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N.KALYANA CHAKRAVARTHY

JANUARY1, 2013

Dainik Jagaran is thenews paper with the highest readership in the country and followed by Dainik Bhasker IVRS: Interactive Voice response System S!S: Short !essaging Service "#$ means "ermanent #ccount $umber In India so far %& times the 'ok Sabha elections are conducted (he midterm elections were conducted for & times so far )%*+%, %*-., %**%, %**-, %***/ (he !adam (ussauds !useum is located in 'ondon (he wa0 models of historical and Royal figures, film stars, sport stars etc are displayed 1reen 2ars are those cars that run with 2$1 )2ompressed $atural 1as/, '"1 )li3uefied "etroleum 1as/ and with electric engine 4ighest number of air ports are present in 5S# )%&.+*/ Sir Robert 2heese Brow )%-6+ 7 %*66/ is the inventor of Vaseline "etroleum gelly (he life e0pectancy is lowest in Swa8iland )69 years/ 4ere more than :% percent of the people die of #IDS every year BB2: British Broadcasting 2orporation (his is the world;s largest public broadcasting service 1ul8arilal $anda was the first interim "! of India after the death of the Jawaharlal $ehru )% st "!/ in the year %*:< 1ula8ari 'al $anda is also the interim "! after the death of 'al Bahadur Sastri in the year %*:: Sardar Vallabh Bhai "atel was the first 4ome !inster of India " 2hidambaram is the current 4! So far India had + deputy "!;s )#s of !arch 9.%%/ =irst Dy "! was Sardar Vallabh Bhai "atel )%*<+>&./ +th was '? #dvani )9..9>.</ (he position of Deputy "! was not mentioned in the 2onstitution !aulana #bdul ?alam was the first @ducation !inister for the independent India $ovember %%, the birth anniversary of !aulana was declared as A$ational @ducation Day; During $ational @mergency the term of 'ok Sabha and assemblies is e0tended by % year

So far $ational @mergency was imposed for 6 times $ational @mergency:%*:9 > 2hina, %*+% > "akistan %*+& > internal disturbances )<< th 2onstitutional amendment replaced the BInternal DisturbancesC with B#rmed RebellionC/ -:th #mendment of 9..9 changed the subDect matter of #rticle <& and also made elementary education a fundamental right under #rticle 9% # )(his came into effect on #pril %, 9.%./ !orarDi Desai )<th "!/ is the %st "! of India who do not belong to 2ongress 4e is the only Indian to receive both Bharat Ratna and $ishaan>e>"akistan !orarDi Desai is the first Indian "rime !inister to resign from the office In Radar system, Radio waves are used to locate the e0istence of an obDect Sun (emple: (his is located in ?onark, Edisha (his is also known as Black "agoda because of the black tint of the stone (he temple was built during the reign of ?ing $arsimha Dev )%96< 7 :</ #runa: (his is the name of the charioteer of the Sun 1od BSmiling )RaDasthan/ B%&'($tion S#$)tiC is the name of "okhran>II conducted by India !ay %% and !ay %6, %** !orarDi Desai was the %st 2hairman of #dministrative Reforms 2ommission )#R2/ and Verappa !oily the 5nion 'aw minister is the latest chairman of #R2 'egislative #ssembly strength should not be more than &.. and not less than :. members 'egislative council strength should not be less than <. and not more than %F6rd of the strength of assembly 'ion was the $ational animal of India up to %*+9 Since %*+9, $ational animal is (iger !""#$C is the code name of the India;s %st nuclear programme conducted in %*+< in "okhran

NATI%NAL SY* %LS+

$ational #nimal > (iger $ational (ree 7 Banyan $ational bird 7 "eacock $ational =lower 7 'otus $ational =ruit 7 !ango $ational River 7 1anga $ational #3uatic animal 7 Dolphin

(he 1overnor of a state nominates % #nglo>Indian to #ssembly and %F:th members to legislative council (he tenure of a service 2hief )#rmy, #ir =orce and $avy/ is 6 years or till the age of :9 years whichever is earlier #rticle &9 (here shall be a "resident #rticle %&6 (here shall be a 1overnor for each state #ir =orce Ene )RaDdoot, RaDhans G RaDkamal/ fleet (his is modeled on 5S "residents #ir =orce Ene Indian "resident traveled on RaDdoot to #ssam B>2omple0 and 2 Vitamins are water soluble and #, D, @ and ? are the fat soluble vitamins Vitamins B and 2 are water soluble B and 2 dissolve in water and are not stored 4ence needed in daily diet @0cess #, D, @ and ? are stored in liver (hey are not needed every day in diet Bass Strait separates (asmania from the South of the #ustralian mainland (he right of suffrage )Voting/ for 'ok sabha and assemblies is mentioned under A(ti,l' 32- of the Indian 2onstitution In the original 2onstitution the minimum age to vote was 9% and through -1.t $m'n"m'nt in the year %*-* it was reduced to %- years

#rticles %&, %: and %*,9* and 6. belong only to citi8ens Remaining articles under =undamental rights are applicable to citi8ens and aliens e3ually Huri 1agarin )5SSR/ was the first 2osmonaut to go into space in the year %*:% in a space craft called Vostok>% Valentina (ereshkova )5SSR/ is the first woman to go into space in the year %*:6 She travelled through Vostok>: $eil #rmstrong )5S/ along with @dwin #ldrin was the first to land on !oon on July 9., %*:* (hey travelled through #pollo>%%)@agle/ landed on sea of (ran3uility on !oon Rakesh Sharma was the first Indian to go into space in the year %*-< 4e went in a space craft called Soyu8 (>%% ?alpana 2hawla died in the crash of space shuttle 2olumbia S(S>%.+ on =ebruary %, 9..6 IndiaIs %st meteorological satellite !@(S#( renamed as ?alpana>% (he Sankranti festival is the festival of the Sun god who is regarded as the symbol of divinity and wisdom (he Sankranti marks the Sun;s transition from Dhanur rasi )Sagittarius/ to !akara rasi )2apricorn/ (his also means that the Suns is on its northwards Dourney or 5ttarayan bringing it closer to the northern hemisphere (he Sankranti festival is called "ongal in (amil $adu, 'ohri )"unDab/, Bhogali Bihu )#ssam/ =irst 'ok Sabha was constituted in !ay %*&9 !avalankar was the first speaker and ! #nanthasayanam #yyangar was the first deputy Speaker of 'ok sabha "arliament means 'ok Sabha, RaDya Sabha and the "resident (he 'ok Sabha is also called lower house or 4ouse of people (he RaDya Sabha is also called 5pper 4ouse or 2ouncil of states State 'egislature means 'egislative #ssembly, 'egislative 2ouncil and the 1overnor 2entral 4indu 2ollege at Banaras was founded by Dr #nnie Besant in the year %-*- It was developed into Banaras 4indu 5niversity by "andit !adan !ohan !alaviya #nnie Besant was the /i(.t 0om$n 1('.i"'nt of I$2 in %*%+ during 2alcutta session SaroDini $aidu was the /i(.t In"i$n 0om$n 1('.i"'nt of I$2 in %*9& during ?anpur session

!ahatma 1andhi was the "resident of I$2 only once in the year %*9< during Belgaum session Justice Sinha of #llahabad 4igh 2ourt delivered Dudgment against Indira 1andhi in the year %*+& for the malpractices of %*+% elections (he petition was filed by RaD $arain (heosophical society was founded in $ew Hork in the year %*+& by !adam @lena Blavatsky 'ater it is moved to #dyar )2hennai/ ViDaya lakshmi "andit was the first Indian elected as the "resident of the - th 5nited $ations 1eneral #ssembly in %*&6 ViDaya 'akshmi "andit was the first woman cabinet !inister in India She was the !inister for 'ocal self 1overnment and 4ealth in the congress ministry of 5" from %*6+ to %*6* She was the first Indian woman ambassador to erstwhile 5SSR from %*<+ to %*<* In %*.% ?adambini 1anguly became the /i(.t 0om$n to $""('.. INC during 2alcutta session I$2 was founded by # E 4ume in Bombay in the year %--& J2 BennerDee was the first "resident of I$2 =irst woman 1overnor in India SaroDini $aidu for the state of 5" in the year %*<* =irst woman 2! in India Sucheta ?ripalani for the state of 5ttar "radesh )%*:6 7 %*:+/ RaDkumari #mrit ?aur was the first woman 2abinet !inister in India up to the year %*&+ She held the !inistry of 4ealth portfolio Indira 1andhi was the first "rime !inster to get defeated in the elections She was defeated in the %*++ election by Janata "arty candidate RaD $arain 'eila Seth>%st woman 2hief Justice of 4igh 2ourt)4"/ $ational environmental engineering institute was established in $agpur in the year %*& 2ape Verde is the %&6rd nation in J(E )Jorld (rade Ergani8ation/ J(E head Kuarters 1eneva, Swit8erland J(E Director>1eneral "ascal 'amy In #pril 9..* he was reappointed for a term of < years (@!"'@ (rees: (his is the official residence of the "resident of Sri 'anka =ood G #griculture organi8ation 4K Rome Director 1eneral Jac3ues Doiuf !$" )!obile number "ortability/ !$" was first introduced in 4aryana in the year 9.%. En January 9., 9.%% it was e0tended to the entire country (he Jagah border lies on the 1rand (runk road connecting #mritsar and 'ahore

(he towns of Baarle>$assau in $etherlands and Baarle>4ertog in Belgium are so deeply intertwined that it is very common to find the white crosses the divide the 9 countries running through a road, a restaurant or even a house (he citi8ens of #ustralia and $ew Lealand can work and live in either country without restrictions India shares open border policy with $epal (he smallest sea island A!arket Island; is shared by Sweden and =inland (he Berlin wall that separated @ast and Jest 1ermany epitomi8ed as the Iron 2urtain, a boundary between the A=ree Jorld; and the 2ommunist Jorld #s per Schengen agreement one does not re3uire any special travel documents to cross over to another @uropean country International !onitory =und and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or Jorld Bank, both put together is called Bretton Joods twins International !onitory =und and Jorld Bank both 4ead 3uarters located in Jashington Both were set up in the year %*<& "luto lost the status of a planet Venus is the nearest planet to the earth !orning starF@vening star !ercury is nearest to the Sun #ll planets rotate up on their a0is from west to @ast Venus and 5ranus rotate from east to Jest #steroids are present between !ars and Jupiter In Supreme 2ourt there is a 2hief Justice of India and 6. other Dudges #ll are appointed by the "resident Ence appointed retire at the age of :& S2 and 42 Dudges are appointed by the "resident Both Submit resignation letter to the "resident Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system (his is called

SALARIES:

"resident 7 Rs %, &.,...F> Vice "resident> Rs %, 9&,...F> 1overnor 7 Rs %, %.,...F> 2hief Justice of India )2JI/ > Rs %,..,...F> Ether Judges of S2> Rs *.,...F> 2hief Justice of 4igh 2ourt 7 Rs *.,...F> Ether Dudges of 4igh 2ourt 7 Rs -.,...F> #fter the death of the "resident Lakir 4usain in %*:*, Vice "resident VV 1iri resigned #t that time the 2JI 4idayatullah acted as the "resident till the completion of elections #rDun is India;s main battle tank developed by DRDE )Defense Research and Development Ergani8ation/ Its original name !B(>-. DRDE 4ead 3uarters located in $ew Delhi DRDE Director 1eneral Dr V ? Saraswat 4e is the scientific advisor to the Defence !inister @dmund 4illary )$ew Lealand/ and (ensing $orgay )$epal/ called M(iger of the snowsM, became the first men to scale !t @verest in %*&6 Laid or Layar is the term used for crop grown between the Rabi and ?harif crop Lero was invented by 5nknown Indian India;s first satellite #ryabhatta )%*+&/ and second satellite Bhaskara>I )%*+*/ both were launched from Baikanour 2omsodrome )5SSR/ Bhaskara>I was India;s first earth observations satellite 1eosynchronous orbit )6:,... km/ is an earth orbit made by an artificial satellite moving west to east direction (ropic of cancer passes through 1uDarat, RaDasthan, !adhya "radesh, 2hhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Jest Bengal, (ripura and !i8oram )- States/ #mong parallels only @3uator is a great circle

@3uator passes through @cuador, 2olombia, Bra8il, 1abon, 2ongo, 2ongo Republic, 5ganda, ?enya, Somalia and Indonesia

THE *INI*U* A2E 3%R C%NTESTIN2ELECTI%NS: 1('.i"'nt, Vi,' 1('.i"'nt, 2o4'(no( 35 6'$(.. R$76$ .$8#$ $n" L'gi.l$ti4' ,o!n,il. 30 6'$(.. Lo) .$8#$ $n" A..'m8li'. 25 6'$(..

"arliament is Summoned and "rorogued by the "resident 'ok sabha is dissolved by the "resident RaDya Sabha is a permanent house that cannot be dissolved (he term of the "resident and the Vice "resident is & years (hey can be reelected 1overnor holds office during the pleasure of the "resident 1overnor can be reappointed "resident submits resignation letter to the Vice president and the Vice "resident submits to the "resident 1overnor submits the resignation to the "resident (he $ational !useum of $atural 4istory was set up in the year %++9 in !adrid )Spain/ is the first museum of its kind (he red colour of the blood is due to the presence of the iron compound called hemoglobin Blood consists of RB2 )@rythrocytes/, JB2 )'eucocytes/, "latelets and "lasma Blood is classified into #, B, #B and E (he blood group A#B; is Uni4'(.$l $,,'&to( (he blood group AE; is Uni4'(.$l "ono( ?arakoram 4ighway connects "akistan>occupied ?ashmir with 0ianDing in 2hina (his is -.. km long (he atmosphere contains & layers (hey are (roposphere, Stratosphere, !esosphere, Ionosphere and e0osphere !a0imum concentration of E8one>present in stratosphere

=inance commission is mentioned in A(ti,l' 290 of the 2onstitution It is constituted by the "resident of India every & years 2hairman and !embers are appointed by the "resident =inance commission submits the report to the "resident of India "resident lays the report before the "arliament So far %< =inance 2ommissions were constituted ? 2 $eogy was the chairman of %st =inance 2ommission (he 2hairman for %<th =inance 2ommission is H V Reddy Elympics: %st modern Elympics were held in ++: B2 in #thens %st modern Elympics %-*: #thens 9..BeiDing, 9.%9 'ondon, 9.%: >Rio de Janeiro S##R2 was set up in the year %*-& #fghanistan Doined the group during 9..+ S##R2 summit in Delhi 9.%. S##R2 summit was held in (himphu, Bhutan In the year 9.%%S##R2 summit will be held in !ale, !aldives $itrous E0ide )$9E/ is commonly known as 'aughing gas In the year %*-< 5nion 2arbide )52/ gas leak of !ethyl isocyanides many people were killed Jarren #nderson was the chairman of 52 'ater 52 was taken over by DEJ June &th Jorld @nvironment day July %%th Jorld population day RBI prints currency notes e0cept one rupee note and other coins Ene rupee note printed and coins are minted by the !inistry of =inance (he highest denomination at present in India is Rs %...F> notes !a0imum denomination that RBI can issue notes is Rs %.,...F> 2orbett $ational park is India;s %st national park )%*6&/ "resently it is in 5ttaranchal (his is the % st sanctuary that is covered under proDect (iger Bengal was divided in the year %*.& and reunited in the year %*%% Jains used 1($)(it l$ng!$g' Buddhists used "ali languages Vitamin D is called sunshine vitamin

Integrated 1uided !issile Development programme )I1!D"/ comprises "rithvi, (rishul, #gni, #kash and $ag missiles #gni Surface to surface !issile "rithvi surface to surface missile (rishul Surface to #ir missile #kash Surface to #ir missile $ag is an anti tank missile Deficiency of Vitamin # results in night blindness Deficiency of Vitamin 2 causes Scurvy Deficiency of vitamin D causes Rickets (otal vitamins %6 #, B comple0 )-/, 2, D, @ and ? Vitamin ?>essential for clotting of blood #>Retional,B%>(hiamine,B9>Riboflavin,2>ascorbic acid (he B"unganur; cow is the Jorld;s smallest breed )type, variety/ of cows (his cow milk contains highest fat )- percent/ content and rich medicinal properties $ormally a cow milk contains 6 to 6 & percent fat
BJaya

DevaC was the author of 1ita 1ovind

4arsha !oved capital from (haneshwar to ?anauD 4arsha was defeated by 2halukya ruler "ulakesini II Bana Bhatta lived in the court of 4arshavardhana 4arsha belongs to pushyabuti dynasty 4e followed Buddhism @lephanta caves )!aharashtra/ were built by the 2halukyas It has both 4indu caves )Shiva/ and Buddhist caves #Danta caves 7 Buddhism @llora caves 7 Buddhism, Jainism and 4induism $asik caves 7 Buddhist, Shivate G Vaishnavite

Bactrian;s were the first kings to issue coins bearing their names During Vedic period B2og#$n$C means a guest Ni.#)$ means 1old Y$4$ means Barley V(i#i, (andula, Sali means Rice Junagad Inscription )1uDarat/ is the /i(.t o//i,i$l in.,(i&tion in Sanskrit #shoka;s Rock @dict NIII gave importance to the policy of Dhamma (hese Rock @dicts are the collection of 66 inscriptions (a0ila )"unDab/ sculpture represents the nature !ahavira was associated with triratnas )Right ?nowledge, Right faith and Right #ction/ T(i&iti)$. 7 Buddhist literature compiled in "ali language Vinaya "itika Sutta "itika #bhidamma "itika Jatakas are part of Suttapitika and they e0plain the stories of previous birth of Buddha

!""#i.t Co!n,il.+ %st 7 RaDagriha )<-6 B2/ 9nd 7 Vaisali )6-6/ 6rd 7 "ataliputrs )9&. B2/ <th 7 ?ashmir )% #D/

6rd Buddhist council was held during #shoka period During <th council Buddhism was divided into 4inayana and !ahayana 'inga raDa temple is present in Bhubaneswar It represents the $agara style of architecture It was built by JaDati ?eshari in %% #D

Dasavatara temple is present in Deogarh in 5" It was built during 1upta period #shoka "illar or #llahabad inscription at #llahabad provided the information of Samudra 1upta

#vesta was the oldest Iranian te0ts Swapnavasavadatta was written by Bhasa Vasavadatta was the prince of #vanti *$#$7$n$&$"$. $n" ,$&it$l:

?ashi > Varanasi #nga > 2hampa VaDDi >Vaisali Vasta > ?ausambi

Bimbisara )founder of 4aryanka dynasty/ was the contemporary of Buddha Selucas $icator was the contemporary of 2handra 1upta !aurya Bimbisara, #Datasatru and 5dayin are the 6 important kings belong to 4aryanka dynasty 4aryanka, $aga, $anda, !aurya and Sunga are the se3uence of dynasties that ruled !agadha (erracotta was used for making 4arappa seals Bron8e dancing girl was found at !ohenDo>Daro !ohammad>Bin>(ugla3 introduced token copper currency =iro8>shah>(ugla3 set up a separate department to maintain slaves #le0ander was the king of !acedonia 4e crossed 4indukush !ountains and Indus River in the year 69: B2 (he battle of 4ydespes was fought on the river Jhelum between #le0ander and "orus and "orus was defeated Rishaba was the first Jain (hirthankara Rishaba means bull "arshva was the 96rd Jain (hirthankara !ahavira was the 9<th (hirthankara

!ahavira died at "avapuri in <:- B2 #ccording to Jainism plants and trees have 9 Divas #nimals have 6 or more Divas !ahavira preached in !agadhi (he teachings of Jainism were recorded at a council conducted at "ataliputra in & #D

(he (hird Battle of "anipat took place in%+:% =ought between !arathas and #fghans led by #hmad shah Durrani also called #hmad Shah #bdali !arathas were defeated

Rahim was the court poet of #kbar (aD !ahal was finest !ughal architecture in !arble

Babur tomb is present in ?abul )#fghanistan/ Jaipala )Shaka king/ was the %st ruler to face the invasion of !ahmud of 1ha8ni Bengal 1a8ette was the first maDor news paper started in India in %+-. 'iver is the l$(g'.t gl$n" in the human body 'ord 2anning was the 1overnor>1eneral of India when %-&+ revolt broke out 'ord 2anning was the last 1overnor>1eneral and the first Viceroy of India Doctrine of 'apse was introduced by 'ord Dalhousie Satara )!aharashtra/ was the % st to be anne0ed in the year %-< "ortugal was the first country to establish trade relations with India 'ord !acaulay introduced @nglish education in India Sir 2lement #tlee was the "! of @ngland when India got the independence !ount Batten "lan or June 6rd plan is envisaged the partition of India into India and "akistan 'ord !ountbatten was appointed as the %st 1overnor>1eneral of free India =irst Indian 1overnor>1eneral was 2 RaDagopala 2hari !ohammad #li Jinnah was the %st 1overnor>1eneral of "akistan OOOOOOOOO Insulin was discovered by =redrick Banting and 2harles Best of 2anada in the year %*9% Insulin is a hormone secreted by the "ancreas that regulates sugar levels in the body

(he #ttorney>1eneral cannot vote but has right to speak and take part in the proceedings of "arliament without being a member (he #dvocate>1eneral cannot vote but has right to speak and take part in the proceeding of state legislature without being a member #s per the estimations of 5$ Jorld "opulation India will be the most populous country by the year 9.&. Dadabhai $aoroDi )1rand Eld !an of India/ was the first Indian to be elected to the British 4ouse of commons in the year %-*9 'unar eclipse occurs when the earth is between Sun and !oon Solar eclipse occurs when the !oon is in between the Sun and the @arth =ourth estate refers to B"ressC (he term was first used by (homas !acaulay in %-9 Jammu and ?ashmir is the only state in India which has a separate 2onstitution which came into force in %*&+ #rticle 6+. of Indian 2onstitution provides for the special status for Jammu and ?ashmir India;s first fast Breeder (est Reactor located at Indira 1andhi 2entre for #tomic Research, ?alpak am near 2hennai #psara is India;s first nuclear research reactor ?amini is India;s first neutron reactor 6-th parallel is the boundary between $orth ?orea and South ?orea <*th parallel is the boundary between 5S# and 2anada (he Joint session of the "arliament is summoned by the "resident (he Joint session of the parliament is presided over by the Speaker #s per 9..% census ?erala registered lowest decadal population growth rate and highest was $agaland "ipavav )1uDarat/ is the first private port in India In India there are %9 maDor ports : on east coast and : on west coast

?andla>1uDarat !umbai>!aharashtra $hava Sheva>!aha $ew !angalore>?arnataka !ormugao>1oa ?ochi>?erala (uticorin>(amil $adu 2hennai>($ Vishakhapatnam>#", "ara dip>Erissa 4aldia 7 ?olkata ?olkata in Jest Bengal

?andla is a free port !umbai is the biggest port 2alcutta is riverine port Vishakhapatnam is the deepest port #iteraya Brahmana is associated with Rig>Veda Shatapatha Brahmana is associated with HaDur Veda Jaiminiya is associated with Sama Veda 1opatha is associated with #tharva Veda 'abour party was in power in @ngland when India got independence 'ord 2ur8on was the viceroy of India when Bengal was partitioned in the year %*.& Red Shirts or ?hudai ?hidmmatgar movement was led by ?han #bdul 1affer ?han #lso called =rontier 1andhi 4unter commission was appointed to look into the tragedy of Jallianwala Bagh of %*%*

In the year %*.+ I$2 split into moderates and e0tremists (his is popularly called Surat Split Rashbehari 1hosh was the president of I$2 in %*.+ Servant;s of India society was launched by 1opala ?rishna 1okale in the year %*.& During (ripuri session )%*6*/ S 2 Bose defeated "attabhi sitaramaiah )1andhi;s nominee/ #bdul ?alam #8ad withdrew nomination Direct action was launched by !uslim league in the year %*<: to achieve "akistan 4indu>!uslim riots took place in 2alcutta Iron was unknown to the people of Indus Valley civili8ation In 2arnatic region =rench and British @ast India 2ompany clashed for the first time Vinobha Bhave was the first person to start individual Satyagraha in the year %*<. Jawaharlal $ehru was the second to launch the same 'ord 4arding II was the viceroy of India when Bengal was reunited in the year %*%% Same year capital was shifted from 2alcutta to Delhi 2arbohydrates are the compounds consisting of 2arbon, 4ydrogen and E0ygen @n8ymes are made up of "roteins @n8yme is a catalyst It promotes action without direct involvement Substrate is a substance up on which en8yme acts (here are 96 pairs of chromosomes and total <: present in a human body cell Eut of these 96 pairs one pair determines the se0 (his pair is called se0 chromosomes and others are called autosomes If the pair contains identical chromosomes NN then the se0 is female If it is NH the se0 is male 4uman blood was classified into #, B, #B and E by ? 'andsteiner Blood 1roup B#BC carries no antibody, where as BEC carries antibody B#nti># and #nti>BC # carries antibody B#nti>BC and BBC group carries B#nti>#C Deficiency of Iodine causes BgoiterC (his is the enlargement of thyroid Deficiency of protein leads to ?washiorkor Deficiency of iron leads to #nemia

Deficiency of sodium leads to 4yponatremia Deficiency of calcium leads to Rickets Deficiency of Vitamin # leads to NerophthalmiaFdry eye and $ight Blindness Deficiency of Vitamin B% leads to Beriberi Deficiency of Vitamin B9 leads to #riboflavinosis Deficiency of Vitamin 2 leads to Scurvy Deficiency of Vitamin D leads to Rickets E0ygen is a product of "hotosynthesis that comes from water 'actic acid is present in milk # bacterium contains only one chromosome # plant cell is differentiated from animal cell with the presence of cell wall in plant cell !itochondrion is considered to the power house of a cell Virus that infects a bacterium is called bacteriophage Eceansat>6 is planned for the year 9.%%>%9 2handrayaan 7I: !oon !ineralogy !ap per )!6/ 7 5S supplied instrument found water and 4ydro0yl emanating from !oon 4ydro0yl is % 4ydrogen and % o0ygen atoms 4yper>Spectral Imager )4ySI/ is an Indian instrument also detected presence of water on the !oon 'arge 4adron 2ollider )'42/, the Jorld;s largest particle acceletor set a record for high energy collisions by crashing 9 proton beams into each other at 6 times more force than ever before 2ollision was conducted at 2@R$ )@uropean Ergani8ation for $uclear Research/ 4ead 3uarters 1eneva ?>%&9 $erpa )#kula>II/ is a nuclear submarine inducted into the army of Russia (his will be leased to India in 9.%. for a period of %. years and is commissioned as I$S 2hakra #gni 7III Indian long range missile of 6&.. km was tested successfully in =eb, 9.%. #gni I, II, III tested successfully #gni>V is planned for 9.%% )Remember there is no #gni>IV/

?>%& missile is fitted to #rihant )India;s first indigenously developed nuclear sub marine/ ?>%& land version is S#o!(6$ Danush )Ship based anti>surface missile/ is the naval version of "rithvi It was tested recently on !arch %%, 9.%% "rithvi was the first missile developed under Integrated 1uided !issile Development "rogramme "rithvi>II was successfully launched in Ectober 9..* B#straC )Beyond>Visual>Range #ir to #ir/ missile successfully tested in Jan, 9.%. (ested at Balasore, Erissa #stra is the smallest missile that is developed by DRDE 5$ 2limate 2hange 2onference was held in 2ancun, !e0ico from $ovember 9* to December %., 9.%. (his is officially called 2E" %: 2E" is 2onference of the "arties #nd also called 2!": means conference of the parties serving as the meeting of the parties to ?yoto protocol 2E" %+F2!"+ will be held in Durban, South #frica from $ovember 9- to December *, 9.%% ?yoto "rotocol was signed in %**+ and came into force in 9..& It imposes targets for emission reductions up to 9.%9 only on developed nations B#SI2 )Bra8il, South #frica, India and 2hina/ conference took place in BeiDing in $ovember 9..* 1reen India 9.<+ report is published annually by (@RI )(he @nergy and resources Institute/ since %**& B!iss ?eralaC is India;s most popular fresh water fish It is also called Red 'ine (orpedo Barb India has the target of generating 9.... !J power by 9.9. thru nuclear energy and 9.,... !J by 9.99 through solar energy Jorld =uture @nergy Summit was held in Jan, 9.%. in #bu Dhabi (he 1RIT:KER pri8e is the highest honor in architecture and is regarded as e3uivalent to $obel "ri8e =or the year 9.%. it was awarded to Japanese duo ?a8uyo SeiDma and Ryue $ishi8awa %st census in India conducted in %-+9 and the %<th census in the year 9..% 9.%% will be the %&th census %-+9 to %*6% caste based census was conducted 1overnment is conducting the caste based census for the %st time in independent India during 9.%%

9.th 'aw 2ommission chairman is D ? J#I$

!!(S stands for !ulti !odel (ransport System D4!5 stands for Diesel 4ydraulic !ultiple 5nit

I@D: Improvised @0plosive Devise SaaS )Software as a Service/ is an application hosted on a remote server and accessed through internet India;s first commercial solar power plant is #8ure powers located in "unDab Inaugurated in 9..* JI!#N )Jorld wide interoperability for !icrowave access/ is a telecommunication technology that provides wireless data in various ways 2loud computing is a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services through internet Bing, Jolframalpha, ?osmi0, 2uil are the names of various search engines Erkut, =ace book, (witter, !y Space, 'inkedIn are the names of various Social networks 'ord Jellesley established =ort Jilliam 2ollege in 2alcutta in %-.. =ort St 1eorge is !adras was set up in !adras in %-%9 by east India 2ompany Sulphuric #cid is the most important industrial chemical in the world # most commonly used strong acid 5S# is the largest producer of the same SatyaDit ray and 'atha !angeshkar are the two persons who won both Bharat Ratna and Dada Sahib "halke awards 6:* parties contested in %&th 'oksabha elections of 9..* (hree 1orges dam )2hina/ is the largest 4ydro "ower plant in the world 2apacity 99,&.. !J Indian institute of science is located in Bangalore Sputnik I of Russia was the first earth orbiting satellite )%*&+/ Vostok I of Russia> %st manned earth orbiter with Huri 1agarin )%*&*/ 'una I of Russia was the first lunar fly 'una II was the first lunar impact "4#'2E$ #J#2S )#ir borne warning and control system/ delivered to India by Israel (his is the radar surveillance system I$S Vikramaditya )#ir craft 2arrier/ will be inducted into Indian $avy by 9.%9 (his will be delivered b Russia

Rulers: "eshwa 7 "une 1aikwads 7 Baroda Bhonsle 7 $agpur 4olkars 7 Indore Sindhias 7 1walior

#rticle 9<6D of the 2onstitution provides that a minim!m o/ 1;3(" of the total number of seats filled by direct elections in "anchayat RaD shall be reserved for women (he reservation for women is increased to &.P through the %%.th amendment of the 2onstitution

#rticle 9<6( of the 2onstitution provides that a minim!m o/ on'<t#i(" of the total number of seats filled by direct elections in every !unicipality shall be reserved for women (he reservation for women is increased to &.P through the %%9th amendment of the 2onstitution

Justice HV 2handrachud was the longest serving 2JI from =ebruary 99, %*+- to July %%, %*-& ? $ Singh was the 2JI for the shortest period of time from $ovember 9&, %**% to December %9, %**% During photosynthesis plants cool the environment by releasing water through pores or stomata that present on the surface of leaves

(he 2ini ,o'//i,i'nt is a measure of statistical dispersion developed by the Italian statistician 2orrado 1ini 2EB#'( :. is an artificial element Its half life period is & 9+ years It is produced by neutron activation of 2EB#'( &*

2hina started economic reforms in the year %*+* and India in the year %**% (he Indian Jild 'ife )"rotection/ #ct %*+9 (his also granted permission to kill rogue animals 1ir forest in Sourastra region of 1uDarat is the home for #siatic lions Jhen #urobindo was arrested in the year %*.- by the British for being the prime suspect in bomb outrage, 2 R Das fought his case and #urobindo was ac3uitted 2hina was the %st country to introduce paper currency 2owries shells were used by the 2hinese as a medium of e0change

#ssam was called ?amrupa (he (omaras built the city of Dhillika )Delhi/ in +6: #lberuni )writer and scientist/ and =irdausi )"oet/ were present in the court of 1ha8ani In the first battle of (arai )%%*%/ prithvi raD chauhan defeated !ohammad 1hori In the second battle of (arai )%%*9/ !ahmud ghori defeated "rithvi raD chauhan Q!t!8<!"<"in Ai8$) 0$. t#' /i(.t in"'&'n"'nt *!.lim (!l'( o/ In"i$. Ai8$) "i'" 0#il' &l$6ing C#o0g$n. =1'(.i$n g$m' , t#i. i. 1olo>. Babur defeated Ibrahim 'odi in first battle of "anipat in the year %&9: (his is the beginning !ughal @mpire "aper industry started in 2hina in % #D Sadasiva raya was the last ruler of the ViDaya $agara dynasty ?!(ing #i. tim' 4i7$6$n$g$($ )ing"om 0$. (!in'" $n" "'.t(o6'" 86 *!.lim (!l'(. in t#' 8$ttl' o/ t$lli)ot$ o( R$).#$.$ t$ng$"i o( $nni#$tti in 15-5. #t the second battle of "anipat )%&&:/ 4emu was defeated by #kbar T#' l$.t *!g#$l (!l'( 0$. $#$"!( .#$#. =195@>. During the time of #hmad Delhi was attacked by #hmad shah #bdali in third battle of "anipat in the year %+:% (he $ttl' o/ !A$( was fought in Ectober %+:< between the forces under the command of the British @ast India 2ompany, and the combined armies of !ir ?asim )the $awab of Bengal/, ShuDa>ud>Daula )the $awab of #wadh/ and Shah #lam II, the !ughal @mperor %.-th amendment 7 !eant for providing 66 percent of reservation for women in "arliament and state legislative assemblies (his was introduced in RaDya Sabha and passed %.*th amendment 7 @0tension of reservation for S2;s, S(;s and #nglo>Indians in "arliament and state legislatures up to the year 9.9. %%.th 2onstitutional amendment 7 Increasing reservation for women in "anchayati RaD bodies from the e0isting 66 percent to &. percent %%%th amendment 7 !eant for providing constitutional status to cooperative societies %%9th amendment 7 Increasing reservation for women in !uncipalities from the e0isting 66 percent to &. percent Right to Information act came into force on June %&, 9..&

Right to @ducation act came into force on #pril %, 9.%. $itrous o0ide )$9E/ is the laughing gas @thylene is used for ripening of fruits #ppendi0 also called vermi0 located near the Dunction of large intestine and small intestine (his is a vestigial organ )$o function/ != 4ussain ac3uired the Katar citi8enship 4ighest point on the land>!t @verest 'owest area>shore of dead sea)Jordan/ Deepest area !ariana (rench in "acific Ecean !ars is called Red planet Duncan passage is present between South #ndaman G 'ittle #ndaman Jestern G @astern 1hats are connected by $iligiri )blue/ hills #nnaimudi>highest peak in Jestern 1hats)sahyadri/ $iligiri are separated by #nnamalai hills by "alghat )?erala/ pass

#ncient names of rivers:

SUTLEJ B SATUR?I. RAVI B 1ARUSINI CHENA B ASKINI JHELU* B VITASTA EAS < VI1AS

$armada, (apti, !ahi and 'uni are the west flowing rivers 4ighest waterfall is #ngela (his is located in Vene8uela

Victoria =alls present between Lambia Limbabwe Jog /$ll.<Hig#'.t in In"i$ &('.'nt on (i4'( .#$($4$ti.

1R#SS '#$DS:

@ast #frica> Savanna Bra8il> 2ampos Vene8uela> 'lanos #rgentina> "ampas $ #merica> "rairie S #frica> Veld #sia> Steppe #ustralia> Down

Sahara )'argest/ desert touches %% countries in #frica 'adakh is the coldest desert present in 4imalayas Jilliam 4awkins visited the court of Jahangir in %:.* Sir (homas Roe visited in %:%+ and got the permission to set up a factory at Surat 2oncept of "ublic interest 'itigation )"I'/ %st started in 5S# In India "ublic Interest 'itigation was introduced in the year %*-& #t that time " $ Bhagawati was the 2JI In Iceland an eruption started in @yDafDallaDokulla glacier (he Volcano erupted on !arch 9., 9.%. after silence of 9.. years (he International Space Station proDect began in %**< with the Shuttle>!ir programme>completed by 9.%% !angala is the oil field in Barmer district of RaDasthan (he largest onshore discovery in India N board e0ams>2BS@ cancelled from 9.%% RaDya Sabha members are elected by elected !'#Is

=inance 2ommission recommends about the grants>in>aid to be given to the states Residuary powers are borrowed from 2anada

#rticle %6< # of the 2onstitution 7 1rant of 2ertificate for the appeal to the 4igher court

#rticle %<6 of the 2onstitution 7 "resident can seek the advice from the Supreme 2ourt

Supreme 2ourt Dudge, Dustice VS Sirpurkar will head the panel that will have #ndhra "radesh high court former chief Dustice #R Dave and noted constitutional lawyer "" Rao

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India has mainly two types of satellite systems IRS )Indian Remote Sensing/ satellite launched by "S'V and I$S#( )Indian $ational Satellite/ launched by 1S'V

India developed < types of launch vehicles S'V, #S'V, "S'V and 1S'V (he S'V )Satellite 'aunch Vehicle/ is also called S'V>6 (his is a four staged solid fuel light launcher (his carries a payload of <. kg and can reach a height of &.. ?m S'V was first launched in %*+* and it was launched last time in the year %*-6 (he current status is that it is decommissioned

#S'V )#ugmented Satellite 'aunch Vehicle/ is a five staged solid propellant rocket system with a capacity to place %&. kg satellite into the '@E )'ow @arth Erbit/ (his was first tested in %*-+ and decommissioned in the year %**<

"S'V )"olar Satellite 'aunch Vehicle/ launch the IRS into the Sun Synchronous Erbits "S'V can also launch small satellites into 1(E )1eostationary (ransfer orbit/ "S'V launched highest number of satellites at once (his is the highest by any country

1S'V )1eosynchronous Satellite 'aunch Vehicle/ is to launch I$S#( into 1eostationary Erbit (his can put the payloads of up to five tons into the 'ow @arth Erbit

(he latest launch of 1S'V>=.: with the 1S#(>&" satellite was failed on December 9&, 9.%. (he very latest launch vehicle is 1S'V !ark 7 III is under development (his is scheduled in the year 9.%9 India;s first satellite was #ryabhatta launched in the year %*+& from 5SSR Rohini satellites were built and launched indigenously

I$S#( satellites are useful for (elecommunications, broadcasting, !eteorology, search and rescue needs for India

IRS satellites are the earth observation satellites (hese are placed in the sun synchronous orbit IRS 7 "< is a type of Remote sensing satellite and is also called Eceansat 7 % launched in the year %*** (he Eceansat >9 was launched in the year 9..*

"S'V 2>%: is scheduled in 9.%% (his will launch Resourcesat >9 1#1#$ )1"S #ided 1eo #ugmented $avigation/ the concept was prepared Dointly by the ##I )#irports #uthority of India/ and ISRE (his is meant for navigation and surveillance of air traffic management

#rticle -< )a/ of the Indian 2onstitution says that only the citi8ens of Indian are eligible to contest in the "arliament elections

#rticle %+6 )a/ of the Indian 2onstitution says that only the citi8ens of India are eligible to contest in the state #ssembly elections

In any election if a defeated candidate fails to secure more than %F: th of the valid polled votes in the constituency will lose the security deposit

=rom !odakurichi #ssembly constituency of (amil $adu %.66 candidates contested in the year %**: (his is the ma0imum number so far

(he election e0penditure means the e0penditure incurred by a candidate between the date of nomination and the date of announcement of the results

(he election e0penditure details must be submitted to the @lection 2ommission within 6. days from the date of announcement of the results

Smallest bone in the human body is C.t$&'.D (his is present in the ear (he largest bone in the human body is C3'm!(D (his is present in thigh (he skin is the largest organ of the human body (he smallest muscle in the human body is CSt$&'"i!.D (his is also present in the ear (his is attached to Stapes )(he smallest bone/ (he biggest skeletal muscle is B2l!t'!. *$Aim!.C (his is a buttock muscle (he longest muscle is ASartoriusC (his runs from hip to knee (he strongest muscle is B!asseterC, the chewing muscle (he muscle with the largest surface area is A'atissimus DorsiC that covers the middle portion of the back (he sweat has no odor

(here are *... taste buds on the tongue India and Sri 'anka are separated by 1ALK St($it and 2!l/ o/ *$nn$( 2entral Information 2ommissioner is appointed by the "resident State Information 2ommissioner is appointed by the 1overnor Veerappa !oily the 2hair person for second #dministrative Reforms 2ommission (he committee submitted %& reports D4R5V is the 'ight 2ombat 4elicopter )'24/, designed and developed by the 4industan #eronautics 'td (he word BBudgetC is not mentioned in the constitution #nnual =inancial Statement is mentioned in #rticle %%9 ?rita, (reta, Dwapara and ?ali yugas (hese are the four yugas )Remember the se3uence/ Joint Session is mentioned in #rticle %.- of the 2onstitution Joint session is summoned by the "resident Joint session is presided over by the speaker (he Supreme 2ourt Dudges are appointed by the "resident (he 4igh 2ourt Dudges are appointed by the "resident (he District 2ourt Dudges are appointed by the 1overnor ? Santhanam former DRDE official who was associated with the "okhran tests, has provided fresh fodder to the criticism by terming the thermonuclear test a fi88leQ #riDit "ayasat a Dudge of Supreme 2ourt nick named as BSachin (endulkar of S2 Dudges Danush is the naval version of "rithvi missile June & Wo(l" En4i(onm'nt ?$6 'ongest elevated national highway of * & km inaugurated in Bangalore (his connects silk board Dunction and electronic city in Bangalore "alakkad district in K'($l$ is the %st district in the country which if fully electrified '@SE(4E is a land locked country is South #frica

Swa8iland is a land locked country in South #frica and towards east bordered by !o8ambi3ue

5nder #rticle %<6 of the 2onstitution the "resident of India can consult the Supreme 2ourt and seek its opinion

#patani is a tribe in #runachal "radesh Jarawa tribe is in #ndaman and $icobar Islands !unda tribe is in Jharkhand and Bihar Santhal tribe is in Jharkahnd and Jest Bengal =irst !unicipal 2orporation in India was set up in !adras in the year %:-+ 'ord Rippon considered as the =ather of 'ocal self 1overnment in India (he #nti>defection law was %st enacted in Jest Bengal in the year %*+* In Berubari 5nion case of %*:. Supreme 2ourt opined that "reamble is not a part of 2onstitution In ?eshavananda Bharati case )%*+6/ and 'I2 of India case )%**&/ Supreme 2ourt held that the "reamble is a part of 2onstitution )Be very clear/

1ini 2oefficient used as a measure of ine3uality of income K$l$&$ni $n" S!.t$ is the dispute between India and $epal

(he Supreme 2ourt in3uires into the disputes related to the election of the "resident and Vice "resident (he decision of the Supreme 2ourt is final and e0clusive 2#1 )2omptroller and #uditor 1eneral/ of India is considered to be a /(i'n", &#ilo.o&#'( $n" g!i"' to "#2 )"ublic #ccounts 2ommittee/ Below "overty 'ine )B"'/ census in India conducted for the first time in %**9 In the year 9.%. it was conducted for the <th time $ational Rural @mployment 1uarantee #ct was renamed as !ahatma 1andhi R@1# since Ectober 9, 9..* (his is a central law for providing minimum %.. days of employment to the people of Below "overty line in rural areas Barak Ebama is the <<th president of 5S# Joe Biden is the Vice "resident of 5S# Domestication of animals started during $eolithic period Dog and sheep %st domesticated

Jheat and Barley were the earliest cereals grown Bramhacharya, 1ruhasthya, Vanaprastha G Sannyasa are the < ashramas )Remember the se3uence/ (he Battle of %. kings mentioned in Rig>Veda (his was fought over the division of R#VI water During Vedic period Rice was called Vrihi, Jheat 7 1odhuma, Barley 7 Hava (he Battle of 4ydaspes took place on the banks of river Jhelum between #le0ander and "orus )#le0ander won/ #le0ander died in 696B2 in Babylonia Rishaba was the first Jain (hirthankara Rishaba means bull "arshva was the 96rd Jain (hirthankara !ahavira was the 9<th Jain (hirthankara (amraparni )Sri 'anka/ and now it is called (amirabarani/ and (he ancient name of Burma was Suvarnabhumi In the ancient days the name Suvarnadweepa was used for South>east #sia (he #ncient name for the Indian subcontinent is Jambudvipa "eriplus of @rythrean Sea was written by unknown author Lero was invented by unknown Indian Saka @ra began in +- #D Subahsh 2handra Bose was re elected as the "resident of congress in %*6* and defeated "attabhi Sitaramaiah who was supported by !ahatma 1andhi and Sardar Vallabh Bhai "atel !aulana #bdul ?alam withdrew his nomination (he @arth is divided into6 parts 2rust )SI#'/, !antle )SI!#/ and 2ore)$I=@/ 2rust and !antle separated by !ohorivicic Discontinuity !antle and core separated by 1utenberg Discontinuity (he 4imalayans are formed from the sea called (ethys sea which is situated between the 1ondwana in the south and #ngaraland)'aurasia/to$orth ?hadar is new #lluvium and Bangar is old alluvium %*6* tripuri congress session Bose defeated "attabhi sitaramaiah who was supported by 1andhi

(he #ndamans and $icobars are separated by the (en degree channel (he - degree channel passes thruogh south !inicoy Island =I=# "resident Joseph Sepp Blatter of Swit8erland 1olden boot is awarded to the top goal scorer in =I=# world cup international Jyoyhi Basu)2"I)!// was the longest serving 2! )%*++>9.../ !ahatma 1andhi was the "resident of I$2 in the year %*9< during Belgaum session 1andhi called (ilak M(he !aker of !odern India 1opala ?rishna 1okale was the mentor for both 1andhi and Jinnah 1andhi Se3uence: 2hamparan )%*%+/, ?heda )%*%-/, #hmadabad )%*%-/ By #ugust %& the rulers of all &:9 states with an e0ception of Junagarh, ?ashmir and 4yderabad had signed the instrument of accession #ccording to the #rticle +&)9/ of the Indian 2onstitution the !inisters )including "!/ are individually responsible to the "resident 5nder #rticle +& )6/ of the Indian 2onstitution the 2ouncil of !inisters are collectively responsible to the 'ok Sabha "ortfolio system introduced in India through the Indian 2uncils #ct of %-:% Dyarchy was first introduced in provinces through 1EI #ct of %*%* 1EI #ct of %*6& introduced Dyarchy at center and abolished in provinces "ortuguese were the first to come to India and followed by Dutch, @nglish and =rench Indian =ederation is based on pattern of 2anada 'okpal bill %st introduced in the year %*: "!>2hairman for $ational "opulation commission, $ational Integration 2ouncil, $ational Jater 2ouncil, "lanning 2ommission and $ational Development 2ouncil $umber of seats>"arliamentG#ssembles free8ed up to the year 9.9: #genda 9% is the >programme of action for sustainable development at local, national and global level %96 #greement between 5S# and other countries with relation to nuclear cooperation (here are four main Islands in Japan 4okkaido, 4onshu, Shikoku and ?yushu (he one child policy in 2hina was established by 2hinese leader Deng Niaoping in the year %*+* B# 2abinet Secretary 'ooks BackC is written by B 1 Deshmukh a former cabinet secretary India has highest number of %($l ,$n,'( &$ti'nt. in the Jorld (he Red =ort is constructed with Sand stone )Sedimentary rock/

(he (aD !ahal is constructed with white !arble )!etamorphic rock/ Ene 1allon is e3ual to &< liters B1lobal 2risis Recession and RecoveryC book is written by H Venu 1opala Reddy (he biggest clock tower in the Jorld is present in !ecca )Saudi #rabia/ (he minimum amount that is re3uired to open Swiss account is %. lakh dollors )< & crores/

(he coldest natural temperature ever recorded on @arth was R-* 9 S2FR%9- : S= at the Russian Vostok Station in #ntarctica on 9% July %*-6

#le0ander 2unningham, the first Director 1eneral of the #rchaeological Survey of India

"akistan;s ISI )Inter Service Intelligence/ is the only spy agency in the Jorld charged with sponsoring international terrorism "akistan is the largest recipient of 5S aid (he Service (a0 in India was introduced in the year %**< (elecommunications, Stock Broking and 1eneral Insurance were the three areas where the Service ta0 was imposed first #t present )9.%%/ %%* items are under the ambit of Service (a0 # R Rahman was the first Indian to receive two Escar #wards (he first Indian woman to win individual medal in Elympics was ?aranam !allishwari )Jeight 'ifting/ (he (obacco smoke contains over four thousand )<.../ chemicals according to Jorld 4ealth Ergani8ation (he (obacco epidemic kills nearly : million people per year (he largest 5niversity in the Jorld is the Indira 1andhi 5niversity $ational Epen 5niversity in $ew Delhi (he 4ubble telescope: (his was put into space in %**. by $#S# (his is revolving around &:< km away from the earth (his uses the solar power (his is going to be decommissioned in 9.%6 James Jeb Space (elescope will replace 4ubble (elescope (he Institute of $ano Science and (echnology is located in !ohali $anotechnology is the study of matter at a miniature level called the nano scale # $ano meter is e3ual to one billionth of a meter (he $anotechnology facilitates research on particles less than one billionth of a meter in diameter and thus paves way to some ama8ing inventions and discoveries 2 $ R Rao is the 2hairman of the Scientific #dvisory 2ouncil to the "rime !inister Russell ;s viper is a viviparous reptile that litters its young ones (he other oviparous reptiles lay eggs !ithi river is a %- km long river in !umbai #rribada in Spanish means arrival of the Elive Ridley (urtles to lay their eggs In Indian region it transpires on three beaches along the coat of Erissa

Rushikulya is in Erissa (his is a place where the Elive Ridley (urtles lay eggs (housands of e0pectant mother turtles gather at one place during nights (he "ied 2uckoo;s breeding grounds are in #frica (his migrates to India only in the summer BeiDing 1enomics )2hina/ is the largest D$# research centre in the world @thiopia is the only #frican $ation that is independent for 9... )(wo (housand/ years # small "o0 case was seen in last in Somalia in the year %*++ In %*-. the J4E )Jorld 4ealth Ergani8ation/ declared that the Jorld and all its people have won freedom from small po0 (he term !onsoon was first used in @nglish in British India and the neighboring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Indian Ecean over the Bay of Bengal and the #rabian Sea South #sia;s largest Dail is (ihar Jail, located in $ew Delhi (he "rincess $ora bint #bdulrahman 5niversity is the world;s largest 5niversity for Jomen, located in Riyad, Saudi #rabia #pa Sherpa, a $epalese mountaineer has climbed !t @verest for 9% times )(his is a record/ =irst climbed in %**. and 9%st time in !ay 9.%% $epal is the only country in the Jorld that boasts a triangular flag (he "ygmy marmoset also called dwarf monkey is a new Jorld monkey, native to the rainforest canopies of western Bra8il 2olombia and other areas in South #merica (his is the smallest monkey In %-*6 !ahatma 1andhi was thrown out of a train in "ietermarit8burg in South #frica Jith this 1andhi launched his first Satyagraha (here are - "I$ code 8ones in India """ is "ublic>"rivate>"articipation: In this mode the government does not have to invest any money (he successful bidder will construct, maintain and share revenue with the government $itisataka was written by Bhartrihari % barrel is e3ual to %%+ 6<++:& liters % bale is e3ual to %+. kg % =athom is e3ual to % -9-- meters =DI )=oreign Direct Investment/ proposals are recommended by =I"B )=oreign Investment "romotion Board/ (he term of 5$ Secretary>1eneral is & years Silviculture: (he care and cultivation of forest trees In India the silver coins were used since :.. B2

In the year %-6& the British introduced similar currency throughout India (hese were the silver coins with the 3ueen Victoria figure In India the $ickel coins were introduced on #ugust %&, %*&. During the time of independence one rupee is e3ual to :< paisa Ene #na is e3ual to %F%:th of a rupee %, 9, &, %., 9., 9& and &. paisa was first minted in the year %*&+ (he Reserve Bank of India has banned all the coins below &. paisa periodically (hey were banned because of the cost of minting is more than the face value (he latest coin that was banned was 9& paisa )Since June 6., 9.%%/ (he 9& paisa is also called A2havanni; #t present the &. paisa coin is the lowest denomination in the country

2oins are minted at the four Indian 1overnment !ints at !umbai, #lipore)?olkata/, Saifabad)4yderabad/, 2herlapally )4yderabad/ and $EID# )5"/

(he coins up to &. paisa are called small coins (he coins above &. paisa are called rupee coins 5nder the coinage act of %*.: coins up to the denomination of Rs %... can be issued #mmonium $itrate is fre3uently used by the terror groups for making bombs Radio tag is a tag around ankle for electronic surveillance !alaria causing parasite was discovered by Sir Ronald Ross !ir !ahbub #li "asha )%-:* 7 %*%%/ the si0th $i8am centenary of his death was commemorated on #ugust 9*, 9.%% 4e contributed to infrastructure, irrigation, education and administrative reforms

Sheetal $iwas is the official residence of the "resident of $epal (he (elugu cinema industry will observe September %& as the (elugu 2inema day remembering the day in the year %*6%, when 4amumappa !uniappa Reddy produced and directed the first Atalkie; Bhakta "rahlada in (elugu B 4 Reddy worked as an assistant to #rdeshir Irani who created the first Indian talkie titled B#lam #raC

(he ViDayanagara emperor, Sri ?rishnadevaraya )%&.* 7 %&9*/ had won all the wars he waged over a span of %% years against his enemies

(he $alanda 5niversity was started during 1upta period )& B2/ (he original site is located at RaDgir, Bihar (he $alanda 5niversity was ransacked and destroyed by (urkish !uslim invaders under Bakhtiyar ?halDi in %%*6

(he "arliament has approved the $alanda 5niversity Bill 9.%. and the $alanda 5niversity will be set up at an appro0imate cost of %..& crore

Shakespeare;s last play was B(he (empestC %:%. R#D#R means Radio Detection and Ranging Radars are e0tensively used in air traffic control, air defense, astronomy, meteorology and many surveillance systems

2ellulose is a carbohydrate that cannot be digested in the human digestive system (est !atch tied: In the year %*:. the match that was held between #ustralia and Jest Indies at Brisbane was tied (his is the first tied match in the 4istory of test cricket (he second match that was tied in the year %*-: between #ustralia and India in 2hennai

!urrah breed cow is known as A"ride of 4aryana; (he longest canal in the country is the Indira Sagar 2anal (he length is :6& km

?erala is the first state in the country to switch over to e>payments of V#( In ##D4#R car there are %9 digits

2omputer A!ouse; was developed by Dr Douglas 2 #ngelbart Jhen the patent was taken the name was AN H "osition Indicator =or a Display System;

Vivek @0press is the longest train service in India It travels between Dibrugarh )#ssam/ and ?anya ?umari )(amil $adu/ (he train travels a distance of <9-: km in -9 6. hours (his is a weekly train starts on every Saturday and reaches the destination on Jednesday Before this, the 4imasagar e0press running between Jammu (awi and ?anyakumari had the longest run covering 6+%& km

(he vivek train from costs only Rs :+6 by 9nd class (he Vivek e0press has %- coaches and &9 stops

Wo(l"E. long'.t t($in .'(4i,'.+

!oscow to Vladivostok 7 Russia 7 *9&* km 7 %+- hrs !oscow to BeiDing via 4arbin )2hina/ 7 -*-< km 7 %<< hrs !oscow to BeiDing via 5lan Bator )!ongolia/ 7 +-9: km 7 %6% hrs 1uang8hou to 'hasa )2hina/ 7 <*-. km 7 &< & hrs (oronto )2anada/ to Vancouver )2anada/ 7 <<:: km 7 -: hrs Shanghai to 'hasa )2hina/ 7 <6+6 km 7 <- hrs

Sydney to "erth 7 <6&9 km 7 :& hrs Dibrugarh to ?anyakumari 7 <9-: km 7 -9 6. hrs

?erala is the longest run daily e0press with 6.&< km in <9 & hrs 4owrah 7 #mritsar e0press is the train with ma0imum halts with %%& 'ongest nonstop train (rivandrum RaDdhani e0press with &9- km in : & hrs BDr S!SC was launched by ?erala, this is an !)!obile/>4ealth information system Bar 2ouncil of India was set up in the year %*:% (his is a regulating body for the legal profession governed by the Indian #dvocates #ct BBuddhist 2ircuit (rainC is in operation since 9..+, stops along several pilgrimage sites in northern India (he <9nd I==I )International =ilm =estival of India/ has been launched in 1oa on $ovember 96, 9.%% @0otica: (hese are the rivers that flow in deserts Sindh and $ile rivers are the e0amples for @0otica rivers South #merica is called ABird 2ontinent; !e0ico is the leading producer of sulpher in the Jorld 2hile is the leading producer of $itrates in the Jorld (he original name of Josef Stalin is BIoseb Besarionis d8e JughashviliC (he meaning of Stalin is A!an of SteelC Stalin;s daughter, 'ana "eters original name was Svetlana Stalina #fter the death of the Stalin in %*&6 she took the mother;s last name #lliluyeva and she was called ASvetlana #lliluyeva; #fter her marring an #merican she became A'ana "eters; (he casting of (elevision first started in 5nited ?ingdom #lco meter: (his is a breath analy8er to check drunken driving A?ud8u; is a forest creeper in 5S# grows very rapidly and it covered over % & lakh acres in % T years A?ud8u; belongs to 2hina, grown in Japan and finally reached 5S

En December %9, %*%% ?ing 1eorge V announced at the 1reat 2oronation Durbar in Delhi: B Je have decided upon the transfer of the seat of the government of India from 2alcutta to the ancient capital of DelhiC (he $ew Delhi is the architectural brilliance of @dwin 'utyens and 4erbert Baker (he current monthly allowances given to the heroes of the war #ward "aram Vira 2hakra #soka 2hakra !aha Vira 2hakra ?irti 2hakra Vira 2hakra Shourya 2hakra > > > > > > 2urrent )Rs / %.,...F> :,...F> &,...F> <,&..F> 6,&..F> 6,...F> > > > > > > "revioulsy )Rs / 6,...F> 9,-.. 9,<..F> 9,%..F> %,+..F> %,&..F>

(he 1ateway of India )!umbai/ was built %.. years ago to commemorate the visit of ?ing 1eorge V and Kueen !ary prior to the Delhi Durbar (he foundation stone for 1ate Jay of India was laid down in !arch %*%% by the 1overnor of Bombay, Sir 1eorge Sydenham 2larke (he 1ate way was officially opened on December <, %*9< by the Viceroy the @arl of Reading (he !R2 )!adras Regiment 2entre/ is the oldest regiment in Indian #rmy It was raised on December <, %+&- at 2hennapatnam )2hennai/ (he !R2 was raised when 9 battalions were raised under 2olonel Robert 2live conse3uent to the siege of =ort St 1eorge by the =rench !adras troops fought in the battle of seringapatnam and battle of #ssaye under #rthur Jellington (he !R2 is the only regime that was not bifurcated after Indian attaining the independence (he (hilafushi, an artificial island in !aldives is nicknamed Rubbish Island )=or the accumulation of the garbage/ D$# )Deo0yribonucleic #cid/ is a molecular substance that contains basic genetic instructions responsible for the development and functioning of living organisms (he information held in the D$# determines how inherited features or traits are passed down from one generation to the other )(his is one of the most profound discoveries in 9.th century/ (he first metro rail in the Jorld started in 'ondon on January %., %-:6 (his owes its e0istence to 2harles "earson )Solicitor to the 2ity of 'ondon 2orporation/ (his measured : ?m and ran between "addington and =arringdon street (he first deep level (ube (rain that ran on electricity became operational in %-*. in 'ondon 'ondon underground today known as (ube $ew Hork;s first underground subsystem became operational in %*.<

In India the first underground rapid transport system started in %*-< in ?olkata (his is followed by Delhi metro in 9..9 and $amma !etro in Bangalore in Ectober 9.%% (he Delhi !etro is the only !etro to get 2arbon 2redits from the 5nited $ations for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping in reducing pollution levels in the city by : 6 lakh tones every year (he Shanghai !etro )2hina/ is the Jorld;s longest metro in the Jorld (he (okyo !etro is the busiest in terms of annual passengers (he 2hannel tunnel that links the 5? and =rance is the longest underwater rail tunnel in the Jorld It measures 6+ * km 2hina has over taken India as the BDiabetes 2apital; of the Jorld $ew Delhi is the first city in India to begin screening for the ASilent ?iller; 4epatitis 2 Rashtrapathi Bhavan: (his was built by the British #rchitect @dwin 'andseer 'utyens 4e mi0ed the Indian, !ughal and @uropean styles of architecture (he construction was started in the year %*%9 and completed in the year %*9* and in %*6% the Viceroy of India 'ord Irwin was the first occupant Initially it was called viceroy;s 4ouse In the year %*&. the name was changed to ARashtrapathi Bhavan; !arble 4all: the portraits and sculptures of various kings, 3ueens, viceroys, governor generals and other important personalities are displayed Durbar 4all: #lso known as (hrone room $ational #wards ceremony takes place here Ball Room: $ow it is called #soka room Defense gallantry awards ceremony takes place here Ban3uet 4all: (he portraits of all the "residents of India are placed here !ughal gardens: (his is %6 acre garden built in 6 levels In these lawns the "resident hosts the A#t 4ome; on the Indian Republic day and Independence Day 2hildren;s !useum: (he weighing machine gives the weight of the person on the !oon and every planet in the universe =S# )=inancial Services #uthority/ is the Britain;s financial regulator )(his is like S@BI in India/ (he first persons to reach South "ole successfully are Roald #mundsen;s and Robert Scott;s )** years ago/ (he first Indian e0pedition successfully reached the South "ole on $ovember 99, 9.%. (he team was led by Dr Rasik Ravindra, the Director of 1oa based $ational 2entre for #ntarctica and Ecean Research )$2#ER/ R#J )Research and #nalysis Jing/ is India;s e0ternal intelligence agency (his was formed in the year %*:+ IVRS means Interactive Voice Response System

#fter taking control over Daman and Diu on December %-, %*:% the Defence !inister !r V ? ?rishna !enon, has designated !aDor>1eneral ?enneth 2andeth, commanding the %+th division of the Indian #rmy in the 1oa operations )Eperation ViDay/ as the !ilitary 1overnor of 1oa ( B D;2unha is considered to be the A=ather of 1oa;s liberation movement; #rmy day 7 January %& 5S @mbassy in Ira3 is the largest #merican diplomatic facility in the Jorld It is elementary "hysics that when light falls on certain semiconducting material like silicon, its energy knocks off electrons of the atoms which can be made to flow and the flow is electricity Solar Industry: In the year 9..+ to put up % !J solar power plant, it cost Rs 9% crore $ow it costs less than Rs %. crore (here are 9 methods to produce power through solar system "anel way and !irror way 5nder the Jawaharlal $ehru $ational Solar !ission )one of the - mission covered under the $ational #ction "lan for 2limate 2hange/ the target is to creation of a capacity of 9., ... !J from the grid connected to solar plants and addition 9,... !J from non>grid #t present India is producing only %-: !J from the solar plants (his will increase to %6.. !J by the year 9.%6 India;s total capacity of power from all the sources is 9,.., ... )two lakh/ !J $avarasas are the * basic emotions #ngry, Disgust, =ear, 4umor, 'ove, !ercy, "eace, Valour and Jonder (he study of =ungi is called !ycology Kueen @li8abeth II is the oldest living monarch of 5nited ?ingdom She surpassed the record of Kueen Victoria in the year 9..+ 2yclones are called AJilly>Jillies; by #ustralians ANoloit8cuintle; is a rare hairless dog J#" stands for Jide #2 "assenger (his is written on the rail locomotives (he A"apier mache; is an art that is introduced in India by the !ughals (his is a paper art (he =rench is the first @uropean country to learn this art (he craftsmen of ?ashmir are the first to learn this Bone to Bone connection is called 'igament En December 9., %*:% the commercial operation of the cross channel power link between Britain and =rance was inaugurated # power cable was laid on the sea bed (his enabled Britain and =rance to draw on each other;s electricity supplies at periods of peak demands (he paper industry that manufactures the paper for the printing of currency notes is located in 4oshangabad (he RBI is planning to set up another industry in !ysore !inorities: (his is mentioned in the $ational !inority 2ommission #ct, %**9 !uslims, Sikhs, 2hristians, Buddhists and Loroastrians were included in the act as minorities #le0ander 1raham Bell made the first telephone call on !arch %., %-+: to Jatson and re3uested for medical aid

@very :th human and every &th mobile phone on this planet is in India Johannes 1utenberg invented the movable type for a printing press around %<6* $omophobia: (his is an abbreviation for no>mobile>phone>phobia (his term was coined during a study conducted by the 5 ? "ost Effice Indians contributed decimal system and Lero ?arnataka is the first state in the country to introduce 9 budgets 1eneral budget and agriculture budget )(his happened in the year 9.%%/ SBI is the first bank in the country to introduce ABank on BikeC facilities (his is meant for providing the banking services to the people in the rural areas (his was initiated in the Sangaraddy mandal of !edak district in #ndhra "radesh (he !inimum wage in India is Rs %..F> In #pril 9.%% the government increased the same to Rs %%&F> =or the year 9.%%>%9 the !S" )!inimum Support "rice/ to the "addy has been increased from Rs %...F> to Rs %.-.F> for normal grade and from Rs %.6.F> to Rs %%%.F> from grade A#; type (he government has banned the e0port of rice in the year 9..- In July 9.%% the government lifted the ban rice )this does not include Basmati/ =or the year 9.%. 7 9.%% )July to June/ the total production of the food grains is 9< %: crore tonnes (his is a new record in the country In #ugust 9.%% the RBI decided to withdraw Ni,)'l &. paisa and Rs %F> coins from the market and to issue steel coins of the same =rom July %, 9.%% the RBI banned the usage of 9& paisa coins #lbert @instein is considered to be the founder of !odern "hysics, he developed the theory of general relativity (he (ravancore 5niversity )now called 5niversity of ?erala/ was set up in the year %*6+ (he fledgling university offered @instein the post of Vice>2hancellor who reDected politely BDandanitiC means a legitimate use of violence I1$E5 )Indira 1andhi $ational Epen 5niversity/ locate in $ew Delhi, is the largest university in the Jorld ?alki is the %.th avatar of 'ord Vishnu sitting on white horse J62 stands for Jorld Jide Jeb 2onsortium $epal is the only country in the Jorld with $ational =lag that is taller than wider "aram Vir 2hakra is the Indian e3uivalent of "akistan;s A$ishsn>e>4aideer; En December 9*, 9.%% ASamoa; the South pacific Island that was 9% hours behind Sydney became 6 hours ahead )#part from ASamoa;, A(okelau; a non>self>governing territory of $ew Lealand that also skipped December 6. because of the changes in the time 8one alignment/

AJude; the apostle )disciple/ of Jesus was also known as A(haddeus; !ahatma 1andhi performed his last hunger strike on January %9, %*<- for the integrity of 4indus and !uslims In the manufacturing of tires charcoal powder is mi0ed to avoid more elasticity (his also helps in the more stiffness of the tires ?>2omputer is designed and developed by Japan (his is considered to be the fastest computer in the Jorld 5day ?umar designed the new symbol of Rupee for India (he government of India is planning to set up 9,&.. model schools in the country during %9th five year plan 2hennai beach is the longest beach in the country (he supreme court of India constituted SI( )Special Investigation (eam/ to investigate on black money (he SI( is headed by Justice B " Jeevan Reddy Scotland of @ast: Shillong )!eghalaya/ is called Scotland of @ast #n #ir craft is e3uipped with tricycle under carriage type landing gear front or nose wheels and rear wheels (he airplane lands first on rear wheels and not on front or nose wheels (he center of the gravity present of the plane lied somewhere in the middle of the fuselage which is close to the rear wheels (he 'ords cricket ground in 5? is named after the famous cricketer (homas 'ord # 1iraffe sleeps only %. minutes a day
"olio:

(he year 9... was the target date for global eradication of set by Jorld 4ealth #ssembly in the year

%*- Ef the 6 types of polio viruses type 9 was globally eradicated in the year %*** with the last case seen in @ast 5" and Jest Bihar Beyond 9..& the polio virus continued in < countries India, "akistan, #fghanistan and $igeria In India over *& percent of cases occurred in 5" and Bihar arguably the Jorld;s most difficult spots for eradication (he preventive methods are I"V )Inactivated "olio Virus Vaccine/ and E"V )Eral "oliovirus vaccine/ (he E"V is cheaper India started battle against polio virus in late %*+.;s In %*-& India became a part of the global programme (he ""I )"ulse "olio Initiative/ in India was launched in the year %**&>*: through E"V (his is given on 9 days, one each in December and January (he ""I target was the year 9..& India spent more than %9,... crore on ""I Elive Ridley (urtles: (hey are present in the Rushikulya roorkey caost in 1anDam district of South Edisha "urusharthas: In Vedas there is information about how to lead a purposeful life and accomplishment of one;s goals (hese goals are collectively known as "urusharthas (hese are broadly classified into Dharma )righteous living/, artha )material possessions/, ?ama )sense pleasures for enDoyment and happiness/ and !oksha )liberation/

RBI has informed that the average life of a Rs %. denomination bank note is about *>%. months and its average cost of printing is *: paise per piece (he cost of minting Rs %. coin is Rs : %.