You are on page 1of 46

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

GEOTECHNICAL AND GEOENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CIVL 4121

Structural Design of Pavements


Martin Fahey School of Civil and Resource Engineering
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 1

References
1. AUSTROADS (2004). Pavement Design: A Guide to the Structural Design of Road Pavements. AUSTROADS Incorporated. (A version of this for on-line use has been placed in the Notes page. It is a restricted licence, with up to 12 users at a time being permitted).

See also: N:\CIVL4121 Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering\Pavement Design for the demonstration version of the CIRCLY program.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 2

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

What is a Pavement?
A pavement is usually a combination of several layers placed on top of an existing subgrade (usually soil) so that vehicle loads from traffic can be transmitted safely to the subgrade without failure or excessive damage (i.e, deformation, strain, cracking, rutting, etc.) that may affect the serviceability of the road during the design lifespan of the pavement In general, there are two main types of pavement
Flexible Pavement: The top course is Asphalt Rigid Pavement: The top course is Concrete

In WA, very little use is made of rigid pavements, so we will concentrate on Flexible Pavements Flexible pavements may consist of:
unbound granular layers only (with a thin asphalt or spray seal top layer providing water proofing and wearing resistance, but not contributing to the structural performance of the pavement) a combination of unbound granular layers, and bound granular layers, where the bound layer generally consists a thicker asphalt top course which contributes to the structural strength of the pavement, but may also include some cement-stabilised granular layers.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 3

Flexible Pavement
Conventional Flexible Pavements are layered systems with better materials on top where the intensity of stress is high and inferior materials at the bottom where the intensity is low. Adherence to this design principle makes possible the use of local materials and usually results in a most economical design. This is particularly true in regions where high-quality materials are expensive, but local materials of inferior quality are readily available. (Huang, 2004). Typical layers in a cross section of a conventional flexible pavement
Surface course Asphalt course Base course Subbase course Compacted subgrade Natural subgrade 25-50 mm 50-100 mm 100-300 mm 100-300 mm 150 mm

Seal coat Tack coat Prime coat

A combination of the above layers could be chosen for a specific pavement configuration
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 4

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

Flexible Pavements with only Unbound Granular Materials


In WA, most normal pavements do not have an asphalt layer as part of the structural system
there may still be a thin (<50 mm) coat of asphalt forming the sealing/wearing layer in many cases even this is omitted, and the sealing layer consists of a chipseal layer a layer of bitumen into which is rolled stone chips (as in many country roads) see example below

Structure comes from subgrade, sub-base and base courses Major highways and urban freeways will have a structural asphalt layer

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 5

What is Asphalt?
Asphalt (more correctly called asphaltic concrete) is similar to concrete a mix of gravel or crushed stone and sand with added binder except that the binder is bitumen (a petroleum product) rather than cement It is delivered (and laid) hot (hence hotmix) Note that bitumen, from petroleum, is not the same as tar, which is obtained from coal Originally tarmacadam after its inventor John Louden McAdam, from Scotland

www.asphaltwa.com/wapa_web/index.htm

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 6 Gas for re-heating the asphalt

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 7

Pavement Layers
The Seal Coat is a thin asphalt surface treatment used to waterproof the surface or to provide skid resistance where the aggregates in the surface course could be polished by traffic and become slippery. The Surface Course is the top course of an asphalt pavement, sometimes called the wearing course. It is usually constructed of dense graded BMA (Bio-Mastic Asphalt). It must be tough to resist distortion under traffic and provide a smooth and skidresistant riding surface. It must be waterproof to protect the entire pavement and subgrade from the weakening effect of water. If the above requirements cannot be met, the use of a seal coat is recommended. The Asphalt Course, sometimes called the (binder course), is the asphalt layer below the surface course. There are two reasons that a binder course is used in addition to the surface course. First, the Hot Mixed Asphalt (HMA) is too thick to be compacted in one layer, so it must be placed in two layers. Second, the binder course generally consists of larger aggregates and less asphalt and does not require as high a quality as the surface course, so replacing a part of the surface course by the binder course results in a more economical design. If the binder course is more than 75 mm, it is generally placed in two layers.
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 8

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

Pavement Layers (contd.)


A Tack Coat is a very light application of asphalt, usually asphalt emulsion diluted with water, used to ensure a bond between the surface being paved and the overlying course. It is important that each layer in an asphalt pavement be bonded to the layer below. Tack coats are also used to bond the asphalt layer to a PCC base or an old asphalt pavement. The three essential requirements of a tack coat are that it must be very thin, it must uniformly cover the entire surface to be paved, and it must be allowed to break or cure before the HMA is laid. A Prime Coat is an application of low-viscosity cutback asphalt to an absorbent surface, such as an untreated granular base on which an asphalt layer will be placed. Its purpose is to bind the granular base to the asphalt layer. The difference between a tack coat and a prime coat is that a tack coat does not require the penetration of asphalt into the underlying layer, whereas a prime coat penetrates into the underlying layer, plugs the voids, and forms a watertight surface. Although the type and quantity of asphalt used are quite different, both are spray applications.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 9

10

Pavement Layers (contd.)


The Base Course and Sub-base Course: The base course is the layer of material immediately beneath the surface or binder course. It can be composed of crushed stone, crushed slag, or other untreated or stabilized materials. The sub-base course is the layer of material beneath the base course. The reason that two different granular materials are used is for economy. Instead of using the more expensive base course material for the entire layer, local and cheaper materials can be used as a sub-base course on top of the subgrade. If the base course is open graded, the sub-base course with more fines can serve as a filter between the subgrade and the base course. Sometimes the base course could be cemented. The Subgrade is the natural in situ material. The top 150 mm of subgrade should be scarified and compacted to the desirable density near the optimum moisture content. This compacted subgrade may be the in-situ soil or a layer of selected material.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 10

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

11

Rigid Pavement
The main element of a rigid pavement is a reinforced concrete slab A thin layer of asphalt is often placed on top of the concrete course Rigid pavements are rare in WA, but are used elsewhere in Australia (NSW)

Portland cement concrete

150-300 mm 100-300 mm

Base or Subbase course may or may not be used

Natural subgrade

Typical cross section of a rigid pavement


CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 11

12

Rigid (Concrete) Pavement Construction

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 12

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

13

Flexible or Rigid Pavement?


There are numerous differences between flexible and rigid pavement in terms of:
load distribution modes of distress design construction overall performance and problems related to that.

Flexible pavements are modelled using layered theory Rigid pavements are modelled using plate theory

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 13

14

Flexible or Rigid Pavement?

Corner Break in Rigid Pavement

Fatigue cracking in Flexible Pavement

Reference: http://faculty.eng.fiu.edu/~cnunoo/classes/p_m&R/Lecture_01B-S05.pdf

Flexible pavements are dominant in WA, and hence will be our focus from now on
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 14

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

15

Compaction (of Soil and Asphalt)


Compaction of the underlying subgrade, and of each subsequent layer of the pavement, is a major part of pavement construction Compaction in general has been dealt with in an earlier part of this unit For pavement construction, compaction is generally specified in terms of Modified Compaction Compaction control (measurement of the degree of compaction) is vital for quality control of the pavement construction process The nuclear density metre is the most common method of compaction control in WA
requires stringent calibration procedures health-and-safety procedures are also rigid (because of the radioactive source in the instrument)

The aim is usually to achieve the highest possible density (this gives the highest strength and stiffness key parameters for pavement performance) Drying back (see Compaction notes) is often used
compaction to maximum possible density at about OMC (to give low permeability) allow drying to reduce water content (while density remains high)
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 15

16

Factors Affecting Field Compaction: (Asphalt)


Item Effect Smooth surface Round surface Absorptive
Low interparticle friction High interparticle friction Dries mix: difficult to compact

Correction
Use light roller, Lower mix temperature Use heavy roller Increase asphalt in mix

Aggregate

Asphalt
Viscosity High Low Quantity High Low
Unstable and plastic under roller Reduced lubrication difficult compaction Decrease asphalt in mix Increase asphalt in mix, Use heavy roller Particle movement restricted Particles move easily during compaction Use heavy roller, Increase temperature Use light roller, decrease temperature

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 16

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

17

Factors Affecting Field Compaction (Asphalt) [cont.]


Item Effect
Excess coarse aggregate Oversanded Too much filler Too little filler Harsh mix: difficult to compact Too workable: difficult to compact Stiffens mix: difficult to compact Low cohesion: mix may come apart

Correction
Reduce coarse aggregate; use heavy roller Reduce sand in mix; use light roller Reduce filler in mix; use heave roller Increase filler in mix

Mix

Mix Temperature
High Low Difficult to compact: mix lacks cohesion Difficult to compact: mix too stiff Decrease mixing temperature Increase mixing temperature

Course thickness
Thick layer Thin layer Hold heat: more time to compact Lose heat: less time to compact Roll normally Roll before mix cools; increase mix temperature

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 17

18

Challenges of Pavement Design


A pavement is a complex system, involving interaction between different layers A variety of materials are involved in a pavement, including unbound (granular), bound (cemented), asphalt, and concrete in addition to the in situ subgrade Traffic loads may vary significantly in terms of vehicles models, their loads and number and distribution of axles Properties of pavement materials are rate-dependent and hence vary with the impulsive nature of traffic loading A drastic assumption may need to be made (depending on the chosen model) in relation to material behaviour and stiffness anisotropy The presence of water in the pavement may affect the performance adversely Keeping water out of the pavement (including the subgrade) is a major design requirement
This is the function of drainage systems in a pavement, but will not be covered here due to time limitations

Material properties may be affected by climate temperature (hot or cold) and deteriorate under repeated loads (the bitumen in asphalt is a viscous material, so properties change with temperature)
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 18

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

19

Water & Pavements


Excluding water from the pavement (all layers of the pavement, including the subgrade) is a primary requirement of good pavement design Careful detailing of drainage, hard shoulders, etc is paramount to ensuring the design life of a pavement system

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 19

20

Main Elements involved in Pavement Design


The anticipated traffic loading over the design life of the pavement this is called The Design Traffic The properties of the in situ soil (the subgrade) The properties of the various materials used in constructing the layers of the pavement on top of the subgrade
the basic material properties the properties as placed (compacted)

DESIGN TRAFFIC SUBGRADE EVALUATION

STRUCTURAL DESIGN

PAVEMENT MATERIALS

Ref. Austroads Pavement Design Manual, P. 2.1

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 20

10

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

21

The Austroads Cookbook Approach to Pavement Design

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 21

22

Traffic Considerations: Summary


For normal highways, the only traffic that has an impact on design is truck traffic light vehicles (cars, car trailers, caravans, boats, etc) have no impact on the design
Reason: The magnitude of the damage caused by an axle load is proportional to the fourth power of the load: damage (L)4, where L is the axle load (For some types of damage, the powers are even higher 5, 7, 12 see later)

The wheels on a heavy vehicle are arranged on axles (which might have a single tyre at each end or dual tyres) Axles are arranged in groups (1, 2, 3 or 4 per group), as shown in the next slide; these are called Heavy Vehicle Axle Groups (HVAG) Loading over the design life of a road consists of a (very large) number of repetitions of each of these HVAGs Philosophy in the Austroads Code for design of Flexible Pavements is to convert the number of repetitions of each HVAG into the number of Standard Axle repetitions that cause the equivalent amount of damage as each of these HVAGs

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 22

11

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

23

Standard Axle
A Standard Axle is a single axle, dual tyre group (SADT) carrying a load of 80 kN, with a width between the dual tyres of 1800 mm. The Standard Axle is a single axle to which all other axles should be converted (for an equivalent effect). In calculating the design traffic for flexible pavements, the damage due to various axle groups under standard loads has to be converted into the number of Standard Axle Repetitions (SAR) that would cause the same damage Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA) is thus defined as the number of repetitions of this Standard Axle that would cause the same damage as a given vehicle or axle group (thus it is a unit of loading, whereas a Standard Axle is a physical entity). 330 mm 330 mm 80 kN

1800 mm
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 23

24

These do not count

1 SAST, 1 TADT, 2 TRDT

Traffic
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 24

12

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

25

Triple Road Train (on unsealed gravel road!)

B-Double

Multiple Trailer Road Train


CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 25

26

Heavy Vehicle Axle Groups (HVAG)


Axle Configuration Single axle, single tyres Single axle, dual tyres Tandem axle, single tyres Tandem axle, dual tyres Triaxle, dual tyres Quad axle, dual tyres Designation SAST SADT TAST TADT TRDT QADT SL: Standard Nominal load Load (kN) per tyre (kN) 53 80 90 130 181 221 26.5 20.0 22.5 16.3 15.1 13.8

These Standard Loads are the loads on each axle groups that cause the same damage as a standard axle (using the criterion that they cause the same deflection) Note the differences in equivalent nominal tyre load (due to the effect of overlapping loads)

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 26

13

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

27

Empirical Design Method


For pavements consisting of unbound layers, topped with a thin sealing bitumen layer Design traffic calculation of Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA) Method based on the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test to determine the elastic properties of the various components of the system
Direct measurement of CBR Indirect methods

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 27

28

Design Traffic for Flexible Pavements


When a load from a heavy vehicle is applied repetitively to the pavement it causes certain damage (cumulative strains in various layers of the pavement) For each repetition of this load, we can replace it with the standard axle load, but with a different number of repetitions, to induce the same damage. This number of repetitions is called SAR (Standard Axle Repetitions: nondimensional) Important definition: When the damage is taken as the overall damage that can occur in a granular pavement topped by a thin layer of asphalt, then the SAR is called the Equivalent Standard Axle (ESA). This is the quantity we will be using in the simple empirical design approach (following section). For a particular HVAG, the design ESA (the DESA) is given as:
DESA = (ESA/HVAG)NDT where NDT is the cumulative number of HVAGs (see later) Thus, calculation of DESA requires the average ESA per HVAG to be determined:

ESA = HVAG

L ij Pi Pij SL i all i, j

Note 4th power: 10% overload results in 46% increase in damage: (1.1)^4 = 1.46

Pi = the proportion of all Axle Groups that are of type i Pij = the proportion of all Axle Groups of type i that have loads of magnitude j Lij = load magnitude j on Axle Group i SLi = Standard Load for Axle Group of type i (see table previously)
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 28

14

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

29

Design of Flexible Pavement with no Structural Asphalt layer


This is the most basic type of design very straightforward empirical method Very widely used in WA for normal roads (i.e. roads where there is no structural asphalt layer) The factors in the design are:
the design traffic, in terms of Equivalent Standard Axles (ESA) the properties of the subgrade, expressed using the CBR (California Bearing Ratio) value the properties of the sub-base (if used) and the base course, again in terms of CBR

Much of flexible pavement design is based on the CBR test

Important Note (for later): ESA is used only in the empirical method, where the overall damage is related to the 4th power. In the Mechanistic Design method, fatigue damage to the various components is related to different powers (5, 7, 12) for each material type. In this case, the equivalent to ESA is SAR (standard axle repetitions).
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 29

30

California Bearing Ratio (CBR)


The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test is a simple strength test that compares the bearing capacity of a material with that of a well-graded crushed stone (thus, a high quality crushed stone material should have a CBR ~ 100%). It is primarily intended for, but not limited to, evaluating the strength of cohesive materials having maximum particle sizes less than 19 mm . It was developed by the California Division of Highways around 1930 and was subsequently adopted by numerous states, counties, U.S. federal agencies and internationally (including UK, Canada, Australia, NZ, etc). The basic CBR test involves applying load to a small penetration piston at a rate of 1.3 mm per minute and recording the total load at penetrations ranging from 0.5 mm up to 7.5 mm

CBR (%) =

Load at 0.25 mm penetration Load at 0.25 mm penetration for high - quality crushed rock

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 30

15

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

31

CBR Test (Contd.)


Some typical ranges of values of CBR
General Soil USC Soil Type CBR Range Type GW 40 - 80 GP 30 - 60 GM 20 - 60 Coarse-grained GC 20 - 40 soils SW 20 - 40 (> 75 m) SP 10 - 40 SM 10 - 40 SC 5 - 20 ML 15 or less CL wL < 50% 15 or less Fine-grained OL 5 or less soils MH 10 or less (< 75 m) CH wL > 50% 15 or less OH 5 or less
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 31

x CBR (%) = 100 y x= y=


material resistance or the unit load on the piston (pressure) for 2.5 mm or 5 mm of penetration standard unit load (pressure) for well graded crushed stone: for 2.5 mm penetration = 6.9 MPa for 5.0 mm penetration = 10.3 MPa

Though CBR is apparently a ratio of forces, in reality its a stiffness ratio, since it gives the ratio of forces required for a given penetration.

32

Field & Laboratory CBR Tests


CBR tests are carried out on compacted samples in the laboratory, or in the field Samples for laboratory CBR tests are prepared by compacting the soil to density and water content equivalent to those of the various layers in the pavement in situ conditions for the subgrade, and design densities for the basecoure and subbase course (with allowance for possible water uptake in service see soaking on next slide).

Laboratory CBR test setup. Note steel surcharge on the sample surface

In situ CBR test: rarely carried out (too slow, expensive)

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 32

16

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

33

Typical CBR Values


Typical CBR for Perth sand is 10%

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 33

34

Soaked CBR Tests


To allow for possible softening due to exposure to water, compacted samples may be soaked for various periods prior to CBR test. Soaking is carried out under a surcharge, and swelling is measured.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 34

17

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

35

Dynamic Cone Penetration Test for CBR


Dynamic Cone Penetration Test (DCP) used to find in situ CBR. Similar to Perth Sand Penetrometer, except for conical tip

Calibration should be checked for new projects against actual CBR tests

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 35

36

Clegg Hammer for CBR


Clegg Hammer, invented by Dr Baden Clegg at UWA in the 1970s, consists of a steel hammer (like a Modified Compaction hammer), equipped with an accelerometer. When dropped onto a compacted surface, from a predetermined height, it provides a direct readout of acceleration (deceleration), which is directly related to the ground stiffness This has been correlated with CBR : e.g. in WA, MRWA use the following correlation for cohesive soils: CBR = 0.06 x CIV2 + 0.52xCIV + 1 where CIV = Clegg Impact Value and CBR = California Bearing Ratio (%)

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 36

18

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

37

CBR and Clegg Impact Values (CIV) for some compacted soils

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 37

38

Design Procedure
This is the empirical design procedure Can be used only for flexible pavements, with unbound granular material and thin bituminous surfacing (spray chipseal, or thin asphalt seal) Can also use more sophisticated design (see mechanistic design later) This simple procedure very often used, at least in first pass design
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 38

19

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

39

Design of Flexible Pavement with no (structural) Asphalt Layer

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 39

40

Design Example
A granular pavement with a sprayed seal surface is to be constructed to carry 2 x 106 ESA. The subgrade (the in situ material) has a CBR = 3%. Materials available for the construction are shown in the table. Design chart shows the required total thickness over the subgrade with CBR = 3% is 560 mm Chart shows at least 145 mm of basecourse material required, leaving 410 mm of sub-base to choose In fact, could use a full 560 mm of basecourse material (but this would be very expensive!) Instead, use as much as possible of the cheapest available sub-base material (the pit rubble). Since it has a CBR = 10%, we can use it to fill up to the CBR-10 line. The next cheapest material has CBR = 25%. If we use this next, we can only use it to fill up to the CBR-25 line. This is just short of the CBR-30 line, so we can fill in this gap either with the quarry rubble (CBR = 40%) not practical to have thin layer (15 mm) - or simply use a slightly greater thickness of the basecourse material (i.e. about 160 mm ). Alternative (as shown) is to use the quarry rubble (CBR = 40%) to fill in between the pit rubble and the basecourse, allowing the minimum thickness of basecourse to be used

Pavement layer Crushed rock Quarry rubble Quarry waste Pit rubble

Assumed CBR 90% 40% 25% 10%

Material (mm) Basecourse Quarry rubble Quarry waste Pit rubble Total

Option 1 160 120 280 560

Option 2 145 135 280


CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 40

560

20

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

41

Design of Flexible Pavement with no (structural) Asphalt Layer

145 mm

Quarry rubble (CBR 40): 135 mm

280 mm Pit rubble (CBR 10): 560-280 = 280 mm Pit rubble

Total thickness: 560 mm

Subgrade

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 41

42

Mechanistic Design Method


Used with layered flexible pavement systems, including bound layers, asphalt layers, and unbound layers Based on a rigorous evaluation of elastic strains at critical locations under a single static load from a Standard Axle Requires values of elastic modulus for each layer
Can be directly measured, but generally obtained empirically

Damage to each layer evaluated in terms of the number of repetitions of the Standard Axle load (number of standard axle repetitions, NSAR) to cause fatigue failure (cracking) Check if the actual (design) number of repetitions is less than NSAR - if so, OK Looks rigorous, but:
Modulus values often empirically derived Calculating NSAR for each material type is very empirical: where K is related empirically to material stiffness is the strain calculated for a static load (above) b is a damage exponent, which varies from 5 to 12 !

K N SAR =

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 42

21

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

43

Mechanistic Design of Flexible Pavements


The purely empirical approach is very useful for routine design, where there are no bound layers (particularly no structural asphalt layer) A more fundamental approach is to consider the properties of the layers within the context of elastic theory, taking account of the strains induced by the wheel loading, and the fatigue characteristics of the various layers. This approach is called MECHANISTIC DESIGN Though the approach is founded in fundamental solid mechanics, the process specified in the Austroads Guide for determining the input parameters is generally quite empirical thus the Mechanistic Design approach is a mixture of empiricism and rigour Mechanistic design in the Austroads Code involves both testing procedures and empirical relationships for determining input parameters The design procedure uses the CIRCLY program (Wardle, 1977), from MinCad, to do the actual calculations CIRCLY has evolved to take account of the design requirements within the Austroads Code
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 43

44

Modes of Distress in Pavement Layers

High Severity Corrugation

High Severity Longitudinal Cracking

High Severity Transverse Cracking

Low Severity Patch

Reference: http://faculty.eng.fiu.edu/~cnunoo/classes/p_m&R/Lecture_01B-S05.pdf
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 44

22

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

45

Modes of Distress in Pavement Layers: Design Criteria


The basis of flexible pavement design is that the actual traffic volume over the design life of the pavement should not lead to any of the strains below exceeding given values.
Strains of interest in the design approach are: Tensile strain at bottom of the asphalt layer Tensile strain at bottom of any bound (cemented) layer Compressive strain at the top of the unbound (granular) base (?)* Compressive strain at the top of subgrade
Tensile and compressive strains in flexible pavement
* Not considered in Austroads code, or in CIRCLY
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 45

46

Critical Strain Locations in the Mechanistic Design Method


Failure of a flexible layered pavement system is considered to be due to strains at critical locations reaching a design limit. These locations are as shown:
-165 0 165 Co-ordinates (mm) assumed in CIRCLY 1635 1965

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 46

23

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

47

Elastic Parameters for Mechanistic Design


Mechanistic Design method is based on elastic layer theory the pavement materials are characterised by the elastic parameters Youngs Modulus E and Poissons Ratio . Values required for: Unbound granular material; Modified granular material (still treated as unbound); Bound (cemented material); Asphalt For unbound granular materials, elastic parameters are recognised to be anisotropic. In Mechanistic Design procedure, vertical stiffness is taken to be twice the horizontal stiffness for such materials i.e. Ev = 2 Eh Modulus of unbound granular materials depends on confining stress
In CIRCLY, this is allowed for by dividing granular layers into a number (up to 5) sublayers, with each assigned different stiffness values

Pavement materials are subjected to repeated loads, which tend to soften the response (i.e. reduce the stiffness) the relevant elastic modulus is called the resilient modulus, obtained from cyclic loading test: Er = Applied vertical stress Resilient vertical strain
the portion of the vertical strain that is recovered when the stress is removed

The resilient modulus for the top granular layer is determined either:
by direct measurement, using a special cyclic triaxial test, where the sample is prepared in a representative state, and subjected to repeated loading at the appropriate stress level Correlation with CBR values (e.g. Ev (MPa) = 10 CBR(%) by using presumptive values, as shown in the following tables (from Austroads, 2004)

E values for lower sublayers are assigned according to the CIRCLY procedures (i.e. taking account of stress level, and stiffness of overlying and underlying layers) see later Pavement Design: 47 CIVL4121:

48

Back-analysis of Pavement Stiffnesses: Falling Weight Deflectometer


The magnitude and shape of pavement deflection is a function of traffic (type and volume), pavement structural section, temperature affecting the pavement structure and moisture affecting the pavement structure. Thus, many characteristics of a HMA pavement can be determined by measuring its deflection in response to load. Surface deflection is measured as a pavement surface's vertical deflected distance as a result of an applied (either static or dynamic) load. The more advanced measurement devices record this vertical deflection in multiple locations, which provides a more complete characterization of pavement deflection. The area of pavement deflection under and near the load application is collectively known as the "deflection basin". The most common type of measurement equipment is the falling weight deflectometer (FWD). The FWD can either be mounted in a vehicle or on a trailer and is equipped with a weight and several velocity transducer sensors. To perform a test, the vehicle is stopped and the loading plate (weight) is positioned over the desired location. The sensors are then lowered to the pavement surface, the weight is dropped, and the surrounding pavement vertical deflection is recorded.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 48

24

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

49

Back-analysis of Pavement Stiffnesses: Benkelman Beam


The Benkelman Beam, developed at the Western Association of State Highway Organizations (WASHO) Road Test in 1952, is a simple device that operates on the lever arm principle. The Benkelman Beam is used with a loaded truck - typically 80 kN on a single axle with dual tires inflated to 480 to 550 kPa. Measurement is made by placing the tip of the beam between the dual tires and measuring the pavement surface rebound as the truck is moved away. The Benkelman Beam is low cost but is also slow, labor intensive and does not provide a deflection basin.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 49

50

Presumptive Values of Elastic Values for Unbound Granular Materials

Similar tables in the Code for other types of materials

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 50

25

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

51

Cement-Treated Layers
Flexible pavements (with upper asphalt layer) often contain cement-treated granular layers cemented material
separated from asphalt layer by uncemented material, to avoid reflection cracking (cracks in the cemented layer reflecting through to the asphalt layer

In Mechanistic Design, parameters required for cemented materials are:


elastic modulus of the cemented material a fatigue cracking relationship, to relate the applied tensile strain to the number of load repetitions to cause cracking the post cracking modulus is also required cracking of the cemented layer does not mean the pavement has failed (hence the comment about preventing cracks from being reflected to the asphalt layer) asphalt granular material

cemented material

subgrade

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 51

52

Properties of Bound (Cemented) Materials Determination of Modulus


One of the following methods is used: 1. Direct measurement using a flexural beam test (Why Flexural?) 2. Modulus correlations with UCS*
Eflex = k UCS (in MPa) where UCS = Unconfined Compressive Strength in MPa (after 28 days) k = 1000 - 1250

3.

Assigning presumptive values

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 52

26

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

53

Fatigue
The approach used in Austroads for determining the fatigue life (the number of load repetitions to failure) for each material (layer) is as follows: Determine the strain () in the critical locations (as illustrated previously) under the (static) application of the standard axle The fatigue life of the various materials is then represented by an equation of the form: b

K N SAR =

Note: Austroads 2004 calls this N; I have added the subscript SAR to avoid confusion

NSAR = allowable number of repetitions of the load (i.e. allowable SAR) = strain from application of the standard axle (horizontal tensile strain in bound layers; vertical compressive strain in unbound layers K= the fatigue constant - material property (usually related to modulus) b= the damage exponent of the material Damage Type Fatigue of asphalt Fatigue of cemented materials Rutting and shape loss (subgrade) Damage exponent, b 5 12 7

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 53

54

Fatigue in Cemented Materials


The Austroads relationship for cemented materials is:

N SAR

113000 + 191 0.804 = RF E

12

exponent b = 12 NSAR =
= E= RF = allowable number of SAR (repetitions of the standard axle load tensile strain at base of cemented layer produced by the static load (in microstrain) cemented material modulus (MPa) reliability factor for cemented materials fatigue

After fatigue cracking: material is treated as granular material with the following properties: Ev = 500 MPa; = 0.35; Ev = 2 Eh The remaining fatigue life of the pavement is then calculated, with fatigue in the asphalt and in the subgrade being the governing criteria
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 54

27

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

55

Fatigue in Cemented Materials


According to Austroads, 2004:
The Project Reliability is the probability that the pavement, when constructed to the chosen design, will outlast its Design Traffic before major rehabilitation is required

Hence it is a measure of how important the project is


TABLE 50

Road class Freeway Highway: lane AADT > 2000 Highway: lane AADT 2000 Main Road: lane AADT > 500 Other Roads: lane AADT 500

Project reliability % 95-97.5 90-97.5 85-95 85-95 80-90


CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 55

AADT: Average Annual Daily Traffic

56

Properties of Asphalt: Determination of modulus


WMAPT (C) One of the following methods is used: 1. Lab testing (indirect tensile test) (e.g., Marshal test) 2. From Bitumen properties and mix volumetric properties using Shell nomographs (will be used here) 3. Using published data
Asphalt modulus varies with pavement temperature (because of the viscous nature of bitumen). The Shell Nomograph requires the operating temperature at the site. Austroads (Appendix 6.1) gives tables of Weighted Mean Average Pavement Temperatures (WMAPT) for a wide range of locations in Australia and NZ. The table for WA is shown here. Modulus values obtained from laboratory testing must also be corrected for temperature, and for traffic speed (impulse loading duration), and for air voids.
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 56

28

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

57

Asphalt Modulus (Ev): Corrections to Lab Values


Air voids (AV) Temperature

Vehicle speed

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 57

=E of bitumen binder

58

Asphalt Modulus: Shell Nomographs


Two main steps are involved: 1. Determine modulus of the bitumen binder 2. Determine modulus of the asphalt mixture
Note: 1. 2. All parameters are explained on the chart See example on the chart
Assume = 1/V, where V is heavy vehicle design speed (in km/hr)

Perth: 58 29 = 29: SB ~ 20 MPa Kununarra: 58 42 = 16 : SB ~ 2 MPa

3 2

Step 1

WMAPT (C)

The Penetration Test measures the distance a weighted (100g) needle sinks into bitumen in five seconds. T800pen is the temperature at which the needle will penetrate 80 mm.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 58

29

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

59

Deriving Input Values A, PI and T800penfor Shell Nomograph

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 59

60

Step 2 (Shell Nomograph)


Determine modulus of the asphalt mixture
require the relative volumetric proportions of aggregate (Vg), bitumen binder (Vb), and air (AV) typical air voids 5-10% in the example, Vb = 11% (bitumen) and Vg = 82% (aggregate) using the value of 20 MPa for Ebitumen (i.e. SB) from Step 1, the result is a mix modulus of 3000 MPa this value is already corrected for vehicle speed and temperature (WMAPT) this modulus is referred to as Smix in the asphalt fatigue equation. Note: If we used the SB value of 2 MPa (Kununurra), modulus would be about 10 times less probably means this bitumen is not suitable for the North of Australia
3000

E of bitumen binder (from Step 1)

Step 2

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 60

30

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

61

Asphalt: Modulus values from Published Data

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 61

62

Asphalt: Fatigue Criterion


6981 (0.856VB + 1.08) K N SAR = RF = RF 0.36 (Smix )
NSAR = = VB = RF = Smix =
5 5

exponent = 5 (c.f. 12 for cemented material)

allowable number of SAR (repetitions of the standard axle load) tensile strain at base of asphalt produced by a single application of the load (in micro-strain) percentage by volume of bitumen in the asphalt mix (%) Reliability factor for asphalt fatigue (different from cemented materials) Table 6.13 Asphalt modulus (MPa) e.g. from Shell Nomograph

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 62

31

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

63

Asphalt: Fatigue Criterion

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 63

64

Permanent Deformation (Rutting) of Subgrade


N SAR 9300 =
7

exponent = 7 (c.f. 12 for cemented material; 5 for asphalt)

NSAR = allowable number of SAR (repetitions of the standard axle load) = compressive strain produced by a single repetition of the load (in micro-strain) (Note: No reliability factor RF for subgrade fatigue) This gives the allowable number of repetitions of the standard axle load to produce permanent rutting in the subgrade (which reflects upwards as permanent rutting of the pavement)
Note: In Austroads 2004, the subgrade is the only non-cemented granular material to be considered to have a finite fatigue life. Thus, while other granular layers in the pavement are part of the CIRCLY analysis, the strains in such layers are not considered, and not even reported by CIRCLY. For any cemented granular layer, once the fatigue life has been calculated, the post-fatigue calculation assumes this is a granular layer, which is treated like any other granular layer (but is not sublayered)
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 64

32

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

65

Fatigue Relationships - General


Form of fatigue relationship for asphalt (left) and cemented granular material (centre) shows that both stiffness (Smix for asphalt, and E for cemented material) and strain () are below the line. If these stiffnesses were not raised to a power, we would have stiffness strain = stress. So, in a crude sense, the allowable number of repetitions of SAR for each case is inversely proportional to the applied stress as would be expected.
Asphalt, allowable SAR : 6981 (0.856VB + 1.08) N SAR = RF (Smix ) 0.36
5

Cemented, allowable SAR : 113000 E 0.804 + 191 = RF


12

Subgrade, allowable SAR : 9300 N SAR =


7

N SAR

These relationships give the allowable number of SAR (standard axle repetitions) for each material. This is not the same as ESA. Presumptive relationships between ESA and SAR are presented later (Table 7.8, Slide 67).

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 65

66

Austroads Approach: ESA & SAR


Calculate N (i.e. allowable NSAR) for each material, as in previous slide. Calculate the design traffic in terms of ESA (i.e. DESA), and converts this into design SAR (DSAR), which is different for each material type (see Slide 67): Asphalt: DSARa = 1.1 DESA Cemented: DSARc = 12 DESA (it is only coincidence that this is same as damage exponent) Subgrade: DSARs = 1.6 DESA Thus, for a given DESA say 107 the DSAR for the three materials would be different: Asphalt: DSARa = 1.1 107 Cemented: DSARc = 12 107 = 1.2 108 Subgrade: DSARs = 1.6 107 The damage is expressed as the design SAR (DSAR) compared to the allowable SAR (NSAR). CIRCLY uses the term cumulative damage factor (CDF) to express this. If CDF for a layer is less than 1, this layer will not fail for the design traffic. DSAR For each material, Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF): CDF =

N SAR

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 66

33

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

67

Damage Exponents, and Presumptive Design Ratios

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 67

68

Calculation of Design Traffic for Flexible Pavement Design Step 1: Calculate the number of heavy vehicles for the most highly trafficked lane on the road
(On many highways, heavy truck traffic mostly uses the left-hand land, so this lane dictates the pavement design)

The equation to derive the Design Traffic (NDT) in cumulative heavy vehicle axle groups (HVAG) traversing the design lane during the specified period (NDT = Number of HVAG)

NDT = 365 (AADT DF) %HV/100 NHVAG LDF CGF


where AADT = %HV = NHVAG = DF = LDF = CGF = Annual Average Daily Traffic in vehicles (all vehicles, light and heavy) per day in the first year; average percentage of all traffic comprising Heavy Vehicles average number of Axle Groups per Heavy Vehicle; Direction Factor is the proportion of the two-way AADT travelling in the direction of the design lane; Lane distribution factor (the proportion of traffic in that direction travelling in the design lane) Cumulative Growth Factor

NDT is the design number of HVAG for the design life of the road. Empirical method of Flexible Pavement design requires extra step derive DESA from NDT
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 68

34

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

69

Calculation of Design Traffic for Flexible Pavement Design


Determination of AADT: This will be determined from historical data in the design area, or from vehicle surveys Determination of %HV: This will be determined from historical data in the design area, or from vehicle surveys Determination of NHVAG: This will be determined from historical data in the design area, or from the following Presumptive values

Determination of DF: DF = 0.5 for a two-way road and 1.0 for a one way road Determination of LDF:

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 69

70

Calculation of Design Traffic for Flexible Pavement Design


80 CGF: Cumulative Growth Factor 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 P: Time (yr) 30 40 1% 2% 3%

Determination of CGF (Cumulative Growth Factor): P

CGF =

(1 + 0.01R ) 1 for R >0 0.01R = P for R = 0

P = design period = 20-40 years for flexible pavement (unless otherwise reasoned) R = Annual growth (%)

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 70

35

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

71

WIM (Weigh-in-Motion): The Culway System


Culverts instrumented with strain gauges, to give weights of vehicles crossing the culvert. One of a number of WIM systems.
ARRB: Australian Road Research Board

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 71

72

Traffic Data from WIM sites for WA

WIM: Weigh In Motion: culverts that are instrumented, to provide vehicle weight data

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 72

36

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

73

Step 2: Calculation of Design Traffic: DSAR


In the empirical method of flexible pavement design, we used the ESA (equivalent standard axle) concept an ESA being the number of load repetitions of a Standard Axle to cause the same damage as the actual HVAG. This conversion is based on the assumption that damage in the overall sense to the pavement is governed by the 4th power law: Pi = the proportion of all Axle Groups that are of type i

ESA = HVAG

L ij Pi Pij SL i all i, j

Pij = the proportion of all Axle Groups of type i that have loads of magnitude j Lij = load magnitude j on Axle Group i SLi = Standard Load for Axle Group of type i (see table previously)

This information comes from the Traffic Load Distribution (TLD), which is obtained either from weight measurements, or from presumptive values (see presumptive values for TLDs for urban and rural roads on next slide). In Mechanistic Design, we consider the damage to the individual components, and we have seen that the damage exponent is different for each damage mode (tension in asphalt layer, tension in cemented layers, compression in the subgrade) The equivalent quantity for mechanistic design is SAR (Standard Axle Repetitions) and DSAR, which differs for each component: DSARa (asphalt); DSARs (subgrade rutting); DSARc (cemented layers). These SAR are related to ESA using different factors for each damage type, as outlined previously (see also next slide)
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 73

74

Comparing SAR and ESA

Example: Rural highway, say NDT calculation gives NDT = 5 107 (i.e. cumulative HVAG) ESA = NDT ESA/HVAG = 5 107 0.9 = 4.5 107 For asphalt: SARa = ESA (SARa/ESA) = 4.5 107 1.1 = 4.95 107 For subgrade: SARs = ESA (SARs/ESA) = 4.5 107 1.6 = 7.2 107 For cemented layers: SARc = ESA (SARc/ESA) = 4.5 107 12 = 5.4 108 Because of the different fatigue damage exponents (5, 7, 12) for each material type, for a given total design traffic (given number of HVAG), the equivalent number of repetitions of the standard axle (SAR) is different for each material type. Thus, for 5 107 HVAG, have to design cemented layer to take 5.4 108 standard axle repetitions, but have to design asphalt to take only 4.95 107 standard axle repetitions.
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 74

37

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

75

Design Approach

Calculate the design traffic in terms of the number of design equivalent standard axles, DESA Calculate the design SAR (i.e. DSAR) for each material from DESA, using appropriate factor Choose a pavement structure (number of layers and layer thicknesses) Assign stiffness values to each layer (or sublayer, as shown later) Using layered elastic theory (i.e. the CIRCLY program), calculate the strains at the critical points (tensile strains in bound layers, and vertical compressive strain in the subgrade) under a single static application of the Standard Axle Use these strains to calculate the allowable number of SAR for each material, using the generic formula: b K Allowable number of SAR = N SAR =
Compare allowable SAR (NSAR) to the design SAR (DSAR) If all design DSAR allowable NSAR, pavement is OK. If not, change one or more layers until this condition is met. In CIRCLY, this is expressed as the Cumulative Damage Factor (CDF) for each layer:

CDF =

DSAR N SAR

Optimisation involves choosing layer thickness such that the allowable ESA for each layer is as close as possible to the design ESA.
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 75

76

Design Approach (Contd.): Pre- and Post-Cracking


Because of the severe damage exponent in the fatigue relationship for cemented layers (12), a cemented layer often fails at much lower SAR than the asphalt and subgrade layers. However, this is not the end of the pavement, since the cemented layer, postcracking, is considered to continue to act as an unbound granular layer, with Ev = 500 MPa, Eh = 0.5Ev and = 0.35. (This is not sublayered). The approach is:
use CIRCLY to find the strains for the pavement containing the original cemented layer, and, from this, find the NSAR for all layers, including the cemented layer (this is the 1st layout) repeat the CIRCLY calculation, but now treating the cemented layer as cracked (i.e. unbound), with the above elastic parameters, and again find NSAR for each material in this pavement (this is the 2nd layout) convert all NSAR to NESA using the appropriate multiplier for both of these cases combine the 1st layout and 2nd layout results, to calculate the total fatigue life of the asphalt and subgrade layers, as follows (equation 8.5 in Austroads 2004):

NC NC N A = NC + N 2 ndA and N S = N C + N 2 ndS 1 N 1 N 1 stA 1 stS


NA and NS are the total allowable ESA for asphalt and subgrade, respectively. NC is the allowable ESA for cemented layer (1st layout), N1stA and N2ndA are the numbers of ESA for the asphalt using the 1st and 2nd layouts, respectively. Similarly, N1stS and N2ndS are the numbers of ESA for the subgrade using the 1st and 2nd layouts, respectively. (See Austroads 2004, Appendix 8, section A8.3.2 for example of application of this procedure)
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 76

38

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

77

Modelling Wheel Loads for Determination of Stresses and Strains


Footprint of a single tyre

Tyre load (P)

0.3

0.6 L

Tyre Pressure, q

L Actual Area (Ac) = 0.5227 L2

Contact Pressure Contact Pressure Tyre Pressure

Actual Area (Ac) = Tyre load/ Tyre Pressure = P / q


The Standard Axle modelled in CIRCLY as 4 circular uniformly loaded patches, with 750 kPa vertical pressure, and radius 92.1 mm, which equates to 80 kN equally distributed to the four circular patches.
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 77

78

Stresses and Strains in a Flexible Pavement

Vertical (normal) stress Assumptions (Boussinesque solution) 1. Linear elastic, isotropic, homogeneous half space 2. Circular loaded area
Not directly applicable to anisotropic layered materials, but diagram gives a representative picture of vertical stress (normalised by the applied surface pressure q) reducing below the centreline of the load (r/a = 0), and also the variation at different radii away from the centre of the loaded area.
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 78

Notations

39

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

79

Design of New Flexible Pavements: Critical


1800 mm 330 mm 330 mm

Strains

Unit stress (750 kPa)

1 2 3 3
1. 2. 3. Critical locations

Asphalt Granular material Cemented material Tensile strain at bottom of asphalt Tensile strain at bottom of cemented material Compressive strain at top of subgrade

Standard Axle
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 79

80

Sublayering of Granular Material for Damage Calculation


The modulus of granular materials depends not only on the intrinsic characteristics of these materials, but also on the stress level at which they operate and the stiffness of the underlying layers. Because of the varying stress levels within an individual granular (i.e. uncemented) layer, these layers must be divided into 5 sublayers.
For granular materials placed directly on to a stiff cemented sub-base, no sublayering is required. This allows full advantage to be derived from good-quality granular basecourse materials

In case of sublayering the following procedures should be followed:


Divide the total thickness of the selected granular layer into 5 equal-thickness sublayers Ev of the top sublayer of the granular layer is the lower of E = 10 times the design CBR of the selected granular material and E determined using the following Equation

E v top granular sublayer = E v subgrade x 2

(total granular thickness/120)

The ratio of moduli of adjacent (i.e. underlying) sublayers is determined using the following equation 1 5 v top granular sublayer

E R= E subgrade

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 80

40

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

81

Sublayering of Granular Material ... (Contd.)


The modulus of each sublayer may then be calculated from the modulus of the adjacent underlying sublayer, beginning with the in situ subgrade, the modulus of which is known. For all granular materials, the other stiffness parameters required for each sublayer may be calculated from the following relationships: EH = 0.5 EV f = EV / (1 + V). Note: Sublayering for granular layers is not required if the granular layer rests directly on a cemented subbase layer. This is one of the big advantages of placing a cemented layer lower in the profile, rather than directly below the asphalt layer. See example later.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 81

82

Sublayering of Granular Material for Damage Calculation


Example: A road is to be constructed in which there will be a granular layer of 475 mm thickness on top of the in situ subgrade. The subgrade has a CBR value of 5. Determine the elastic parameters to be used in design, assuming a high-standard crushed rock for the granular material Solution: 1. Subgrade: CBR = 5, then Ev = 10 CBR = 50 MPa EH = 0.5 EV = 25 MPa, v = H = 0.45

f = Ev/(1+v) = 34.5 MPa

2. Sub-base: Top granular sublayer (1st of 5 sublayers): Minimum of: a) EV top of base = Ev subgrade 2 (total granular thickness/125)= (50) (2)(475/125) = 696 MPa b) EV top of base = 500 MPa (see Table 6.3, Slide 50 in these notes using High Standard Crushed Rock) Then, Ev minimum = 500 MPa Let us now subdivide the granular material into five layers and calculate the elastic parameters for each layer.
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 82

41

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

83

Sublayering of Granular Material for Damage Calculation


E R = v top granular sublayer E subgrade
1 5

Ratio of modulus of an underlying layer: R = (500/50)(1/5) = 1.585


Depth above subgade (mm) 475 380 285 190 95 0 Thickness mm 95 95 95 95 95 95 Ev (MPa) 500 316 199 126 79 50 = 199 * 1.585 = 126* 1.585 = 79 * 1.585 = 50 * 1.585 Remarks Ev = Ev (below) * R

Fifth (Final) sublayer of granular material Fourth sublayer of granular material Third layer of granular material Second sublayer of granular material First sublayer of granular material Subgrade

Note: One of the big advantages of placing a cemented layer lower in the profile (below a granular layer), is that, in such cases, sublayering of the granular layer is not required. Thus, in the example above, sublayering forces the reduction of the modulus of a good quality base material in the lower 4 sublayers. However, if this layer rested directly on a cemented layer, sublayering is not required, so that the full thickness of the granular material can be assigned the same value as the top sublayer in a sublayered system 500 MPa in this case. CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 83

84

Sublayering of Granular Material for Damage Calculation


0 100 200

Vertical modulus (MPa)


300

400

500

600

500 Depth of top of sublayer (mm) from Subgrade 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 50 79 126 199 315

Sublayer Sublayer Sublayer Sublayer Sublayer Subgrade

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 84

42

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

85

Mechanistic Design Procedures: Input Requirements (Table 8.1(a))


1. Select a trial pavement and a desired project reliability 2. Determine the following elastic parameters for the in situ subgrade and selected subgrade materials: EV ; EH = 0.5 EV; V = H; f = EV / (1 + V)

3. Determine the elastic parameters (as above) of the top sublayer of the granular layer (if relevant) 4. Determine the elastic parameters and thickness of the other granular sublayers (if relevant)
(The Granular layer should be divided into 5 sublayers and a special interpolation is made for the modulus of each of these sublayers between the subgrade and the top sublayer)

5. Determine the elastic parameters for cemented materials, pre- and post-cracking 6. Determine the elastic parameters for asphalt 7. Use the subgrade fatigue criterion to calculate the allowable NSAR for the subgrade 8. Use the fatigue strain criterion for a cemented layer to calculate the allowable NSAR for this layer 9. Use the fatigue strain criterion for an asphalt layer to calculate the allowable NSAR for the asphalt 10. Determine design number of SAR for each relevant distress mode (i.e. DSARa, DSARc, DSARs for the asphalt, cemented layer, and subgrade, respectively)

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 85

86

Mechanistic Design Procedures: Analysis (Table 8.1(b))


11. Approximate the Standard Axle wheel loading as four uniformly loaded circular areas at centre-tocentre spacings of 330 mm, 1470 mm and 330 mm; a vertical load of 20 kN is applied to each circular area at a uniform vertical stress distribution of 750 kPa. * Radius of each loaded area R = 2523p 0.5 (about 92.1 mm for highway traffic), where R = radius (mm) and p = vertical stress (kPa). 12. Determine critical locations in the pavement for the calculation of strains as follows: * bottom of each asphalt or cemented layer * top of in situ subgrade and top of selected subgrade materials. * on vertical axes through the centre of an inner wheel load and through a point midway between the two wheel loads at a centre-to-centre spacing of 330 mm. 13. Input the above values into CIRCLY and determine the maximum vertical compressive strain at the top of the subgrade and top of selected subgrade materials and the maximum horizontal tensile strain at the bottom of each cemented and/or asphalt layer. If the post-fatigue cracking phase of cemented materials life is being considered, the calculation is repeated, using the post-cracked material parameters for the cemented layer (Ev = 500 MPa = 2Eh; = 0.35)

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 86

43

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

87

Mechanistic Design Procedures: Interpretation (Table 8.1(c))


14. Determine using the criteria selected in Steps 7, 8 and 9 the allowable number of SAR (Standard Axle Repetitions) for each of the relevant distress modes. If the post-cracking phase of cemented materials life is being considered, calculate the total allowable loading of the pre-cracking and post-cracking phases of life. 15. For each distress mode, compare allowable number of SAR (NSAR) with the design number of SAR (DSAR) 16. If, for all distress modes, the allowable number of SAR exceeds the design number of SAR (DSARa, DSARs, DSARc) the pavement is acceptable. If not, it is unacceptable. (In CIRCLY, this is expressed as Cumulative Damage Factor, CDF, for each layer: if CDF 1, that layer is OK. 17. If the pavement is unacceptable or additional pavement configurations are required for comparison, select a new trial pavement, return to Step 1 and repeat Steps 1 to 16. 18. Compare alternative acceptable designs for economic assessment.

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 87

88

EXAMPLE: Design of New Flexible Pavements


Ensure that you have downloaded this solved example from the website
Note: We use CIRCLY in this example. The example is similar to that in Appendix 8.3, Section A8.3.2, except that I have used a different thickness of cemented layer, so that the total pavement thickness (t) above the subgrade falls within the range of thicknesses that can be analysed by the demonstration version of CIRCLY: i.e.:

t = 280 mm 421 < t < 499 mm t = 580 mm

The example involves a flexible pavement (499 mm thick), with:


Asphalt: 175 mm Cemented granular material: 124 mm Granular base: 200 mm Subgrade

We will show that, for this pavement, the post-cracked phase is the most important. Also, we can show that putting the cemented layer below the granular base gives a much greater life, for the reasons explained earlier.
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 88

44

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

89

Main Roads in WA
What ratios of MRWA pavement construction are of the following types (I am assuming that practically 100% is flexible pavement): (a) full pavement where the asphalt is part of the structural system ~ 0.05% (b) full pavement where there is minimum asphalt cover (40 mm or less ?) ~5% almost all in the metro area, some in major urban centres such as Albany and other sites are steep grades and intersections subject to heavy vehicles turning movements (c) full pavement where there is only a spray seal / chipseal, but no asphalt ~92% (d) unsealed pavement ~3% of the 37,445 lane km Is it the case that that (a) is only used for major urban freeways/highways, or is it also used for major rural highways? Rural asphalt is typically only short lengths of 30mm or 40mm thickness at intersections - type (b) above. Type (a) would be very rare in regional areas. The attraction is not so much the structural properties or long life, it is the rapid construction time that reduces the traffic control costs and other fixed overheads typically incurred with granular construction. Processes such as mixing, surface finishing and trimming, drying back layers before placing the next layer or applying a prime seal are all take time and drying back layers is only effective in warm dry conditions. Rain events can prolong the time required. Do you have a notional cost per m2 of these pavement types (I know this depends on many factors, including pavement thickness, so just some general figures would be fine - or even figures that were in terms of thickness)? The average cost of metropolitan pavements is $1.6M / lane km and regional costs would be in the order of $300, 000 / lane km. How commonly do you use a cemented layer somewhere in the pavement (that is, apart from an asphalt layer)? It it's used, is it always separated from the asphalt layer by an unbound granular layer, or is it directly below the asphalt layer (or seal)? We do routinely stabilise pavement materials with cement and lime to improve the properties of marginal material (usually after failure but sometimes at initial construction) or basecourse that will be used in poor drainage conditions. Those pavements are still considered as unbound layers with UCS values < 1MPa and modulus < about 1000MPa. Rural pavement repairs typically comprise in situ stabilisation of 200mm of pavement with 2% LH cement. We have very recently constructed a short length of bound pavement under 175mm of asphalt at Leach /Orrong intersection as a construction expedience to allow traffic to be shifted and structural works to proceed. It is very much the exception. 175mm is the minimum thickness of asphalt over a bound layer recommended by Austroads.

(Thanks to Ross Keeley, MRWA, for supplying this information in response to my questions)
CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 89

90

Road Statistics for WA (National, MRWA, and Local Authority)

Note:

Most roads (in terms of total length) are local authority roads Most main roads are sealed Most local roads (in terms of km) are unsealed The average age of main road pavements is 29 years, with the seals having average age of 11 Pavement years Design: 90 CIVL4121:

45

Geotechnical & GeoEnvironmental Engineering CIVL4121

Pavement Design

91

HIPAVE: Version of CIRCLY for Heavy Industrial Pavements

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 91

92

APSDS: Version of CIRCLY for Airport Pavement Design

CIVL4121: Pavement Design: 92

46