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Xiaoqiang Zhao & Shiyuan Li
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pp. 33-36, Jan. 2012.

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Manuscript

Received:

21,Sep., 2011

Revised:

5, Nov., 2011

Accepted:

22,Dec., 2011

Published:

15,Feb., 2012

Keywords

Fault

diagnosis,

Kernel

Fisher

discriminant

analysis

(KFDA),

Wavelet

transform,

TE process,

Abstract Sampling data of chemical

industry process are generally large size,

intense nonlinear and noisy. To solve these

problems of process state monitoring, an

improved fisher discriminant analysis (FDA)

algorithm for fault diagnose is proposed. This

new algorithm firstly deals with the process

data with wavelet transform for de-noising.

And then maps the de-noised data onto a

high-dimension feature space by a

nonlinearity mapping which is built by the

kernel function. Finally applies linearity FDA

in the feature space. Tennessee Eastman

process(TE process) simulation results show

that the proposed algorithm is effective, and

improves the accuracy rate of fault diagnosis.

1. Introduction

Chemical industry is very important to each countrys

national economy. One important task of fault diagnosis

of chemical industry process is to ensure for productivity

effect and product quality. Multivariable statistical

analysis (MSA) methods [1]

which use the statistic

projection technique to make high-dimensional process

data to a reduced dimension data place has gained great

attentions in last decades [2]. MSA methods, such as

principal component analysis (PCA), independent

component analysis (ICA) and partial least square (PLS)

have wide applications [3].

Although MSA methods have been applied to fault

diagnosis of chemical industry [4], they mainly focus on

fault detection and feature extraction, but not on fault

isolation and diagnosis. Since data of chemical industry

process have characteristics of large size, intense

nonlinearity and noisy. These characteristics make MSA

methods may not perform well for fault diagnosis. Noise

signals in chemical industry process commonly have very

bad effect to diagnosing result. The conventional MSA

methods such as FDA and PCA which are both linear

methods are linear discriminant analysis cant effectively

solve nonlinear signal problem. In order to handle the

This work was supported by Master Tutor Project of Education

Department of Gansu Province (No. 1003ZTC085).

Xiaoqiang Zhaox.q.zhao@lut.cn, Shiyuan Li: College of Electrical

and Information Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology; Key

Laboratory of Gansu Advanced Control for Industrial Processes

nonlinearity of process data, kernel function FDA (KFDA)

is proposed by Mika [5]. Although the kernel function

makes KFDA could deal with data nonlinearity, but that still

couldnt make the fault recognition rate satisfy. Because

KFDA algorithm assumes that data meet Gaussian

distribution, but actual data of chemical process dont fully

satisfy Gaussian distribution. This causes misjudgment and

misclassification for partial data. At the same time, kernel

mapping makes discriminant vector solve difficult, although

it can map original data to high dimensional space and solve

nonlinear problem. So a modified KFDA algorithm is

proposed in this paper.

2. Wavelet Transformation

Supposed chemical industry process signal s(t) as

( ) ( ) ( ) s t f t e k = + (Equ. 1)

where f(t) is an useful signal, e(k) is a zero-mean Gaussian

white noise signal.

Wavelet transform theory has been well studied by

many researchers and also been used in many fields [6-8].

Briefly, wavelet transform decomposes a time domain

signal into a series of multi-scale signals by a mother

function (t) [9], the basis function. By performing scaling

and shifting operations of the mother wavelet (t), a family

of continuous wavelet transform functions can be created

and denoted:

) ( ) (

2 /

,

a

b t

a t

n

b a

+ - = +

, 0 , , = e a R b a

(Equ. 2)

Where n is the dimension and (t) is the mother wavelet

function, and coefficient a

-n/2

ensures that energy of the

scaled wavelet is constant. Scale parameter a stretches or

shrinks the wavelet so that it covers a larger or smaller area

and shift parameter b shifts the wavelet to different

positions. These features allow the wavelet transform to

extract local information (by varying b) at multiple scales

(by varying a). This space-localization feature of the

wavelet transform is its major difference from the Fourier

transform. Although the Fourier transform can still identify

scales of a random field, it cannot identify different scales at

different locations. The wavelet transform is capable of

providing a better representation of a random field.

The valid support length of wavelet transform functions

,

( )

a b

t +

and scale function is 2N-1. When N is 2, it

becomes Haar wavelet. Fault data can be handled by

wavelet transformation. Its decomposed schematic diagram

is as Fig. 1.

A Modified Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis

Algorithm for Fault Diagnosis

Xiaoqiang Zhao & Shiyuan Li

International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pp. 33-36, Jan. 2012.

International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)

34

Fig. 1 decomposed schematic diagram

Where S is original fault data, Ai(i=1,2, ) is

decomposed low-frequency data and Di(i=1,2, ) is

decomposed high-frequency data. According to the actual

project, the useful signal is always stable and in low

frequency section and the noisy signal is always in high

frequency section. The de-noising process is generally as

following: firstly, initial signals are decomposed; then

coefficients are set to zero which are less than the thresholds,

and the greater ones reserved or shrinked; the approximate

coefficients are given; after that, signals can be de-noised by

wavelet reverse transformation.

The wavelet de-noising methods have hard threshold

method and soft threshold method. The hard threshold

method can handle data by below way: absolute values of

wavelet parameters are constant when they are greater than

the threshold values and they are set to zero when they are

less than the threshold values.

T

T

k j

k j k j

k j

<

>

=

,

, ,

,

0

{

e

e e

e (Equ. 3)

The soft threshold method can handle data by below

way: absolute values of wavelet parameters are set to zero

when they are less than the threshold values and they are

constant when they are greater than the threshold values.

Then they are shrinked to trend to zero. Signals by the soft

threshold method are better than the hard threshold method

in chemical process.

T

T T sign

k j

k j k j k j

k j

<

>

=

,

, , ,

,

0

) )( (

{

e

e e e

e (Equ. 4)

3. Kernel Fisher Discriminant

Analysis

The key idea of kernel fisher discriminant analysis

(KFDA) algorithm enables homogeneous data close each

other and heterogeneous data remote each other by

projecting data to high dimensional space by kernel

mapping [10].

Let dimensionality of original signal feature space be n

and number of signal classes be C, total original signal

X={X

1

,X

2

,,X

C

}, No. j (j=1,2,,C) class X

j

contains N

j

signal, namely X

j

={x

j

1

,x

j

2

,,x

j

Nj

}. Here, x

j

1

,x

j

2

,,x

j

Nj

R

n

denote No. N

j

signal(column vectors) of class j. N is total

number of original signal and then

1

C

j

j

N N

=

=

.

By nonlinear mapping , inputs are extended into high

dimensional feature space as follows:

: ( )

m h

x R x F e e

Mapping of signal X

i

is simply noted (X

i

)=

i

as total

mapping signal set and No. j mapping class are given by

1 2

( ) { ( ), ( ), , ( )}

C

X X X X =

1 2

( ) { ( ), ( ), , ( )}

j j j

j C

X X X X =

Mean of mapping signal class ( )

j

X is given by

1

(1/ ) ( )

j

N

j j i

i

m N X

=

=

(Equ. 5)

And global mean of total mapping samples is given by

1 1

(1/ ) ( )

J

N C

j

i

j i

m N X

= =

=

(Equ. 6)

By constructing matrixes within-class scatter matrix S

W

in F and between-class scatter matrix S

B

in F, projection

vector W can be solved and definite class of fault can be

judged. Given kernel matrix K , original data P is mapped

to feature space F :

K

P X , so new data sample can be

obtained in feature space. Matrix S

W

and S

B

are defined as:

1 1

1

( ( ) )( ( ) )

j

N

C

j j T

W i j i j

j i

S X m X m

N

= =

=

(Equ. 7)

1

1

( )( )

C

T

B j j j

j

S N m m m m

N

=

=

(Equ. 8)

Performing FDA in feature space F means maximizing

between-class scatter matrix S

B

and minimizing the

within-class scatter matrix S

W

. The following function is

defined as fisher discriminate criterion:

( )

T

b

T

w

w S w

J w

w S w

= (Equ.

9)

where w is a non-zero column vector.

The aim of kernel Fisher discriminant criterions is to

find optimal projection discriminant vector w. Although

kernel function can solve nonlinear problem of data, but by

projection, data space dimensionality becomes very huge.

Data of chemical process dont satisfy Gaussian distribution,

so partial heterogeneous data are close by projecting.

Separating effects are poor and this causes bad efficiency

and accuracy for fault diagnosis of chemical process.

4. Modified fisher discriminant

analysis algorithm

First, wavelet transformation is used for de-noising.

Then the de-noised nonlinear signal is mapped by the

nonlinear mapping and is extended into high dimensional

feature space. According to maximizing the function, a

group of optimal discrimination vector of projection matrix

Xiaoqiang Zhao et al.: A Modified Kernel Fisher Discriminant Analysis Algorithm for Fault Diagnosis.

International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)

35

w is found and projection data of matrix w are used to

discriminate. Since dimension of feature space is very high

even infinite, it is impossible to calculate directly.

According to reproducing kernel theory, any solution vector

w of optimal discriminate criterions must be located in the

high-dimension feature space F. Linear, Gaussian and

polynomial kernel functions are often used. RBF kernel

function is used here:

2

( , ) exp( / )

i i

K x x x x =

(Equ. 10)

Discriminant vector w is expressed as:

1

( )

C

i

i

i

w X

=

= =

(Equ. 11)

where

1 2

( , , , )

C C

R = e

and then

T T

b b

w S w K =

(Equ. 12)

T T

w w

w S w K =

(Equ.

13)

where

1

( )( )

c

T i

b i o i o

i

N

K

N

=

=

(Equ. 14)

1 1

1

( )( )

C N

j j T

w i j i j

j i

K X X

N

= =

=

(Equ. 15)

1

( ( , ), , ( , ))

j

i

j j T

i N i

X

k X X k X X = (Equ. 16)

1 1

1 1

1 1

[ ( ) ( )], , ( ) ( )]

j j

N N

T j T j T

j k k

k k j j

X X X X

N N

= =

=

(

Equ. 17)

0 1

1 1

1 1

[ ( ) ( ), , ( ) ( )]

N N

T T T

k N k

k k

X X X X

N N

= =

=

(Equ. 18)

is defined as kernel discrimination vector and is a

N-dimension non-zero vector.

Then the fisher discriminate criterion can be converted

to

( )

T

b

T

w

K

J

K

= (Equ. 19)

Optimal kernel discrimination vector is maximized

and is defined as a maximal feature value corresponding a

feature vector following equation

b w

K K = (Equ. 20)

Then the projection matrix is composed of optimal

discrimination vector

1

( , , )

p d

W W W = , where

1

( )

N

k

i i k i

k

W X

=

= =

, 1, 2, , i d = .

1 2

( , , , ) ( ) ( )

T T

d p

Z W W W X W X = =

1 2 1

( , , , , , , )

l l d

z z z z z

+

= (Equ. 21)

where ( 1, , , 1, , )

T

i i x

z i l l d = = + .

x

is the kernel

signal vector of original signal.

The basic steps of the modified kernel Fisher

discriminant analysis (KFDA) are as following:

Step 1: select DB5 wavelet function, fault data are

decomposed by 5 layers

Step 2: threshold value is obtained by Stein unbiased

likelihood estimate method, data are judged by threshold

value

Step 3: data with threshold value de-noising is converted

by wavelet, reconstruct fault data

Step 4: select RBF kernel function, make de-noising

fault data to kernel mapping and linearity

Step 5: construct matrix S

W

and S

B

for data with

de-noising and linearity by Fisher discriminant

Step 6: optimal discrimination vector is solved, faults

are classified by similar formula

( )( )

T

opt i

opt i

w w

S

w w

=

5. TE Simulation

TE process is a practical chemical process of Eastman

Chemical Corporation [11-12]. The whole process includes

5 main operation units: reactor, condenser, vapour liquid

separator, recycle compressor and product desorber. TE

process is a large-sample-size complex nonlinear system,

and the TE process simulated data could be downloaded

from http:// brahms. scs. uiuc. edu. TE process includes 12

control variables, 41 measurement variables (including 22

continuous measurement variables and 19 components

measure values), all of the process containing Gauss noise.

The flow chart of TE process is as Fig.2. TE process

includes 21 preset faults which indicate fault types of step,

random variation, slow drift, sticking and constant position.

16 faults are known and 5 faults are unknown.

Fig. 2 Tennessee Eastman process flow chart

Input materials of TE process have 4 types: A, B, C and

D. Reaction equations are:

( ) ( ) ( ) (liquid) product1

( ) ( ) ( ) (liquid) product2

A g C g D g G

A g C g E g H

+ +

+ +

( ) ( ) (liquid) by-product1 A g E g F +

3 ( ) 2 (liquid) by-product2 D g F

International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, Pp. 33-36, Jan. 2012.

International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)

36

Above 4 reactions are irreversible exothermal reactions.

Faults 4,9,11 are typical faults of TE process. Firstly,

initial signals are de-noised by wavelet transform with soft

threshold value method. Fig. 2 shows that noises of initial

signals are wiped off obviously and the denoising effect is

fine. Then RBF kernel function is chose and KFDA is used,

and the kernel coefficient is 450 = .

Fig. 2 Wavelet de-noise comparison chart

TABLE 1

FAULT RECOGNITION ACCURATE RATE OF DIFFERENT METHODS

Methods

Fault 4

(accurate

rate%)

Fault 9

(accurate

rate%)

Fault 11

(accurate

rate%)

KPCA 85.3 82.6 83.4

KFDA 88.7 85.2 85.5

Modified

KFDA

90.5 87.1 88.3

To evaluate the effectiveness of the modified method, it

is compared with KPCA and KFDA. TABLE 1 gives fault

recognition results. Faults 4 and 11 are selected because

they are associated with reactor cooling water inlet

temperature, but they are different types of faults (fault 4 is

step change and fault 11 is random variation). Fault 9 is

associated with random variation of material D feed

temperature. These three faults are good representations of

the TE process. The results show the modified method is

better than KPCA and KFDA.

6. Conclusions

To solve large size, intense nonlinear and noisy of

chemical industry process data, a modified fisher

discriminant analysis(FDA) algorithm based on wavelet

transformation for fault diagnose is proposed in this paper.

TE process simulation results demonstrate that the proposed

algorithm can improve fault recognition accurate rate of

chemical process data and it is more effective than KPCA

and KFDA.

References

[1] A. AlGhazzawi & B. Lennox, "Monitoring a complex

refining process using multivariate statistics," (2008) Control

Engineering Practice, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 294307.

[2] F. Akbaryan & P.R. Bishnoi, "Fault diagnosis of multivariate

systems using pattern recognition and multisensor data

analysis technique," (2001) Computers and Chemical

Engineering, vol. 25, no. 9-10, pp. 13131339.

[3] H.W. Cho, "Identification of contributing variables using

kernel based discriminant modeling and reconstruction,"

(2007) Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 33, no. 2, pp.

274285.

[4] D. Lieftucht, U. Kruger & G.W. Irwin, "Improved reliability

in diagnosing faults using multivariate statistics." (2006)

Computers and Chemical Engineering, vol. 30, no. 5, pp.

901912.

[5] S. Mika, G. Rtsch, J. Weston, B. Schlkopf & K. Mller,

"Fishers discriminant analysis with kernels," (1999)

Proceedings of IEEE Neural Networks for Singal Processing.

[6] Zhu Shu-xian, Zhang Ren-jie & Zhang Gang, "Selection and

improvement of kernel function used in face recognition,"

(2009) Computer Engineering and Applications, vol.45, no.

8, pp. 243-245.

[7] Jiang Liying, Xie Lei & Wang Shuqing, "Fault Diagnosis for

Batch Processes by Improved Multi-model Fisher

Discriminant Analysis," (2006) Chinese Journal of Chemical

Engineering, vol.14, no.3, pp.343-348.

[8] Xiao Binhe, Yang Yupu & Yang Yahong, "Fault diagnosis

based on variable-weighted kernel Fisher discriminant

analysis," (2008) Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory

Systems, 93, pp.27-33

[9] H. Monsef & S. Lotfifard, "Internal fault current

identification based on wavelet transform in power

transformers, " (2008) Electric Power Systems Research, 77,

pp.16371645

[10] J. Rafiee, M.A. Rafiee & P.W. Tse, "Application of mother

wavelet functions for automatic gear and bearing fault

diagnosis," (2010) Expert Systems with Applications, vol. 37,

pp.45684579

[11] J.J. Downs & E.F. Vogel, "A plant-wide industrial process

control problem", (1993) Computers and Chemical

Engineering, vol.17, no. 3, pp.245-255.

[12] G. Lee, C.H. Han & E.S. Yoon, "Multiple-fault diagnosis of

the Tennessee Eastman process based on system

decomposition and dynamic PLS," (2004) Industrial &

Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 43, no. 25, pp.

80378048.

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