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Transmission Principles Siemens

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Contents
1 GSM Network Structure 3
2 Duplex Transmission & Multiple Access 17
3 GSM - Fixed Network Transmission 29
4 GSM Air Interface 35
Transmission Principles
Siemens Transmission Principles
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Transmission Principles Siemens
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1 GSM Network Structure
Transmission Principles
GSM Network Structure
Fig. 1
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GSM: The Network Structure
The international GSM service area covers all countries in which there is a GSM
network.
Networks provisioned by an operator on a national level for public mobile
communication are called Public Land Mobile Networks PLMN. PLMNs built
together with public fixed networks, i.e. "conventional" PSTN (Public Switched
Telephone Network) or ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) networks the
telecommunication infrastructure of a country.
A Public Land Mobile Network is divided into mobile and fixed network components.
They are connected via air interfaces.
Fixed Network Components of the PLMN
The fixed network components of a GSM-PLMN consist of:
Base Station Subsystem BSS: The BSS is the fixed network part of the PLMN
radio access (Radio SubSystem RSS). It realizes the radio transmission via the
radio interface. Several fixed radio station, so-called Base Stations BS are co-
ordinated by one control unit.
Network Switching Subsystem NSS: The NSS forms the interface between the
radio subsystem and the public fixed networks (PSTN, ISDN, PDN). It executes all
signaling functions for setting up connections from and to mobile subscribers. It is
similar to the exchanges of fixed network communication systems, but it
furthermore fulfils important mobile communication specific functions, e.g. keeping
track of the users / mobile stations location.
Mobile components of the PLMN
The Mobile Stations MSs are regarded as mobile part of the PLMN. The air or radio
interface represents the connection between the MS and the PLMN fixed network
components BSS and NSS. The organization of the radio interface is decisive for
advantages and disadvantages of different mobile systems.
Transmission Principles Siemens
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Mobile
terminal device
BSS
Base Station
Subsystem
NSS
Network Switching
Subsystem
control/switching of
mobile services
BSS
Base Station
Subsystem
BSS
Base Station
Subsystem
PLMN
Public Land Mobile Network
PSTN
Public Switched
Telephone Network
ISDN
Integrated Services
Digital Network
PDN
Public Data
Network
MS
Mobile
Station
Mobile
components
Fixed network
components
Um
Air Interface
Fixed
network
GSM Network Structure: Concept
Fig. 2
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Mobile Components
Mobile components are the Mobile Stations MS which transmit the users speech and
data to the PLMN. The Mobile Station MS consist of:
ME: Mobile Equipment,
SIM: Subscriber Identification Module,
The MS is not necessarily the termination point for the users data transmission. A
Terminal Equipment TE, e.g. laptop, fax machine,... can be connected to the MS for
final data handling.
The Mobile Station MS
An important difference between fixed network communications and mobile
communications is the separation of equipment and subscriber identity. It is possible
for the mobile subscriber to use various mobile terminal equipment with a personal
identity by means of the SIM card, which includes his subscriber identity. The mobile
station is defined as: MS = ME + SIM.
The SIM card is allocated and activated by the provider upon completion of the
contract. It is realized by means of a chip which contains a variety of permanent and
temporary information for the subscriber (e.g. personal telephone register) and about
him/her. Along with the personal (secret) ID numbers (IMSI - International Mobile
Subscriber Identity, TMSI - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity) these stored
information are for example algorithms and keys for ciphering the transmission.
The PIN (Personal Identity Number) is important for the subscriber; it must be
entered by the mobile subscriber before the start of the conversation in order to
prevent fraud by unauthorized intruders. As a rule, calls cannot be made without a
SIM card in the ME and without the PIN being entered. Emergency calls are an
exception.
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SIM
Subscriber Identification Module
MS = ME + SIM
Mobile Components
SIM card: the heart of MS
Different equipments, one SIM (one bill)
Security: PIN (exception: emergency call)
Chip with subscriber identification,
security algorithms,
personal phone book,...
Fig. 3
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The Cellular Network
The breakthrough in mobile communications with regards to subscriber numbers and
capacity was made possible by the introduction of the cellular radio system. The
cellular communication system was tested in various countries during the 1970s.
Cellular networks of the first generation were introduced, e.g.:
1979 in the USA: AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service)
1981 in Scandinavia: NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone)
1985 in Germany: C-450 (Siemens)
1985 in Great Britain: TACS (Total Access Communications System)
The successive digital systems of the second generation, and therefore GSM
systems, are structured as cellular communication systems in the same way as the
analogue systems.
Principle of the Cellular Communication System
PLMNs operating on a national level are divided by location into servicing areas, so-
called cells, in which a Base Transceiver Station BTS supplies the mobile subscribers
of the area concerned. The cells represent the smallest service area in the PLMN
network.
A variety of cells ensures service of the total PLMN service area. The cells are
theoretically arranged in a so-called honeycomb pattern. Adaptations to the
population/ traffic density and the topography of the service area lead to a more
irregular pattern.
The service areas of the individual cells partially overlap. In order to avoid
interference of different subscribers in surrounding cells the cell structure is
organized according to the principle of cellular systems, frequency re-use. The
narrow available frequency range is divided into individual frequencies (channels).
Only some of these channels are used in a certain cell, the remaining channels are
used in the adjacent cells. The same frequency is used again in cells which are
sufficiently far apart from each other to avoid interchannel interference. This means
that any area can be covered and thus an enormous increase in network capacity
can be achieved with a small supply of channel frequencies.
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The Cellular
Network
Principle:
Many cells (BTS)
Full coverage
Partial overlap of cells
Distribution of frequency resources
Only a few frequencies per cell
Frequency re-use
Solution:
cell,
radio cell
r = cell radius
(cell parameter)
Principle:
~ 4 r
channels
u, v, w
channels
x,y,z
r
channels
x,y,z
co-channel interference zone
= cluster area
re-use distance
for HF channel frequency
re-use distance
for
HF channel frequency
Fig. 4
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Cluster
A certain minimum distance must be maintained between cells using the same
frequencies in order to prevent interference or at least keep it to a bare minimum.
This minimum distance, the so-called frequency re-use distance, depends on the
concrete network planning and corresponds to approximately 4 times the cell radius.
On this principle, the available channels can be divided e.g. into 7 parts and
distributed over the PLMN area in such a way that each cell contains one of these 7
sets of frequency channels. The minimum area in which the whole range of HF
channels is used is described as a cluster. Planning a concrete network implies that
the population/traffic density, the topography of the area to be supplied, etc. must be
taken into account. This network planning is an extremely difficult process; there is
special network planning software for this purpose.
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Frequency re-use distance: avoid inter-channel interferences
Cluster: smallest domain within which all frequency resource is used
(GSM900: typ. 7/9 cells)
Network planning: difficult
The Cellular Network / Principles of Network Planning
Fig. 5
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The GSM Cell
The higher the traffic density, the smaller the cell area since a limited number of HF
channels can only cope with a limited traffic volume. This can be carried out via a
reduction of the cell radius or by dividing the cells into sectors.
Cell Size / Hierarchical Cellular Structures HCS
The size and shape of the cell depend on:
The range of the MS radio contact (MS output peak power); topography (e.g.
mountains, buildings, vegetation etc) and climate play a role here.
Traffic density
The maximum radius of a cell broadcast channel is 35 km in the GSM900 system, 8
km in the GSM1800 system. The possibility of setting up "extended range cells" with
a radius of up to 100 km has been integrated into GSM Phase 2+ for GSM900
systems. This should allow coverage of sparsely populated areas and especially
coastal regions. The extended cell concept results in a reduced capacity.
Transmit power is limited for higher traffic densities in order to achieve a high degree
of re-use of frequencies over smaller cells: The size of clusters is inversely
proportional to the capacity of the radio system.
A Hierarchical Cell Concept (Rec. 05.22) is planned for towns, with an extremely high
density of mobile subscribers.
Macro-Cell: The "normal" cells are called Macro Cells. They have ranges from
approximately one km to several (extended cell concept: 100 km).
Micro Cell: Cells for the support of restricted areas with very high mobile user
density, e.g. shopping malls, railway and subway stations, airport terminals. Their
radius ranges from some 100 meters to approximately 1 km.
Pico Cell: Cells for the support of indoor applications, e.g. offices. Their range
should be several 10m.
Velocity dependent Handover are necessary in the Hierarchical Cellular Structures.
Cell Coverage
Omni Cells: The BTS is equipped with omni-directional antennae and serves a
360 angle.
Sector Cells: The BTS supplies the cells with directional antennae. The cell shape
is a circular segment. Sectors of e.g. 180 or 120 are covered.
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Cell Size and Coverage
Maximum cell size
GSM900
35 km
(100 km)
8 km
GSM1800
Cell coverage
360
180 180
cell 1
cell 2
120
120
cell 1
cell 2
cell 3
120
omni cell
180
sector cells
120
sector cells
(extended cell)
Hierarchical Cellular Concept:
Macro cells: min. 500 m
Micro cells: some 100 m
Pico cells: some 10 m
speed-dependent allocation
Fig. 6
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Roaming / Location Registration / Handover
Roaming
A further innovation of the cellular system was so called Roaming. This means that a
subscriber can move freely within the PLMN and remain reachable on a single
personal telephone number anywhere in this area. With GSM this concept of roaming
can be expanded to the international area (international roaming). A subscriber
whose home PLMN has a roaming agreement with other countries' GSM-PLMNs can
also be reached in these PLMNs (Visited PLMN - VPLMN) without dialing the
corresponding VPLMNs code; calls can also be made from that VPLMN. A
prerequisite is of course that subscribers authorization for international roaming.
Location Registration / Location Update / Location Area
The subscriber has to be located in the respective cellular network. A procedure
known as Location Registration or Location Update Procedure LUP carries out
this function. It is important that the subscriber's temporary location area is recorded /
registered with this procedure when the subscriber's mobile station is switched on
and checked in, to forward calls to him. The temporary Location Area LA is the area
in which the MS can move freely without having to carry out a location update. As a
rule, the location area consists of a multiple cells and is configured by the operator
according to the traffic or population density.
Handover
In cellular networks, it is not necessary for the subscriber to have his call interrupted
when changing from one cell's service area to the area of a surrounding cell, as long
as the cell areas overlap. This overlapping should be guaranteed with good planning.
If the MS can receive better supply from another cell than the one currently in use
during a call, the MS connection will be diverted to the relevant cell. This procedure
designed for system quality maintenance ideally takes place without the user being
able to notice and is known as handover.
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Roaming, Location Update
& Handover
BS
BS
Location Update:
Location Area: most precise location information
stored in the network
Location Registration: initial registration
Location Update: update of registration
MS
Handover
Fig. 7
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Transmission Principles Siemens
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2 Duplex Transmission & Multiple Access
Transmission Principles
Duplex Transmission
& Multiple Access
FDD TDD
UL DL
Duplex
transmission
Multiple
Access
FDMA
TDMA CDMA
Fig. 8
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Duplex Transmission and Multiplex Procedure
In a cell for access to a network two different principles have to be co-ordinated: The
way of co-ordinating UL and DL, i.e. the Duplex Transmission, and the way of
enabling the simultaneous access of several user to the same Base Station, i.e. the
multiple access principle.
Duplex Transmission: FDD & TDD
Modern cellular mobile radio systems of the first (1G) and second generation (2G)
enable full duplex transmission. Simultaneous communication on both sides, i.e.
(virtually) simultaneous transmission and reception is thus possible.
The transmission directions are designated as Uplink UL (MS to BTS) and Downlink
DL (BTS to MS).
There are two duplex transmission principles:
Frequency Division Duplex FDD: Transmission and reception take place in
different frequency ranges. The distance between the Uplink UL and Downlink DL
frequency range is designated as duplex distance.
Time Division Duplex TDD: Transmission and reception take place in the same
frequency band. Uplink UL and Downlink DL transmission take place at different
times. There is fast switching between UL and DL transmission, so that the user
has the impression of simultaneous transmission and reception.
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receive
transmit receive
transmit
transmit
transmit receive
receive
MS
BS
UL UL DL DL
time t
T
frequency f
Duplex distance
UL / DL
separated by
frequency !
Same
frequency
UL / DL
separated by
time!
FDD
Frequency
Division Duplex
Uplink UL
Downlink DL
Base Station BS Mobile Station MS
TDD
Time
Division
Duplex
Fig. 9
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Multiplex Access: FDMA, TDMA and CDMA
Several subscribers in one cell must be able to use the frequency range available for
mobile communications together. Thus there must be procedures for regulating
simultaneous access of different subscribers without disturbances. There are three
different general procedures, partially in combination, which are used for co-
ordinating the frequency resources:
FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access
TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
FDMA - Frequency Division Multiple Access
FDMA is a multiple access principle used widely in the first (analogue) generation 1G
of mobile communications. It is however also used in the second (digital) generation
2G of mobile communications, usually in combination with TDMA and in the third
generation 3G together with CDMA.
The available frequency reserves are divided into channels of the same bandwidth
for FDMA. A certain frequency uplink and downlink is made available to an individual
subscriber. Simultaneous calls and information transmissions of various subscribers
thus take place on different frequencies. The transmitter and receiver must have a
common knowledge about the channel frequencies to use.
Transmission Principles Siemens
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FDMA
Frequency Division
Multiple Access
Multiplex Access
TDMA
Time Division
Multiple Access
CDMA
Code Division
Multiple Access
Co-ordination
of limited frequency resources
for different subscribers
Fig. 10
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TDMA - Time Division Multiple Access
The allocation of the available frequency range is made with respect to time for
TDMA. A frequency band is not permanently available to one mobile station; it is
used by several different mobile stations. Time is therefore split into individual time
slots. The individual mobile stations are assigned the frequency range for the
duration of a TDMA time slot in a periodically exclusive manner.
A certain number of subscribers can use a certain frequency range virtually
simultaneously with TDMA. The message information of a subscriber is taken apart
and transmitted piece by piece to the corresponding time slots. The information
carrying HF transmission in an individual time slot designated as a "burst".
CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
In CDMA systems the users of one cell are not separated by frequency or time.
Different to FDMA or TDMA simultaneously they take place in the same frequency
range. The users are separated by unique Codes. The Base Station and Mobile
Station must have common knowledge of the Codes used. The information of a
single user is spread up from a narrowband signal to a wideband signal using a high-
frequency code (high so-called "chiprate"). This spread information is transmitted via
radio interface. After receiving the information, it is de-spread using the same code to
regenerate the original information.
The Codes in principal have orthogonal properties.
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frequency f
time t
power
TS 1
TS 2
TS 3
TDMA
frequency f
time t
power
1 2 3
FDMA
frequency f
time t
power
1
2
3
CDMA
Multiple
method
BS & MS share
knowledge about
FDMA
TDMA
CDMA
Frequency
Time
PN code
P
P P
Multiple Access methods
Fig. 11
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Transmission via GSM Radio Interface Um
A combination of FDMA and TDMA is used for GSM. The GSM physical channels are
defined by a pair of frequency bands (for UL and DL) and a Time Slot TS.
FDMA in GSM
In the GSM system, a band width of 200 kHz is defined for one frequency band.
These HF channel widths are perfectly suited to the demands for speech
transmission.
Allocation to (E-) GSM900, GSM-R, GSM1800 and GSM1900 is as follows:
GSM900: (880) 890 - 915 MHz; 925 (935) - 960 MHz; 124 (174) channel pairs ;
with a duplex distance of 45 MHz
GSM-R: 876 - 880 MHz; 921 - 925 MHz; 19 channel pairs; with a duplex distance
of 45 MHz
GSM1800:1710 - 1785 MHz; 1805 - 1880 MHz; 374 channel pairs; with a duplex
distance of 95 MHz
GSM1900: 1850 - 1910 MHz; 1930 - 1990 MHz; common use along with other
standards (e.g. IS-95; D-AMPS); with a duplex distance of 80 MHz
In GSM for DL the higher and for UL the lower frequency range is used in general.
Remark: In co-ordination with the frequency plan regulation, there is a 200 kHz
protective band inserted between the lower limit frequency and the first carrier of
every sub-band, i.e. the corresponding channels are not used. This protective band
known as the "guard band" is an accepted, virtually "unavoidable loss" for preventing
interference between different applications in the totally filled frequency range.
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FDMA in GSM
GSM900 / 1800 Frequency Allocation
C - Radio Frequency Channel (RFC)
200 kHz
UPLINK (UL) DOWNLINK (DL)
Guard band
(880) 890 MHz
1710 MHz
915 MHz
1785 MHz
(925) 935 MHz
1805 MHz
960 MHz GSM900
1880 MHz GSM1800
Duplex distance 45 MHz resp. 95 MHz
25 (35) MHz
75 MHz
25 (35) MHz
75 MHz
Transmit band
of the Base Station
C
124
(174)
374
C
124'
(174')
374'
C
1
C
2
C
3
C
1'
C
2'
C
3'
Transmit band
of the Mobile Station
Fig. 12
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TDMA in GSM
Each of the 200 kHz frequency bands is further sub-divided by TDMA into 8 so called
Time Slots TS. This produces 8 physical channels within one frequency band. In
GSM a physical channel is thus defined by a determined frequency channel Uplink
UL and Downlink DL and a determined time slot TS
In the GSM system, up to 8 (with half-rate transmission even 16) calls can be
transmitted "simultaneously" on one frequency band.
A sequence of 8 time slots TS in one radio channel is referred to as a TDMA frame. A
TDMA frame has a duration of 4.615 ms, an individual time slot a duration of approx.
0.577 ms. The users data are transmitted virtually "piece by piece" on one specific
time slot every TDMA frame.
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GSM:
combined
FDMA/TDMA
TDMA
frame
FDMA
time
frequency
200 kHz
0
1
3
2
4
5
7
6
1
0
1TS = 577 s
1 TDMA frame =
8 TS = 4.615 ms
1TS = 577 s
1 TDMA frame =
8 TS = 4.615 ms
Fig. 13
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Transmission Principles Siemens
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3 GSM - Fixed Network Transmission
PCM
Pulse Code
Modulation
speech band 1
speech band 3
speech band 2
common line
Multi-
plexer
band
3
2 1
1 0 1 1
0 0 1 1
A/D conversion
1 1 0 0
GSM - fixed network transmission
Transmission Principles
Fig. 14
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PCM30: Transmission in GSM fixed network part
Information (conversations, data, signaling) is exclusively transmitted digitally via
PCM30 lines in the GSM-PLMNs fixed network part.
Pulse Code Modulation - PCM
Sampling values of a speech information are transmitted using binary code words
(digitally) in PCM.
Due to the digital structure of the message, the PCM signals are less susceptible to
interference than analogue signals. Regenerators reconstruct the original digital
signal at the receiving end. Analogue signals, on the other hand, can only be
amplified (including noise peaks).
Amongst other things, during Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) an analogue oscillation
is converted into a digital signal. A PCM signal can be transmitted alone or be
embedded in a TDMA frame with other PCM signals (multiplexing).
The conversion of an analogue telephone signal into a digital signal is carried out in
three steps:
1. Band limitation: A bandpass filter restricts the incoming signal to the audible
frequencies, i.e. to 300 to 3400 Hz.
2. Sampling: Sampling values are taken at fixed intervals from the limited telephone
signal. The sampling frequency must be greater than twice the highest frequency
within the analogue signal (Shannon Theorem). Internationally specified: 8000 Hz.
3. 8-bit coding: Every amplitude value of the sampled (Pulse Amplitude Modulated -
PAM) signal is transformed into an 8-bit word. The 8-bit word enables the analogue
signal to be represented in 256 quantization intervals.
Since the transmission of an 8-bit word requires only a portion of the sampling
interval (125 s) of the analogue signal, the 8-bit information is temporally
multiplexed (TDMA-procedure). 8 bits are transmitted in each time slot.
Using PCM30 transmission systems, a total of 30 digital user values can be
transmitted in the time frame of the sampling period of an analogue value, i.e. in 125
s.
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1. Band limitation
(300-3400 Hz)
2. Sampling (8000 Hz)
3. 8-bit coding
Generation of a PCM Signal
transmission of the coded
sample value of signal 1
coded sample value
signal 2
time slot
0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1
signal 1
Fig. 15
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PCM30
PCM30 transmission systems use digital transmission lines or radio relay. A PCM30
frame consists of 32 time multiplexed time slots.
The 32 time slots can contain pulse code modulated message information (speech,
data) or signaling information in the form of 8-bit words.
The total bit rate of a PCM30 line is 2048 kbit/s
Time slot 0: alternately frame identification word and service word (alarms)
Time slots 1-15 and 17-31: calls or data
Time slot 16: signaling channel
The pulse frames are transmitted in a direct sequence.
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PCM30: TDMA Principle
telephone channels 1 - 15 telephone channels 17 - 31
frame alignment/
service word channel
signaling channel
time
slot
PCM30
PCM30
pulse frame pulse frame pulse frame
Fig. 16
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Transmission Principles Siemens
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4 GSM Air Interface
GSM Air Interface
Advantage:
mobility
Single cell systems Cellular mobile communication systems
Limits:
1st generation 2nd generation incl. satellite roaming
cell national GSM service area unlimited
GSM (Ph1/2) (GSM Ph2+)
Transmission Principles
Fig. 17
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Radio Interface: Advantages, Problems and Solutions
The air or radio interface, i.e. the connection between the MS and fixed network
components, represents the fundamental difference to a fixed network
telecommunication system. The radio interface has its specific advantages, but also
shows problems and disadvantages inherent to mobile communications.
Advantage: Mobility
The main advantage of mobile communications is the unrestricted mobility which can
be achieved only via a radio interface. Mobility was extremely restricted, especially in
the early years of mobile communications (one-cell systems). Mobility only reached
as far as the radio coverage between the MS and the transmission/receiving
installations would allow. These limits were stretched significantly by cellular mobile
communication networks of the first generation (since the early 1980s). National
borders and the degree of area coverage of a PLMN within a country formed the
borders. In the GSM system, national borders no longer represented restrictions to
mobility owing to inter-national roaming. It is still the case that nation-wide
connectivity is only offered around urban areas and along main traffic routes in large
areas of central Europe. Unlimited world-wide mobility is possible in co-operation
between GSM and MSS such as Iridium, Globalstar and ICO.
Problems & Solutions on the Radio Interface
Cost Aspect: Problem - The need to built up a new network architecture with
thousands of BTS. But: Compared with the costs for a fixed network ISDN / PSTN
infrastructure, a GSM PLMN is comparable cheap, because there is no need for
millions of lines into every private household.
Capacity: The capacity of transmission via radio interface is a great problem in
mobile communications. Optimized usage of radio resources reducing the cell
sizes, introducing sector cells and introducing the Hierarchical Cellular Structures
with Macro, Micro and Pico Cells solves this problem.
Data Rate: GSM (Phase 1/2) offers a maximum 9.6 kbit/s, compared to the 64
kbit/s of ISDN. Introduction of HSCSD, GPRS and EDGE enhances the GSM data
rates significantly.
Security Aspect: The radio interface can be intercepted with comparatively little
technical expenditure. 1G could be intercepted without any problem, while the
digital transmission of the second generation offers protective measures against
interception; the transmission is coded.
Health Aspect: The mobile radio frequencies lie near the resonance frequency of
water (2.45 GHz). In order to keep thermal exposure to the mobile radio user as
low as possible there are maximum power limitations for mobile phones, 2 W for
GSM900 and 1 W for GSM1800.
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The Air Interface Um:
Problems of radio transmission and possible solutions
Cost Aspect:
Capacity:
Data Transmission Rate:
Security Aspect:
Health Aspect:
Construction of mobile
communication network
cheaper than terrestrial network
GSM900 / E-GSM: 124 / 174 frequency bands
GSM1800: 374 frequency bands
increasing subscriber numbers, data transmission
Resource optimization / protection !!!
GSM Ph1/2: 9.6 kbit/s
Ph2+: HSCSD, GPRS, EDGE > 100 kbit/s
Eavesdropping easy!
GSM offers encryption
H
2
O resonance frequency (2.45 GHz)
Thermal load
P
max
= 2 / 1 W (GSM900/1800)
Fig. 18
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Problems of Physical Transmission
Screening: If there are hindrances between transmitter and receiver, the signals
will weaken. A connection can thus become problematic or impossible. In GSM
there is therefore the possibility of regulation of the transmitting power (Power
Control - PC) from mobile and base stations over several orders of magnitude.
Multipath Propagation: Multipath propagation through reflection and dispersion
of radio waves leads to phase-shifted reception of signals of different paths. The
interference can distort, amplify or erase the signal. An attempt to compensate for
negative effects of multipath propagation is given by power control, frequency
hopping, two antenna receivers for the base station (antenna diversity) and
redundancy of the transmitted information.
Distance MS - BTS: The distance between MS and BTS has proved to be
problematic in several ways. The receive power sinks with increasing distance
between transmitter and receiver theoretically with the square of the distance.
Various physical effects such as atmospheric attenuation (weather-dependent)
reduce the receive power even more. This attenuation depends on the frequency
and increases with increasing frequency in mobile radio relevant frequency
ranges. The distance furthermore causes a reception de-lay, which may lead to
interference between neighboring time slots in TDMA. GSM responds to this delay
by means of a regulation of the transmission time (Timing Advance TA). GSM900
cells (GSM Phase 1/2) are limited to maximum 35 km, GSM1800 cells to
maximum 8 km radius as a result of the distance-related problems. There is the
possibility in GSM Phase 2+ to realize "Extended Range Cells" with a maximum
radius of 100 km for GSM900.
MS Speed: Moving mobile stations can cause transmission distortions due to
Doppler effect. A compensation for this effect up to a maximum speed of 250 km/h
(130 km/h), for GSM-R a more powerful compensation for speeds of up to 450
km/h was deloped.
Interference with external systems: The receive quality can also be disturbed by
electromagnetic waves from outside systems (e.g. car ignition, generators, PCs).
A compensation is being tried out by means of the mechanisms described under
multipath propagation.
Transmission Principles Siemens
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Radio Transmission: Physical Disturbances
Mobility
Screening
Multipath propagation
Distance MS-BS
MS speed
External system interference
transmitted signal
received
signals
signal to
antenna
Digital systems offer many
error recognition and
correction mechanisms
(

redundancy)
signal attenuation (Power Control PC)
interference (PC, f-hopping, diversity, regeneration)
power loss (f-dep.); delay (PC, TA, cell size)
Doppler effect (corrections)
quality loss (PC, f-hopping, regeneration)
Fig. 19
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Frequency Resources: Optimized Utilization
In order to be able to keep up with the increasing demands on mobile
communications despite the limited resources of the radio interface different
approaches are being pursued.
Additional Frequency Ranges: The simplest way to cope with the growing
demand for mobile communications is to expand the available frequency range.
This approach was pursued with E-GSM and GSM1800. Any further future
expansion would be problematic as other frequency ranges are already reserved
for other applications.
Speech Compression: Speech compression in GSM allows a reduction of voice
information from 64 kbit/s to 13 kbit/s in the so-called Full Rate FR speech and to
5.6 kbit/s with the Half Rate HR speech. HR speech thus leads to a considerable
increase in capacity. Central aspects of HR speech are described in the GSM Rec.
06.02, 06.20 - 22, 06.41 and 06.42.
Cell Size Reduction/Coverage: The most important measure for increasing the
capacity of GSM networks lies in a reduction of the cell size. The resources of a
radio cell are available to a small geographical area through the reduction of the
cell radius or through the limitation of the cell coverage (sector cell). By doing so,
the density of mobile communication subscribers and consequently the system
capacity can be considerably increased. By halving the cell radius, its capacity is
increased by a factor of four. Nevertheless the size of a (normal = macro) cell can
not be reduced indiscriminately. Hierarchical Cell Concepts (Rec. 05.22) with
macro, micro and pico cells are significantly enhancing efficiency.
OACSU (Off Air Call Set Up): Traffic channels are allocated only after a success-
full call setup, that is after the called subscriber (delayed allocation). The OACSU
procedure thus serves to improve the frequency efficiency; it can be used for
overload handling.
Tariffs: Introduction of day- & night time tariffs can help to level down peak loads.
Discontinuous Transmission DTX: For a conversation, this will mean that just
speech phases are transmitted. Background noise, or so called comfort noise is
transmitted with a greatly reduced bitrate (500 bit/s instead of 13 kbit/s as with
speech phase) in phases in which a subscriber is silent. The other subscriber
should thus not worry that connection has been broken off. In order to make
discontinuous transmission possible, the presence of "useful" information for
transmission must be determined by means of Voice Activity Detection VAD. DTX
aspects are included in GSM-Rec.06.31 and 06.41, VAD aspects in Rec. 06.32
and 06.42.
Transmission Principles Siemens
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Frequency Resources: Expansion / Optimized Utilization
GSM900:
2 x 25 MHz
Extension of frequency range:
E-GSM:
2 x 35 MHz
GSM1800
2 x 75 MHz
+
Fixed network: 64 kbit/s
Speech compression:

FR:
13 kbit/s
Digital speech information
HR:
5.6
kbit/s
Half Rate
speech
Full Rate
speech
Cell size
reduction:

(Radius reduction
and sectorization)
35 / 8 km 500 m
omnicell
180 / 120
sector cell
OACSU (Off Air Call Set Up)
Time Balance / Tariffs
DTX (Discontinuous Transmission) / VAD (Voice Activity Detection)
Fig. 20
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Advantages of Digital Transmission
Digital transmission has many advantages over analog transmission:
Network Capacity: The capacity of mobile communication networks can be
considerably increased by the possibility of compressing digitalized speech
information. The disadvantage of speech compression is a loss of information
(reduction of speech quality).
Service Offer: Digital data transmission simplifies the transmission of signaling
information. This makes the introduction of a wide, quickly growing range of
services possible in GSM beyond pure speech or data transmission.
Cost Aspect: Digital equipment is less expensive to manufacture owing to better
possibilities for use in highly integrated microelectronics. Purchase costs as well
as operation and maintenance costs are thus less expensive and have allowed
GSM's breakthrough onto the mass market.
Miniaturization: Microelectronics used for digital information transmission allows
a relatively simple reduction of the hardware (in comparison to analog
transmission), especially of the mobile stations. Mobile phones have been used
with GSM since the start; their weight has been reduced from over 500 g to some
50g within a couple of years.
Security Aspect: Digital information can be ciphered much more easily than
analog information. Transmission via radio interface is protected from fraud and
unauthorized interception in GSM by the ciphering the digital user data (speech,
data) and signaling data.
Transmission Principles Siemens
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ENCRYPTION
MODULE
Input data
(plain text)
Output data
(coded text)
Code
sequence
Advantages of Digital Information Transmission
Network capacity speech compression
Service offer signaling
Cost aspect manufacture, operation, maintenance
Miniaturization microelectronics
Security aspect easily coded
Transmission quality regenerability
Fig. 21
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Transmission Quality: Signal transmission via radio interface leads to consider-
able distortions and weakening of the transmitted signals. Digital signals are
fundamentally less susceptible to interference than analog signals and are better
suited to regeneration. Analog speech connections become increasingly worse
with increasing distance from the transmitter until they eventually disconnect.
Digital transmissions on the other hand maintain a constant good quality over a
long distance and then disconnect almost suddenly.
Transmission Principles Siemens
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S / N
signal
quality
distance to transmitter
r
analog signal
digital signal
Quality of Digital & Analog Signal Transmission
Fig. 22
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Reliable Transmission via Um: Channel Coding
Various measures are taken in GSM to protect transmissions via radio interface from
interference, distortions and loss of information. These measures are taken by means
of channel coding.
The transmission is protected in such a way that a certain number of transmission
errors can be corrected by the error correction procedure, the so-called Forward
Error Correction (FEC). By means of FEC the Bit Error Rates (BER) of the radio
interface transmission are reduced to a rate of 10
-5
to 10
-6
from an unacceptable
value of 10
-3
to 10
-1
. Redundancy is added to the information to be transmitted in
order to al-low recognition and correction of transmission errors.
Channel coding of information on the transmit side comprises three steps:
1. Adding of parity check bits and fill bits
2. Error protection (redundancy) with convolutional coding
3. Spreading by time: interleaving
The same steps are carried out in reverse order at the receiving side.
The added parity check bits serve to recognize incorrigible errors on the receiving
side. The parity check bits are of special use in speech transmission. If incorrigible
errors are indicated, the corresponding speech information is rejected and an attempt
is made to interpolate the information from the preceding speech information.
Convolutional coding serves to create redundancy. The original information (speech,
data, signaling) is coded along with the parity bits. Important information runs through
mathematical algorithms, where redundancy is added and the arrangement of the
information is changed.
Interleaving serves to temporally spread information. Information is collected up to a
determined number of bits and is spread by time. The interweaving of the redundant
information has the effect that information loss due to frequent short disturbances can
be compensated by means of temporal spreading of the information.
Transmission Principles Siemens
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Reliable Transmission via Um:
Channel Coding
Addition of:
parity
and filler
bits
transmission side
Convo-
lutional
coding
redundancy
Inter-
leaving
temporal
spreading
Parity
check
Convo-
lutional
decoding
De-inter-
leaving
reception side
Um
Fig. 23
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Speech Coding: FR, HR and EFR
Speech transmission is of central importance in GSM. Speech information is handled
especially by the radio interface for secure and resource-preserving transmission.
Speech information is compressed and then redundancy is added (channel coding).
There are three different speech codecs available in GSM for compression of speech
information: the Full Rate (FR) Speech Codec was specified for GSM Phase 1, i.e.
from the start, in Phase 2 the Half Rate (HR) Speech Codec and in Phase2+ the
Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) Speech Codec were added.
Full Rate FR and Enhanced Full Rate EFR Speech Codecs compress speech
information from 64 kbit/s - used in digital line connected telephone networks such as
ISDN - to 13 kbit/s respectively 12.2 kbit/s. So 13 kbit/s / 12.2 kbit/s are the net data
rate for speech transmission via the radio interface. The gross data rate after adding
redundancy in channel coding is 22.8 kbit/s with FR and EFR.
Half Rate HR Speech Codec compresses speech information from 64 kbit/s to 5.6
kbit/s. The gross data rate after adding redundancy is 11.4 kbit/s. The connections
of two Half Rate speech using subscribers can be realized in one physical channel
together, with a gross data rate of 22.8 kbit/s.
Models for speech generation are generally used for speech coding. Periodically re-
turning elements of speech are identified as phonemata; redundancy is removed
from the speech information. Even the attributes of hearing, especially the spectral
covering effect, are taken into account in different ways.
More efficient speech recognition mechanisms are of use for the HR introduced in
GSM Phase 2 and EFR introduced in Phase 2+. The HR codec delivers a somewhat
lower speech quality in comparison to the FR codec if transmission is undisturbed. It
is more robust against radio specific disturbances owing to the relatively strong error
protection. The EFR codec offers a significant increase in quality in comparison to the
FR codec. It sounds more natural and "smoother" according to subjective test results.
Transmission Principles Siemens
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Speech Coding: FR, HR, EFR
Speech coding models of speech and hearing
Removal of redundant information (periodic)
Transmission of central speech information
Reduction of speech information: 64 kbit/s 13 / 5.6 kbit/s (net data rate)
Full Rate (FR) Codec
GSM Ph1;
13 kbit/s
Redundancy (channel coding)
9.8 kbit/s
Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) Codec
GSM Ph2+;
12.2 kbit/s
Redundancy (channel coding)
10.6 kbit/s
Gross data rate via Um: 22.8 kbit/s
Half Rate (HR)
Codec; GSM Ph2;
5.6 kbit/s
Redundancy
5.8 kbit/s
Gross data rate via Um: 11.4 kbit/s
HR & EFR:
improved, acoustically optimized
speech coding
HR, FR almost the
same quality
Fig. 24
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