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Forest Residues Transportation Costing Model Introduction The Forest Residues Transportation Model is a spreadsheet calculator designed to help

you compare alternative methods of moving biomass from the forest to a wood-using facility. It will let you: 1) estimate loading and hauling costs for different combinations of equipment 2) evaluate the best mix (numbers and types) of equipment 3) compare different hauling routes 4) examine reloading, or two-stage hauling opportunities You can use default values for basic comparisons or input your own numbers to examine specific projects. The model will NOT give actual costs for these operations because it does not include factors such as profit and overhead. It is intended to represent a relative comparison among options.

Basic Operation The model has 6 separate pages: Production, Costs, "Definitions", "How to Use", "Equipment" and Intermediate Values. Click on the labeled tabs at the bottom of the page to move from one section to another. The Production page is the final report that will summarize all the inputs and results. You can type over anything that is in white boxes to enter your own information. If you click on any "radio buttons" (the empty dots) for selections, the program will enter numbers automatically for you. (This may replace numbers you have already entered) To print a copy of your analysis, select "File", "Print" and either "Active Sheet" or "Entire Workbook" To save a unique copy of your analysis, select "File", "Save as", and enter a new name

Running a Scenario 1. Start on the Production page and type in a Project name and a description of your scenario. 2. Describe the transportation route (distance) for 1st Stage hauling and 2nd Stage hauling. 1st Stage transport is from the woods to a reload or processing location, 2nd Stage transport takes the final product on to the mill. If you are evaluating a single-stage operation that transports from woods to mill on the same vehicle, only enter mileage in the 2nd Stage column. At this point, you may also revise the average travel speeds to reflect local experience. 3. Select the equipment using the option buttons. You can see examples of the various machines on the "Equipment" page. When you select machines, the default values for cost calculations are automatically entered on the "Costs" page. Check the "Costs" page and make any adjustments that are appropriate for your application. 5. On the "Production" page, look at the System Balance Table. Change the number of machines assigned to each function to get better system balance, or to reflect the actual allotment of equipment. 6. When you have optimized your scenario, you can print the results. File--Print--Active Sheet

Advanced Operation 1. Changing default equipment. The default values for all of the equipment options are saved on the "Intermediate Values" page. This page has four columns for loader options, three columns for processing options, and three columns for trucking options. Clicking the selection buttons on the "Production" page simply copies the information from the appropriate columns on the

processing options, and three columns for trucking options. Clicking the selection buttons on the "Production" page simply copies the information from the appropriate columns on the "Intermediate Values" page to the correct places on other pages. If you want to customize the program so the default values reflect your own equipment, go to the "Intermediate Values" page and unprotect the worksheet [Tools--Protection--Unprotect Sheet]. With the protection off you can change the default values. Turn the protection back on [ Tools-Protection--Protect Sheet] to avoid accidentally overwriting your data.

Example Applications 1. Trucking cost analysis. You can estimate chip trucking costs for a given route by a) entering your route mileage for the 2nd Stage Haul, b) selecting none for loading, 1st Stage, and Processing. The system cost will be just the trucking cost/ton for the route. This may be useful in checking alternative routes, comparing transport costs for alternative sites, or estimating economic feasibility of a project. 2. Conventional chipping and trucking. You can estimate costs to chip and haul by adding a processing selection to the trucking analysis described above. This might be useful in estimating delivered cost of material for project planning. 3. Two-stage hauling. Enter mileages and equipment selections for all phases. This would allow relative comparison of delivered costs using two-stage hauling from one area compared to conventional hauling from some alternative source. It could also be useful in planning the right mix of equipment to maximize utilization. Be aware that this model does not provide actual costs for given operation. The default values and production rates are drawn from current studies of particular machines on specific operations. Your conditions may be different. The machine cost approach also has limitations in that it does not reflect all operational costs such as profit, risk, tax effects, or overhead.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This model is the result of contributions by many individuals and organizations. The field testing of the roll-off transporation system was a partnership among: Montana Community Development Corporation, Johnson Brothers, Missoula Cartage, Smurfit-Stone, C&F Forest Products and the US Forest Service. The spreadsheet model was developed by Bob Rummer of the Forest Operations Research Unit, US Forest Service with critical input and review by: Craig Rawlings, Montana Community Development Corp Chuck Seeley, Smurfit-Stone Craig Thomas, Johnson Brothers Contracting Dave Morrison, Missoula Cartage Dean Graham, USFS Dave Atkins, USFS State and Private Forestry Keith Windell, USFS Missoula Technology Development Center Han Sup-Han, University of Idaho Jim Dooley, Forest Concepts LLC May 2005

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Definitions of terms used in the model


1st stage transport--hauling biomass from the woods to a reload or processing point 2nd stage transport--hauling material to the final delivery point actual utilization--the adjusted utilization that a machine may achieve working as part of a system of inter-related equipment base utilization--the maximum ratio of productive time to scheduled time that a machine may be capable of attaining working by itself. This does not reflect under-use due to system limiting factors such as the capacity of other equipment. basic labor rate--the wage rate for labor or take-home pay rate benefits--additional labor charges including worker's compensation insurance, medical, FICA, sick leave or vacation, etc. Entered as a percent of wages. Minimum is at least 30% and is highly variable depending on region, ownership structure, safety experience. bone dry ton (bdt)--quantity of wood that weighs 2000 lbs at oven-dry moisture content bone dry unit (bdu)--quantity of wood that weighs 2400 lbs at oven-dry moisture content fixed costs--those costs that must be paid whether an asset is working or not. Generally expressed as $/scheduled machine hour. insurance--coverage for property loss and/or liability. Varies by type of equipment, region, limits, and owner experience. This value is entered as the annual premium payment ($/yr) interest rate--value assumed to reflect the time value of money to the user. This could be the interest rate on borrowed funds or it could be the alternative rate of return of capital funds. life--the period of time over which an asset is depreciated (yrs). A general rule of thumb for logging machines is 5 years. For comparisons, this should be the same for similar machines. misc. operating costs--charge for any other consumables such as flail chains, sawbar, teeth, entered as $ per operating hour. moisture content (MC)--weight of water in wood weight of oven-dry wood. Water content of the material expressed as a percent of the oven-dry weight. For example, 50% MC means the amount of water in the wood before drying weighs half as much as the oven dry wood ( see Moisture Content Conversions page). productive machine hour (PMH)--a complete hour in which the machine only performs productive work repair and maintenance (R&M)--cost to keep equipment operational. The R&M costs change over the life of the machine, increasing as a machine gets older. Machine rates use an average decimal percentage of depreciation as an estimator. Entering 0.9, for example, means that R&M will cost 90% of the annual depreciation charge. Over the life of the machine, the R&M cost would be about 75% of the purchase price of the machine. road class--general description of road surfacing, width, alignment, traffic round trip minutes (RTM)--amount of travel time including empty and loaded haul salvage value--estimated value of an asset at the end of its economic life. This could be a tradein value or owner-sale price. A general rule-of-thumb is 20-25% at 5 years. scheduled machine hour (SMH)--a complete hour that the machine is intended to be used for work. This includes productive time as well as delays, maintenance, and non-use. Generally, single-shift equipment is intended to be operated 40 hrs/wk, 50 wks per year for a total of 2000 SMH/year. solid volume factor (SVF)--ratio of the solid volume of wood to the cubic volume of the transport container. standing time--non-travel time included in a transport trip. This includes hooking, load securement, weighing, waiting in line, unloading. It does not include breakdowns or repair. This would be reflected in the base utilization rate value. taxes, tags--payment for ownership of an asset. Truck tags or licenses could be entered here. The entry is a decimal percent of purchase price (ie $5 per $100 of value would be .05). tire costs--the total cost of all tires on a truck or machine utilization rate--the ratio of PMH to SMH or the percent of total scheduled time that a machine is actually being used for productive work. variable costs--those costs that must be paid as a result of working activity, consumable items like fuel, oil, and sawteeth. Generally expressed as $/productive machine hour.

variable costs--those costs that must be paid as a result of working activity, consumable items like fuel, oil, and sawteeth. Generally expressed as $/productive machine hour.

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A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Project: Scenario:

Forest Residue Trucking Model v.5 Dry Creek Thinning Unit 23 Chip in the woods
2. Describe materials
Residue Species

1. Define the route (miles of each road type and/or speeds) 1st Stage Transport 2nd Stage Transport Road class 1-way miles Av. Mph 1-way miles Av. mph Unimproved forest 2 10 10 Gravel, improved 15 15 2-lane paved 30 30 State highway 50 25 50 Interstate 60 65 3. Select Equipment (see "Costs" page to review assumptions)
In-woods loading 1st Stage Transport RO container dump truck none knuckleboom loader strokeboom delimber wheel loader cable loader none Processing tub grinder horiz grinder disk chipper none 2nd Stage Transport RO w/pup 120 yd chip van 150 yd chip van

Moisture content Solid Vol. Factor Load Density

4. Verify Productivity Assumptions (adjust any necessary values)

In-woods 1st stage haul

Processing

loading rate base utilization standing time Round Trip Minutes payload production rate base utilization standing time Round Trip Minutes payload

60 0.8 10 24 5 15 0.8

(tons/PMH) (PMH/SMH) (min/trip--includes hooking, drop, other tasks) (min/trip on the road) (bdt) 5 (bdu's) (tons/PMH) (PMH/SMH)

2nd stage haul

20 (min/trip--includes hooking, drop, other tasks) 60 (min/trip on the road) 15 (tons) 12 (bdu's)

5. System Production and Cost Calculation # of each Loading 1st Stage Processing 2nd Stage 1 1 1 1 (tons/SMH) 48 9 12 11 Act. Util. 0.14 0.90 0.73 0.90 $/ton $5.80 $5.29 $11.45 $5.08 $27.64 $/bdu $6.96 $6.35 $13.75 $6.10 $33.16

Production Comments In-woods loading is lim 2nd stage haul is limit Processing and 2nd st Some equipment is ve

TOTAL COST

To comment on this tool, please contact: Jason Thompson Forest Operations Research Unit

A 51 52

B C US Forest Service Auburn, Alabama

D (334) 826-8700

jasonthompson@fs.fed.us

J 1 2

M May-05

3 4 5 2. Describe 6 materials 7 Residue Species 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 biomass chips Moisture 17 content 40 30 (% od) Solid 18 Vol. Factor 0.3 0.4 SVF 19 Load Density 306 379 (lb/cy) 20 21 22 Solid Volume Factors (SVF) 23 Roundwood 0.6 - 0.75 24 Chips-Hog fuel 0.35 - 0.45 25 Loose residues 0.15 - 0.25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Cube limited 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 Production 39 Comments In-woods 40 loading is limiting 2nd stage 41 haul is limiting Processing 42 and 2nd stage haul exceed capacity of 1st stage. The processor could be waiting on wood. Some equipment 43 is very underutilized. Consider selecting less expensive options that are a better match 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

J 51 52

A 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

I Residue Transport [8]


Container Truck

Default Values

These numbers are loaded into the cost page when equipment is selected Ref. No. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] Label Knuckleboom Strokeboom Cable Wheel Tub
Loader Delimber Loader Loader Grinder

[6]
Horizontal Grinder

[7]
Disk Chipper

Purchase Price SMH/yr Life (yrs) Salvage (% of new) Interest rate Insurance ($/yr) Taxes/tags

$181,030 2000 5 0.20 0.10 $3,600 0.00

$355,500 2000 5 0.20 0.10 $7,000 0.00

$50,000 2000 5 0.20 0.10 $1,000 0.00

$205,000 2000 5 0.20 0.10 $4,000 0.00

$350,000 2000 5 0.20 0.10 $9,000 0.00

$580,000 2000 5 0.20 0.10 $12,000 0.00

$610,000 2000 5 0.20 0.10 $12,000 0.00

$138,000 2000 8 0.20 0.10 $6,000 0.00

Total Tire Cost ($) Tire life (yrs) Fuel cost ($/g) Oil cost ($/g) Horsepower Fuel Cons (g/hp-hr) Oil use (% of fuel) R&M (% of dep.) Misc. oper. ($/PMH) Base Utilization bone-dry tons/PMH trans. capacity (cy) legal payload (tons)

$1.80 $2.00 174 0.022 0.37 0.90 0.8 60

$1.80 $2.00 225 0.039 0.37 0.90 0.7 28

$2,000 4 $1.80 $2.00 250 0.030 0.37 1.00 0.65 11

$6,000 4 $1.80 $2.00 190 0.021 0.10 0.80 0.8 60

$1.80 $2.00 500 0.032 0.15 0.80 $15.75 0.8 15

Depreciation/yr = Capital Rec Factor = Salvage Value = Fuel Cons (g/PMH) =

In-woods load $28,964.80 0.2638 $36,206.00 3.77

1st Trans $13,800.00 0.1874 $27,600.00 1.41

Process $56,000.00 0.2638 $70,000.00 16.00

2nd Trans $14,600.00 0.1874 $29,200.00 6.25

0.9 5 50 9 Cube limited 0.9 0.9 Intermediate Calculations From Costs Page Do NOT change these values

$1.80 $2.00 860 0.028 0.13 0.75 $9.28 0.8 40

$1.80 $2.00 1000 0.030 0.15 0.75 $30.00 0.8 60

$2,500 2 $1.80 $2.00 430 5 0.1 0.6

Default Data References [1] Tigercat T240B tracked knuckleboom log loader. Brinker et al. 2002. Machine rates for selected harvesting machines. [2] Tigercat D860 strokeboom delimber. Brinker et al. 2002. Machine rates for selected harvesting machines. [3] Bucyrus-Erie 22B transit crane with cable grapple (used prices). Windell et al. 2004. Slash collection processing and transportation. [4] Cat 950G wheel loader with log forks. Price quoted 2004 with data from Cat Handbook [5] Morbark 1100. Price quoted 2004 with data supplied by Morbark. [6] Peterson-Pacific 5410 tracked recycler. Price quoted 2004 with data supplied by Peterson-Pacific

A B C D E F G H 43 [7] Peterson-Pacific 5000G DDC. Price quoted 2004 with data supplied by Peterson-Pacific 44 [8] Freightliner w/Stellar Industries hook-lift conversion and 2 containers. Prices 2004, Windell et al. 2004. 45 [9] Volvo A30 w/light material body 35 yd struck capacity. Price 2004. 46 [10] Freightliner w/Stellar Industries hook-lift conversion, pup trailer and 2 containers. Prices 2004, Windell et al. 2004. 47 [11] Semi w/straight frame 53' chip van, 120 cy capacity. Price 2004. 48 [12] Semi w/drop frame chip van, 148 cy capacity. Price 2004. 49 50 Residue Species Densities (1) 51 Sp. Gr lbs/cf (oven-dry) 52 grand fir, spruce 0.39 24 53 ponderosa/lodgepole 0.42 27 54 Douglas fir 0.53 33 55 western larch 0.56 35 56 57 1. Data from Wood Handbook. Ag Handbook 72 58 values are used in the species selection on Production Page 59 60 selected species # 2 61 oven-dry lb/cf 27

J K L M 1 Residue 2 Transport Chip Transport 3 [9] [10] [11] [12] 4 Dump 120 cy Chip van 148 cy van 5 Truck RO w/pup Truck Truck 6 $300,000 $146,000 $125,000 $135,000 7 2000 2000 2000 2000 8 8 8 8 8 9 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.20 10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 11 $6,000 $6,000 $6,000 $7,000 12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13 14 15 $20,000 $2,500 $3,500 $6,500 16 2 2 2 2 17 $1.80 $1.80 $2.00 $2.00 18 $2.00 $2.00 $2.00 $2.00 19 340 430 450 450 20 0.012 5 6 6 21 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 22 0.75 0.6 0.6 0.6 23 24 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 25 4 15 17 22 26 35 100 120 148 27 31 21 25 34 28 Cube limited Cube limited Cube limited Cube limited 29 Base utilization of 1st stage haul 30 Base utilization of 2nd stage haul 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 ng and transportation. 39 40 41 42

None

Cols 8,10,11,12 are fuel consumption in mi/gal

These values are actual payload in bdt

J 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61

Equipment Selection 1st Stage Loading knuckleboom loader 1st Stage Transport RO container Processing Horizontal Grinder with loader

Off-highway Dump Truck wheel loader

Chipper with loader

cable loader Tub Grinder with loader

strokeboom delimber

US Forest Service Forest Operations Research

12/30/2013

2nd Stage Transport Grinder with loader RO container w/pup

Chip van 120 cy

er with loader Chip van 148 cy

US Forest Service Forest Operations Research

12/30/2013

Biomass Moisture Content

The moisture content of biomass affects the gross weight of the material that is being handled. Green material will have higher density than drier material because of the extra water weight in the cells of the wood. In biomass markets, it is important for all parties to have a common understanding of the dry mass of material that is being sold or processed. Generally biomass loads are sampled for moisture content and then converted to a dry-basis measure such as "bone dr tons" or "bone dry units."

A bone dry ton (bdt) is an amount of material that weighs 2000 lbs when it is dry. A bone dry unit (bdu) material that weighs 2400 lbs when it is dry. Bone dry tons are used in some biomass markets, particularly where logs a being processed. Bone dry units are found in other markets, particularly where the predominant form is chips or hog fue Another term used in some residue transactions is the "unit" or "gravity packed unit (GPU)". A GPU is the amount of material in a volume of 200 cubic ft. This volume measure should not be confused with the "cunit" or a measure that is 100 cubic ft. of solid wood. For a full description of wood measurements and conversions, see Forest Products Measurements and Conversion Factors by David Briggs (www.ruraltech.org/projects/).

Moisture content measurement can be done several ways. Electronic moisture meters can measure moisture content indirectly. More exact measurement requires actually drying a sample of material and determining the dry weight and th weight of water that was originally in the sample. The calculation of moisture content can be done in one of two ways: %MC o.d. = wt. water / wt. of wood * 100 (This is MC oven-dry basis) or %MC w.b. = wt. water / (wt. of wood + wt. of water) * 100 (This is MC wet basis)

You can convert %MCod to %MCw using the formula: %MCw = %MCod*100 / (100 + %MCod). To go the other way, u the formula: %MCod = %MCw*100 / (100 - MCw). This is graphically illustrated in the following chart.

60

Moisture Content (% wet)

50 40 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Moisture Content (% od)

g handled. Green material will have a e wood. In biomass markets, it is al that is being sold or processed. basis measure such as "bone dry

bone dry unit (bdu) is an amount of ss markets, particularly where logs are predominant form is chips or hog fuel. (GPU)". A GPU is the amount of with the "cunit" or a measure that is rsions, see Forest Products

ers can measure moisture content nd determining the dry weight and the nt can be done in one of two ways:

0 + %MCod). To go the other way, use he following chart.

To convert a moisture content from one measurement basis to another, enter the MC value below. Then select the direction of conversion with the radio buttons.

Convert
Conversion

40 % m.c.

from dry basis to wet basis from wet basis to dry basis

=
120

66.67 % m.c.

1 Machine Costs 2 Knuckleboom 3 In-woods loading 4 FIXED COST INPUTS 5 Purchase price $181,030 6 Scheduled hours/yr 2000 7 Machine life (yrs) 5 8 Salvage value (% of new) 0.20 9 Interest rate (%) 0.10 10 Insurance (Ann Prem.) $3,600 11 Taxes/tags (% of new) 0.00 12 13 OPERATING COST INPUTS 14 Tire cost (total) 15 Tire life (years) 16 Local fuel cost ($/gal) $1.80 17 Local oil cost ($/gal) $2.00 18 Horsepower 174 19 Fuel Consumption (g/hp-hr) 0.022 20 Oil and lube use (% of fuel) 0.37 21 Repair & Maint (% of dep) 0.90 22 Misc. consumables ($/op hr) 23 LABOR COST INPUTS 24 Basic labor rate $18 25 Benefits (% of base) 0.33 26 27 Fixed cost ($/SMH) $22.71 28 Variable costs ($/PMH) $25.87 29 Labor costs ($/SMH) $23.94

E F Machine/Function Name
Container Tub

1st transport $138,000 2000 8 0.20 0.10 $6,000 0.00

Processing $350,000 2000 5 0.20 0.10 $9,000 0.00

2nd transport $146,000 2000 8 0.20 0.10 $6,000 0.00

$2,500 2 $1.80 $2.00 430 5 0.1 0.6

$1.80 $2.00 500 0.032 0.15 0.80 $15.75 $18 0.33 $44.93 $77.35 $23.94

$2,500 2 $1.80 $2.00 430 5 0.1 0.6

$18 0.33 $14.73 $8.12 $23.94

$18 0.33 $15.41 $18.06 $23.94

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