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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

Guided By Mr. Vijay Chavada

Submitted By Patel Krushant R. 07-EC-0 !V Sem "EC-#$

%.&.R.P. ' !.(.R) G#*&+!*#G#R

07-EC-044

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

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! ta.e this /00/rtunity t/ than. /ur res0e1ted MR. V!2#3 C+#V#&# 4ith/ut 4h/se su00/rt and en1/ura5ement) this 0a0er 1/uld n/t have been 1/m0leted. ! als/ ta.e this /00/rtunity t/ than. t/ /ur /ther 6a1ulty members and 6riends 4h/ have hel0ed me in 5atherin5 and /r5ani7in5 the re8uired in6/rmati/n.

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

To make a satellite phone call today f om a location that does not offe te est ial !i e line o !i eless co"e a#e e$ui es the use of a la #e% costly te minal% and entails "e y hi#h pe minute cha #es& 'u the % the $uality of se "ice is elati"ely poo because of annoyin# echoes% la #e t ansmission delays% o"e talk associated !ith satellite communications usin# #eostationa y satellites&

The e is a t end fo mobile satellite system a chitectu es aimed at the deployment of multi-satellite constellations in (on-Geostationa y Ea th ) bits& This allo!s the use te minals to be small si*e% lo! cost and ha"in# lo! po!e demand& +n p esent and ne,t #ene ation satellite systems% C-M. has been p oposed as the multiple access techni$ue fo a numbe of mobile satellite communication systems& To enhance the co"e a#e and $uality of se "ice% /o! Ea th ) bitin# 0/E)1 constellations a e usually selected& 2e e% !e analy*e the pe fo mance of the do!nlink of a /E) satellite channel& The p o"ision of such a se "ice e$ui es that the use ha"e sufficient link $uality fo the du ation of se "ice& To ha"e sufficient link $uality% the use must ha"e an ade$uate po!e to o"e come the path loss and othe physical impai ments to p o"ide acceptable communication and imp o"e the pe fo mance of the system& Thus% in many pa ts of the !o ld% the demand fo communications mobility can be met effecti"ely only th ou#h #lobal mobile satellite se "ices& 2andheld satellite phones a e the efo e fo ecast as the eme #in# mobile communications f ontie !ith # o!th that could pa allel ecent # o!th in cellula mobile indust y& +n o de to #ua antee the se "ice $uality and eliability fo mobile satellite communication systems% !e ha"e to take into account outa#es due to obst uction of the line-of-si#ht path bet!een a satellite and a mobile te minal as !ell as the si#nal fluctuation caused by inte fe ence f om multipath adio !a"es& Thus% !e need a #ood cha acte i*ation fo the satellite p opa#ation channel& +t is commonly accepted that satellite communications systems 0in pa ticula % lo! ea th o bit /E) systems1 a e the de facto solution fo p o"idin# the eal pe sonal communications se "ices 03CS4s1 to the use s eithe stationa y o on the mo"e any!he e% anytime and in any fo mat 0"oice% data% and multimedia1& The satellite se#ment is a net!o k of GE) o /E) satellites a an#ed in o bital planes 0i&e& diffe ent pa ts of the sky1 in such a !ay that they ha"e a communications link !ith enduse e$uipment% # ound #ate!ays and othe satellites& The #ate!ay connects the satellites to the local telephone net!o k& The #ate!ay also t ansmits si#nals to the satellites and ecei"es t ansmission f om the satellites& -ue to the hi#h mobility of lo! ea th o bit 0/E)1 satellites% the e is a si#nificant numbe of hando"e attempts in a /E)-based mobile satellite communication system% causin# a hi#h hando"e failu e ate& This pape p oposes to e,tend the pe iod of !hich a hando"e e$uest is "alid% and thus ende in# hi#he p obability of successful hando"e & Satellite communication se "ice can be p o"ided by #eostationa y ea th o bit 0GE)1% medium ea th o bit 0ME)1 o lo! ea th o bit 0/E)1 satellites& 5ecause of its much sho te distance f om ea th% lo!e po!e e$ui ement and thus smalle mobile te minal 0MT1 si*e% 07-EC-044 6

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication /E) satellite system is a p efe able choice& -iffe ences bet!een satellite and te est ial systems e,ist in spite of common ob7ecti"es fo hi#h $uality se "ices and e,cellent spect um efficiency& Some diffe ences a ise because8- use costs a e closely elated to satellite t ansmit po!e the satellite p opa#ation channel is hi#hly p edictable satellite paths int oduce si#nificant p opa#ation delays and -opple shifts f e$uency co-o dination has to be on a #lobal basis f e$uency e-use options a e mo e limited% hence band!idth is a ti#ht const aint satellite beam shapin# and si*in# oppo tunities a e limited& The most si#nificant att ibute of any satellite communication system is the !ide a ea co"e a#e that can be p o"ided !ith "e y hi#h #ua antees of a"ailability and consistency of se "ice& Satellite communication systems a e desi#ned to p o"ide "oice% data% fa,% pa#in#% "ideo confe encin# and inte net se "ices to use s !o ld!ide& Th ou#h satellite based systems% use s !ill be able to make a phone call f om an .f ican safa i o !hile sailin# a ound the !o ld& (o matte !he e use s a e% they !ill be able to communicate !ith clients% custome s% associates% f iends% and family any!he e in the !o ld& +n addition% satellite communications !ill allo! count ies to p o"ide phone se "ices !ithout la #e in"estments in landline o !i eless systems& Satellite communications !ill be one of the fastest # o!in# a eas !ithin the communications indust y&

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

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07-EC-044

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

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To make a satellite phone call today f om a location that does not offe te est ial !i eline o !i eless co"e a#e e$ui es the use of a la #e% costly te minal% and entails "e y hi#h pe minute cha #es& 'u the % the $uality of se "ice is elati"ely poo because of annoyin# echoes% la #e t ansmission delays% o"e talk associated !ith satellite communications usin# #eostationa y satellites& The ne,t #ene ation of satellite communication systems !ill use ad"ances in satellite systems% !i eless technolo#ies% and miniatu i*ation% to p o"ide #lobal mobile satellite se "ices that !ill make calls bet!een any t!o locations on ea th much easie % much mo e affo dable and much mo e use f iendly& E"en in the yea 2000% the te est ial cellula co"e a#e is a"ailable to less than C0F of the !o ld4s population and only about 1@F of the ea th4s total su face& Mo e than 6 billion of the !o ld4s population ha"e no phone se "ice& The !aitin# list of landline telephone se "ice has o"e @0 million names !ith the a"e a#e !ait # eate than 1&@ yea s& 9u al a eas% e#ions% that a e spa sely populated in de"eloped count ies and la #e pa ts of the de"elopin# !o ld a e destined to be unde se "ed o to emain out of each of te est ial mobile se "ices alto#ethe & Thus% in many pa ts of the !o ld% the demand fo communications mobility can be met effecti"ely only th ou#h #lobal mobile satellite se "ices& 2andheld satellite phones a e the efo e fo ecast as the eme #in# mobile communications f ontie !ith # o!th that could pa allel ecent # o!th in cellula mobile indust y& 9e#a dless of ho! you look at the numbe s% the e is a si#nificant amount of people !ithout phone se "ice th ou#hout the !o ld& Mobile Satellite communication se "ices !ill sol"e the need of !o ld!ide t a"ele s and p o"ide phone se "ices to many a eas of the !o ld that cu ently do not ha"e phone se "ice& The eme #in# ne,t #ene atin# mobile systems a e #ene ally efe ed as GM3CS% fo Global Mobile 3e sonal Communication by Satellites& :ntil no! Communication Satellites ha"e ope ated usin# Geo-Statione y ) bits 0GE)1% lyin# abo"e 6C%000 kilomete s abo"e the ea th4s su face& ' om this ) bit the satellite appea s to be statione y 0fi,ed1 abo"e a specific location f om ea th% the eby ensu in# continuous% uninte upted co"e a#e to that location& The p ima y ole of a #eostationa y communications satellite is to act as a !i eless epeate station in space that ope ates in a b oadcast mode and p o"ides a mic o!a"e link bet!een t!o emote locations on ea th& The key components of a communication satellite include "a ious t ansponde s% t anscei"e s% and antennas that a e tuned to the allocated f e$uency channels& .lthou#h the Geostationa y Satellites ha"e a la #e footp int% so that the enti e su face of the ea th can be co"e ed by fe! such satellites% thei hi#h altitude leads to "e y lon# oundt ip si#nal delays and esultant de# adation in se "ice $uality& The e is a t end fo mobile satellite system a chitectu es aimed at the deployment of multi-satellite constellations in (on-Geostationa y Ea th ) bits 0(GE)s1&This allo!s the use te minals to be small si*e% lo! cost and ha"in# lo! po!e demand&To enhance the co"e a#e and $uality of se "ice% /o! Ea th ) bitin# 0/E)1 constellations a e usually selected& To suppo ts a !ide an#e of se "ices and to p o"ide supe io se "ice $uality compa able to that a"ailable f om te est ial !i eless and !i eline net!o ks% constellations of satellites ope atin# in /o! Ea th ) bits 0/E)1 o Medium Ea th ) bits 0ME)1 a e conside ed mo e suitable& 07-EC-044 C

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication . numbe of "a ious #lobal mobile satellite communications systems ha"e al eady been in de"elopment sta#es& >ith the fi st #lobal mobile satellite se "ices initiated in 1DD?& The fou such systems that a e in ad"anced sta#es of plannin# o ea ly implementations a e + idium% Globalsta % +C) and Teledesic& The e a of satellite-based mobile communications systems sta ted !ith the fi st M.9+S.T satellite !hich !as launched into a #eostationa y o bit o"e the 3acific )cean in 1D7C to p o"ide communications bet!een ships and sho e stations& The combination of hi#h cost and unacceptably la #e e$uipment has kept mobile satellite communications 0MSC1 systems f om appealin# to the !ide ma ket of pe sonal mobile communications& 2o!e"e % the p o# ess made o"e the last ten yea s in di#ital "oice p ocessin#% satellite technolo#y% and component miniatu i*ation has esulted in the "iability of MSC systems in espondin# to the # o!in# ma ket in pe sonal mobile Communications&The system a chitectu es of each system a e p esented alon# !ith a desc iption of the satellite and use handset desi#ns% the multi-access techni$ues employed% and an analysis of thei especti"e cost st uctu es&+t is concluded that the technical feasibility of satellite-based mobile communications systems seems to be secu e& +t !ill be challen#in# ho!e"e % fo the "endo s to actually de"elop and deploy these systems in a cost effecti"e% timely% and eliable !ay that meets a continually e"ol"in# set of e$ui ements d i"en by use e,pectations fueled by a apidly chan#in# technolo#y base& +n o de to #ua antee the se "ice $uality and eliability fo mobile satellite communication systems% !e ha"e to take into account outa#es due to obst uction of the line-of-si#ht path bet!een a satellite and a mobile te minal as !ell as the si#nal fluctuation caused by inte fe ence f om multipath adio !a"es& Thus% !e need a #ood cha acte i*ation fo the satellite p opa#ation channel& +t is commonly accepted that satellite communications systems 0in pa ticula %lo! ea th o bit /E) systems1 a e the de facto solution fo p o"idin# the eal pe sonal communications se "ices 03CS4s1 to the use s eithe stationa y o on the mo"e any!he e% anytime and in any fo mat 0"oice% data%and multimedia1&Satellite communication systems ha"e p o"ided inte national telecommunications se "ices since the 1DC04s& These systems !e e au#mented in the 1D704s and 1D?04s !ith e#ional satellite systems% national systems% and p i"ate net!o kbased "e y small ape tu e te minals 0AS.T4s1& Th ou#hout this pe iod% systems ha"e been based e,clusi"ely on satellites in #eosynch onous o bit communicatin# !ith ea th stations usin# hi#h #ain fi,ed antennas& .s the systems ha"e e"ol"ed% the o i#inal 60-mdiamete +ntelsat ea th stations ha"e e"ol"ed into 1&2-m -band AS.T4s fo business and home TA usa#e% but the basic system a chitectu e e,plainin# a #eosynch onous spacec aft has not chan#ed du in# this pe iod& >ith the launch of the fi st + idium spacec aft in 1DD7 and 1DD?% a si#nificant ne! a chitectu e has been int oduced into the field of satellite communications& These systems a e based upon the use of /E) and medium ea th o bitin# 0ME)1 systems& hese /E) and ME) systems ha"e se"e al ad"anta#es o"e #eosynch onous systems& The most si#nificant ad"anta#es a e8 11 The eduction in an#e p o"ides a la #e dec ease in path loss esultin# in much small ecei"in# antennas and

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication 21 The eduction in an#e p o"ides a si#nificant eduction in p opa#ation delay makin# "oice con"e sation mo e pleasin# to the use and inc easin# the th ou#hput of most data communication p otocols& These systems can and !ill se "e mobile and po table use s >ith small nea omni antennas& 2o!e"e % the use of the small antennas as !ell as the motion of the t ansmitte and the ecei"e int oduces the possibility of multipath and path blocka#e into the link bud#et of these satellite systems& Mo eo"e % the p opa#ation channel !ill be time "a yin# due to diffe ent shado!in# and scatte in# phenomena% so t aditional channel models may not !o k !ell&This is conce ned !ith the statistical modelin# of the p opa#ation cha acte istics of /E) and ME) systems& Since in these systems% satellites and mobile use s a e all allo!ed to mo"e du in# communication sessions% the channel cha acte istics !ill be diffe ent f om the #eostationa y systems 0GE)4s1& -ue to the mo"ement of ecei"e s o t ansmitte s% the ecei"ed si#nals may fluctuate "e y apidly f om time to time& This fluctuation esults f om the combinin# effects of andom multipath si#nals and obst uction of the line-of-si#ht path% !hich induces "a ious fadin# phenomena& The communication $uality of se "ice0<oS1 pa amete s such as the !o d-e o ate !ill be affected in # eat deal in such communication en"i onment& 'o effecti"e mobile satellite communications system desi#n% !e must $uantitati"ely kno! the p opa#ation cha acte istics such as si#nal fadin# due to eflectionG shado!in# f om t ees% buildin#s%utility poles% and te ainG -opple effects due to mo"ement of mobile te minals% mobile satellites% o the communication effectsG and othe effects such as the ainfall& Such cha acte istics can be studied by the statistical dist ibution of the ecei"ed si#nal en"elope o ecei"ed po!e in mobile communication systems&

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

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>. M/bile Satellite C/mmuni1ati/n System by the Ge/stati/nary Satellite
The #eostationa y satellite is the a tificial satellite !hich looks stationa y f om the # ound& 6-4 #eostationa y satellites can co"e almost the enti e su face of the ea th& Most of the a tificial satellites actually used fo communications o b oadcastin# a e #eostationa y satellites&

i& .ltitude8 about 6C%000km ii& ) bit8 the ci cle o bit cycle on the e$uato is the same as the ea thHs auto otation time& iii& (umbe of Satellites8 fou 0se "ice a eas a e duplicated&1 i"& 3 inciple Satellite System8 +nma sat Communication System% (-ST.9 Communication System% )munit ucks Communication System

;. M/bile Satellite C/mmuni1ati/n System by the ?uasi-@enith Satellite


The $uasi-*enith satellite is an a tificial satellite of the satellite system !he e one satellite al!ays stays nea the *enith in Iapan by positionin# at least th ee satellites synch onously on the o bit inclined at 4@ de# ees f om the #eostationa y o bit& .s the # ound su face o bit d a!s the shape of numbe ?% itHs also called J(umbe ? ) bit SatelliteJ& +t can obtain a hi#h ele"ation an#le to educe the influence of buildin#s and so fo th 0blockin#&1

i& .ltitude8 about 6C%000km ii& ) bit8 ci cle o bit c ossin# !ith the e$uato by the an#le of 4@ de# ees iii& 6 as the minimum i"& The esea ch and de"elopment of the satellite communication system is in p o# ess

A. M/bile Satellite C/mmuni1ati/n System by the */n-Ge/stati/nary Satellite


This is ou#hly di"ided into th ee kinds of o bits8 hi#hly elliptic o bit% medium ea th o bit% and lo! ea th o bit& The medium and lo! ea th o bits ha"e lo!e satellite altitudes to sho ten the adio t ansmission delay% enablin# mo e speedy and smooth communication& Specifically% the hi#hly elliptic o bit can obtain a hi#he ele"ation an#le& +t is cu ently bein# esea ched and de"eloped&

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

i. +i5hly Elli0ti1 ,rbit "+E,$ 1& 2& 6& 4& .ltitude8 about 40%000km ) bit8 about @-C hou s (umbe of Satellites8 2-6 as the minimum The system plannin# is in p o# ess&

ii. Medium Earth ,rbit "ME,$ 1& 2& 6& 4& .ltitude8 se"e al thousand - 20%000km 0about 10%000km1 ) bit8 about @-C hou s (umbe of Satellites8 ?-10 0fo the enti e !o ld1 The system plannin# is in p o# ess&

iii. %/4 Earth ,rbit "%E,$ 1& 2& 6& 4& .ltitude8 @00km - se"e al thousand km 0about 1%000km1 ) bit8 about @-C hou s (umbe of Satellites8 se"e al do*en 0fo the enti e !o ld1 3 inciple Satellite System8 Globalsta Mobile Satellite Communication System% ) bcomm Mobile Satellite Communication System 0+9+-+:M Mobile Satellite System 0abolished11

Satellites in GSO
GS) satellites o bit the Ea th in the e$uato ial plane !ith the same an#ula "elocity as the Ea th at a hei#ht of about 6C 000 km abo"e the e$uato & Geostationa y satellites the efo e appea stationa y to an ea th-bound obse "e and a sin#le satellite can p o"ide continuous se "ice to ou#hly one thi d of the Ea thHs su face 0but e,cludin# pola e#ions abo"e K 7@ de# ees of latitude1& The ma,imum distance the satellite can JseeJ on the Ea thHs su face is about 42 000 km and means the p opa#ation delay fo a sin#le hop "ia the satellite 0once up and do!n1 can be up to 2?0 ms& Geostationa y satellites also mo"e about thei nominal positions causin# a small but noticeable -opple shift on both the feede and mobile links&'o pe sonal and "ehicle te minals% hando"e du in# a call bet!een GS) satellites is unnecessa y because the co"e a#e is static and !ide& 2o!e"e hando"e mi#ht be contemplated fo ai c aft te minals bet!een diffe ent spot beams of the same satellite& +n the latte case the e is p actically no diffe ence in path len#th to conside & >ithin Eu ope% GS) satellites appea at lo! ele"ation an#les& 'o the #eo# aphical latitude of @0L(o th 0e&#&/u,embou #1% the satellites each app o,imately 61L ele"ation as a ma,imum !hen the satellite is due South8 eithe East o >est of this position the ele"ation slo!ly educes& ' e$uent blockin# of the line-of-si#ht si#nal the efo e occu s f om t ees% buildin#s and hills& GS) satellites can !o k in such a shado!ed en"i onment but the satellite E$ui"alent +sot opic 9adiated 3o!e 0E+931 !ould ha"e to be inc eased by 1@ d5 to 20 d5 o mo e dependin# on the co"e a#e e$ui ed&This could be achie"ed but has a 07-EC-044 10

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication se ious impact on the si*e and cost of the satellite& +n addition% assumin# that the mobile E+93 is limited% the satellite ecei"e sensiti"ity also has to inc ease and this can only be done !ith "e y la #e spacec aft dish antennas& 'o this eason% only "e y lo! bit ate se "ices 0i&e& pa#in#% ale tin#% etc&1 mi#ht be "iable unde such ci cumstances until the use mo"es to a mo e fa"ou able position to ecei"e a "oice call&

Satellites in HEO
Satellites in 2E) constellations o bit the Ea th in planes that a e inclined nominally C6%4L a#ainst the e$uato ial plane&This is necessa y in o de to keep the apo#ees in the most no the n 0southe n1 positions !ithin thei elliptical o bits&Typically 2E) o bital pe iods a e bet!een ? and 24 hou s& 2E) satellites a e no mally acti"e only about thei apo#ees !he e they appea nea ly stationa y to an ea th obse "e fo about ei#ht hou s% and then ha"e to hand o"e to a follo!in# satellite&The satellites belon#in# to one pa ticula system appea in time shift in the same celestial e#ion& +n the 2E) t ack is sketched in p ofile sho!in# at e"e y point the t ue distance to the Ea thHs su face& +n this specially depicted case% the o bital pe iod is 12 hou s and the satellites appea alte nati"ely at the opposite sides of the otatin# #lobe& The efo e the illust ated 2E) t ack eaches a ma,imum hei#ht at both ends abo"e the #eo# aphical latitude of C6%4L (o th& .t both uppe ends 0solid line1% the satellite payloads a e acti"e& The dotted line constitutes the pa t !he e the satellite payloads a e 0typically1 s!itched off& 'o compa ison% see fi#u e 2% !he e t!o 2E) loops a e indicated co espondin# to the t!o ends in p ofile in fi#u e 1&:nde the abo"e conditions% the 2E) apo#ee 0ma,imum hei#ht abo"e the Ea thHs su face1 can be up to 42 000 km&2o!e"e the ma,imum an#e to the Ea thHs su face is in the o de of 47 000 km esultin# in a ma,imum p opa#ation delay of the o de of 610 ms& 2E) satellites each hi#h elati"e speeds du in# thei acti"e phase 0o de of ma#nitude82 kmMs1% so that the -opple shift 01&6 , 10-@ of adio f e$uency and bit ate1 cannot be ne#lected8 the adio f e$uency shift is mainly due to the mic o!a"e feede link and is of the o de of @0 k2* fo C-band feede links& The satellite motion is mainly adial elati"e to the use community% so that common compensation of the -opple main component is feasible&+ especti"e of any use oamin#% 2E) systems e$ui e hando"e f om the descendin# to the ascendin# satellite typically e"e y ei#ht hou s& -ependin# on the specific system desi#n% the distance to the t!o satellites at hando"e could be si#nificant and a 7ump in path len#th cannot be e,cluded& 2o!e"e % a la #e -opple 7ump !ill al!ays happen&>ithin Eu ope 2E) satellites can appea nea the *enith& The efo e the use can !o k unde "e tical line-ofsi#ht condition fo most of the time% !ith blocka#e only bein# e,pe ienced in tunnels o unde b id#es% t ees% etc& 2o!e"e "e tical p opa#ation is not "e y #ood !ithin multi-sto ey buildin#s and hence pa#in#% ale tin#% etc& may not be satisfacto y& 5ecause "e tical p opa#ation can be in p inciple multipath-f ee% hi#h data ate se "ices a e possible fo outdoo ope ation&. numbe of 2E) o bits ha"e been studied e,tensi"ely and #i"en names such as JMolnyaJ% JTund aJ% and J/oopusJ&

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

Satellites in MEO
ME) satellites a e in p inciple the same as /E) satellites& The diffe ences a e that ME) systems cause mo e p opa#ation delay 0?0 ms to 120 ms1% thei -opple shift is smalle % and hando"e happens less f e$uently and is less p oblematic& ME)s also need to !o k in a multipath en"i onment as the numbe of satellites is usually smalle than fo /E) but the a"e a#e ma #ins can be lo!e since many calls !ill be at a continuously hi#h ele"ation an#le&The typical ME) altitude is bet!een 10 000 km and 20 000 km% 7ust outside the Aan .llen belts !ith an o bital pe iod of a ound C to 12 hou s& . complete ME) constellation !ould p obably e$ui e bet!een 10 to 1@ satellites& ME) satellites a e used to p o"ide cu ent #lobal adio na"i#ation se "ices and a e optimum fo such se "ices&

Satellites in LEO
/E)s a e typically ci cula o bits !he e satellites fly lo! abo"e the Ea thHs atmosphe e typically 700 to 1 @00 km% bounded by oute atmosphe ic d a# and the Aan .llen adiation belts !ith an o bit time of about D0 minutes& 'o o bits nea 1 @00 km% inclinations nea @0 de# ees educe the isk of deb is collisions& >he eas pola o bits p o"ide a !hole Ea th co"e a#e includin# the poles themsel"es% inclined o bits can p o"ide imp o"ed co"e a#e o"e the populated a eas located bet!een latitudes -7@ to N7@ de# ees& )ne p oposed system is kno!n to stay 700 km abo"e the su face 0see fi#u e 1G /E)1 !he e the co"e a#e a ea at any point in time may measu e up to 6 000 km in adius fo about 10 de# ee ele"ation& This implies a ma,imum p opa#ation delay of 20 ms and !hile hi#he altitude /E) systems !ould ha"e hi#he p opa#ation delays% they !ill ne"e app oach the "alues associated !ith GS) o 2E) systems fo a sin#le satellite hop& 2o!e"e % on-boa d p ocessin# and +nte -Satellite /inks 0+S/1 can inc ease delays conside ably&/E) satellites mo"e at "e y hi#h speeds elati"e to the Ea thHs su face 07 kmMs1 and p oduce la #e -opple f e$uency shifts 04%7,10-@ of adio f e$uency and bit ate1& .s the "elocity is tan#ential to the Ea th% -opple compensation may need to be applied indi"idually fo each use &/E) systems% in common !ith 2E) systems% also e$ui e to hando"e bet!een ad7acent satellites% but at a much mo e f e$uent ate of about ten minutes& .lthou#h the t!o /E) satellites a e !idely spaced% the indi"idual path len#ths can be simila and it is possible to minimise any path len#th 7ump& 2o!e"e % the -opple shift 7ump !ill still al!ays happen& .s /E) satellites o bit "e y close to Ea th% they can be conside ed as mo"in# base stations& 'o the use the satellites appea most of the time belo! 60 de# ee ele"ation& The efo e /E) satellites !o k much of the time in a multipath en"i onment& The additional satellite E+93 and ecei"e sensiti"ity to compensate fo multipath losses a e achie"ed !itha much smalle antenna on a /E) spacec aft 0compa ed to GS)1 because of the much sho te an#e 0 ou#hly 1M12th1& -i"e sity techni$ues may offset some of these multipath effects&The total numbe of satellites e$ui ed to #i"e total #lobal co"e a#e depends on many facto s includin# $uality of se "ice and system capacity but the total could be as hi#h as 70& /o!e numbe s a e possible usin# special o bits o by usin# a mi,tu e of /E) and GS) 0fo e,ample1& The cost fo la #e numbe s of /E) satellites is offset to some e,tent by thei lo!e comple,ity and easie launch e$ui ements& 2o!e"e thei o bital life tends to be half that of typical 07-EC-044 12

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication GS) satellites 010 - 16 yea s1& .nothe facto in /E) desi#n is the e$ui ed batte y capacity and sola panel si*e to allo! ope ation fo nea ly @0F of time in eclipse&

A. S,ME %E, S#(E%%!(E S3S(EM


1. THE IRIDIUM SYSTEM
The + idium System is not p oposed to be a eplacement fo e,istin# te est ial cellula systems% but athe as an e,tension of e,istin# !i eless systems to p o"ide mobile se "ices to emote and spa sely populated a eas that a e not co"e ed by te est ial cellula se "ices& +t p o"ides mo e capacity 0la #e no of channels1 and bette $uality of se "ice 0sho te t ansmission delays1 to a eas that cu ently ecei"e mobile se "ices f om #eostationa y satellites& +t can also p o"ide eme #ency se "ice in the e"ent that te est ial cellula se "ices a e disabled in disaste situations0ea th$uakes%fi es%floods%etc&1& The concept of usin# a constellation of lo! ea th o bit satellites to p o"ide #lobal telecommunication se "ices to mobile use s& 5ecause the initial p oposal called fo 77 satellites in the constellation% the system !as called +9+-+:M afte the element% !hich has 77 elect ons in its o bit&late studies indicated that only CC satellite !ould be ade$uate to p o"ide the ta #eted se "ices and pe fo mance& The CC satellites a e a e # ouped in si, o bital planesG the e a e 11 acti"e satellites in each plane !ith unifo m nominal spacin# of 62&7O& the satellites ha"e ci cula o bits at an altitude of 7?6 km% and fo each plane an ino bit satellite is p o"ided& Satellites in one plane a e placed to t a"el out of phase !ith those in the ad7acent planes& E,cept fo the fi st and last planes% !hich a e counte otatin# !he e they a e ad7acent% all emainin# planes a e co otatin#% The distance bet!een co otatin# planes is 61&C% and the distance bet!een the counte otatin# planes is 22& The educed sepe ation bet!een counte otatin# planes is needed to compensate fo the educed co"e a#e p o"ided by satellites on counte otatin# planes& +n the + idium system% each satellite is e$uipped !ith fou t!o-!ay communication links0inte satellite links% o +S/s1% one each !ith its nei#hbo s in the same plane and !ith those in the ad7acent planes& Each + idium satellite uses a 4?-beam antenna patte n% and each beam% !hich has a minimum diamete of C00 km% can be indi"idually s!itched& 'o e,ample% only about t!othi ds of the beams !ill be acti"e at any #i"en time because some the beams !ill be s!itched off !hen the satellites a e in the "icinity of the poles% !he e beam patte ns tend to o"e lap% o !hen the satellites a e o"e count ies o e#ions in !hich% + idium does not ha"e e#ulato y a an#ements to ope ate& The s!itched of beams is efe ed a cell mana#ement& +n a /E)-based system like + idium% the beams a e e$ui"alent to cells associated !ith te est ial mobile systems& 2o!e"e % in case of the + idium system% it is the beams that mo"e apidly elati"e to the subsc ibe % !ho is conside ed to be stationa y !ith espect to the satellite& Thus% s!itchin# of beams o cell mana#ement to p o"ide continuity of an e,istin# call is e$ui"alent to handoff in te est ial cellula mobile systems& This e$ui ement fo cell mana#ement is% of cou se% and additional comple,ity associated !ith /E)- based systems compa ed !ith ME) o GE) systems& 07-EC-044 16

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication The + idium system suppo ts links of th ee types8up- and do!nlinks f om the space "ehicle 0SA1 to the #ate!ay 0G>1 Po to the telemet y% t ackin#% and cont ol 0TT Q C1 cente R% usin# the ka bandG up- and do!nlinks bet!een the SA and the + idium subsc ibe unit 0+S:1% usin# the / bandG and t!o-!ay inte -satellite links bet!een the SAs usin# the Ba band&

;. (+E G%,B#%S(#R S3S(EM


Globalsta is a #lobal mobile satellite system based on a constellation of 4? /E) satellites& :nlike the + idium system% Globalsta system does not use inte satellite links but athe depends on a la #e numbe of inte connected ea th stations o #ate!ays fo efficient call outin# and deli"e y o"e the te est ial net!o k& +t is desi#ned to complement the te est ial cellula mobile net!o ks to p o"ide telephony and messa#in# se "ices to

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication subsc ibe s in locations that a e not co"e ed% o inade$uately co"e ed% by con"entional !i eline o !i eless net!o ks& Globalsta 4s constellation of 4? /E) satellites is desi#ned t o bit at an altitude of 1414 km abo"e ea th4s su face in ei#ht o bital plans inclined at @2& >ith each plane to be occupied by si, satellited !ith a p o"ision fo one in-o bit spa e satellite in each plane& The nominal !ei#ht of each satellite is 4@0 k#% !ith a deployed span of 7 mete s and !o kin# life of 7&@ yea s& Since Globalsta satellites do not employ inte satellite communication% they essentially p o"ide only t ansponde functions% makin# thei desi#n and ope ation less comple, and pe haps mo e eliable& Each satellite suppo ts a 1C-beam antenna patte n !ith an a"e a#e beam diamete of 22@0 km& To miti#ate blockin# and shado!in#% Globalsta !ill deploy path di"e sity% !he eby multiple satellites may be used to complete a call& +n the absence of inte satellite links% the Globalsta system makes ma,imum use of the inte national te est ial net!o ks 0!i eline and !i eless1& Calls f om a subsc ibe a e outed "ia a satellite to the nea est ea th stationM#ate!ay% and f om the e they !ill be outed o"e the e,istin# te est ial net!o k& To p o"ide the inte face bet!een the # ound se#ment 0te est ial net!o ks1 and space se#ment 0Globalsta satellites1 Globalsta desi#n deploys 100 o mo e #ate!ay stations dist ibuted a ound the !o ld !ith each station e$uipped !ith th ee o fi"e antennas that can t ack the t a7ecto ies of the satellites& . Globalsta #ate!ay is desi#ned to se "e an a ea 6000 km in diamete and !ill be desi#ned to take into account the technical and administ ati"e e$ui ements of the co"e a#e a ea& These e$ui ements may include such facto s as co"e a#e% $uality of se "ice% and satellite "isibility% as !ell as e#ulato y and cont actual facto s associated !ith national bounda ies& Globalsta uses t!o types of communication links8 se "ice links in the /MS band fo communication bet!een the te minals and the space "ehicle% and the #ate!ay links in the C band fo communication bet!een the ea th stations and the space "ehicle&

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1@

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

A. (+E (E%E&ES!C S3S(EM


Cu ently the hi#h band!idth% hi#h $uality fibe connecti"ity needed to suppo t +nte net access% compute inte net!o kin#% "ideo confe encin#% and so on is est icted to ma7o comme cial and population cente s& )utside these application a eas% such facilities a e eithe too e,pensi"e o simply not a"ailable& The aim of the Teledesic net!o k is to e,tend the e,istin# te est ial% fibe -based inf ast uctu e to p o"ide ad"anced info mation and communication se "ices any!he e on ea th& >he eas the ta #et application fo + idium% Globalsta % and +C) is "oice% !ith suppo t of lo! bit ate data fo facsimile and messa#in# fo mobile subsc ibe s% the p ima y ta #et application fo the Teledesic system is the p o"ide !o ld!ide% seamless% fibe like connecti"ity to suppo t multimedia% "ideo% and hi#h bit ate data se "ices& +n a st ict sense% Teledesic does not fall in the cate#o y of #lobal mobile satellite systems o GM3CS because its focus is not on !o ld!ide te minal mobility% but athe on p o"idin# the so-called +nte net in the sky function& The planned 07-EC-044 1C

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication ta #et fo Teledesic se "ice a"ailability is end of yea 2002& 9athe than indi"idual end use s% p ima y custome s fo the Teledesic system !ill be se "ice p o"ide s in count ies a ound the !o ld !ishin# to e,tend thei net!o k capabilities in te ms of #eo# aphic scope and the an#e of se "ices% and also multinational co po ations needin# to e,tend the capabilities of thei ente p ise net!o ks& The desi#n of the Teledesic system has not been finali*ed& .cco din# to the o i#inal plans% the Teledesic satellite se#ment !as to use ?40 /E) satellites in 21 planes at altitudes of 700 km& The Teledesic system no! intends to deploy only 2?? acti"e /E) satellites placed in 12 planes 024 satellites pe plane1 at altitudes a ound 16@0 km& Each satellite in the Teledesic constellation !ill ha"e connections to ei#ht of its nei#hbo in# satellites th ou#h inte satellite links ope atin# in the connectionless packet mode% !ith each satellite in this inte connected mesh net!o k p o"idin# necessa y s!itchin# functions& The Teledesic net!o k is desi#ned fo dual-satellite "isibility !ith at lest one insi#ht satellite at a minimum ele"ation of 40& This hi#h ele"ation an#le ensu es an unobst ucted and omnidi ectional "ie! of the sky f om most buildin# tops !he e Teledesic te minals may be located& 5esides eliminatin# shado!in# effects f om nei#hbo in# buildin#s and te ain% the hi#h ele"ation an#el # eatly educes the fadin# effects of ain at hi#h f e$uencies&

. ME, S#(E%%!(E S3S(EM


>. (+E !C, S3S(EM
The +C) is a medium ea th o bit 0ME)1 mobile satellite system% !hich is desi#ned p ima ily to p o"ide se "ices to handheld phones& +C) !ill use T-M. as the adio t ansmission technolo#y& The system is desi#ned to offe di#ital "oice% data% facsimile% and sho t-ta #eted messa#in# se "ices to its subsc ibe s& +C)4s p ima y ta #et custome s a e use s f om the e,istin# te est ial cellula systems !ho e,pect to t a"el to locations in !hich co"e a#e is una"ailable o inade$uate& )the custome # oups potentially se "ed by +C) include oad t anspo t% ma itime% and ae onautical use s% as !ell as use s of semifi,ed te minals in u al a eas and de"elo0pin# count ies% !he e con"entions te est ial !i eline o

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication !i eless mobile satellite communications capability !ith the public land mobile net!o ks like GSM% --.M3S% and 3-C and thei 3CS "a iants& +C) system is desi#ned to use a constellation of 10 ME) satellites in inte mediate ci cula o bit 0+C)1% at an altitude of 10%6@@ km abo"e the ea th4s su face& The nominal !ei#ht of these satellites at launch is less than 2000 k#& The satellites% !ith an e,pected life of 12 yea s% a e a an#ed in t!o planes !ith fi"e satellites 0and one spa e1 in each plane8 o bital planes inclined at 4@ elati"e to the e$uato & Each satellite has antennas to p o"ide 1C6 t ansmit and ecei"e se "ice link beams& The o bital confi#u ation p o"ides co"e a#e of ea th4s enti e su face at all times and ensu es si#nificant o"e lap so that t!o o mo e satellites a e "isible to the use and the satellite access node 0S.(1 at any time& 'u the % at least one of the satellites appea s at the hi#h ele"ation an#le% the eby minimi*in# the p obability of blockin# due to shado!in# effects& The # ound se#ment in the +C) system% !hich !ill link the +C) satellites to the te est ial net!o ks% !ill consist of the 12 inte connected S.(s located in "a ious pa ts of the !o ld& Each S.( consists of ea th stations !ith multiple antennas fo communication !ith the satellites% s!itchin# e$uipment% and databases to facilitate inte connection !ith public telephone% data% and mobile net!o ks& The inte connection to the public net!o ks is th ou#h app op iate #ate!ays& >he eas each S.( suppo ts A/9 functions% the 2/9 function can eside in one 0o mo e1 of the S.(s& . S.( t acks the satellites !ithin its si#ht and !ill di ect communication t affic to the satellite% !hich can p o"ide eliable% uninte upted link fo a #i"en call% in te ms of an#le of ele"ation and du ation of satellite "isibility& S.(s also ha"e the capability to e,ecute handoffs f om an a ea co"e ed by one satellite to anothe satellite4s co"e a#e& Such handoffs a e e,pected to be "e y inf e$uent in +C)4s ME)-based system& 5esides the S.(s% the +C) system deploys TT Q C stations connected to a satellite cont ol cente 0SCC1 fo monito in# and cont ollin# the satellites% as !ell as one o mo e net!o k cont ol cente s 0(CC1 fo o"e all mana#ement and cont ol of the +C) system& The TT Q C functions a e associated !ith C of the 12 inte connected S.(s&

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

B. # br/ad /vervie4 h/4 a m/bile satellite system 4/r.s


. satellite system consists of a satellite se#ment% # ound se#ment% and end-use se#ment&

Satellite Segment
The satellite se#ment is a net!o k of GE) o /E) satellites a an#ed in o bital planes 0i&e& diffe ent pa ts of the sky1 in such a !ay that they ha"e a communications link !ith enduse e$uipment% # ound #ate!ays and othe satellites& The satellites t ansmit a continuous si#nal to ea th !hich enables the satellites% end-use e$uipment and #ate!ays to be linked to#ethe & The links allo! end-use s to be t ansfe ed bet!een satellites as the satellites mo"e o"e head 0/E) systems1& )n the # ound% the e is a # ound cont ol facility 0o facilities1 !hich mana#e the pe fo mance of the satellites and the t ansfe of info mation f om the satellites to the #ate!ays&

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1D

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

Ground segment - gateways


The #ate!ay connects the satellites to the local telephone net!o k& The #ate!ay also t ansmits si#nals to the satellites and ecei"es t ansmission f om the satellites& The #ate!ay tends to ha"e s!itchin# capabilities alon# !ith soft!a e that allo!s the system p o"ide to keep t ack of billin# info mation and oute calls&

End-user
The end use te minals% pa#e s and phones communicate !ith the #ate!ay e$uipment% satellites% satellite and cellula phones alon# !ith the cellula base station e$uipment& 'o the + idium and Globalsta systems% the enduse s !ill use a phone sli#htly la #e than the a"e a#e cellula phone& 5oth + idium and Globalsta plan to offe dual mode handsets !hich !ill allo! use s to connect to the e,istin# cellula systems o thei o!n satellite system&)the systems f om such companies as .me ican Mobile Satellite and +ntelsat% use phones !hich a e the si*e of a b iefcase and must be unpacked befo e use& The pa#in# e$uipment f om + idium% the only satellite company !ho cu ently has a pa#in# system in place% is you no mal un of the mill pa#e & . fe! satellite systems 0Globalsta included1 plan to offe fi,ed satellite te minals !hich a e a telephone booth in u al a eas& The phone booth !ill include one o mo e phones and !ill not look much diffe ent than a phone booth you may find on the st eets of (e! ;o k City&

+/4 a satellite 1all 5ets r/uted


The e a e t!o types of satellite systems unde de"elopment and each ha"e a diffe ent app oach to outin# phone calls& The p oposed satellite systems !ill use eithe a bent pipe o an inte satellite linked system&

Bent 0i0e
+n a bent pipe system 0Globalsta 1 a call is placed by a satellite use !hich is then beamed up to the nea est o bitin# satellite& The satellite eflects the call to the nea est # ound #ate!ay& )nce at the #ate!ay% the call is outed th ou#h the public telephone net!o k to the intended ecei"e of the call& The #ate!ay must be in the line of si#ht of the satellite% so the system ope ato must ha"e a si#nificant numbe of # ound #ate!ays to p o"ide di ect satellite links& 'o the most pa t% a bent pipe system is less comple, than an inte satellite linked system because the b ains of the system 0s!itchin#1 a e on the # ound and the satellites a e 7ust eflecto s in the sky& 5ent pipe systems a e easie to ope ate because most of the call is t ansfe ed o"e the public telephone net!o k% this also educes the cost of the system& Many of the technical featu es !ill be located at the #ate!ay !hich !ill allo!s most technical p oblems to be fi,ed on the # ound&

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

!ntersatellite lin.s
+n an inte satellite linked system 0+ idium1 a use 4s call is beamed up to the nea est o bitin# satellite& >hen it eaches the satellite% the call ente s the onboa d satellite s!itchin# system and is outed bet!een satellites up in space& The call is then do!nlinked to anothe satellite use o the closest local #ate!ay to the end use & :pon ente in# the #ate!ay the call is di ected to the intended ecei"e th ou#h the public telephone net!o k& The ma7o benefit of the inte satellite linked system is that it minimi*es the cost of the # ound se#ment 0i&e& - the call is s!itched in the ai the efo e you do not need a # ound #ate!ay in the line of si#ht of each satellite1 and it also minimi*es the lon# distance and inte connect fees 0much of !hich is bypassed in the ai 1& The inte satellite linked system ope ato is able to keep a la #e dolla amount of each call as compa ed to the bent pipe system ope ato &2o!e"e % the e is added isk and hi#he costs because each satellite must ha"e on-boa d s!itchin# capabilities&)n-boa d s!itchin# also adds to the comple,ity of the system because epai s must be made to satellites&

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

+and/ver Mana5ement in M/bile Satellite Systems


-ue to the hi#h mobility of lo! ea th o bit 0/E)1 satellites% the e is a si#nificant numbe of hando"e attempts in a /E)-based mobile satellite communication system% causin# a hi#h hando"e failu e ate& This pape p oposes to e,tend the pe iod of !hich a hando"e e$uest is "alid% and thus ende in# hi#he p obability of successful hando"e & Satellite communication se "ice can be p o"ided by #eostationa y ea th o bit 0GE)1% medium ea th o bit 0ME)1 o lo! ea th o bit 0/E)1 satellites& 5ecause of its much sho te distance f om ea th% lo!e po!e e$ui ement and thus smalle mobile te minal 0MT1 si*e% /E) satellite system is a p efe able choice& +n this pape % only the /E) satellite system is conside ed& The satellite co"e a#e a ea% o its footp int% is di"ided into a numbe of a eas% each of !hich spotted by one of the satelliteHs multiple spotbeams% fo min# a cell& Since a /E) satellite is not located at a #eosynch onous o bit% it is mobile !ith espect to a fi,ed point on ea th& 2ence an acti"e MT may mo"e f om one cell to anothe and hando"e occu s& The # ound "elocity of the MT is i#no ed compa ed to the much hi#he satellite "elocity& Suppose the len#th of a cell is 400 km and the satellite mo"es at a "elocity of C&C kmMsec% the time taken fo a MT to c oss a cell% Tcell% is about C0 seconds& Thus hando"e is e,t emely f e$uent in this system& .nd it is p obable that a call is d opped due to unsuccessful hando"e & 2ando"e is p one to failu e !hen the subse$uent cell has no unused channel to offe & - op call is a phenomenon !he e an on#oin# call has to be discontinued% !hich the use s find ha d to tole ate !ith% makin# it a ma7o technical issue&The e ha"e been some methods p oposed to minimise hando"e failu e& +t is !idely accepted that hando"e e$uests a e to be p io itised o"e ne! call e$uests% eithe by allocatin# #ua d channels to the hando"e e$uests P1R% o by $ueuin# up the hando"e e$uests !hen all the channels in one cell a e occupied P1R P2R& This is because d oppin# an on#oin# call is less desi able than blockin# a ne! call attempt& The e a e also p oposals of makin# the hando"e e$uest ea lie % so that the e$uest has lon#e time to !ait fo a f ee channel% thus educin# the hando"e failu e ate P6R P4R& Ge a d Ma al et al& ha"e p oposed that a hando"e e$uest is to be made to a cell as ea ly as the MT ente s the cell located i#ht befo e the ta #et cell P6R& +n P4R% the time of sendin# out a hando"e e$uest du in# hando"e p ocess !as made a"ailable e#a dless of the location of MS in a cell& +n all of these cases% a call someho! has to be te minated !hen the o i#inatin# MT has c ossed into the ta #et cell and yet hando"e is not # anted by the ta #et cell& The te mination is done since no se "ice is p o"ided by eithe the o i#inal cell o the ta #et cell& +n this pape it is p oposed that in a simila situation% the call be only tempo a ily discontinued fo a specific amount of time% befo e it is pe manently te minated if the e is still no a"ailable channel& .lthou#h no se "ice is p o"ided by both cells to the MT% its hando"e e$uest !hich has been $ueued is Skept in "ie!4 by the ta #et cell& -u in# this idle pe iod% the e is a chance that an o i#inally occupied channel in the ta #et cell is eleased& +f this is the case% this channel is allocated to the suspended call and hando"e is completed& .s a esult% the hando"e failu e ate is educed& Mathematical analysis has been ca ied out to "e ify the idea and the esults a e encou a#in#& 'o a use % heMshe only e,pe iences a sho t pe iod of call discontinuity and is notified about the tempo a y discontinuity th ou#h a special tone& +n te ms of $uality of se "ice 0<oS1% this is mo e tole able to the use s compa ed to a d op call& 07-EC-044 22

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication . hando"e mana#ement st ate#y is p oposed to efficiently mana#e the channel esou ce of a cell in a multibeam mobile satellite system 0MSS1 and imp o"es its se "ice $uality by educin# the inte beam hando"e failu e ate 0Phf1 caused by limited numbe of communication channels& The E,tended <ueuein# of 2ando"e 0E<21 techni$ue e,tends the channel ese "ation time of a hando"e e$uest into the ad7acent cell that the use te minal 0:T1 is subse$uently ente in# 0destination cell1& 5oth mathematical analysis and simulation sho! that E<2 educes Phf si#nificantly% !ithout comp omisin# the ne! call admission ate and efficiency of channel utilisation& The footp int of a multibeam satellite is di"ided into cells !he e each cell is illuminated by a spotbeam& +nte beam hando"e is f e$uent in mobile satellite system 0MSS1 due to the hi#h "elocity of the satellite 0about 7 kmMh fo a lo! ea th o bit satellite1& >hen a use te minal 0:T1 lea"es f om one cell and ente s the ad7acent one% a hando"e p ocess must be completed fo the sake of call continuity% !he e a communication channel must be allocated to the :T by the ad7acent cell 0destination cell1& +n a channel esou ce limited system% hando"e is sub7ect to failu e !hen the destination cell has no idle channel to offe & +n this case the call is d opped and this is intole able to use s& +n o de to p o"ide hi#he hando"e $uality% system ope ato has to allocate a la #e po tion of the channel esou ce to the on#oin# call as compa ed to the ne! call& . method in use is by applyin# the blocked-calls-$ueued policy to the calls e$uestin# fo hando"e 0handover calls1 P1RG and on the othe hand sac ificin# some ne! calls th ou#h the blocked-call-clea ed policy& The lon#e a hando"e call stays in a $ueue% the hi#he chance of it bein# handed o"e successfully& )the methods that p io itise hando"e call o"e ne! call a e8 #ua d channelallocation P2R% and channel ese "ation in ad"ance P6R P4R& The comp omise of ne! call causes inefficiency in channel utilisation because channels that a e allocated to hando"e call cannot be taken up by ne! calls e"en thou#h they a e idle&

ECtended ?ueuein5 /6 +and/ver "E?+$ S1heme


+n a hando"e p ocess% a :T !ith unfulfilled hando"e e$uest !ill ha"e its call te minated once it lea"es the p esent cell i&e& !hen the si#nal st en#th of the p esent beam d ops belo! an acceptable le"el& :nde the p oposed E,tended <ueuein# of 2ando"e 0E<21 scheme P@R% the policies of $ueuein# and ea ly channel ese "ation also apply to hando"e calls& +n addition to them% the $ueuein# p ocess of an initially unfulfilled hando"e is allo!ed to be continued in the destination cell and thus lasts lon#e % p omisin# a hi#he chance of obtainin# a f ee communication channel& +n this case% since the :T has left the p esent cell and has not ese "ed a channel f om the destination cell% its call has to be discontinued until eithe a f ee channel is a"ailable on !hich the call can be esumed on%o until the tole able suspension pe iod is o"e !hich the call has to be pe manently te minated%!hiche"e comes fi st& .lthou#h this suspended call is p io itised o"e ne! call in #ettin# a channel% it does not si#nificantly affect the blockin# ate of ne! call because the p obability that a call #et suspended is "e y small& ' om the "ie!points of the t!o in"ol"ed communicatin# pa ties in an initially unsuccessful hando"e call% the discontinuity can be notified th ou#h a special tone M messa#e& +n te ms of $uality of se "ice 0<oS1% a suspended call that e"entually #ets te minated is bette than a dis upti"e 07-EC-044 26

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication and uninfo med d op call& )n the othe hand% if the call is able to be esumed upon the a"ailability of an idle channel% the sho t te m discontinuity makes it !o th than ha"in# the call te minated and follo!ed by settin# up a ne! call a#ain% !hich is ha de because ne! call is less p i"ile#ed& 2ence e#a dless of the outcome E<2 scheme p omises a hi#he <oS&

6. General aspects of mobile satellite systems


-iffe ences bet!een satellite and te est ial systems e,ist in spite of common ob7ecti"es fo hi#h $uality se "ices and e,cellent spect um efficiency& Some diffe ences a ise because8use costs a e closely elated to satellite t ansmit po!e the satellite p opa#ation channel is hi#hly p edictable satellite paths int oduce si#nificant p opa#ation delays and -opple shifts f e$uency co-o dination has to be on a #lobal basis f e$uency e-use options a e mo e limited% hence band!idth is a ti#ht const aint satellite beam shapin# and si*in# oppo tunities a e limited&The fi st t!o points lead natu ally to the emphasis placed on the line-of-si#ht satellite link bud#et !hen establishin# the system desi#n& The base link bud#et is de i"ed f om theo etical path losses to !hich link ma #ins a e added to compensate fo ine"itable impai ments in e$uipment and p opa#ation cha acte istics& .ll impai ments% e"en if not di ectly calculable in te ms of si#nal loss 0e&#& # oup delay and ate of chan#e of -opple shift1% a e con"e ted accu ately to d5 so that the compensatin# inc ease in t ansmit po!e can be established& The total ma #in o"e the theo etical ideal path is only a fe! d5 and p ecision in calculatin# the cont ibuto y impai ments is essential& The esultin# link bud#et then allo!s the a"ailability and $uality of se "ice to be estimated o"e the co"e a#e a ea&/a #e link ma #ins ha"e a ma7o impact on system build cost and ope atin# ta iffs simply because of the impact of additional po!e e$ui ements on spacec aft si*e T a 6d5 e,cess ma #in !ould almost double use cha #es& 'o this eason% mobile satellite communication systems ha"e lead the !ay in "e y po!e -efficient modulation fo mats and lo! bit ate "oice codecs 02%4 kbitMs and 4%? kbitMs1 as !ell as adapti"e po!e cont ol& The d i"e fo efficient use of satellite po!e is noticeably eflected in te minal e$uipment desi#n !ith8 - "e y lo! loss antennas coupled !ith "e y lo! loss ecei"e filte sG - "e y ti#ht t ansmitM ecei"e filte specificationsG - "e y lo! noise amplifie sG - e,cellent ca ie Msi#nal ac$uisition in p esence of -opple % noise and inte fe enceG - po!e -sa"in# and spect um-efficient fo !a d e o co ectionG - multi-path disc imination techni$ues mi#ht facilitate lo! si#nal-to-noise demodulato ope ation The satellite-mobile uplink and do!nlink a e ine"itably mo e f a#ile than the co espondin# feede links 0land ea th station-satellite1& 2o!e"e the feede link itself needs a "e y substantial link ma #in in o de that the a## e#ate upMdo!n pe fo mance may be la #ely dete mined by the mobile link& These feede links ope ate in hi#he f e$uency bands !he e -opple and atmosphe icMmeteo olo#ical distu bances can become e"en mo e si#nificant& The follo!in# clauses of this T9 focus on pa ticula cha acte istics% capabilities and limitations of mobile satellite systems to#ethe !ith typical "alues fo key pa amete s 07-EC-044 24

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication !he e possible& 2o!e"e it must be eco#nised that most pa amete s a e inte -dependent and !ill also "a y !ith a chitectu e of the # ound inf ast uctu e% the satellite o bital a an#ement% and the use te minal confi#u ation&

7. Capabilities of Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS)


The most si#nificant att ibute of any satellite communication system is the !ide a ea co"e a#e that can be p o"ided !ith "e y hi#h #ua antees of a"ailability and consistency of se "ice& The satellite component of :MTS can potentially p o"ide the te est ial se "ice use !ith a #lobal se "ice !ithout e#a d to incompatible te est ial standa ds used else!he e& E,istin# satellite mobile se "ices ha"e p o"ed "e y att acti"e to the ma itime and ae onautical secto s and they ha"e also been of # eat benefit to eme #ency se "ices% elief a#encies% 7ou nalists% and e,peditions o"e ecent yea s& Se "ices a e no! e,tendin# to the land mobile ma ket !he e hand-po table "oice te minals a e no! technically feasible& The ne,t subclauses add ess the key att ibutes of !ide a ea co"e a#e and types of se "ices app op iate fo satellite :MTS&

7.1 Large area co erage


. sin#le satellite can see "e y la #e a eas of the Ea th8 a sin#le /E) can illuminate an a ea of C 000 km diamete and a GS) can illuminate about 1M6 d of the #lobe& >ithin these a eas% the spacec aft antenna can be desi#ned to maintain a nea -constant po!e flu, density on the Ea thHs su face i especti"e of an#e& 2o!e"e fo the GS) and 2E) 0and possibly the /E) o ME)1% the spacec aft antenna may need to be a an#ed as a cluste of spot beams 01 000 to 2 000 km diamete 1 in o de to make hand-held te minals feasible and to achie"e spect um efficiency& Such spot beams e$ui e la #e spacec aft antennas fo eithe GS) o 2E) systems& The ad"anta#es of 2E) and GS) a e that it is possible to deploy a satellite system to fulfil a e#ional e$ui ement athe than a #lobal one% and f e$uency plannin# and co-o dination may be elati"ely st ai#htfo !a d& 'u the mo e% the # ound inf ast uctu e to suppo t the satellites could follo! t aditional /and Ea th Station 0/ES1 app oaches&The only satellite system that cannot p o"ide pola co"e a#e is GS)& >ith this est iction% any satellite constellation can p o"ide assu ed line-of-si#ht #lobal co"e a#e unaffected by !eathe & )pe ation to shado!ed o in-buildin# te minals !ould e$ui e an additional link ma #in in the o de of 20 d5 o mo e% dependin# on the co"e a#e e$ui ed& (ote that in cities% the te est ial :MTS se "ice is likely to be a"ailable and the efo e in-buildin# and city co"e a#e may not be essential& The line-of-si#ht case e$ui es pola isation matchin# bet!een the satellite and the mobile te minal& To a"oid the need fo pola isation t ackin#% mobile communications ha"e t aditionally used ci cula pola isation&

7.! "le#ible net$or%s an& ser ices


. featu e of most p esent day satellites is the use of Jt anspa ent t ansponde sJ& Compa ed to con"entional cellula base stations% the satellite t ansponde is little mo e than 07-EC-044 2@

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication a f e$uency shiftin# amplifie & This does ha"e d a!backs !ith e#a d to some aspects of system desi#n but it also means that any one satellite is easonably independent of modulation system o access method% o of se "ice data ate o net!o kin#& This has led to satellites bein# used fo a "a iety of applications% each !ith diffe ent te est ial a chitectu es& 3 o"ided the basic satellite pa amete s a e satisfacto y% these se "ices can be int oduced lon# afte launch& 'utu e satellites may not be $uite so fle,ible as some studies p opose to use on-boa d p ocessin# to imp o"e capacity% spect um efficiency and satellite payload pe fo mance& The t anspa ency concept has ho!e"e p o"ed e,t emely costeffecti"e and any on-boa d p ocessin# function is likely to be at least e-confi#u able and e-p o# ammable& .nothe featu e that mi#ht be int oduced fo ME) o /E) is the inte -satellite link to simplify te est ial net!o kin# bet!een satellites du in# hando"e & The t anspa ency concept has enabled mobile satellite systems to efficiently suppo t a an#e of se "ices beyond that of "oice telephony8 - hi#h data ate se "ices 0up to C4 kbitMs1 to la #e antenna 00%1@ m 1%0 m% ? d5i 20 d5i1 mobile o fi,ed te minalsG - # oup call and b oadcastin#G - lo! data ate pa#in#% ale tin# and t!o-!ay messa#in#G - te minal location findin#& Some cu ent satellite systems a e desi#ned so that e,t a se "ices can be p o"ided at "e y little additional cost& This is pa ticula ly effecti"e !hen se "ices a e offe ed as a packa#e to pe haps offset the e$ui ement fo line-of-si#ht paths fo lo!-cost "oice telephony&

8 Limitations of Mobile Satellite Systems


'.1 (elay an& (oppler
The delay and -opple effects associated !ith satellite links a e due enti ely to the mechanical la!s #o"e nin# the satellite o bit& .ny system desi#n must take full account of these effects& 'o e,ample% simple delay has an impact on speech $uality that !ill e$ui e echo cancelle s to be used at inte faces !ith the analo#ue net!o k& -elay also e$ui es allo!ances to be made in si#nallin# p otocols and po!e le"el cont ol& Chan#es in delay a e the esult of inte# ated -opple shifts on the bit data ate and a e si#nificant fo all o bits e,cept GS) du in# a call and pa ticula ly du in# satellite hando"e & Such chan#es a e likely to e$ui e a data buffe to maintain the delay at a constant ma,imum "alue& The data buffe can eside in eithe the /ES o the mobile te minal bet!een the t!o echo cont ol de"ices and is e$ui ed fo both ecei"e and t ansmit& -opple shift itself complicates si#nal ac$uisition and spect um mana#ement& The -opple shift !ill not be identical fo the in-bound and out-bound links due to the diffe ent 07-EC-044 2C

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication feede and mobile link mic o!a"e f e$uencies& 'u the mo e% the shift is in diffe ent di ections if co ected at the mobile te minal& 'o /E) and ME) o bits% the shift may need to be indi"idually co ected fo each mobileG fo 2E)% common -opple compensation can be inco po ated in the /ES o onboa d the satellite&

'.! Lo$ lin% margins


Emphasis has al eady been made on the impo tance of keepin# impai ment ma #ins lo!& .n illust ation can be based on the calculation of Ca ie -to-(oise 0CM(1 atios fo uplink% do!nlink% and the total link& .ssumin# the do!nlink has CM(d U 10 d5 and is nea the pe fo mance th eshold% the feede !ill need a 16 d5 ma #in 0CM(u U 26 d51 to maintain the de# adation to less than 0%2 d5 0i&e& CM(t U D%? d51& )pe ation at le"els 7ust abo"e th eshold a e only feasible fo satellite because of the stable p opa#ation path and because most impai ments 0includin# the la #e noise cont ibution1 can be conside ed to be andom& These lo! ma #ins% compa ed to the te est ial en"i onment% esult in lon#e si#nal ac$uisition times& .ll impai ments must be ca efully analysed and include8 impe fect in-band filte in#% # oup delays% out-of-channel emissions 0!hich demand "e y ti#ht po!e amplifie linea ity e$ui ements% ca ie to inte fe ence atios% etc&1 Multi-path also e$ui es especial attention& +n the te est ial en"i onment% multipath p opa#ation no mally esults in inte -symbol inte fe ence that can be compensated !ith e$ualise s& The effects of multipath fadin# itself a e often ne#li#ible !ithin the main se "ice a eas because the detected si#nal le"el is sufficiently abo"e th eshold& +n the satellite path% multipath delays a e often sho t enou#h to be i#no ed 0e,cept fo ai c aft and ships1 due to the compa ati"ely hi#h ele"ation an#le of the adio path& 2o!e"e multi-path fadin#% in !hich a multipath si#nal pa tially cancels the main si#nal% can educe the final si#nal belo! the modem ope atin# th eshold& 2and-offs bet!een successi"e /E)% ME)% o 2E) satellites !ill be mo e comple, because of the small ope atin# ma #ins !hich makes it difficult to p omptly detect si#nal disappea ance& Satellite si#nal $ualities often cannot be assessed f om si#nal le"el 0!hich is s!amped by the mal noise1 but a e often estimated f om the acti"ity !ithin the fo !a d e o co ection al#o ithm& This e$ui es time a"e a#in# and cannot be an instantaneous measu ement& Satellite di"e sity eception mi#ht alle"iate some of these issues& Mobile te minals !ith hi#h #ain 0di ecti"e1 antennas ha"e fu the p oblems !ith si#nal ac$uisition as the antenna may need to be mechanically o elect onically stee ed to!a ds the satellite befo e the si#nal ises abo"e the detection th eshold&

'.) Scope for tec*nical &e elopments


'.).1 Signal to +oise (S,+) le els
Satellite systems ope ate "e y close to theo etical si#nal to noise demodulation th esholds& The e is "i tually no scope fo eduction in ecei"e the mal noise le"els at the satellite o at

07-EC-044

27

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication the mobile te minal as noise le"els a e dominated by the Ea thHs back# ound the mal noise 02D0 B1& The noise pe fo mance of mode n amplifie s is almost insi#nificant a#ainst this back# ound& The only scope to imp o"e si#nal to noise ma #ins 0fo e,ample to p o"ide shado! o in-buildin# ope ation1 is to imp o"e satellite antenna #ain&

'.).! Han&-*el& terminal antennas


3 esent ope ational mobile satellite systems p o"ide "oice se "ices !ith medium #ain stee ed antennas in the #ain an#e ? d5i to 1@ d5i& /o! data ate se "ices can use unstee ed lo!e #ain antennas !ith #ains bet!een 0 d5i and 4 d5i&The challen#e fo :MTS is to p o"ide "oice telephony to hand-held te minals usin# unstee ed lo! #ain antennas& The hand-held ta #et imposes p actical limitations on the fo m of antenna and it is unlikely that antennas !ill ha"e usable #ains # eate than 0 d5i& 2o!e"e this does not p ohibit the use of hi#he #ain antennas fo pa ticula applications o ci cumstances&

D. Gr/4th drivers /6 m/bile satellite 1/mmuni1ati/n servi1es


Deregulation
Go"e nments th ou#hout the !o ld a e openin# up thei telecommunications systems !hethe it be th ou#h spect um allocations% p i"ati*ation% competition o access& Go"e nments ha"e eali*ed that the e is a st on# co elation bet!een telecommunications se "ices and economic # o!th& The efo e they ha"e sta ted to knock do!n the !alls that e,isted !ithin thei telecommunications ma kets and a e encou a#in# in"estment in the latest technolo#ies so that thei count ies do not fall behind in communications&

Technology
Technolo#ical de"elopments ha"e imp o"ed the po!e and "e satility of satellites% today they ha"e # eate capacity and lo!e costs& 'o instance% the smalle si*e of many of today4s satellites lo!e s the cost of launchin# satellites& .t the same time ecent di#ital technolo#ies 0T-M. - Time -i"ision Multiple .ccess% C-M. - Code -i"ision Multiple .ccess1 a e bein# applied to satellite systems !hich a inc eases capacity and lo!e s the cost of launchin# a system&

Globalization
3eople no lon#e a e isolated f om the !o ld& 3eople a e affected by t ade like ne"e befo eG (ike and Gillette a e no lon#e 7ust :&S& companies& 5ecause people a e t a"elin# half!ay a ound the !o ld on a moment4s notice% the e is a demand fo communications se "ices that allo! people to stay in touch no matte !he e they a e& 3eople !ant to be able to make a phone call and ecei"e one -- they !ant one telephone numbe that can be used anytime% any!he e in the !o ld& Thus% !e feel the de"elopment of the #lobal economy is a key d i"e of the mobile communications business&

Economic growth
07-EC-044 2?

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication Economic # o!th th ou#hout the !o ld has inc eased li"in# standa ds !hich also d i"es demand fo communications se "ices& .s indi"iduals inc ease thei economic statu e% one of the fi st thin#s they desi e is a phone& This is a positi"e fo satellite se "ice p o"ide s& .s de"elopin# economies continue to # o! and ente the #lobal economy% the demand fo satellite se "ices !ill inc ease because people !ill be able to affo d it% and the need fo mobile se "ices !ill inc ease&

Demand for phone service


Mo e than 6 billion of the !o ld4s people do not ha"e phone se "ice& The !aitin# list fo landline telephone se "ice has o"e @0 million names !ith the a"e a#e !ait # eate than 1&@ yea s& )n a"e a#e% the e a e sli#htly fe!e than 12 phones lines pe e"e y 100 people in the !o ld& This is fa lo!e than !hat e,ists in de"eloped count ies such as S!eden 0C? lines1 and the :&S& 0C0 lines1& >e belie"e that because the !ait is so lon#% many do not e"en attempt to #et se "ice -- this could unde state the actual numbe of people !aitin# fo phone se "ices& .tthe same time% + idium 0th ou#h esea ch by 5oo* .llen and Gallup1 has dete mined that the demand f om !o ld!ide t a"ele s fo mobile satellite se "ices !ill be 42 million people by the yea 2002& 9e#a dless of ho! youlook at the numbe s% the e is a si#nificant amount of people !ithout phone se "ices th ou#hout the !o ld& .lso% phone se "ices a e not de"eloped in many count ies% so t a"ele s a e unable to access a eliable phone& Satellite communications se "ices !ill sol"e the needs of !o ld!ide t a"ele s and p o"ide phone se "ices to many a eas of the !o ld that cu ently do not ha"e phone se "ice&

Mobile communications trends


Cellula demand continues to e,plode th ou#hout the !o ld !ith some estimates of @00 million subsc ibe s by the yea 2002& Cellula phone bills in Thi d >o ld count ies a e hi#he than the a"e a#e bill in the :&S& This su##ests that demand fo mobile communications se "ices continues to # o! at a "e y fast pace and that de"elopin# count ies a e !illin# to pay fo phone se "ices& .n ubi$uitous phone se "ice offe ed by satellite companies !ill benefit f om these t ends in cellula communications&

>0. -h/ 4ill use satellite 1/mmuni1ati/ns systemsE


Global roamer
The fi st type of satellite use !ill be the #lobal oame & The #lobal oame consists mainly of business t a"ele s !ho !ant to ha"e the ability to make and ecei"e calls any!he e in the !o ld& + idium has conducted e,tensi"e analysis of this ma ket and concluded that this ma ket !ill consist of 42 million people by the yea 2002&

Cellular e tension
The second type of use !ill be indi"iduals !ho !ish to e,tend thei cellula co"e a#e to a eas !he e no se "ice cu ently e,ists& 5oth Globalsta and + idium plan to offe dual mode phones !hich !ill !o k !ith GSMMT-M.MC-M. cellula systems and satellite 07-EC-044 2D

Global Mobile Satellite System Communication communications systems& .n e,ample of a dual mode use !ould be !ould be an indi"idual !ho li"es in Chica#o and t a"els to upstate Montana fo a huntin# t ip& The pe son !ould no mally ha"e cellula se "ice f om .me itech but that co"e a#e does not include upstate Montana !he e no cellula co"e a#e e,ists& To be able to ecei"e se "ice on thei .me itech system 0same phone numbe 1 in Montana% the indi"idual !ould si#n up !ith + idium fo dual mode se "ice& Si#nin# up !ould mean that once the indi"idual #ot out of the an#e of thei .me itech systems% they could hit a s!itch on thei + idium phone and make o ecei"e calls outside of thei .me itech co"e a#e *one outed th ou#h the + idium satellite system& This !ould allo! fo ubi$uitous se "ice fo cellula use s e"en !hen they a e out of an#e of thei cu ent cellula system&

!andline e tension
The thi d type of satellite use !ill an indi"idual !ho !ants landline e,tension& +n this instance a satellite company !ould install a fi,ed telephone booth in a u al a ea 0e&#& in the outski ts of +ndia1& This !ould enable a u al to!n% !hich cu ently has no means of "oice communications% to communicate !ith an u ban a ea !he e medical% police o othe se "ices e,ist& The u al to!n could also use the phone to call supplie s of staple p oducts& 'i,ed satellite se "ice !ould mostly be used !hen a landline system is uneconomical o technolo#ically incapableo se "in# a pa ticula location& Aodaphone has been usin# fi,ed !i eless phone booths in South .f ica and has a"e a#ed ?00 minutes of use pe booth&

>>. Gl/bal M/bile Satellite 1/mmuni1ati/ns servi1es


Satellite communication systems a e desi#ned to p o"ide "oice% data% fa,% pa#in#% "ideo confe encin# and inte net se "ices to use s !o ld!ide& Th ou#h satellite based systems% use s !ill be able to make a phone call f om an .f ican safa i o !hile sailin# a ound the !o ld& (o matte !he e use s a e% they !ill be able to communicate !ith clients% custome s% associates% f iends% and family any!he e in the !o ld& +n addition% satellite communications !ill allo! count ies to p o"ide phone se "ices !ithout la #e in"estments in landline o !i eless systems& Satellite communications !ill be one of the fastest # o!in# a eas !ithin the communications indust y& GE) satellite net!o ks offe # eat potential fo multimedia applications !ith thei ability to b oadcast and multicast la #e amounts of data o"e a "e y la #e a ea thus achie"in# #lobal connecti"ity& +nte net "ia satellites% in pa ticula % GE) satellites% ha"e the follo!in# me its8

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication +i5h band4idth. . Ba-band 020-60Gh*1 satellite can deli"e th ou#hput of #i#abits pe second ates& !neC0ensive. . satellite communications system is elati"ely ine,pensi"e because the e a e no cable-layin# costs% and one satellite co"e s a "e y la #e a ea& <ntethered 1/mmuni1ati/n. :se s can en7oy untethe ed mobile communication any!he e !ithin the footp ints of the satellite& Sim0le net4/r. t/0/l/5y. Compa ed !ith the mesh inte connection model of the te est ial +nte net% GE) satellite net!o ks ha"e much simple deli"e y paths& The simple topolo#y often esults in mo e mana#eable net!o k pe fo mance& Br/ad1astFmulti1ast. Satellite net!o ks a e natu ally att acti"e fo b oadcastMmulticast applications 0such as M5)(E1& +n cont ast% multicast in a mesh inte connection net!o k e$ui es complicated multicast outin#& 3e fo mance can "a y fo each multicast # oup membe and is dependent on the oute f om the sou ce&

Vide/ C/n6eren1in59 GE) satellites can p o"ide bette $uality in "ideo confe encin# due to the a"ailable band!idth and simple net!o k topolo#y&

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

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Global Mobile Satellite System Communication

1). Concl.sion
Satellite net!o ks p omise a ne! e a of #lobal connecti"ity% !he e #eo# aphical isolation !ill no mo e be the ba ie amon# continent& +n this !o k% !e ha"e sho!n that indeed many popula +nte net applications pe fo m to use e,pectation o"e satellite net!o ks% such as "ideo teleconfe encin#% bulk data t ansfe % back# ound elect onic mail% and noneal time info mation dissemination& Some othe applications% especially hi#hly inte acti"e applications such as !eb b o!sin#& E"en thou#h the systems !ill e"entually be built% conflicts o"e billin# and cont ol still emain& )pe ato s of phone se "ices in Eu ope donHt like the idea of systems that !ould bypass thei e$uipment and% p obably% ta,es and fees& Some "e y comple, ne#otiatin# !ill be needed to calm ob7ections by such bodies% and no doubt some inte estin# comp omises !ill be made& The i idium p o7ectHs futu e is still unce tain% but looks athe p omisin# as fa as space "entu es #o& The use of such a system in helpin# p omote the thou#ht of the !o ld as a J#lobal "illa#eJ dese "es thou#ht and% + think% espect& The #lobal communications indust y has # o!n like no one e"e thou#ht it !ould% and the futu e fo i idium o an i idium-like system is% in the lon# un% assu ed Thus the field mobile satellite communication ha"e bette p ospectus in the futu e& .s conditions on ma s a e seems to be fa"ou able fo human life&

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