarer has to be very careful while performing his duties onboard vessel as it can never be taken for granted

that a person cannot fall off the ship due to bad weather, swell in the sea, accidents, and due to negligence during. A man overboard is an emergency situation and it is very important to locate and recover the person as soon as possible as due to bad weather or rough sea, the crew member can drown or else due to temperature of the cold water the person can get hypothermia.

Hypothermia Hypothermia is a situation where in there is an extensive loss of body temperature due to prolonged contact of body with cold water and the bodys normal metabolism and functions get affected. A person will get unconscious after 15 minutes in water with temperature of 5 C. Alarm for Man Overboard There is a dedicated alarm signal used onboard vessels and is same for all entire vessels sailing in international waters. Three prolong blast on the ships electrical bell and ships whistle is an alarm signal used for man overboard emergency situation. Action to be Taken during Man Overboard Situation The initial and early sighting of the fallen crew plays a vital role in increasing the percentage of saving his/her life. Important actions to be taken when a man overboard is sighted are:

The first and foremost thing is Never to lose the sight of fallen person and inform others onboard by shouting Man overboard along with side of the ship i.e. port of starboard side until someone informs the bridge and raises an alarm.

As soon as bridge officer knows the situation, raise the man overboard alarm and hoist signal flag O to inform all the ship staff and other ships about the vicinity. Throw a lifebuoy with smoke float, light (and SART if available) near to the fallen person. It is to be kept in mind not to throw more then one life buoy as it will distract the fallen crew who is already in panic. Post a constant look out with binoculars for continuous watch on man overboard. Ships engine must be slowed down and ship should be turned toward the fallen crew for recovery manoeuvre. Engine to be on stand by all the time. Care must be taken to manoeuvre the ship carefully as not to hit the fallen crew with ship. Keep ready the rescue boat and muster the rescue team.

Rescue the man overboard and put the person in Thermal protective Aid (TPA) to avoid extra body heat loss. Start the first aid as required.

Always try to succeed in the first attempt as even a little delay can cause a human life Share 0digg Home Marine Electrical

What is Azipod Propulsion System on Ship?

by Mohit 18 December 2010 One Comment Azipod system used on ships is combination of both propulsion and steering systems. In conventional propulsion system, a large two stroke engine is connected to a shaft, which passes through shaft tunnel and stern tube and connects to the propeller outside the hull in the

aft part of the ship. The steering of such system is done with the help of a rudder placed in the aft of the propeller. However, in azipod arrangement, the propulsion and steering systems are combined and made into one part. The system consists of a propeller which is driven by an electrical motor and the propeller is turned by the rudder which is connected to the system. The motor is placed inside the sealed pod and is connected to the propeller. It should be noted that the sealing of the pod should be perfect otherwise it can damage the whole motor and make the ship handicap from maneuvering. The motor used for this system is variable frequency electric motor. Using variable frequency, the rotational speed of the propeller can be controlled i.e. the speed can be increased or decreased.

The azipod system is also known as POD drive system, where POD stands for Propulsion with Outboard Electric motor. The whole azipod system is situated outside the hull in the aft of the ship. The azipod can turn in all the directions i.e. 360 degrees with the help of a rudder, and thus provides a thrust in any direction which is not possible in the conventional system. The propeller in the pod system is moved by the rudder which is placed in the steering flat, also the power module for the system. Understanding the Azipod System The azipod system is a type of electric propulsion system which consists of three main components:

1) Supply Transformer The power produced from the generators is as high as 6600 KV, which is stepped down to the necessary voltage by the supply transformer required and is provided provided to the motor placed in the pod. 2) Propulsion motor Propulsion motor is used to drive or to produce thrust. The system needs some method for rotating the propeller and this is done with the help of electric motor. 3) Frequency Controller/converter This his is used to change the frequency of the supplied power so that the rotating speed of the motor can be controlled depending on the requirement.

Advantages of Azipod System

1) Greater maneuverability as the propeller can be turned in all directions. This enables better stop distance during crash maneuvering than that provided by the conventional system. 2) In case of ships having large breadth, two or more azipods which are independent of each other can be used. This provides subtle maneuvering. 3) It saves a lot of space in the engine room as there is no engine, propeller, shafting and other arrangements. The saved space can thus be used for storing more cargo. 4) The system can be placed below the ships height thus providing more efficiency than the conventional system. 5) Use of side thruster is eliminated as the pods can be used for providing the side thrust. 6) Low noise and vibrations than the conventional system. 7) Low fuel and lube oil consumption. 8) Environment friendly as emissions are extremely low. Disadvantages 1) Azipod system requires massive initial cost. 2) A large number of diesel generators are required for producing power. 3) There is a limitation to the power produced by the motor. As of now the maximum power available is 21 MW. 4) Cannot be installed in large ships with heavy cargo which need a lot of power and large motors. Share digg Home Futuristic Shipping, Green Shipping

Worlds First Zero Emission Vessel- E/S Orcelle

by Laxmi 15 January 2011 No Comment The shipping industry is leaning toward the eco-trend with several green ships being made each year. One such idea that has stood out among these ideas is the one to produce the worlds first ever zero emission vessel- the E/S Orcelle. Conceptualized by Wallenius Wilhelmsen Logistics, the vessel is to rely on wind, sun and wave energy to run itself. Not releasing any emissions into the environment, the highly advanced design of the Orcelle is said to provide optimum cargo space to transport cars and goods round the world.

The story of the Orcelle began in 2005 for the Expo Japan, when Wallenius Wilhelmsen were requested to develop a zero emission vessel model. The resultant E/S Orcelle, named after an endangered south-east Asian dolphin will run entirely on fuel cells, wave, wind and solar power to propel the vessel. Consequently it will require no oil or ballast water. Developed in order to stimulate research and development with relation to alternative resources, the E/S Orcelle stands for an Environmentally Sound ship.

In design, the Orcelle combines sustainable forms of energy captured through sails, solar panels and wave energy converters to generate the energy required by the vessel. This is then used to extract hydrogen from water with the aid of fuel cell technology. The resultant fuel is a clean fuel that can then be made use of. In this manner, there are zero emissions from the vessel as such. The subsequent electricity generated, can also be used immediately or stored for times of no wind, sun or waves. The only byproduct of this is heat and water.

The pentamaran hull design and removal of the conventional stern propeller with rudder ensures elimination of the need for ballast water. Ballast water is one of the 4 threats to the ocean according to the IMO. Having an optimum cargo capacity of 85,000m2, Orcelle will have 50% more space than conventional car carriers. This translates into a vessel capable of transporting 6,500 vehicles with eight cargo decks that are capable of being adjusted. The use of lightweight aluminum and thermoplastic composite materials further will give the Orcelle the advantage of carrying 3,000 more tons of cargo than seen in traditional vessels.

The E/S Orcelle, is still under development with the Wallenius Wilhelmsen group continuing research on elements identified in the vessel. The vessel is slated to launch in the next 20 years, with the advent of renewable energy resources taking over around 2025.

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Electrical Propulsion System in Ships

by Anish 14 May 2011 No Comment The shipping industry has come a long way as far as R & D for reducing costs of propulsion without increasing marine pollution is concerned. The conventional propulsion system of the

ship is efficient but requires high operating costs and increases the marine pollution. Among all the prospective alternate power sources, electrical propulsion system is one of the best tried out alternative in todays time. Electrical Propulsion Understanding the System The electric propulsion system consists of a prime mover which may be of two types: Diesel driven Turbine or steam driven

Both the systems produce less pollution as compared to conventional marine propulsion system, which involves burning of heavy oil. The propeller shaft of the ship is connected to large motors, which can be D.C or A.C driven and are known as propulsion motors. Power for propulsion motor is supplied by the ships generator and prime mover assembly.

Arrangement or operation The generator can be direct or alternating current type with diesel or steam driven prime mover, depending upon the requirement or demand of the owner/ship. In the electrical propulsion system, the direction of the rotation of propeller is governed by either the electrical control of the motor itself or by changing the electrical supply. Normally variable speed electrical motor is used for fixed pitch propeller system and constant or variable can be used for variable pitch propeller or CPP.

Applications Normally electrical propulsion is used in small vessel but now a day shipping companies are adopting this system for big size cargo vessel as well. Generally electrical propulsion is fitted in Tug and trawlers Dredgers Dynamic positioning vessels Cable laying ship Ice breakers Research ship Floating cranes Vessels for offshore industries

What is Alternate Marine Power (AMP) or Cold Ironing?

by sharda 10 May 2011 No Comment Huge ships and tankers pollute the marine ecosystem considerably. The pollution caused includes acid rain because of sulphur oxide and smog because of nitrous oxide. In order to make sure that the levels of these pollutants do not increase further, there has emerged the concept of cold ironing or alternate marine power. Alternate marine power or AMP, as the name suggests, refers to the usage of other power supply sources to feed power to the ship. Such AMP is used when the ship is halting at a port so that the engines of the ship (working on diesel) do not need to be used unnecessarily. This in turn reduces the emissions by the ships by a great margin. This process is also known as cold ironing.

The process of cold ironing can be explained with the help of a few simple steps:

When the ships and tankers are being loaded or unloaded in a port or dock, alternate marine power is supplied to them This is done so with the help of supply cables that are plugged to an electricity supply board in the port on one end and to the ships power supply board on the other The process is called cold ironing because in the olden days when the ships mainframe engines used to be rested, they used to get cold while the power was being transferred in this manner The process leads not just preservation of the marine ecosystem but also contributes to lesser usage of diesel and other oily power supply materials AMP provides power for lights, refrigerators, air-conditioners and other equipments on ship The power coming from the shore can be from a separate power generation unit or from the power plant supplying power to the port city or town.

However, even as cold ironing has a lot of advantages, there are quite a few disadvantages to the process. The crucial disadvantages can be explained as follows:

Problems pertaining to cost. The consumption of electricity will be enormous owing to the size of the ships and tankers. This factor is the primary negative contributor to AMP Every port and harbour where such tankers and ships halt for the loading and offloading of cargo and thereby for the cold ironing process, will require huge investment to set up the equipments for AMP Even certain tankers are not compatible and suitable for the process of alternate marine power. The cost of equipping these tankers with the right kind of AMP gadget will also require an enormous investment The reduction in pollution occurs only when the ship is stationary. When the ship is actually in the water, then because of the usage of conventional engines, pollution will still spread in the marine atmosphere

At present there are four different variations in the AMP that is provided from the port to a ship or a tanker. The same can be listed as follows:

11000 Volts of AC (Alternate Current) 6600 Volts of AC 660 Volts of AC 440 Volts of AC

The concept of AMP has come a long way. In the initial days, cold ironing was used just as a recharging accessory for the tankers. However, seeing that the usage has widened and grown so much in these past few years, it can be assumed and hoped that alternate marine power will become a tool far more vital and necessary than what it is today. Share 0digg Home Shipping

Duties of Electrical Engineer Officer On Board Ship

by Hiteshk 2 May 2011 No Comment All the machinery onboard ship is a combination of mechanical and electrical systems. The modern day shipping is more reliable on automations and electronics whose knowledge and maintenance can only be handled by an engineer expert in the electrical field. Marine electrical officer engineers are perfect for such jobs and thats why they hold an important role on ship and in offshore industry. Electrical engineer is one of the most vital positions in the technical hierarchy of a ship and engineer is responsible for his assigned work under the chief engineers instructions. Some shipping companies do not carry electrical officers on their ship to cut down the manning cost and the electrical duties are carried by some one from the engineers side, normally third engineer. However, many companies realized that electrical and electronic system requires some extra attention and therefore require an expert to attend them.

As the technology is advancing, more and more automations and electronic circuit is replacing conventional and electrical systems. Hence the international Maritime Organisation (IMO) amended STCW 95 on 25th June 2010 known as Manila amendment, to introduce a certified position of Electro-technical officer in place of electrical officer.

The general duties of electrical engineer or Electro-technical officer are:

He is responsible for maintenance of all the electrical motors on ship i.e. in engine room and on deck. He is in charge of maintenance of all switchboard including main switchboard and emergency switchboard. He is responsible for maintenance of fire detectors and fire alarm system. He has to maintain all the ships alarm system. He is responsible for the electronic system fitted onboard ship. He is responsible for the ships navigational lights and other navigational equipments. He is responsible for all the batteries that are connected to machineries onboard. It includes: Emergency batteries for alarm and lights Lifeboat batteries Batteries for emergency generator Other batteries fitted onboard

He is responsible for maintaining refrigeration unit in the engine room He has to take care of air conditioning unit of the vessel.

Electrical officer is responsible for maintaining refrigerated containers carried on container ship. He is responsible for cargo and engine room cranes electrical system. He has to carry out routine maintenance for main engine alarms and trips along with the chief engineer. During the time of manoeuvring, he has to be present in the engine room along with other engineers to tackle any kind of electrical and other emergencies. Electrical officer can assist in watch keeping routines at desired time by the chief engineer. He has to assist ships engineer and deck officer in all kind of electrical problems.

Even the post of electrical officer is not a compulsion on a ship, but due to technicalities and complex knowledge requirement of the electrical and electronic system, they are extensively present in the shipping industry.