You are on page 1of 28

Pak Aims

Agriculture Statistics of Pakistan

Hassan Tariq 103497

Introduction2

Table of Contents
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................2 1.Introduction.......................................................................................................................4 2.Objectives.........................................................................................................................4 3. Literature Review ............................................................................................................5 4.General Review of Cro !ector of "a#istan till 2$$5.......................................................% 5.Tec&nolo'ical (eeds of )'riculture !ector....................................................................12 *."roble+s in )'ricultural !ector......................................................................................13 a.,nviron+ental !ituation-............................................................................................13 b.Cultivation .et&odolo'/-...........................................................................................13 c.Introducin' C&e+ical in )'riculture-.........................................................................13 d.,ner'/ "roble+s - ..................................................................................................13 e.)'ricultural Ta0 ........................................................................................................15 %.1e/ Cro s of "a#istan....................................................................................................1* a.Cotton..........................................................................................................................1* b.Rice.............................................................................................................................1* c.!u'ar...........................................................................................................................1* e.2e'etables...................................................................................................................13 f.Ot&er food sa+ les......................................................................................................14 3.(eed of t&e stud/ ..........................................................................................................2$ 4.,+ lo/+ent in )'riculture !ector 5or 6o+en............................................................21 1$.Reco++endations.........................................................................................................2* 11.Conclusion-...................................................................................................................2% 12.References ....................................................................................................................2%

Introduction3 Executive Summary "a#istan &as a'riculture based econo+/ . T&e resent roduction of various cro s is ver/ low as co+ ared to ot&er countries. "a#istan is well be&ind ,'/ t7 c&ine and India in er &ectare rice and su'arcane roduction8 w&ile ,'/ t7 tur#e/ and c&ina also e0cel in cotton roduction because a'ricultural e0tension services are of oor 9ualit/. )vailabilit/ of i+ roved tec&nolo'/ and its effective disse+ination are two #e/ rere9uisites for roductivit/ . Results obtained at researc& stations and e0 erience de icted b/ t&e ro'ressive far+ers s&ow t&at t&e available a'ricultural tec&nolo'/ &as a otential to increase t&e current roductivit/ +anifold. In ot&er words bi' 'a e0ists between t&e otential and actual /ields bein' obtained b/ our far+ers. :ifferent aut&ors wrote t&eir views about t&ese ne'otiations. !o+e aut&ors are of t&e view t&at "a#istan can 'et substantial benefits after t&e i+ le+entation of t&ese a'ree+ents. ;ut on t&e ot&er &and so+e aut&ors are of t&e view t&at "a#istan will be unable to co+ ete in international +ar#ets. It is clear t&at "a#istan is constrained in its abilit/ to e0 ort a'ricultural and food roducts to develo ed countries under !anitar/ and "&/tosanitor <!"!= re9uire+ents. To rovide one window for standardi>ation and 9ualit/ control7 'overn+ent of "a#istan establis&ed "a#istan !tandard and ?ualit/ Control )ut&orit/ t&at &el ed a lot to create a 9ualit/ level.. T&e a'ricultural sector in "a#istan is co+ osed of five sub@sectors. In t&ese five sub@sectors +ajor are cro s7 livestoc#7 fis&eries and forestr/. T&e +ajor cro s +a#e t&e lar'est contribution to t&e G:" fro+ t&e a'riculture sector. T&eir contribution is fallin' in last twent/ /ears. T&e tec&nolo'ical ro'ress in a'ricultural sector of "a#istan was +ainl/ co+ osed of brin'in' tractors and tube wells. .ec&ani>ation in a'riculture sector started ver/ late because olic/ +a#ers were of t&e view t&at t&is will create une+ lo/+ent in rural sector also international or'ani>ations and 6orld ;an# restrict to 'ive new tec&nolo'/ to far+ers. !o 5irst ti+e new tractors were introduced in 14*$s t&erefore t&e advance+ent in t&is sector started late .5or a ver/ lon' ti+e far+ers couldnAt aware of t&e new tec&nolo'/ to 'et +ore 9uantit/ and to increase t&e 9ualit/ of t&eir cro s but recentl/ latest tec&nolo'ical e9ui +ents are in use in t&e a'riculture sector because of increase in awareness a+on' eo le. ;ut still latest tec&nolo'/ is not in t&e ran'e of +ost arts of t&e a'riculture sector. )'riculture was a do+inated sector not onl/ in t&e field of e+ lo/+ent but also for t&e s&are in G:". ;eside +en wo+en also la/s a ver/ i+ ortant role in our a'ricultural econo+/. Bence "a#istan is an a'riculture econo+/ but still we are facin' lot of roble+s in t&is sector and 'overn+ent is not a/in' +uc& at tension to it .;ecause of w&ic& we lac# be&ind ot&er develo in' countries in t&is sector bein' &avin' a fertile soul and a God 'ifted natural environ+ent. If 'overn+ent of "a#istan 'ives ro er consideration to t&e a'ricultural sector 7 t&en our cro sector will not onl/ fulfill t&e do+estic needs but also it will 'et &u'e forei'n e0c&an'e earnin's b/ e0 ortin' a'ricultural roducts. T&is is t&e wa/ to face t&e new c&allen'es of liberali>ation of 'lobal trade.

Introduction4

1.Introduction
"a#istan &as a'riculture based econo+/. T&is sector accounts for about 25C of t&e G:" and e+ lo/s 5$C of t&e total labor force. It contributes 3$C to forei'n e0c&an'e earnin's and rovides raw +aterial for +ajor industries.< "a#istan econo+/ surve/ 7 1443@1444=. T&e o ulation of "a#istan &as reac&ed t&e fi'ure of 135 +illion. T&e urbanDrural o ulation brea#u reveals t&at s&are of rural o ulation &as declined fro+ %1.%C in 1431 to 32.5C in 1443<a'riculture statistics of "a#istan7 1443@1444= +ajorit/ of o ulation residin' in rural areas is directl/ or indirectl/ de endent on a'riculture. . t&e sector is la/in' and will continue to la/ a ivotal role in t&e overall develo +ent of econo+/ in ter+s of overt/ alleviation7 i+ rovin' inco+e distribution and 'eneration e+ lo/+ent o ortunities. "a#istan is bestowed wit& best land and water resources. T&e land bade is stretc&ed over%4.*1 +illion &ectors traversed b/ t&e Indus river wit& an annual flow of 142 +. a. f . )'riculture is racticed on 2$.34 +illion &ectares w&ile anot&er 1$.41 +illion &ectares are considered cultivable waste. T&e river water is ta+ed into canal networ# w&ic& co++and about 14.%4 +illion &ectares wit& far+ 'ate deliver/ of *5 +. a. f .(earl/ one fourt& of cro ed area id de endent on rainfall. ;/ t&e end of 2$ t& centur/7 "a#istan wit& $.*%5 of t&e worldAs land will &ave to acco++odate 4C of t&e worldAs o ulation w&ic& is still increasin' at a rate of 2.3 er annu+. T&is scarin' fact warrants for +uc& +ore careful t&in#in' and lannin' in for+ulation in a'ricultural olicies to +eet future food and fiber re9uire+ent8 <))RI7 1444=. T&e resent roduction of various cro s is ver/ low as co+ ared to ot&er countries. "a#istan is well be&ind ,'/ t7 c&ine and India in er &ectare rice and su'arcane roduction8 w&ile ,'/ t7 tur#e/ and c&ina also e0cel in cotton roduction.

2.Objectives
T&e 5ood and )'ricultural Or'ani>ation <1443= re orted t&at t&e ver/ low /ield for +ost cro s reflects inade9uate access of far+ers to better far+in' tec&nolo'ies7 +eanin' t&at a'ricultural e0tension services are of oor 9ualit/. )vailabilit/ of i+ roved tec&nolo'/ and its effective disse+ination are two #e/ rere9uisites for roductivit/. It is obvious in s ite of &avin' fertile alluvial soils7 lon'est erennial canal irri'ation s/ste+ of t&e world7 favorable weat&er conditions7 and industrious far+in' co++unit/. "a#istan is la''in' be&ind in a'ricultural roduction w&en co+ ared to ot&er )sian countries. T&ere +a/ be +an/ reasons for t&e low a'ricultural roductivit/ in "a#istan but social factors are also as i+ ortant as ot&ers. T&erefore results obtained at researc& stations and e0 erience de icted b/ t&e ro'ressive far+ers s&ow t&at t&e available a'ricultural tec&nolo'/ &as a otential to increase t&e current roductivit/ +anifold. In ot&er words bi' 'a e0ists between t&e otential and actual /ields bein' obtained b/ our far+ers. T&e +ain objective is to en'ulf t&is 'a e between otential and actual /ield in order to +eet food and ot&er related re9uire+ents of our +asses. T&is situation necessitates ado tion of reco++ended

Introduction5 a'ricultural tec&nolo'/ b/ t&e far+in' co++unit/. T&e ado tion of reco++ended ractices involves t&e total ersonalit/ of a far+er w&o +a#es decisions on t&e consideration of socio@econo+ic factor in i''in' on &is total livin'. !uc& is alwa/s a joint decision w&ere a +e+ber of &is fa+il/7 friends and +an/ ot&ers contribute. T&erefore7 t&e e0tension wor#er &as to a eal to a nu+ber of social attributes7 custo+s7 values7 nor+s and traditions. .an/ innovations ot&erwise e0ceedin'l/ attractive and econo+icall/ viable7 &ave failed because t&at could not +eet even t&e less si'nificant social re9uire+ents. )do tion of innovations is a conse9uence of suc& ste s li#e awareness7 interest evaluation7 and trial. "rovidin' t&e a'ricultural infor+ation is t&e onl/ first ste in creatin' awareness. ) l/in' it to t&e attitudes and ersuadin' far+ers to ado t innovations7 is an educational rocess in t&e true sense. T&e ti+e de+ands t&e drastic c&an'es in t&e s/ste+ and t&ere is also a need t&at to+orrowAs a'riculture +ust be sustainable.

3. Literature

evie!

) vast literature is available about t&e a'ree+ents b/ "a#istan in cro sector. In +ost of t&e fields ne'otiation are ta#in' lace. :ifferent aut&ors wrote t&eir views about t&ese ne'otiations. !o+e aut&ors are of t&e view t&at "a#istan can 'et substantial benefits after t&e i+ le+entation of t&ese a'ree+ents. ;ut on t&e ot&er &and so+e aut&ors are of t&e view t&at "a#istan will be unable to co+ ete in international +ar#ets. T&e trends s&ow t&at t&ere is need to increase invest+ent in a'ricultural sector. To do t&is we need to ado t ro@ oor and ro@far+er a'ricultural olicies. It is to be ta#en care of t&at t&e trade liberali>ation re'i+e is lar'el/ effectin' national olic/ and t&e rocess of +a#in' olicies. )ccordin' to t&e aut&or7 "a#istan bein' a develo in' countr/ enjo/s certain fle0ibilities. T&e )'ree+ent on )'riculture is of articular i+ ortance to "a#istan in ter+s of econo+ic and food securit/. T&e )'ree+ent on )'riculture s ea#s of increasin' trade in a'ricultural roducts t&rou'& ro'ressive liberali>ation. T&e a'ree+ent sa/s t&at t&e +e+bers +ust fulfill s ecific bindin' and reduction co++it+ents in t&e areas of +ar#et access. It +eans to increase +ar#et access t&rou'& t&e reduction of i+ ort duties and tariff. "a#istan is unable to 'ive su ort or subsidies to its far+ers due to lac# of resources. T&e researc& a er s&ows t&at )'ree+ent on )'riculture is creatin' ine9ualities between countries. It +eans t&at ine9ualities between two 'rou of countries. 5irst 'rou is of t&ose countries t&at can 'ive substantial su ort and rotection to t&at a'ricultural sector. Ot&er 'rou is of t&ose countries7 w&ic& could not rovide suc& rotection to t&eir a'ricultural sector <underdevelo ed countries=. T&e +ain e0a+ le of t&ese issues is 'iven as t&at develo ed countries s ent E! F3*$ billion on a'riculture in 1444 <abut seven ti+es +ore t&an w&at t&e/ &ad 'iven to t&e oor countries in international develo +ent assistant=.

Introduction* In t&e area of +ar#et access7 "a#istan offered Gceilin' bindin' Gon a'ricultural i+ orts durin' Era'ua/ Round <ER=. !o "a#istan was not re9uired to reduce its tariffs durin' t&e Era'ua/ Round i+ le+entation eriod <till 2$$5=. ) nu+ber of ite+s on t&e ne'ative and restricted list &ave fallen due to liberali>ation in a'ricultural trade. )s "a#istan i+ osed low tariffs on i+ orts so t&ere was inflow of subsidi>ed foodstuff in "a#istan. It is also e0 lained in t&e a er t&at bein' a develo in' countr/7 "a#istan was allowed to 'ive s ecial and differential treat+ent subsidies on fertili>er and tube well electricit/. "rice to t&e establis&+ent of 6TO7 "a#istan occasionall/ rovided direct e0 ort subsidies. Over decades7 t&e I.5D6orld ;an# loan conditions &ave forced develo in' countries to lower t&eir trade barriers7 cut subsidies for t&eir do+estic food roducers and eli+inate 'overn+ent olicies to i+ rove rural a'riculture. In t&ese situations7 "a#istan needs to re+ain over cautions. )lt&ou'& our ne'otiation in 6TO Geneva &as done a wonderful job but t&ere is need for furt&er i+ rove+ents. T&e aut&or su''ested for+ a 6TO cadre in our civil service structure so t&at t&e civil servant +a/ concentrate on 6TO issues. T&ere is also a need to involve acade+ic institutes and rivate sector in 6TO ca acit/ buildin' efforts. It is also re9uired to 'ive subsidies to reduce t&e cost of +ar#etin' e0 orts and trans ort. T&e aut&ors &ave s&own in t&eir a er t&at unrestricted trade re'i+e sti+ulate t&e econo+ic re'i+e and brin's t&e socio@econo+ic 'a a+on' countries. Enrestricted trade &el s develo ed countries ver/ +uc&. ;ut under develo ed countries cannot 'et as +uc& benefits as t&e/ e0 ect. T&e stud/ anal/>es e+ iricall/ t&e effect of trade liberali>ation on four +easures of econo+ic develo +ent7 na+el/ er ca ita G:"7 inco+e ine9ualit/7 overt/ and e+ lo/+ent. T&e aut&ors a lied esti+atin' tec&ni9ues of 2!L! wit& t&e &el of si+ultaneous e9uations. Overall findin' reveal t&at7 over t&e trade liberali>ation &as contributed ositivel/ in e+ lo/+ent 'eneration7 ne'ativel/ in G:" er ca ita and distributions of inco+e. T&ere is no effect observed on overt/ in "a#istan. It is s&own t&at trade liberali>ation &as not fulfilled all t&e conditions in w&ic& develo +ent ta#es lace in an econo+/. It is necessar/ to continuousl/ +ovin' towards liberali>ation wit& i+ rovin' t&e erfor+ance of its +ediatin' factors. It is necessar/ to ado t t&e a roac& t&at is roductivit/ oriented and develo +ent centered. Govern+ent s&ould ta#e initiative to roduce labor@intensive roducts. Govern+ent s&ould tr/ to obtain self@sufficienc/ and 'ood 9ualit/ +easures in its concernin' roducts. .

Barriers against Agricultural Exports from Pakistan:


T&e role of 6TO !anitar/ and "&/tosanitar/ )'ree+ent. "a# Hournal of )'ricultural ,cono+ics +e+bers are encoura'ed to fulfill international standards. ) broader indication of t&e i+ act of !anitar/ and "&/tosanitor <!"!= re9uire+ents on develo in' countries e0 ort of a'ricultural and food roducts are rovided b/ data on rejections followin' border ins ection in develo ed countries.

Introduction% It is clear t&at "a#istan is constrained in its abilit/ to e0 ort a'ricultural and food roducts to develo ed countries under !anitar/ and "&/tosanitor <!"!= re9uire+ents. To rovide one window for standardi>ation and 9ualit/ control7 'overn+ent of "a#istan establis&ed "a#istan !tandard and ?ualit/ Control )ut&orit/. ;ut "a#istan &as not activel/ artici ated in t&e !anitar/ and "&/tosanitor <!"!= a'ree+ent. 1e/ roble+s in t&is re'ard are- insufficient abilit/ to artici ate effectivel/ in dis ute settle+ent rocedures. "a#istan also could not rove t&at do+estic !anitar/ and "&/tosanitor <!"!= +easures are e9uivalent to develo ed countr/ re9uire+ents. T&e aut&or s&owed 9ualitative anal/sis about "a#istanAs difficulties in t&e concernin' +atter. "a#istan +a/ face difficulties in +eetin' costs involved in e0 ortin' a'ricultural roducts under t&e !anitar/ and "&/tosanitor <!"!= a'ree+ents. T&e aut&or also 'ave su''estions to i+ rove t&e osition of "a#istan in t&e concernin' affairs. 5ir+s in "a#istan will &ave to i+ le+ent s ecific s/ste+ or si'n u to so+e 9ualit/ assurance sc&e+es. T&ese arran'e+ents +a/ be attractive in t&e s&ort run. T&e issue of roduct 9ualit/ in t&e do+estic +ar#et &as an i+ ortant bearin' on its e0 orts to develo ed countr/ +ar#ets. T&ere are several e0a+ les of roducts t&at do not +eet t&e re9uired !anitar/ and "&/tosanitor <!"!= standards for e0 orts7 bein' sold in local +ar#et. Given t&e circu+stances of rejection of roduct fro+ t&e e0 ort trade7 t&is +i'&t t&reaten t&e welfare of local consu+ers. T&ere are &i'& co+ laints on +an/ roducts of "a#istan not onl/ b/ international bu/ers but also fro+ local bu/ers. T&e e0 ort business +a/ even detract roducts fro+ t&e local +ar#et. Local consu+er welfare in t&e countr/ +a/ be co+ ro+ised b/ eit&er t&e non@ availabilit/ of t&e roduct or its li+ited availabilit/ at &i'& rice.

".#eneral 2%%&

evie! of Cro$ Sector of Pakistan till

T&e a'ricultural sector in "a#istan is co+ osed of five sub@sectors. In t&ese five sub@ sectors +ajor are cro s7 livestoc#7 fis&eries and forestr/. T&e +ajor cro s +a#e t&e lar'est contribution to t&e G:" fro+ t&e a'riculture sector. T&eir contribution is fallin' in last twent/ /ears. In earl/ /ears a'riculture was t&e lar'est sector and contributin' +ore t&an 53C to G:". ;ut in 2$$2@$37 t&eir s&are was down to onl/ 23.*C. In 1444@5$7 t&e labor force in a'riculture was *5C to %$C. ;ut now it is 45C to 43C al+ost. ;ut a'riculture is still t&e lar'est sector in ter+s of e+ lo/+ent. In 144%7 total cultivated area in "a#istan was 3*.3 +illion acres. (ow it is 54.1$ +illion acres. Table 'ives t&e basic data about t&e utili>ation of land in "a#istan.

Table: 1 Land Utilization, 1947-2003 (Million Hectares)


Iear Re orted area (ot available for cultivation Total area cultivated )rea sown +ore t&an once Total cro ed area 144%@43 4*.%$ 2$.32 14.*4 $.45 11.*3 14*$@*5 5$.52 13.44 1%.%3 1.*3 15.$3

Introduction3 14*5@%$ 14%$@%5 14%5@3$ 143$@35 1435@4$ 144$@45 1445@$$ 52.43 53.53 54.2% 53.24 5%.3% 53.$4 54.12 14.$3 2$.5$ 2$.*2 21.24 23.4% 24.44 24.51 14.14 14.21 14.34 2$.32 2$.%3 21.1% 21.4$ 1.44 2.54 3.3+ai$ 4.$4 4.%4 4.%$ *.3% 1*.23 1%.$4 13.44 14.*3 2$.44 21.3* 22.33

o!rce: "ss!es "n #a$istan %cono&' b' ( )$bar *aidi


In t&e table7 re orted area +eans t&at a+ount of total 'eo'ra &ical area for w&ic& official record e0ists. In "a#istan7 over ti+e a'ricultural roducts &ave increased. T&is all was &a ened due to increase in de+and locall/ and internationall/.

Table: 2 "nde+ o, )-ric!lt!ral #rod!ction, 19.9-2000 (/ase 'ear 19.9)

Year All crops


14*$D1 14*5D* 14%$D1 14%1D2 14%2D3 14%3D4 14%4D5 14%5D* 14%*D% 14%%D3 14%3D4 14%4D1$ 143$D1 1431D2 1432D3 1433D4 1434D5 1435D* 143*D% 143%D3 1433D4 1434D1$ 144$D1 1441D2 1442D3 1443D4 1444D5 1445D* 1$$ 12% 1%4 133 133 14* 13% 144 2$3 2$4 214 234 244 253 2%$ 23% 2%5 243 124 12% 134 134 142 1*1 141 142 152 1*%

Food crops
43 1$% 1*4 1%$ 131 14$ 133 2$% 212 2$3 233 245 254 25% 2%% 253 2*5 24$ 115 1$4 113 114 122 12* 124 12% 133 14%

Fiber crops
1$3 142 133 245 243 223 22$ 1%* 144 14% 1*2 25$ 245 24% 233 1%$ 34* 413 135 2$* 2$$ 2$4 23$ 3$* 21* 142 2$3 253 1$3 131 145 1*4 1*3 133 1%1 143 224 223 212 21$ 23* 2*1 235 243 234 212 42 1$$ 112 1$3 11$ 12$ 113 134 14$ 14$

t!er crops

Introduction4 144*D% 153 145 224 144%D3 1%$ 15% 214 1443D4 1%1 154 21$ 1444D$$ 141 13$ 2*3 o!rce: "ss!es in #a$istan %cono&' b' ( )$bar *aidi 13$ 1*$ 1** 143

)s t&e total area under food cro s is concerned7 it &as increased b/ +ore t&an 5$C since 1454D*$. 6&eat is t&e lar'est sown cro and constitutes **C of t&e total area of food 'rains. 5or t&e four +ajor cro s of "a#istan7 t&e area under w&eat in t&is eriod is u *%C7 rice constitutes %5C7 cotton can constitute 43C and for su'ar cane it is 125C. In 14*$@*5 eriods7 t&e four +ajor cro s covered about 53C of total cro ed area. In 1445D4* t&e total cro ed area &as increased substantiall/ to *4C. T&e co+ re&ensive data is 'iven in table. Table: 3 )rea !nder Ma0or 1ro2s 19.0-2000 (000 Hectares) Year "!eat #ice Sugar cane $otton%Age of total cropped area 145$@55 4154.$ 44%.$ 245.* 12%5.3 @@@@@ 1455@*$ 4%3*.* 1$%3.3 3*5.4 1343.2 @@@@@ 14*$@*5 434*.2 1214.2 44%.* 13%5.4 52.54 14*5@%$ 5541.3 142*.* 554.* 1*35.* 5*.53 14%$@%5 *$1%.4 1514.* 54%.* 13*$.2 53.*2 14%5@3$ *2%2.$ 1%4%.* %4%.$ 141*.4 53.2$ 143$@35 %1%4.4 1434.2 354.3 21%%.% *1.4* 1435@4$ %413.2 143*.* 333.$ 2454.* *2.2* 144$@45 3$53.* 2$44.$ 42%.4 2%53.$ *3.32 1445@$$ 33$*.* 2333.3 1$24.3 3$$2.4 **.21 o!rce: "ss!es in #a$istan %cono&' b' ( )$bar *aidi .ajor cro cultivated area in t&e /ear 2$$$ for t&e +ajor "a#istan rovince <"unjab=of

Introduction1$

3i-( 1: Ma0or cro2s c!lti4ated area in 'ear 2000

3i-( 2: 1o&2arison o, c!lti4ated area b' di,,erent scenarios de4elo2ed b' L%)# )s total roduction is concerned7 it &as substantiall/ increased for all +ajor as well as +inor cro s. ;ut avera'e annual 'rowt& rate for +ajor cro s &ave been fallin' since 143$. In t&e decade 143$@4$7 t&e avera'e annual 'rowt& of +ajor cro s was 3.34C. )nd

Introduction11 t&is avera'e annual 'rowt& rate of +ajor cro s fell to 2.4C in 144$s. ;ot& total roduction of w&eat and rice fell s&ar l/. T&ese lower rates of increases in out ut are ver/ disturbin'. )ll t&e annual 'rowt& rates are s&own in table 4.

Table: 4 #rod!ction o, Ma0or 1ro2s 199.-2000 (000 Tones) Year "!eat #ice Sugar cane $otton 145$@55 3235.3 33%.2 %142.* @@@@@ 1455@*$ 3*%%.* 4$4.* 1$313.* @@@@@ 14*$@*5 4$1*.4 11$%.3 1424%.3 1445.3 14*5@%$ 51%5.* 1512.* 2$%13.$ 2*25.$ 14%$@%5 %145.* 1424.* 1%4$2.3 3%$5.$ 14%5@3$ 3%*5.$ 2%%3.2 2*%43.$ 3$44.$ 143$@35 1133$. 3242.3 32*51.* 442*.* 1435@4$ 1244%.2 3232.2 314%3.4 %*32.* 144$@45 15%24.$ 3412.$ 4$4$1.* 4*43.4 1445@$$ 13233.$ 443%.$ 433%1.$ 433%.$ o!rce: o!rce: "ss!es in #a$istan %cono&' b' ( )$bar *aidi )'riculture was a do+inated sector not onl/ in t&e field of e+ lo/+ent but also for t&e s&are in G:". ;ut 'raduall/ a'riculture out ut decreased /ear b/ /ear. 5ood &as to be i+ ort and de endence on forei'n aid increased. T&ere was need to i+ rove a'riculture sector and to lessen t&e de endenc/ on forei'n aid. T&en ste s to land refor+s were ta#en in 1454 but t&at was failure in ter+s of land distribution. T&e eriod of 'reen revolution ca+e in )/ub 1&an Re'i+e. T&at was a so@called Green revolution because tec&nolo'ical i+ rove+ents were discri+inated re'ionall/. Onl/ ver/ few areas of "a#istan 'ot advanta'e of all t&e tec&nolo'ical ro'ress of 'reen revolution t&at was t&e &u'e distortion for t&e i'nored areas of "a#istan. T&e second land refor+ too# lace in 14%$. T&ose were stricter as co+ are to revious one. ;ut t&ose were also not influential and beneficial for t&e ro'ress of a'ricultural sector. T&e 'rowt& rate of a'ricultural sector was onl/ 2.3C in between 14%2 J 14%%. )'riculture sector is a +ajor contributor to t&e econo+ies of "a#istan and India7 account@ in' for nearl/ 23 ercent and +ore t&an 24 ercent s&are in G:"7 res ectivel/. It ro@ vides e+ lo/+ent to 42 ercent of t&e labor force in "a#istan and *$ ercent in India. 6&eat and cotton occu / a do+inant osition in a'ricultural roduction in "a#istan7 accountin' for 3%.2 ercent and 23.2 ercent s&are7 followed b/ s&ares of rice and su'ar@ cane at 15.4 ercent and 4.% ercent7 res ectivel/. T&ese +ajor cro s also account for 34 ercent of total value added in t&e a'riculture sector in 2$$4@$5. "ricin' olic/ of 'overn+ent can la/ an i+ ortant role in deter+inin' t&at w&at to roduce and w&at not. T&e ricin' olic/ can deter+ine t&e direction of a'ricultural in uts and out uts. )'ricultural ricin' can also effect inco+e distribution not onl/ for bi' far+ers but also for s+all far+ers. In "a#istan7 in t&e be'innin' t&e +ain concern of 'overn+ent was to #ee t&e rices of a'riculture roducts low to rovide c&ea er food and raw +aterial to urban industrial wor#ers. T&is caused de ressed rices for t&e

Introduction12 roducers of a'riculture roducts. Govern+ent i+ osed &eav/ e0 ort duties on Cotton due to w&ic& do+estic rices of cotton reduced. 6&eat and rice rices were fi0ed also8 rocess of ve'etable '&ee was controlled at an artificiall/ low level7 w&ic& resulted in de ressed rices. 5or nearl/ a decade after inde endence no s/ste+atic atte+ t was +ade for t&e develo +ent of a'riculture sector. T&e first a'riculture develo +ent ro'ra+ in countr/ was launc&ed in 1455. ;arter trade was a co++on feature of international Trade so a'riculture roducts were e0 orted to i+ ort industrial roducts or in uts. T&is was also a disadvanta'e for a'riculture roducers. )ll t&ese ste s s&own t&at a'ricultural sector was adversel/ affected for t&e ro+otion of Industrial !ector suffered a lot. )s t&e +atter of a'ricultural sector is concern7 a 1435 surve/ s&ows t&at *3C of t&e credit to a'riculture is rovided b/ non@institutional sources. 6e can sa/ it t&rou'& infor+al sources. )l+ost 3$ C of loan rovided t&rou'& institutional sources were not reliable or ro0/ loans because it is ver/ difficult for s+all far+ers to 'et loan fro+ institutional sources. T&ere are +an/ reasons for t&is. 5irst of all s+all far+ers are not aware of co+ le0ities of institutional sources secondl/ t&e/ donAt &ave an/ source to a roac& t&e+. Lar'e far+ers or landlords are ver/ influential t&at t&e/ donAt even 'ive bac# loans. !o t&e/ 'et benefit onl/ t&rou'& non@institutional loans. ;ut for +ost of ti+e suc& non@institutional donAt fulfill all t&e needs for far+ers because a+ount of non@ institutional loans are often not bi' enou'& to cover e0 enditures of cultivation. T&e lar'est source to rovide institutional loan is KT;L. KT;L rovided al+ost *4C loan in 1445 J 2$$$. (ow KT;L is also rovidin' lon'@ter+ loan. Co++ercial ban#ers also rovided 2$ C loan in eriod of 1445 J 2$$$.

&. Tec'nological (eeds of Agriculture Sector


In +ec&ani>ation of a'ricultural sector we consider t&e innovation of new tec&nolo'/ in a'riculture. T&e tec&nolo'ical ro'ress in a'ricultural sector of "a#istan was +ainl/ co+ osed of brin'in' tractors and tube wells. .ec&ani>ation in a'riculture sector started ver/ late because olic/ +a#ers were of t&e view t&at t&is will create une+ lo/+ent in rural sector also international or'ani>ations and 6orld ;an# restrict to 'ive new tec&nolo'/ to far+ers. 5irst ti+e new tractors were introduced in 14*$s but t&e e0 erience s&owed t&at fear of rovidin' tractors was baseless. Introduction of tractors and tube wells boosted u a'riculture sector in concernin' areas. ;ut t&e roble+ was t&at +ec&ani>ation of a'riculture was restricted to few areas "unjab and !ind&. T&is discri+inator/ olic/ of 'overn+ent +ade ver/ +uc& &ar+ to t&e far+ers of t&e i'nored areas. T&ere is no 9uestion t&at tec&nolo'/ in a'riculture is ver/ &el ful for advance+ent of t&is sector not onl/ incase of increased out ut for do+estic needs but also to e0 ort to world +ar#ets. T&is will +a#e &i'& earnin's t&rou'& tec&nolo'/ introduced in si0ties but ace of increasin' tec&nolo'/ didnAt re+ain t&e sa+e. T&is +ade sufferin' of +one/ cro s

Introduction13

).Proble*s in Agricultural Sector


a. Environmental Situation:
T&e environ+ental situation is ver/ oor and alar+in' in "a#istan. T&erefore world ban# said in a re ort to &ave effective land refor+s in a wa/ t&at &el in sustainable e0 loitation of natural resources includin' land and water in t&is wa/ Re@distribution of land to s+all far+ers will &el in i+ rovin' t&e environ+ental conditions. )lso effective land refor+s will reduce t&e ower of bi' landlords.

b. Cultivation Methodology:
.an/ oor far+ers wit& low subsistence level are unable to ta#e ris# in t&eir cultivation +et&odolo'/. T&e/ also face t&e oor irri'ation s/ste+. To &ave a tube well for t&eir land is just li#e a drea+ for t&e+. ;ecause electricit/ c&ar'es of tube wells are ver/ &i'& as co+ ared to canal water. 6ater lo''in' is also a ver/ bi' roble+ for s+all far+ers. T&e +ain cause for t&is roble+ is bi' landlords. )not&er roble+ is structure of water ricin'. T&e structure of water ricin' rovides no incentive for usin' canal water efficientl/. It also discoura'es invest+ent in water conservation. Landlords are so +uc& influential t&at t&e/ easil/ &ave reac&ed to t&e subsid/ of 'overn+ent to rovide '/ su+. T&e 'overn+ent under too# a ro'ra+ to o ulari>e '/ su+ in order to eli+inate salinit/. T&is salinit/ is caused b/ low@level tube wells water. )s influential landlords were +ain beneficiaries so t&e/ 'ot t&e '/ su+.

c. Introducing Chemical in Agriculture:


)not&er roble+ was of introducin' c&e+ical in a'riculture. T&e/ were +ainl/ co+ osed of fertili>ers and esticides t&e +ain roble+ was of discri+ination in rovidin' c&e+icals to far+ers. T&ose were of so &i'&l/ riced t&at a vast +ajorit/ could not afford it. T&e s+all far+ers &ad 41C of cultivated area in "a#istan. !o due to lac# of c&e+ical rovision a lar'e cultivated area suffered. ;i' landlords or +iddle class far+ers used t&ese esticides in 'reat 9uantit/ to en&ance t&eir a'ricultural out ut. T&is use of esticides in &i'& a+ount caused several &ealt& diseases7 es eciall/ for t&ose wor#ers w&o a l/ it on cro s.

d. Energy Problems :
In +ost of t&e develo in' countries7 t&e ener'/ roble+s bein' addressed are counterin' t&e &i'& de endence on traditional sources of ener'/ su l/ +ore t&an 4$C of total ener'/ used causin' ra id deforestation7 decreasin' soil fertilit/7 etc. T&us a lar'e to describe t&eir relations&i s and several tools are necessar/ to anal/>e and to ac&ieve a variet/ of results t&at are needed for t&e lannin' rocess. 5or t&is ur ose ener'/ +odels could be used for t&e efficient ener'/ lannin'7 forecastin' and o ti+i>ation of ener'/ sources

Introduction14

Table - !eason@wise consu+ tion of fertili>er

Table 3: %ner-' 5e&and o, #a$istan bet6een 2000 and 2030 in T7%

Table 4: %ner-' 5e&and o, #a$istan bet6een 2000 and 2030 in T7% )'riculture sector of "a#istan &as t&e otential to beco+e a +ajor source of bioener'/ su l/7 rovidin' li9uid uel substitutes7 diesel and feed stoc#s for electricit/ roduction and solid fuels for cro curin' and dr/in. If we tal# about t&e ener'/ consu+ tion of just sin'le re'ion<"unjab= is accelerated 'rowt& cenario increases fro+ 1$.%C7 2$.3C and 52.3C in 2$1$

Introduction15

3i-( 8: 1o&2arison o, di,,erent scenarios (3!el cons!&2tion) (ow before 'oin' in to t&e detail of t&e anal/sis of our concernin' roble+ it is better to e0 lain t&e +ain co+ etitors of "a#istan in +ajor cro s. T&is will &el in +a#in' better anal/sis of roble+ under t&e a'ree+ent on a'riculture.

e. Agricultural Tax
)'riculture ta0 is ver/ controversial issue so+e favor a'riculture ta0 but ot&ers are a'ainst it bot& 'rou of eo le rovide justifications and reasonin' for t&is. T&e roble+ of i+ osin' inco+e ta0 on a'riculture sector was e0istence of two clauses on one &and t&ere is +ajorit/ of eo le w&o are livin' below subsistence level. T&ese eo le are s+all far+ers. T&e/ &ardl/ fulfill t&eir basic needs wit& t&e &el of t&eir earnin's t&rou'& cultivation. On t&e ot&er &and t&ere are eo le w&o &ave ver/ bi' or &u'e earnin's. T&ese are bi' landlords. .ost of t&e landlords are livin' in urban sector t&e/ are +a#in' bi' rofits t&rou'& real estate invest+ents t&at is w&/ +an/ eo le were a'ainst it t&at 'overn+ent didnAt not i+ ose inco+e ta0. T&e ot&er reason a'ainst a'riculture ta0 was t&at a'riculture sector is facin' &eav/ burdens of indirect ta0es. T&ose w&o were rotestin' to i+ le+ent a'ricultural ta07 t&e/ were sa/in' t&at it is a bi' source to +a#e fraud. .an/ industrialists bou'&t bi' lands in a'ricultural areas t&e/ 'ot rid of inco+e ta0 b/ s&owin' t&e land of a'ricultural sector. T&e/ also said t&at inco+e ta0 would be on ersonal inco+es not on t&e w&ole a'ricultural sector so ro'ressive inco+e ta0 will 'ive &i'& earnin's to overco+e bud'et deficit and also to increase develo +ent of a'ricultural sector.

Introduction1*

+.,e- Cro$s of Pakistan


a. Cotton
"a#istan is ran#ed nu+ber 4 in t&e world in ter+s of 'lobal roduction of raw cotton. If "a#istanAs co+ etitors7 two countries &ave /et to join t&e 6TO. T&ese two countries are C&ina and E>be#istan. T&e ot&er co+ etitors in t&e field of cotton roduction are India7 Tur#e/ and ;ra>il. )ll t&ese countries &ave status of develo in' wit&in t&e 6TO. "a#istan accounts for 3.%C of 'lobal cotton roduction t&e +ain re'ional co+ etition in cotton roduction co+es fro+ C&ina7 India and E>be#istan. "a#istanAs /ield rates are twice t&ose of India. T&is su''ests a co+ arative advanta'e over its nei'&bor. It is useful to loo# at do+estic su ort7 e0 ort ro+otion and +ar#et access olicies in co+ etitorAs countries.

b. Rice
"a#istan is a relativel/ +inor countr/ in ter+s of its overall rice roduction. It accounts for onl/ 1.2C of Global roduction. "a#istanAs two nei'&bors7 C&ina and India7 do+inate 'lobal roduction of rice. T&ese two countries accounts for 54C of 'lobal rice roduction. T&is enor+ous si>e of bot& t&e Indian and C&inese +ar#ets +eans t&at alt&ou'& t&e/ are &u'e roducer of rice7 but t&e/ are not t&e +ost i+ ortant countries in ter+s of e0 ort of t&is co++odit/. T&ailand is t&e +ain e0 orter of Rice roduction. It e0 orts 25C of its do+estic roduction. 6orld rice trade is do+inated b/ a 'rou of countries t&at roduces ri+aril/ for e0 ort. "a#istan is one of t&ese countries. T&e +ain co+ etition in t&e re'ion co+es fro+ four countries. T&ese are 2ietna+7 T&ailand7 C&ina and India. )s t&e onl/ roducer of ;as+ati Rice India and "a#istan &ave a co++on interest in 'rowin' t&e s&are of t&is rice in world trade and in articular in e0 orts to &i'& value +ar#ets. .ar#et differentiation b/ rice variet/ would see+ to be 'rowin' as t&e o ularit/ of certain variet/ of rice 'rows. It would see+ t&at "a#istan &as been able to 'ain +ar#etAs s&are in certain +ar#et b/ co+ etin' ot&er su liers.

c. Sugar
In roduction ter+s ;ra>il and India do+inates. "a#istan is also a +ajor la/er in 'lobal su'ar roduction. T&e ran#in' of "a#istan in ter+s of 'lobal su'arcane roduction is 5t&. It accounts for al+ost 3.3C of 'lobal roduction. T&e s&are of "a#istan in 'lobal su'ar roduction is &i'&er at 5.1C. In roduction ter+s India +a/ be second lar'est roducer of su'ar in t&e world. It accounts for a ro0 25C world roduction. ;ut in ter+s of trade India accounts for less t&en 1C of 'lobal trade. T&e i+ ortant re'ional co+ etitors for "a#istan are T&ailand7 C&ina7 Indonesia7 .ala/sia and "&ili ine. d.

ruit

Introduction1%

Production of Fruits
1% 1% 1% 3% 2% 5% 9% 9% 25% 14% 30% Citrus Mango Dates Guava Apple Banana Apricot Grapes Peach Plum thers

T&e two +ost i+ ortant fruit cro s in "a#istan are oran'es and +an'o. T&is anal/sis of co+ etitors concentrates on t&ese two roducts. ,uro ean Enion7 !out& )frica and E! are t&e +ain la/ers. In addition7 ot&er .editerranean countries suc& as +orocco Israel and tur#e/ are also i+ ortant su liers. In ter+s of re'ional co+ etition for "a#istan7 it is stron'est fro+ India7 c&ina and !in'a ore. "a#istan is +ar'inal la/er in t&e world oran'e +ar#et des ite reducin' around two +illion tons of oran'es annuall/. It accounts for less t&en 1C in 'lobal trade. T&is fi'ure would see+ to indicate do+estic roble+s wit& varieties7 ost &arvest stora'es and rocessin'. T&ere are also difficulties in +eetin' t&e !anitar/ and "&/tosanitar/ standards of i+ ortin' countries. In t&e area of +an'o roduction India and C&ina are do+inatin'. To'et&er t&ese two re'ional co+ etitors accounts for 3.*5C of 'lobal +an'o roduction. )s wit& rice neit&er India nor C&ina la/s an i+ ortant role in world trade in +an'oes. Bere .e0ico is t&e do+inant la/er. "a#istan roduces onl/ 3.2C of t&e 'lobal +an'o cro 7 but it accounts for *.*C of 'lobal e0 orts. Bere in t&e field of +an'o t&e roble+ in e0 ortin' are sa+e as t&ose of oran'es. In ter+s of co+ etitors in +an'o e0 ort India7 ;ra>il "&ili ine7 T&ailand and C&ina are co+ etitors in re'ional +ar#ets as in develo ed countr/ +ar#ets.

Production & Export of Fruits' (egetables

Introduction13

16000 14000 "uantit#$%000$tonnes& 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 1999! 2000 2000! 2001 2001! 2002 2002! 2003 2003! 2004 2004! 2005 Production Export Potential surplus

e. !egetables

Production of (egetables:

nion Potato 25% 25% Chillies (omato (urnip )a*#$+inger 1% 1% 2% 1% 3% 2% 4% '% 1% Cauli,lo-er Peas .a*ish 29% Brin/al Garlic thers

Introduction14 Onions and otatoes are t&e +ain ve'etables 'rown in t&e annual total of &arvest of a ro0i+atel/ 4.3 +illion tones. In t&e list of 'lobal roduction of fres& ve'etables7 C&ina and India do+inates 'lobal roduction. In ter+s of ot&er re'ional ve'etables7 roducers7 2ietna+7 "&ili ines7 ./an+ar7 ;an'lades& and T&ailand are t&e lar'est. "a#istan is not t&e +ajor la/er in t&e world of onion trade. ,0 orts accounts for just 1.3C of 'lobal trade. Trade in onion is do+inated b/ ,uro ean Enion. In ter+s of re'ional co+ etitors in onion e0 ort7 t&e +ain t&reat for "a#istan co+es fro+ India7 C&ina7 ,'/ t7 Tur#e/7 Iran7 1a>a#&stan and E),. )s t&e trade in onion7 countries of t&e ,uro ean Enion and to a lesser e0tent7 t&e Enited !tates7 do+inate trade in otatoes. I+ ortant re'ional co+ etitors include India and Indonesia. "a#istan accounts for 1.5C of t&e 'lobal trade in otatoes.

Production of Priority Fruits & (egetables in )))* tons


Citrus .an'o :ates ) le ) ricot "eac& "lu+ Gra e "otato Onion To+ato 2453 1%54 533 351 14% %$ *$ 43 15*3 2$5* 4*3

". #ther "ood sam$les


)'ri@'ood roducts in t&e ot&er food sta les7 t&e cate'or/ are t&ose suc& as w&ic& are essential to food securit/ and edible oil7 w&ic& are constitute one of t&e i+ ortant ite+ for "a#istan. T&erefore t&ese a'ri@food roducts la/ a +ajor role in t&e balance of a/+ents. Loo#in' first at w&eat7 roduction is do+inated b/ t&e ,uro ean Enion7 C&ina7 India and t&e E!. T&e &u'e si>e of bot& t&e Indian and C&inese +ar#et +eans t&at neit&er is a lar'e la/er on t&e world e0 ort +ar#ets. T&e ot&er re'ional co+ etitors in t&e roduction of w&eat are

Introduction2$ 1a>a#&stan7 Tur#e/ and Russia. T&e +ain e0 orters of w&eat are Enited !tate7 ,uro ean Enion7 )ustralia7 )r'entina and Canada.

..(eed of t'e studIt is an establis&ed fact t&at a'ricultural e0tension is t&e +ost i+ ortant instru+ent of a'riculture develo +ent. It acts as a dovetail &eno+enon between t&e tec&nolo'/ 'eneration s/ste+ <Researc&= and t&e roduction s/ste+ <5ar+ers=8 and &as no ot&er assi'n+ent e0ce t far+ers welfare. It renders direct contact wit& t&e far+er co++unit/ at lar'e . it is in rinci le 7 a fle0ible instru+ent ado table in different conditions and can be oriented to t&e s ecific needs of t&e eo le as an educational instru+ent. T&ere is a considerable dissatisfaction wit& erfor+ance of e0tension services a+on' far+in' co++unit/ and ot&er relevant eo le. .ajor issuesDwea#nesses identified in resent a'ricultural e0tension s/ste+ in "a#istan are listed &ere under Lac# of ade9uate trainin' durin' t&e robation eriod of t&e officers. .obilit/ factors in&ibits t&e erfor+ance of t&e field staff. 6ea# lin#a'e between e0tension and researc& Low salaries a source of discontent and low +orale. O ortunities for ro+otion are al+ost lac#in'. ,0tension beca+e less service oriented and +ore education oriented. )'riculture in for+ation units re9uire trainin' for efficient e0ecution of t&eir res onsibilities. "rivate sectors and non@'overn+ental 'rou s are better e9ui ed for e0tension jobs. )'riculture e0tension &as +uc& wea#er voice t&an t&e researc& institutions or universities. ,0tensionsL interventions wit& 'ender a roac& is ne'li'ible. ,0tension &as insufficient o eratin' funds for teac&in' and de+onstration and disse+ination of infor+ation.

1ee in' in view t&e above wea#nesses 7 drastic c&an'es are needed in t&e s/ste+ 7 so t&at to+orrowAs a'riculture is +odern and sustainable. One of t&e +ain constrains is t&at t&e front line e0tension wor#ers are not able to +a#e +a0i+u+ use of t&eir ener'ies. T&erefore7 t&ere e0ists t&e need to deter+ine t&e factors affectin' t&e wor#in' efficienc/ of a'riculture field staff. T&e resent stud/ is lanned t&erefore7 to identif/ t&e factors affectin' t&e wor#in' efficienc/ of e0tension staff7 since t&eir wor#in' efficienc/ &as direct bearin' on t&e efficienc/ and t&e 9ualit/ of a'riculture e0tension services in "unjab rovince. T&e findin's of t&is stud/ are e0 ected to assist t&e olic/ +a#ers 7 e0tension s ecialists and ot&er social scientists in t&e for+ulation of a a ro riate strate'ies for +a#in' our e0tension services +uc& +ore effective and for ro+otin'

Introduction21 a'ricultural and rural develo +ent in "a#istan. T&e roble+ see+s to be +ultifunctional and t&e la/ers wit& roble+s are at all levels. T&e et&ics t&at one sees in t&e &u+an s/ste+s is ab/s+al and t&ere &as been no one in "a#istan wit& t&e abilities of an )+bed#ar or an/ social lifters as are available in India7 to worr/ about w&at is &a enin' in t&e various social classes. T&e de+ocratic rocess as well as t&e t/rannical rocess of 'overnance brin's t&eir own #inds of serious issues. ) brain t&at is in tur+oil can &ardl/ be in a osition to ta#e far reac&in' decisions. T&e ersonalit/ of t&e o ulation is one as ect but t&e critical effort see+s to be of t&ose on w&o+ t&e ta0 a/ers &ave s ent a considerable a+ount of financial resources and t&e/ &ave not done well b/ t&e education t&at was i+ arted to t&e+. 6&en one considers t&at t&e e0 enditure was u wards of 3 +illion ru ees for eac& "&: w&o studied in t&e E!) one would e0 ect t&en to do well b/ t&e education t&at was i+ arted. In t&e decision +a#in' rocess t&e +ajor role is t&at of t&e t/rannical owers t&at &ave ruled t&is countr/ for t&e better art of t&is nations life. T&e Researc& or'ani>ations were al+ost all of t&e+ or'ani>ed under )/ub or under Kia. T&is +eant t&at t&e &u+an resources t&at were built at t&at ti+e included all t&e ersons w&o were ersonall/ #nown to t&e or'ani>ation c&ief. T&at called for a s ecial #ind of lo/alt/. T&e #ind t&at is usuall/ re9uired of t&e canine s ecies. )n/ one not ad&erin' to t&ese traits was usuall/ ostraci>ed. T&at also +eant t&at all t&e valid and 'ood reasons for settin' u t&e or'ani>ation was ab initio still born. "a#istanAs a'rarian s/ste+ was also different in as +uc& as t&e )r+ed forces were usuall/ recruited fro+ t&e rain fed &ill/ areas Me0ce t for t&e Gur#&as w&o were a'ain recruited fro+ &ill/ areas of (e al. T&e idea bein' t&at t&ere were certain castes and certain areas t&at were +artial t&at could be recruited s ecificall/ for t&e ar+ed forces. )'riculture castes were not considered b/ t&e colonialists as fit for an/t&in' but t&e functions t&at were su osed to be t&eirs. T&e attitudes and value s/ste+s of t&ese s ecificall/ recruited ersonal re+ained in t&e 14t& centur/ des ite furt&er education at t&e universities in t&e develo ed countries. .ost of t&e+ were sent to t&e E!) and instead of usin' t&e ta0 a/ers &el to t&e benefit of societ/ t&e/ went t&e o osite direction and t&e "&: ca+e to be a s/+bol and a cos+etic attac&ed to t&e na+e. It boosted t&e e'o but did recious little for t&e far+in' co++unit/ or t&e econo+/ of t&e countr/. !i+ l/ stated t&e &u+an resources so develo ed were woefull/ lac#in' in ta#in' t&e countr/ out of an/ #ind of sta'nation.

/.0*$lo-*ent 2o*en

in

Agriculture

Sector

1or

;eside +en 7 wo+en also la/ a #e/ role in t&e rural econo+/ in "a#istan7 and t&eir a'ricultural labour leads to direct e0 osure to esticides. )s in +an/ societies7 t&ere is a 'ender bias not onl/ a+on' olic/ +a#ers7 but also in societ/7 w&ic& reinforces t&e roble+s facin' rural wo+en. (asira Babib &as interviewed wo+en and conducted in@de t& surve/s in seven villa'es near Lia9at ur7 in t&e !ind&7 since 1443.

Introduction22 6o+en face social and econo+ic discri+ination w&ic& is furt&er co+ ounded b/ new &a>ards in rural areas as esticide use increases. )bout 25C of far+s now use esticides in t&e countr/7 and w&ile wo+en bear a +ajor res onsibilit/ for far+ wor# and usin' esticides7 t&eir contribution to t&e a'ricultural econo+/ is not reco'nised. )n/ s&ort sta/ in a rural area is sufficient to observe wo+en active in +an/ jobs in t&e fields. )t a +eetin' of 2$ wo+en in Lia9at ur7 t&e/ listed at least 25 a'riculture@related activities in w&ic& t&e/ are activel/ involved wit& t&eir +en. One wo+an said7 NI 'et u earl/ in t&e +ornin' and run eit&er to t&e fields or to t&e ani+al s&ed. 6&o &as t&e ti+e to was& oneOs faceP 6e do not even &ave t&e ti+e to sa/ our ra/ers7 t&e wor#load is so +uc&.N T&e (ational )'riculture "olic/ +a#es no +ention of wo+en in t&e state+ent of its objectives7 and onl/ four +inor references to wo+en in t&e overall docu+ent. It rovides no clear olic/ for t&e develo +ent of rural wo+en7 w&o for+ t&e bac#bone of t&e rural econo+/. T&is discri+ination is reflected in t&e official docu+ents and re orts and as a conse9uence encoura'e officials to overloo# and +ar'inalise wo+enOs wor#. T&e Census of )'riculture does ac#nowled'e t&e wor# of wo+en in a'riculture7 but indicated a dro in t&eir contribution fro+ 42.*C of all fa+il/ wor#ers in a'ricultural &ouse&olds in 143$ to 3*.2C in 144$. In 143$7 wo+en constituted about 25C of all full ti+e and %5C of art ti+e wor#ers. In 144$7 t&e Census re'istered 25.3%C and *1.25C res ectivel/. Bowever t&ese fi'ures do not corres ond to t&e realit/ because t&e s+aller t&e si>e of t&e land&oldin'7 t&e +ore intense7 active and efficient t&e role of t&e wo+en beco+es. It is not cost effective for s+all&olders to &ire aid labour.

Agricultural$0ector$3mplo#ment 20 $4um5ers$%Million& 15 10 5 0 2001!02 2003!04 (otal Male +emale Percent$share '0 50 40 30 20 10 0

0ectoral$GDP$share

Agriculture 2n*ustr# 0ervices

1991

2005

Fig. I-1: Sectoral G P S!are and "griculture Sector E#plo$#ent%

T&e decade fro+ 143$ to 144$ &as seen a furt&er fra'+entation of land@&oldin's. 5ra'+entation +eans t&at wo+enOs wor# &as to be even +ore intensive in order to +a#e

Introduction23 a'riculture econo+icall/ affordable. 6o+en &ave to wor# +ore7 lon'er and &arder. T&e/ are econo+icall/ active and substantiall/ contribute to +an/ activities7 includin'

cro far+in' and livestoc# #ee in' ost &arvest activities &ouse&old +ana'e+ent off@far+ and non@far+ econo+ic activities bearin' and rearin' c&ildren and loo#in' after t&e sic#

6&ile so+e of t&ese activities are reco'nised as i+ ortant7 t&e visibilit/ of wo+en is selective and t&eir invisibilit/ is rooted bot& in econo+ic and social factors. Rural wo+en of "a#istan are econo+icall/ active but are also econo+icall/ de endent. 6o+en &ave neit&er owners&i nor control over resources and t&e/ are e0 ected to surrender t&eir ri'&ts in favour of brot&ers or &usbands.

"omen+s encounter ,it! pesticides


6o+en &ave alwa/s la/ed a #e/ role in disease and est +ana'e+ent w&ic& too# s&a e in various activities of soil i+ rove+ent and fertilit/ +ana'e+ent as well as direct +easures to eradicate t&e diseases in cro s and ani+als. ;ut wit& t&e advent of new est +ana'e+ent tec&ni9ues and tec&nolo'ies wo+en &ave been b/@ assed. Reco'nisin' onl/ +en as far+ers7 t&e/ &ave beco+e t&e focus of e0tension. In order to full/ co+ re&end wo+enOs encounters wit& esticides7 and t&e i+ act of t&ese c&e+icals7 it is necessar/ to loo# at t&eir total far+in' wor#load. In t&e area studied7 over *$ activities of wo+en to t&e w&ole s/ste+ of far+ wor# &ave been identified. In t&e course of t&ese t&e/ fre9uentl/ encounter to0ic c&e+icals. T&e surve/ conducted for t&is stud/ notes t&at 'enerall/7 wo+en are not directl/ involved in s ra/in' esticides7 but are involved in t&e followin' activities w&ic& e0 ose t&e+ to esticides

&el in' +i0 esticides was&in' tan#s dis osal of e+ t/ containers was&in' esticide@soa#ed clot&es stora'e of esticides weedin' and t&innin'

Introduction24 ic#in' cotton storin' t&e &arvested cotton collectin' stic#s and usin' t&e+ for fuel ta#in' food to +en in t&e fields

Generall/7 wo+en was& clot&es in water courses w&ic& are near or run t&rou'& t&e fields. In +ost cases7 &ouses are surrounded b/ t&e fields t&at are s ra/ed7 e0 osin' all t&e in&abitants to deadl/ oisons. 6&en weedin'@a tas# w&ic& falls to wo+en five to si0 ti+es a season@ esticides are in&aled and absorbed. Cotton cro s are s ra/ed at least si0 or seven ti+es in a season7 and in su'ar cane fields t&eir e0 osure is even +ore rolon'ed. Ta#in' food to +en in t&e fields brin's wo+en to fres&l/ s ra/ed fields7 and can rove e0tre+el/ dan'erous. Hobs li#e ta#in' ani+als to t&e fields7 cuttin' fodder for ani+als7 ta#in' care of ve'etable lots7 collectin' +aterial for fuel7 bat&in' ani+als in t&e water courses7 are all activities w&ere wo+en could be affected b/ t&e oisons in addition to direct involve+ent in a'riculture or related activities t&at e0 ose t&e+ to t&e &a>ards of esticides. -a.or !a/ards arise from cotton production Cotton ic#in' is one of t&e +ain areas of wo+enOs e0 osure to esticides. ,0 osure be'ins w&en wo+en treat t&e seeds wit& sul &uric acid and carries on t&rou'& to stora'e of t&e ic#ed cotton. !eed treatin' is carried out usin' a lar'e vessel7 w&ere acid is +i0ed t&orou'&l/ wit& t&e seeds in a ratio of 2 'ra+s of acid to 1#' of cotton seeds. )fter a few +inutes7 t&e seeds are was&ed off wit& water and dried. T&en t&e seeds are read/ to be sown. T&e sa+e vessel is used for ot&er ur oses in t&e &ouse suc& as was&in' clot&es. 6o+en are en'a'ed in cotton ic#in' for a eriod of two and a &alf to t&ree +ont&s. T&is constant and rolon'ed e0 osure to to0ic c&e+icals in +an/ wa/s oses 'reater &ealt& roble+s t&an s ra/in' itself. 6&ile ic#in'7 t&e/ are vulnerable to cuts and s#in ras&es t&at furt&er e0 ose t&e+ to t&e &a>ards of esticides. !tudies 9uoted in t&e re ort of t&is surve/ &ave s&own t&at Nout of a total of 33 fe+ale cotton ic#ers onl/ 1C could be ter+ed out of dan'er. %4C &ad blood acet/lc&oline esterase <)C&,= in&ibition between 12.5@5$C. 25C were in dan'erous conditions w&ere blood )C&, in&ibition was between 5$@3%.5C.N )fter ic#in'7 wo+en are not in t&e &abit of c&an'in' clot&es w&ic& +a/ &ave &ad contact wit& esticides. )ll t&e res ondents ic# cotton durin' re'nanc/ w&ic& oses additional roble+s- NI 'o for ic#in' even to t&e last da/ durin' re'nanc/N7 said one wo+an. 6o+en feed c&ildren in t&e fields7 wit&out first was&in'7 osin' serious &ealt& &a>ards for t&e +ot&er and c&ild. :urin' t&e surve/7 it was noted t&at so+e of t&e wo+en carr/ t&eir s+all c&ildren w&ile ic#in' cotton. .an/ c&ildren were found in t&e fields7 eit&er &el in' t&eir +ot&ers or just followin' t&e+. )ll t&e /oun' ic#ers were 'irls.

Introduction25 :urin' cotton ic#in'7 esticide oisonin' &as increased and s/+ to+s re orted b/ include- snee>in'7 +uscular ain7 di>>iness7 nausea7 burnin' s#in7 itc&in'7 cou'&7 &eadac&e7 blisters on bod/ and suffocation. (ulnerability and !ealt! care T&e wo+en interviewed found it ridiculous to as# &ow t&e/ treat oisonin' s/+ to+s and lau'&ed at t&e researc&er for su''estin' t&e/ consult a doctor. It is not ossible to 'o for +edicine for s+all ail+ents. One of t&e+ re+ar#ed NEnless we are unable to +ove7 we do not t&in# of 'oin' to a doctor or of ta#in' +edicine.N !o+e local re+edies are used7 for e0a+ le in case of s#in burnin'7 t&e/ a l/ +ustard oil or butter oil. N6&ere can we 'et t&at +uc& +one/ to s end on burnin's treat+entPN re+ar#ed a wo+an. T&is is a reflection of t&e low status assi'ned to wo+en and &ow t&e/ &ave internalised it. T&e/ cannot Nafford t&e lu0ur/ of +edicinesN w&en t&ere are so +an/ ot&er needs to be attended to in t&e fa+il/. T&e needs7 roble+s and interests of wo+en co+e last. One wo+an w&o did s ra/ esticides7 "erveen7 &as been adversel/ affected. Ber +ost ainful co+ laint is t&at s&e cannot &old food in &er sto+ac& and vo+its food as soon as s&e consu+es so+e. Ot&er s/+ to+s include snee>in'7 vo+itin'7 water/ disc&ar'e fro+ &er nose7 and ain in t&e ribs. !&e &as ta#en +edicines but to no avail. !&e feels better for t&ree or four da/s and t&en t&e co+ laints recur. Generall/ s ea#in'7 t&e far+ers feel t&at t&ere are +an/ new diseases un&eard of in t&e ast. )lt&ou'& t&ere is no laborator/ tested evidence7 t&e/ tend to attribute t&e introduction of diseases li#e fre9uent fever7 blurred e/e si'&t7 diabetes7 blood ressure and cancer to t&e use of c&e+ical esticides and c&e+ical fertilisers. T&e e0a+ les reveal rural wo+enOs vulnerabilit/ to c&e+ical esticides. Enfortunatel/7 in t&e absence of ro er dia'nostic a aratus7 it is difficult to in oint t&e cause of an/ illness as arisin' fro+ e0 osure to esticides. )n e0ce tion is t&e case of acute oisonin's. Bowever t&is +a#es life even +ore difficult. )s a doctor fro+ Lia9atur co++ented7 Ndoctors are not trained to find t&e cause of a articular ail+ent w&ere far+ersO are e0 osed to esticides. T&us t&e/ are unable to dia'nose t&e illnesses ro erl/. Generall/7 ain #illers are 'iven in suc& casesN. )s wo+enOs access to &ealt& care7 even durin' ti+es of visible disco+fort7 is +ini+al t&ere is no +onitorin' of t&e absor tion of esticides7 of t&e i+ act on blood7 re roductive or'ans7 si>e of infants7 and so on. 6&ile t&e esticides law &as been a+ended several ti+es7 t&e a+end+ents are focused on t&e issue of 9ualit/ of t&e c&e+icals and no +ention &as been +ade of t&e t&reat facin' &u+an &ealt& towards a just and e9uitable societ/ ) nu+ber of refor+s are essential to ensure better visibilit/ for wo+enOs wor# and to reco'ni>e t&eir role in t&e +ainstrea+ of a'riculture. It is of ara+ount i+ ortance t&at land refor+s be initiated t&at 'uarantee joint owners&i of a'ricultural land b/ bot& +en

Introduction2* and wo+en. Tec&nolo'/ ac#a'es w&ic& are oriented towards wo+en +ust be ur'entl/ introduced7 es eciall/ w&ere wo+en are alread/ #e/ actors. ,ffective +easures are needed w&ic& encoura'e artici ation of wo+en in t&e +ar#et rocesses. ) ra id olic/ s&ift would be &el ed b/ studies w&ic& &i'&li'&t wo+enOs roles in various areas7 includin'

socio@cultural life of rural "a#istan wit& a focus on t&e 'ender relations&i s8 wo+enOs role in securin' food and fibre8 t&e relations&i between econo+ic de endence and access to nutritious food8 t&e 9ualitative and 9uantitative contribution to a'riculture of wo+en all ecolo'ical >ones8 t&e role of wo+en in natural resource +ana'e+ent8 docu+entin' wo+enOs #nowled'e on a'riculture8 a'ricultural tec&nolo'ies traditionall/ used b/ wo+en7 t&eir dis lace+ent b/ t&e advent of +odern tec&nolo'/8 wo+enOs e0 osure to c&e+ical esticides in cotton and in ot&er cas& cro sarticularl/ in ve'etable cultivation a traditional area of wo+enOs labour wit& a 'rowin' concentration of c&e+ical esticide use8 esticide residue levels in blood and t&e i+ act on wo+enOs re roductive s/ste+.

)l+ost no ro'ra++es address t&e roble+s of rural wo+en. ) few donor@driven7 +en@ led wo+enOs 'rou s e0ist7 but t&e to#en resence of wo+en in t&ese 'rou s wit&out a real voice or decision@+a#in' owers is not encoura'in'. Initiatives w&ic& are wo+en@led and w&ic& understand t&e +ec&anis+s of 'ender relations&i s can for+ a sound basis for future action t&at strives for a societ/ free of discri+ination and injustice.

1%.

eco**endations

5irst of all 'overn+ent s&ould 'ive a lot of consideration to !anitar/ and "&/tosanitar/ standards because t&is a'ree+ent &as affected t&e e0 orts of cro adversel/. !o t&ere is need to &ave new and ener'etic tea+ of ins ection. T&ere s&ould be ro er wa/ of utili>in' waste. ,ducation for far+ers can also la/ a +ajor role for cleanliness of our cro sector. )s t&e +atter of fact "a#istanAs o ulation is also beco+in' ver/ +uc& aware about &ealt& and cleanliness of food roducts. T&is all is &a enin' due to awareness at t&e 'lobal level. If 'overn+ent of "a#istan could not i+ rove its !anitar/ and "&/tosanitar/ standards t&en our roducts will not onl/ be unable to convince t&e international consu+ers but also local consu+ers will i'nore t&e+.

Introduction2% !econdl/ +ec&ani>ation of a'ricultural sector s&ould be increased. T&ere s&ould be new tec&nolo'/ and +ac&iner/ for our far+ers because +ec&ani>ation can increase t&e 'ross roduction of cro s. Onl/ i+ ort of new +ac&iner/ will not brin' about revolution in t&e cro sector of "a#istan. )ctuall/ 'ood +ac&iner/ can onl/ be beneficial if t&e wa/ to use t&e +ac&iner/ is advance and roductive. T&e s/ste+ of rovidin' a'ricultural credit s&ould be i+ roved. )s we saw in our researc& t&at t&e +ain source of a'ricultural credit to our far+ers is non@institutional loans. It is not beneficial for t&e far+ers to 'et loans fro+ t&e ot&er sources because t&e/ &ave to a/ a &i'& interest on t&ose loans. It is dut/ of 'overn+ent to fulfill t&e basic needs of far+ers. T&is will not onl/ &el t&e far+ers but also t&e roductivit/ of our cro sector will increase. T&ere s&ould be financial institutions in +ost of t&e art of our rural areas and also t&e rocedure to 'et t&ose loans s&ould be eas/ for far+ers. )lon' wit& t&ese financial institutions t&ere s&ould be 'uidin' centers for our far+ers fro+ w&ere t&e/ 'et t&e infor+ation about effective esticides for t&eir articular cro s. T&ese 'uidin' centers will also &el in 'ivin' education about t&e ro er use of certain seeds and fertili>ers. T&ere s&ould also be trainin' for so+e of t&e officials in understandin' 6TO. T&is will &el to +a#e suitable decisions accordin' to t&e a'ree+ents. )lso we can erfor+ well in ne'otiations.

11. Conclusion3
"a#istanAs cro sector is t&e leadin' sector of a'riculture. )'ree+ent on )'riculture is affectin' t&e cro sector not onl/ in ter+s of e0 ort but also affectin' t&e structure and co+ osition of cro sector indirectl/. T&e +ain 'oal of "a#istan s&ould be to 'ive t&e ri'&t direction to t&e cro sector because a lar'e nu+ber of labor force is associated wit& it alon' wit& t&e earnin's and e0 enditures of e0 orts and i+ orts res ectivel/. If 'overn+ent of "a#istan 'ives ro er consideration to t&e a'ricultural sector 7 t&en our cro sector will not onl/ fulfill t&e do+estic needs but also it will 'et &u'e forei'n e0c&an'e earnin's b/ e0 ortin' a'ricultural roducts. T&is is t&e wa/ to face t&e new c&allen'es of liberali>ation of 'lobal trade.

12.

eferences

&tt -DDwww.t#fr.co+DP Q243$ &tt -DDwww.usaid.'ovD #DdownloadsDe'D6eide+annRe ort. df

Introduction23

&tt -DDwww.scribd.co+DdocD2%$425$$D6TO@Re'i+e@and@Its@I+ act@on@ "a#istan Goo'le.co+D6TO and cro sD!:"I researc& and news bulletin . ;usiness Guide to 6orld Tradin' !/ste+ <2$$3= Goo'le.co+Dcro s

Related Interests