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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, Pp. 70-72, Feb. 2012.

Manuscript
Received:
7, Jun., 2011
Revised:
19,Sep. 2011
Accepted:
19,Jan., 2012
Published:
15,Mar.,2012

Keywords
surrounding
rock,
fluid-solid
coupling,
mathematical
model,
numerical
simulation,
temperature
field,
seepage,
heat
exchange



Abstract In order to analyze the effect
of Seepage on temperature field in tunnel
Surrounding Rock, thermo-hydro coupling
mathematical model of heat-transfer is
developed. Temperature field and seepage
field distribution of fracture rock is described
by using heat-transfer and seepage
differential equations. Combined with
hydrogeological conditions of Panxi Coal, the
numerical solution is obtained by using
numerical software. The research results
show that heat exchange will occur in the
interaction section Because of the
temperature difference between fluid and
rock. Under the effect of seepage, isotherm
skewing occurs in surrounding rock. At the
same time, skewing value will enlarge along
with the seepage speed increasing. Because
fluid temperature is lower than surrounding
rock. For the left rock of the tunnel, effect of
seepage on distribution of temperature field is
large. The situation has improved with the
rising temperature of fluid the right rock of
the tunnel.


1. Introduction
The aberrant temperature of groundwater often occurs in
deep water-bearing formation, and its water migration often
goes along with obvious heat-transfer. Research of
temperature field in this area is vital to controlling heat
damage and exploiting geothermal resources, and numerical
procedure is developed by coupling fluid flow with heat
transfer [1]-[3].
The scholars have achieved research on numerical model
for thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling in fractured rock [4].
At present, fully-coupled model is built to analyze fluid flow,
heat transfer, and deformation in fractured rock in [5] and
[6]. Three-dimensional analysis of coupled problem is used
to study heat transfer in the surrounding rock and heat
convection between the air and the surrounding rock in
[7]-[9]. For numerical calculation, the boundary layer theory
in [10], equation discretization in [11], and transient
heat-transfer or steady heat-transfer are used. Above research
makes known the heat-exchange mechanism in rock.


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of
China (No. 50804021).
Shuguang Zhang and Qioulong Zhou are with China Liaoning Technical
University, Department of Civil Engineering
(zh.angshuguang168@163.com; fx.5152@126.com)
The paper is aimed at that China coal mines have been
mining the deep coal layers and is threatened by high
temperature and heat harm. So the deeper of mining depth
becomes, the more heat-harm is in deep mining. Coal
production and geology condition is various. The existence
of water-bearing formation is a popular phenomenon and it
will affect seepage field and temperature field. This research
is carried out based on these understandings. The research's
main aim is to study temperature feature in surrounding rock
of tunnel with water-bearing formation. Thereby, it has
certain guiding significance to solve hot problems caused by
high temperature in deep mining pit.
2. Coupling Mathematical Model
The existence of fracture has a remarkable influence on
the seepage and it determines the seepage feature of
formation. For water-bearing formation, solution of
transient temperature field is not only difficult, but also has
little significance to the project.
For steady temperature field under Hydro-Thermo
coupling, seepage control equation is
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
0
w w
T
T T H H
K D
x y x y
| | | | c c c c
+ + + =
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .
(Equ. 1)
Where K is coefficient Permeability; H is the distribution
of pressure head; T
w
is water temperature; D
T
is water
diffusivity under the different temperature.
Fluid temperature equation is
2 2
2 2
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
w w w w r
w w w f r w
T T T T H H
c K T T
x y x x y y


o
c c c c c c
+ + + =
c c c c c c
(Equ. 2)
Where
w
is the water of thermal conductivity;
r
is the
rock of thermal conductivity; c
w
is water of specific heat;

w
is water density; k
f
is coefficient Permeability; H is the
distribution of pressure head; T
w
is water temperature;
T
r
is the edge temperature of fracture rock.
The heat-transfer equation is
2 2
2 2
0
r r
T T
x y
c c
+ =
c c
(Equ.3)
Where T
r
is the temperature of rock.
By associating the Equ.1~ Equ.3, the coupling
mathematical model of stable temperature in surrounding
rock is obtained.
Effect of Seepage on Temperature Field of Tunnel
Surrounding Rock in Water-bearing Formation
Shuguang Zhang & Qiulong Zhou
International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, Pp. 70-72, Feb. 2012.
International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)


2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2
0
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
0
w w
T
w w r
w w w f r w
r r
T T H H
K D
x y x y
T T H T H T
c K T T
x y x x y y
T T
x y


o
| | | | c c c c
+ + + =
| |
c c c c
\ . \ .

c c c c c c
+ + + =

c c c c c c

c c
+ =
c c

(Equ.4)
Combined with boundary and initial condition, the
model is solved by using the iterative approach.
3. Numerical Simulation
COMSOL Multiphysics software is used to numerical
simulation. COMSOL Multiphysics software is a powerful
finite element FEM partial differential equation PDE
solution engine. Its environment facilitates all steps in the
modeling process defining your geometry, meshing,
specifying your physics, solving, and then visualizing your
results. Model set-up is quick, thanks to a number of
predefined physics interfaces for applications ranging from
fluid flow and heat transfer to structural mechanics and
electromagnetic analyses. Material properties, source terms
and boundary conditions can all be arbitrary functions of the
dependent variables. Predefined multiphysics application
templates solve many common problem types.
The research region is selected by 50m25m. The
cross section of surrounding rock is the semicircle arch,
which the sectional width is 8.0m, the straight wall and the
rise of arch are 4m, the vertical width of fault zone is 1m,
and the vertical height from arch to the fault zone is 6m.
The model was divided by the three-node triangular unit.
The model have 1677 nodes and 3216 triangle units.
Computational grid model was showed in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1. Mesh generation of solid element.

(1) Calculation parameter
The surrounding rock in the - 740 tunnel of Panxi coal
mine is the sandstone. Density of rock is 2650 kg/m
3
,
specific heat is 0.69kJ/(kg K) and thermal conductivity is
2.035 W/(m K). The density of water is 1000 kg/m
3
,
viscosity of water movement 0.001pa s, thermal
conductivity of water is 0.6 W/(m K), water diffusivity
under the different temperature is 1.03e-11m/(s K) and
coefficient Permeability is 1.15e-9 m/s.
(2) Boundary condition
Seepage boundary: The left margin is regarded as the
boundary of head 60m and the right head 20m. The upper
and lower boundaries are selected as the zero flux.
Temperature boundary: The upper boundary which is
calculated by temperature gradient is regarded as the
thermal boundary and density of heat flow is -0.0338665
W/m
2
. The lower boundary temperature is 50, and water
temperature of Initial seepage is 20 . The contact
boundary is supposed by the continuous boundary, and
other boundary condition for convection flux boundary
condition.
Initial condition: The head of seepage field is zero,
initial temperature of seepage 18 and rock 31.5.
(3) Simulation Results
For model with water-bearing formation, simulation
results of temperature are showed in Fig.2 when seepage
speed is 8e-8 m/s. To study the effect of seepage speed,
when seepage speed increases to 8e-7 m/s, simulation
results is showed in Fig.3.

Fig. 2. Temperature distribution when seepage speed is 8e-8 m/s.


Fig. 3. Temperature distribution when seepage speed is 8e-7 m/s.

In order to check reliability of model and parameters,
comparing results are listed in table 1 between test data and
simulation results.
Table 1: Comparison of test data and simulation results

In addition, geometric model is built to analyze the
influence of water-bearing formation to temperature field.
Using the same calculation condition, simulation result
without water-bearing formation is illustrated in Fig. 4. Its
isotherm is smooth around tunnel, and temperature vectors
show in diffusion surrounding tunnel center.
Test Site Test data / Simulation result /
Point 103 35.96 33.28
Point 104
37.53
36.07
Point 105
40.02
38.99
Point 204
37.08
36.26
Point 207
35.83
34.57

Shuguang Zhang et al.: Effect of Seepage on Temperature Field of Tunnel Surrounding Rock in Water-bearing Formation.
International Journal Publishers Group (IJPG)


3

Fig. 4. Temperature distribution without water-bearing formation.
4. Conclusion
Through analyzing the simulation of the temperature
distribution in surrounding rock of Panxi coal, seeing from
influence on temperature distribution under the seepage, we
can show that the temperature field belongs to type of
transfer-convection. In this temperature field, heat transfer
occurs between rock and fluid. Fluid can absorb or release
heat from rock, which results in the change of temperature
field.
By analyzing of simulation result in Fig.2, Fig.3 and
Fig.4, water-bearing formation plays an important part in
the process of heat transfer. Seepage in water-bearing
formation change Symmetrical state of temperature field. In
Fig.4, the temperature of groundwater is lower than
surrounding rock, so the heat of surrounding rock transmits
to the groundwater. Under the action of heat exchange, the
temperature of fluid gradually increases along the flow
direction. Above phenomenon also appears around
water-bearing formation in Fig.2 and Fig.3.
In Fig.2 and Fig.3, under the effect of seepage,
isotherm skewing occurs in surrounding rock. At the same
time, skewing value will enlarge along with the seepage
speed increasing. Because fluid temperature is lower than
surrounding rock, local temperature reduction area appears
in the upper left. For the left rock of the tunnel, effect of
seepage on distribution of temperature field is large. The
situation has improved with the rising temperature of fluid
the right rock of the tunnel.
In Table 1, the results of simulation is basic anastomotic
with the test. Therefore, simulation results show the
effectiveness of the proposed technique.
5. References
[1] Zhao jian, "Study of flow rock heat transfer in rock
fractures," (1999) Chinese journal of rock mechanics and
engineering, vol.18, no.2, pp.119-123.
[2] Zhao Yangsheng, Yang Dong, & Feng Zengchao, "Multi-
Field Coupling Theory of Porous Media and its Applications
to Resources and Energy Engineering," (2008) Chinese
journal of rock mechanics and engineering, vol.27, no.7,
pp.1321-1328.
[3] Shaik Abdul Ravoof, Rahman Sheik S., & Tran Nam H.,
"Numerical simulation of Fluid-Rock coupling heat transfer
in naturally fractured geothermal system," (2011) Applied
Thermal Engineering, vol.31, no.10, pp.1600-1606.
[4] K.M. Bower & G. Zyvoloski, "A numerical model for
thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling in fractured rock," (1997)
International journal of rock mechanics and mining sciences
& geomechanics abstracts, vol.34, no.8, pp.1201-1211.
[5] Podgorney Robert, Huang Hai, & Gaston Derek, "A
fully-coupled, implicit, finite element model for
simultaneously solving multiphase fluid flow, heat transport,
and rock deformation," (2010) Transactions-Geothermal
Resources Council, vol.34, no.1, pp.395-400.
[6] J. Rutqvist, Y.S. Wu, & C.F. Tsang, " A modeling approach
for analysis of coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transfer,
and deformation in fractured porous rock," (2002)
International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining
Sciences, vol.39, no.4, pp.429-442.
[7] Yuanming Lai, Xuefu Zhang, & Wenbing Yu, "Three-
dimensional nonlinear analysis for the coupled problem of
the heat transfer of the surrounding rock and the heat
convection between the air and the surrounding rock in
cold-region tunnel," (2005) Tunnelling and Underground
Space Technology, vol.20, no.4, pp.323-332.
[8] Xuefu Zhang, Wenbing Yu, Cheng Wang, & Zhiqiang Liu,
"Three-dimensional nonlinear analysis of coupled problem
of heat transfer in the surrounding rock and heat convection
between the air and the surrounding rock in the Fenghuo
mountain tunnel," (2006) Cold Regions Science and
Technology, vol.44, no.1, pp.38-51.
[9] Zhang Yujun "3D finite element simulation for influence of
thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling on migration in
geological disposal of nuclear waste," (2009) Rock and Soil
Mechanics, vol.30, no.7, pp. 2126-2132.
[10] Chen Xingzhou, Li Baoguo, & Dong Yuan, "Analysis of
water-rock heat transfer in fractured rock mass," (2007)
Northwest hydropower, no.3, pp.18-20.
[11] Sasaki Takeshi & Nagai Fumio, "Thermo-mechanical
consolidation coupling analysis and its discretization on
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[12] Wang Rubin, "A Coupled Model for Steady Heat and Fluid
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(2006) Disaster and Control Engineering, no.1, pp.65-70.

Shuguang Zhang was born in Shandong,
China, in 1974. He received the M.E. And
D.E. degrees from Liaoning Technical
University (LNTU) in 2001 and 2004,
respectively. He is the author or coauthor
of more than sixty national and
international papers and also collaborated
more than twenty research projects. He
currently is the professor. Since 1996 he
has been with the Department of Civil Engineering at LNTU. His
research interests include geoenvironmental engineering and
underground engineering.


Qiuling Zhou was born in Jiangsu,
China, in 1988. He received the B.E.
degree in civil engineering from LNTU in
2010. He is the author or coauthor of
more than ten national and international
papers and also collaborated in several
research projects. His current research
interests is geoenvironmental engineering.
He is currently pursuing his M.E. degree
in LNTU.