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Siemens Solution Siemens

TM2100EU02TM_0001
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Contents
1 SBS - Siemens Base Station System 3
1.1 Base Transceiver Station Equipment BTSE 4
1.2 BSC 14
1.3 TRAU 22
2 D900/D1800SSS - Switching Subsystem 27
2.1 D900/D1800SSS Architecture 28
2.2 Line/Trunk Group LTG 32
2.3 Data Service Unit DSU 38
2.4 Switching Network SNB 40
2.5 Signaling System Network Control SSNC 46
2.6 Coordination Area 50
2.7 Summary D900/D1800SSS 54
3 Operation & Maintenance 57
Siemens Solution
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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1 SBS - Siemens Base Station System
Siemens Solution
SBS
Siemens Base Station system
OMS-B
Operation & Maintenance
Subsystem for the BSS
BTSE
Base Transceiver
Station Equipment
BSC
Base Station
Controller
TRAU
Transcoding & Rate
Adaptation Unit
LMT
Local Maintenance
Terminal
LMT LMT
MS
Mobile
Station
MSC
Mobile Services
switching Center
Um A
T T T
O
SBS
NSS
Network Switching
Subsystem
Abis Asub
Fig. 1
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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SBS Siemens Base Station system
The BSS consists in the SBS solution of the Base Station Controllers BSC, Base
Transceiver Station Equipment BTSE, Transcoding & Rate Adaptation Unit TRAU
and the Local Maintenance Terminal LMT. The following SBS description is based on
BR5.5.
1.1 Base Transceiver Station Equipment BTSE
The BTSE comprise the entire radio equipment in a given site for a single cell (Omni-
Cell) or a group of cells (Sector Cells), each of which (as a BTS) is characterized by
its own particular Base Station Identification Code BSIC. The BTSE is interfaced to
the MS in the cells it serves via the open interface Um and to the BSC via the
proprietary Abis interface. For local O&M an LMT can be connected to the BTSE via
proprietary T-interface.
The BTSE is responsible for the reliable transmission of user data & signaling via the
Um interface. Central functions of the BTSE are:
Forward Error Correction FEC, i.e. encoding & interleaving of the data for Um
transmission
(De-) ciphering to prevent eavesdropping
Burst building
HF-generation (400 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 MHz range)
Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying GMSK Modulation
Filtering & Amplification
Frequency Hopping (optional)
Synchronization of the transmission in time and frequency
Transmission & Reception
Monitoring & optimization of transmission quality
Handover Recognition
Transmission of Measurement Reports to the BSC for Handover decision
Power Control PC
Timing Advance TA
Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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The BTSE
Overview functions
connected via Um / Abis / T to MS / BSC / LMT
comprises entire radio equipment in a given site
serves 1 / several BTS, i.e. Omni / Sector - Cell(s)
central functions:
reliable transmission via Um: FEC (encoding & interleaving)
(De-) ciphering
Burst building
HF-generation
GMSK Modulation
Filtering & Amplification
Frequency hopping
Synchronization (time & frequency)
Transmission & Reception
Monitoring & optimization of transmission quality
Handover Recognition
Measurement Reports to BSC
Power Control PC
Timing Advance TA
Abis
Um
LMT
T
BSC
Fig. 2
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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The BTSE family
Siemens offers a large variety of BTSE variants for flexible and cost-efficient network
configuration. The BS11, BS20/21/22 (BS2x) and BS60/61 (BS6x) are the classical
BTSE variants, the BS240/241/242 (BS24x), BS82 and BS40/41 (BS4x) are new
variants. All BTSE are compatible on Abis-level.
The BS11 (Micro-BTS) is used for outdoor applications, e.g. for micro-cells (out of
production).
The BS2x and BS6x encompass all standard types with a maximum capacity of up
to 2 or 6 TRXs for both indoor or outdoor applications. The internal architecture is
very similar.
The BS2x family with up to 2 TRX per rack can be supplied in 3 versions:
BS20 for indoor installation
BS21 for outdoor installation
BS22 for indoor & outdoor applications in confined spaces
The BS6x family with up to 6 TRX per rack can be supplied in 2 versions:
BS60 for indoor installation
BS61 for outdoor installation
The new BS24x offers highest modularity and flexibility, low volume per carrier ,
minimized power consumption and costs. The BS24x platform is the basis for the
migration strategy to UMTS (GSM, GPRS, EDGE). The modular HW/SW concept
and mechanical handling will be identical. The BS4x family and the BS82 (eMicro)
are derived from the BS24x platform .
The BS24x family with up to 24 TRX is available in the following versions:
BS240 for indoor installation
BS241 for outdoor installation
BS242 (Pico-BTS) for indoor installation consists in a spit BTS architecture with a
core part called Server and up to 24 remote TRXs called Agent.
The BS4x family with up to 4 TRX is available in the following versions:
BS40 for indoor installation
BS41 for outdoor installation
The BS82 (eMicro) with up to 8 TRX (indoor & outdoor installation) addresses all
kinds of micro cellular applications.
Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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BS 11
Indoor
max.
TRX/BTSE
2
Remarks
Micro
BTS
BTSE family
20
x
2
21
2
22
x
2
smaller
size
40
x
4
41
4
60
x
6
61
6
max.
TRX/cell
2 2 2 2 4 4 6 6
Outdoor x x x x x
GSM900 x x x x x x x x
GSM1800 x x x x x x x x
GSM1900 x u.s. x u.s. x x x x
GSM-R u.s. x x u.s. x x
from: TED-BSS A30808-X3247-H10-1-7618
07/2000; for BR 5.5
U.s.: under study
BS2x
family
BS6x
family
Size
suit-
case
1 Rack
1 Rack
(from BS 24x)
1 Rack
240
x
24
241
24
242
x
24
Pico
BTS
12 12 12
x
x x x
x x x
x x x
x x
BS24x
family
Server
+ 24
remote
Agents
(TRX)
1 Basic Rack,
2 Extension
Racks
New:
more flexibility
combining carrier/cell
easier rack extension
based on BS24x family
82
x
8
eMicro
BTS
8
x
x
x
u.s.
u.s.
1/2
Racks
BS4x
family
Fig. 3
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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BS240: Units & Modules
The new BS24x and BS4x family are based on the same HW platform (same
modules). The fully equipped BS240/241 consists of one Base Rack, 2 Extension
Racks and 2 Service Racks; it is expandable up to 24 TRX (each Base / Extension
Rack with up to 8 TRX). In the following the BS240 is described.
Base & Extension Racks are equipped in the same way with:
Antenna Combiner ACOM
Multi Coppler MUCO
Carrier Unit CU
Alarm Collector Terminal ACT
The Base Rack additionally contains the Core modules:
Core Basis COBA2P8
Core Satellite COSA6P16
The Service Racks contain the AC/DC modules, battery backup and the Line
Equipment LE.
Core Modules: COBA & COSA
COBA & COSA modules are responsible for local control of the BTSE, generation of
the system clocks, providing of up to 8 Abis-interfaces (PCM30/24) to BSC or other
BTSEs, routing of the Abis data to up to 24 CUs, providing an interface to the LMT
and handling & processing of O&M messages. For redundancy the core modules can
be duplicated.
Core Basis COBA2P8
The COBA is the central board of the core. The functionality of the advanced clock
generation ACLK and the Base Core Controller BCC of the entire BTSE are
integrated. 2 PCM30/24 Abis interfaces and 8 interfaces to CUs are available on
COBA2P8.
The BCC maintains the SW of all BTSE units in Flash-EPROM, supervises the SW
download and terminates all internal system alarms. Beside the O&M functions the
BCC handles the signaling messages between BSC (Abis) and CUs (CU-link).
Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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BS 240: units & modules
CU
0
CU
1
CU
4
CU
5
ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON O N ON ON ON
BS-240
A
C
O
M
1
A
C
O
M
0
A
C
O
M
2
A
C
O
M
3
M
U
C
O

0
M
U
C
O

1
s
CU
2
CU
3
CU
6
CU
7
Air inlet
Air inlet
Air inlet
DC_Panel
ACT_C
CU
0
CU
1
CU
4
CU
5
O N ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON
BS-240
A
C
O
M
1
A
C
O
M
0
A
C
O
M
2
A
C
O
M
3
M
U
C
O

0
M
U
C
O

1
s
CU
2
CU
3
CU
6
CU
7
Air inlet
Air inlet
Air inlet
DC_Panel
ACT_C
CU
0
CU
1
CU
4
CU
5
ON ON ON ON ON ON O N ON O N ON ON ON
BS-240
A
C
O
M
1
A
C
O
M
0
A
C
O
M
2
A
C
O
M
3
M
U
C
O

0
M
U
C
O

1
s
CU
2
CU
3
CU
6
CU
7
Air inlet
Air inlet
Air inlet
DC_Panel
ACT_C
C
O
B
A

0
C
O
S
A

0
C
O
S
A

1
C
O
B
A

1
Base Rack Extension Rack Extension Rack
Antenna Combiner
ACOM
Multi Coppler
MUCO
Carrier Unit
CU
Core Basis
COBA2P8
Core Satellite
COSA6P16
Alarm Collector
Terminal ACT
H:
1600
mm
W: 600 mm
D:
450 mm
Service
Racks:
AC/DC
modules,
battery
& LE
LE: Line Equipment
Fig. 4
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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Core Satellite COSA6P16
For interface and feature extension the COBA can be expanded with one COSA. The
COSA6P16 module offers 6 PCM30/24 interfaces for Abis and 16 interfaces to CUs.
The COSA is controlled from the COBA.
Antenna Combiner ACOM / Multi Coppler MUCO
For the UL & DL transmission of data the Duplexer Amplifier MultiCoupler DUAMCO
can be used.
Furthermore, for DL transmission the Filter Combiner FICOM (DL only) can be used.
In this case, for the UL reception the DI Amplifier Multi Coupler DIAMCO (UL only)
can be used.
Duplexer Amplifier Multi Coupler DUAMCO
The DUAMCO can be used in UL & DL direction. It combines up to 4 TRX to one
antenna. It contains filters in order to combine the transmit path TX and the receiving
path RX to one antenna connector. The RX path consists of a low noise amplifier
LNA and a power splitter. The TX path consists of isolators, a hybrid coupler and an
antenna supervision unit ASU. The DUAMCO has 2 different operation modes: the
AMCO mode where no Tower Mounted Amplifier TMA is used, and the MUCO mode
in case a TMA is used.
Filter Combiner FICOM
The FICOM can be used in DL direction only. It combines up to 8 TRX of one rack to
one antenna using remote tunable narrowband filters. For the UL direction (RX) the
DIAMCO has to be used to filter and distribute the received signals to the CUs.
DI(=2) Amplifier MultiCoupler DIAMCO
The DIAMCO can be used in UL direction only. It contains receive filters, low noise
amplifiers LNAs and power splitters. Thus it filters the received signals and distributes
them to the CUs. For DL direction, the FICOM has to be used.
Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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BS 240 Modules
CU
0
CU
1
CU
4
CU
5
ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON ON
BS-240
A
C
O
M
1
A
C
O
M
0
A
C
O
M
2
A
C
O
M
3
M
U
C
O

0
M
U
C
O

1
s
CU
2
CU
3
CU
6
CU
7
Air inlet
Air inlet
Air inlet
DC_Panel
ACT_C
C
O
B
A

0
C
O
S
A

0
C
O
S
A

1
C
O
B
A

1
Antenna Combiner ACOM
Duplexer Amplifier Multi Coupler
DUAMCO (DL & UL):
combines up to 4 carrier to 1 antenna
amplifies received signals
Filter Combiner FICOM (DL only):
combines up to 8 frequencies in DL
remote tunable narrowband filters
needs DIAMCO for UL
Multi Coppler MUCO
DI(=2) Amplifier MultiCoupler DIAMCO:
UL only (needs FICOM for DL)
filters & amplifies received signals
distributes to the CUs
Carrier Unit CU
Data conversion: Abis Um:
DL: TRAU frames RF signals
UL: 2 RF signals* TRAU frames
up to 8 TRX / rack
Core Satellite
COSA6P16
COBA extension
6 PCM30/24
16 CU Interfaces
Alarm Collector Terminal ACT
collect alarms (units without Core access)
external alarms e.g. rack/shelter,
operator alarms,..
internal alarms e.g. door, fans
same modules
used in
BS240/241 & BS40/41
*antenna diversity
Core: COBA & COSA
local BTSE control
generating system clock
Abis Interface (BSC / BTSEs)
routing Abis data CUs
LMT Interface
processing O&M messages
redundancy optional
FAN FAN
FAN FAN
FAN FAN
Core Basis COBA2P8
central Core board
Clock & Core controller
2 PCM30/24
8 CU Interfaces
Fig. 5
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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Alarm Collector Terminal ACT
The ACT contains the interface to the external alarms (Operator / rack / shelter
alarms) and collects internal alarms (door, fans, different operator-defined
rack/shelter internal alarms).
The alarms are delivered to the Core.
Tower Mounted Amplifier TMA
The TMA connects the antenna with the BTSE in order to amplify the receive signal
and pass through the transmit signal.
Carrier Unit CU
The CU takes care for all carrier oriented tasks of the BS240, i.e. the conversion of
data between Abis and Um interface. In UL direction two RF signals (antenna
diversity) are received and finally converted into TRAU frames (16 kbit/s) and
signaling data. In DL direction TRAU frames and signaling data are received and
converted into a GMSK modulated RF signal, which is amplified to the desired power
level. Up to 8 CU can be placed into one Base / Extension Rack, i.e. up to 8 TRX are
supported by one rack.
The CU consists of the subunits: Power Amplifier & Transceiver Unit PATRX, Signal
Processing Units SIPRO and Power Supply Unit PSU.
PATRX provides the main analogue functions of the CU. In UL direction it receives
the 2 (diversity) RF signals from the antenna combining equipment, downconverts
them and transmits them to SIPRO. In DL direction it receives the GMSK modulated
signal from SIPRO. The signal is then I/Q modulated, upconverted leveled, power
amplified and transmitted to the antenna combining equipment. PATRX supports
synthesizer frequency hopping and provides an RF loop between DL and UL path for
the unit test of the CU.
SIPRO contains all digital functions of the CU: UL & DL Signal Processing,
(Encoding, Interleaving, Ciphering, Burst building), Control of RF on PATRX,
Baseband & Synthesizer hopping, Channel Control, Radio Link Control, O&M parts
relevant for CU, Link to Core via CC link. Additionally, some analogue functions are
located on SIPRO: A/D & D/A conversion, Local CU clock.
Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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PATRX
Power Amplifier &
Transceiver Unit
SIPRO
Signal Processing Unit
PSU
Power Supply Unit
RX
input
TX
output
CC Link
(to COBA / COSA)
-48V
CU
Carrier Unit CU
contains all digital CU functions:
UL & DL Signal Processing
(Encoding, Interleaving,
Ciphering, Burst building)
Control of RF on PATRX
Baseband & Synthesizer hopping
Channel Control
Radio Link Control
O&M parts relevant for CU
Link to Core
analogue functions:
A/D conversion
D/A conversion
Local CU clock
provides the main
analogue CU functions:
UL: De-Modulation of
2 signals (diversity)
DL: Modulation,
power amplified &
transmitted to
DUAMCO / FICOM
supports synthesizer
frequency hopping
Fig. 6
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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1.2 BSC
The BSC is the central component of the SBS. It is responsible for the BSS control,
switches the connections between TRAUs and BTSEs, handles the Radio Resource
Management RRM, is the central contact to the OMC-B and stores the BSS
database.
In BR5.5 the BSC has a dynamic capacity of up to 2000 Erlang and a static port
connection capacity of up to 46 PCM30 lines. Due to its compact design, occupying a
volume of only 259 l and due to its low power dissipation (less than 475 W), the BSC
operates without any fans or air conditioning system. Consequently, the operator has
a choice of locating the BSC centrally in telecommunications rooms or remotely in a
shelter or in a confined space. The BSC can then act as a concentrator for the links
between the Abis and Asub interfaces.
In BR5.5 the BSC supports many additional features / customer benefits, e.g.:
Hierarchical Cellular Structures HCS with speed-sensitive Handover HO
algorithms
Emergency calls with priority
Data services (in-call modification, automatic fax,...)
SMS, SMS-Cell Broadcast Service
Easy system upgrade by means of full SW download
Full Rate FR, Half Rate HR, Enhanced Full Rate EFR speech codecs
High Speed Circuit Switched Data HSCSD (9.6/14.4 kbit/s; max. 4 TS)
Advanced Speech Call Items ASCI (Voice Broadcast Service VBS, Voice Group
Call Service VGCS)
General Packet Radio Services GPRS (CS1 & CS2; max. 7 TS)
Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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BSC functions:
BSS control
Switching: TRAU BTS
Radio Resource Management RRM
Contact to OMC-B
Database storage (SW download)
Support of (BR 5.5):
HCS with speed-sensitive HO algorithms
Emergency calls with priority
data services (in-call modification, automatic fax,...)
SMS, SMS-CBS
Speech codecs: FR, HR, EFR
HSCSD (9.6/14.4 kbit/s; max. 4 TS)
ASCI (VBS, VGCS)
GPRS (CS1/2, max. 7 TS)
Asub
LMT
T
T
R
A
U
Abis
B
T
S
E
OMC-B
BSC
functions
ASCI: Advanced Speech Call Items
CBS: Cell Broadcast Service
CS: Coding Scheme
HCS: Hierarchical Cellular Structure
VBS: Voice Broadcast Service
VGCS: Voice Group Call Service
Fig. 7
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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BSC: Link Configuration
The BSC supports various BSC-BTSE configurations:
Star: each BTSE connected by a link for its own
Multidrop Chain: various BTSEs are connected to one BSC using a common link,
which helps to save leased line costs by increasing the usage of 2 Mbit/s links.
The allocation and re-allocation of timeslots on the link is freely configurable.
Loop: a single link passes from the BSC via various BTSEs in one chain and
behind the last one back to the BSC. If the link is interrupted anywhere in the
chain, the system can survive this failure without degradation of service and
without disrupting stable calls, as it automatically detects the fault and reconfigures
the loop without manual interaction from the operator. In normal operation, the
loop configuration works as a multidrop configuration with communication between
BTSEs and BSC only in one direction around the loop.
Cross-Connection: The basic configuration types like star, multidrop and loop do
not allow hub and spoke configurations which may be only realized with high
leased line costs or with external cross-connect equipment. To save some of these
equipment a cross connection functionality is integrated in the BTSE.
The TRAUs are always connected in Star configuration.
BSC Capacity
The BSC capacity in BR5.5 is:
max. 2000 Erlang switching & processing capacity
max. 46 PCM30/24 lines, i.e. 20 PCMS (Asub) + 26 PCMB(Abis) with flexible
PCMS lines configuration or
max. 36 PCM30/24 couples configurable on 9 QTLP
max. 20 TRAUs can be connected
max. 100 BTSE (sites)
max. 150 BTS (cells)
Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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Link
Configuration
Cross-
connect
Multidrop chain
BTSE
BSC
TRAU
LMT
A
T
O
Abis Asub
OMC-B
MSC
BTSE
BTSE
BTSE
BTSE
BTSE
BTSE
TRAU
T
Star
Loop
Star
BTSE
BTSE
BTSE
BTSE
BR 5.5
Capacity [Erlang] 2000
max. PCM 30 46/36
max. TRAU 20
max. BTSE 100
max. BTS 150
Capacity
Fig. 8
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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BSC Rack Configuration / HW Architecture
The BSC is equipped with the following elements:
Main Processor Control Card MPCC (Administrative Processor): the MPCC
controls the SN on basis of TDPC messages; it handles traffic & performance
measurement; it is responsible for: status & database administration, HW
configuration, diagnostics & maintenance management, mass storage control, SW
download, O&M interface control and TRAU control. 1+1 redundancy; hot stand-by
Universal Bus Extender board UBEX: the UBEX interfaces the MPCC to the
network, PLLH, PPCCs & PPLDs, line interface.
Telephony Distribution Processor Circuit TDPC + Memory of the TDPC MEMT:
the TDPC is responsible for message exchange with the other network entities via
PPCC & PPLD; it handles all signaling function above MTP L2 and all application
processes related to Call Control CC, Radio Resource management RR, Mobility
Management MM and IMSI tracing; the MEMT is the TDPC memory extension &
acts as mailbox for MPCC TDPC message exchange; (1+1 redundancy; hot
stand-by)
Peripheral Processor for CCS7 PPCC: SS7 pre-processing (MTP L2) for
signaling towards the MSC; 2 PPCC boards; load-sharing redundancy
Peripheral Processor for LAPD PPLD: responsible for handling of LAPD
protocol used for signaling to BTSEs and TRAUs; 14 + 1 PPLD boards; n+1
redundancy.
Siemens Solution Siemens
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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BSC Rack
EXPANSION
Lamp Panel
BASE
X
T
L
P
8
X
T
L
P
7
X
T
L
P
6
P
P
L
D
9
P
P
L
D
1
0
P
P
L
D
1
1
P
P
L
D
1
2
P
P
L
D
1
3
P
P
L
D
1
4
P
W
R
S
1
P
P
L
D
3
P
P
L
D
4
P
P
L
D
5
P
P
L
D
6
P
P
L
D
7
P
P
L
D
8
X
T
L
P
S
1
X
T
L
P
2
X
T
L
P
3
X
T
L
P
4
X
T
L
P
5
P
W
R
S
0
Fuse and Alarm
Panel
P
W
R
S
1
P
P
L
H
1
P
P
L
D
0
P
P
L
D
1
P
P
L
D
2
P
P
C
C
1
X
T
L
P
0
X
T
L
P
1
P
L
L
H
0
P
W
R
S
0
X
T
L
P
S
0
P
P
C
C
0
D
K
4
0
0
I
X
L
T
0
U
B
E
X
0
S
N
X
X
0
T
D
P
C
0
M
E
M
T
0
M
P
C
C
0
M
P
C
C
1
M
E
M
T
1
T
D
P
C
1
S
N
X
X
1
U
B
E
X
1
I
X
L
T
1
D
K
4
0
1
Rack dimensions:
H: 2000 mm
W: 600 mm
D: 300 mm
Rack dimensions:
H: 2000 mm
W: 600 mm
D: 300 mm
DK40
Mass storage
IXLT
O & M Interface
UBEX
Universal Bus
Extender board
TDPC
Telephony & Distributor
Processor
& MEMT
Memory of the TDPC
SN 16 / 64
Switching Network
MPCC
Main Processor
Control Boarda
QTLP / DTLP
Quad. / Dual Trunk Line
Peripheral
PPLD
Peripheral Processor
for LAPD
PPCC
Peripheral Processor
for SS#7
PWRS
Power Supply
PLLH
Clock Unit
S: Spare
(N+1 Redundancy)
Fig. 9
Siemens Siemens Solution
TM2100EU02TM_0001
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Switching Network SN16 or SN64: the SN16 switches under control of the
MPCC traffic connections between TRAU & BTSE and signaling between TDPC
(via PPLDs & PPCCs) and external entities; it is able to set up bi-directional
dynamic connections at 8 / 16 kbit/s (e.g. for HR / FR / EFR) and at n x 16 kbit/s.
The SN64 (BR3.x or older) is not able to switch 8 kbit/s (e.g. HR). 1+1
redundancy; hot stand-by.
Phase Locked Loop High Performance PLLH: clock unit; 2 PLLH: master/slave
configuration.
Interface to LMT/OMC-B IXLT: allows MPCC to be connected to the OMC-B via
X.25 and to the LMT via proprietary T interface.
Mass Storage DK40: hard disk, containing copies of all BSS SW and all
configuration data to allow fast restart without downloading from the OMC-B; 1 + 1
redundancy
Quadruple Trunk Line Peripheral board QTLP / Dual Trunk Line Peripheral
board DTLP: the standard QTLP Line Interface board houses 4 dual PCM30/24
line interfaces; connecting Abis / Asub to the SN16; 9 + 2 QTLP redundancy.
DTLP for BR3.0 and older: only 2 PCM30/24 line interfaces
Power Supply PWRS
For GPRS introduction, the Packet Control Unit PCU is co-located with the BSC. To
incorporate the PCU (1 or 2 PCUs) into the BSC, 2 / 4 Peripheral Packet Control
Units PPCU are placed instead of 4 / 8 PPLDs.
Siemens Solution Siemens
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DK40
BSC
Internal
Architecture
Clock
Switching
Network
Telephony Processors
MEMT TDPC
Telephony Processors
MEMT TDPC
Line Termination
QTLP/DTLP
Line Termination
QTLP/DTLP
Line Termination
QTLP/DTLP
Line Termination
QTLP/DTLP
Line Termination
QTLP/DTLP
Line Termination
QTLP/DTLP
SN16/ 64
Peripheral
Processors
L
A
P
D
P
P
L
D
L
A
P
D
P
P
L
D
L
A
P
D
P
P
L
D
PLLH
C
C
S
7
P
P
C
C
C
C
S
7
P
P
C
C
Administrative
Processor
MPCC
ME2M UBEX
Administrative
Processor
MPCC
UBEX
to LMT
to OMC
O&M
Interface
IXLT
O&M
Interface
IXLT
DK40
controls SN (basis: TDPC messages)
traffic & performance measurement
responsible for: status & database
administration, HW configuration, SW
download, mass storage & O&M control,...
signaling (>L2) with other
nodes via PPCC, PPLD
handles CC, RR, MM
processing
SN16: HR & FR/EFR switching
SN64: FR only (BR3.x & older)
9 + 2
interfaces
SN to
Abis/Asub
4 / 2
PCM30/24
MTP L2 processing
LAPD processing
14 + 1 redundancy
GPRS:
4 / 8 PPLDs
are replaced
by PCU cards
GPRS:
4 / 8 PPLDs
are replaced
by PCU cards
Fig. 10
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1.3 TRAU
The TRAU is responsible for:
Transcoding, i.e. the compression of speech data from 64 kbit/s (on A interface) to
13 / 12.2 / 5.6 kbit/s in the case of FR/EFR/HR speech coding. All the 3 speech
coding are supported by the TRAU in BR5.5 (Triple Rate functionality).
Rate Adaptation in the case of data (Bearer Services, data Teleservices)
transmission.
Signaling data are transmitted transparent through the TRAU.
The TRAU consists of the following modules:
BSC Interface board BSCI
MSC Interface board MSCI
Transcoding & Rate Adaptation Card TRAC
Power Supply PWRS
Transcoding & Rate Adaptation Card TRAC
The TRAC is responsible for the central TRAU functions: Transcoding & Rate
Adaptation. It is able to (de-)compress speech using FR, EFR and HR speech
coding. Furthermore, the TRAC is performs VAD/DTX function. Each TRAC provides
the processing of up to 24 TCHs (UL & DL).
The TRAU is fully equipped with 6 TRACs, using an n+1 (5+1) redundancy.
Therefore, the TRAU is able to process up to 120 TCHs (92 in GSM1900) totally.
Siemens Solution Siemens
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TRAU
functions
BSCI
BSC Interface
board
TRAC 0
Transcoding & Rate
Adaption Card
TRAC 1
TRAC 2
TRAC 3
TRAC 4
TRAC 5
A
LMT
T
M
S
C
Asub
B
S
C
4
PCM30
(PCM24)
lines
1
PCM30
(PCM24)
lines
central control
clock generator
multiplexing
traffic from/to
TRACs
LMT-link
2 n redundant
MSCI
MSC Interface
board
LAPD
processing
toward BSC
multiplexing
Traffic from/to
TRACs
2 n redundant
Speech compression
FR, HR, EFR
Rate adaptation
VAD/DTX function
5(4)* +1 redundancy
DTX: Discontinuous Transmission
VAD: Voice Activity Detection
* GSM900/1800 (GSM1900)
TRAU functions:
Speech: (de-)compression
Data: Rate adaptation
Signalling: transparent
Capacity: up to 120 (92)* channels
Fig. 11
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BSC Interface board BSCI
The BSCI board provides the link to the BSC via Asub interface (1 PCM30/24),
multiplexing the traffic from/to the TRACs. It houses the central TRAU controller, the
BSC clock generator and the link to an LMT via proprietary T interface. The BSCI is
duplicated; the non-active copy operates in hot-standby mode.
MSC Interface board MSCI
The MSCI board provides the connection to the MSC via A interface (4 PCM30/24),
multiplexing the traffic to/from the TRACs. Furthermore, it is processing the LAPD
protocol of the BSC control link. The MSCI is duplicated; the non-active copy
operates in hot-standby mode.
TRAU Rack
The rack dimensions are 2000 mm (height), 600 mm (width) and 300 mm (depth).
The volume is 360 l, power consumption less than 476 W. Due to the low power
consumption no fans are necessary for cooling. Up to four TRAU modules can be
incorporated into one TRAU rack. Therefore, the maximum processing capacity is
480 TCHs.
Siemens Solution Siemens
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TRAU
Rack
TRAU
Unit 1
T
R
A
C
2
M
S
C
I
0
B
S
C
I
1
T
R
A
C
3
T
R
A
C
4
T
R
A
C
5
P
W
R
S
0
P
W
R
S
1
B
S
C
I
0
T
R
A
C
0
T
R
A
C
1
M
S
C
I
1
Lamp Panel
Fuse & Alarm Panel 1
Fuse & Alarm Panel 2
Fuse & Alarm Panel 3
Fuse & Alarm Panel 4
TRAU
Unit 2
TRAU
Unit 3
TRAU
Unit 4
max. 24 channels / TRAC
max. 5 active TRAC
max. 120 channels / TRAU
(GSM900/1800)
(GSM1900: max. 92 channels)
Rack dimensions:
H: 2000 mm
W: 600 mm
D: 300 mm
Fig. 12
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Siemens Solution Siemens
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2 D900/D1800SSS - Switching Subsystem
Siemens Solution
D900/D1800SSS
Switching SubSystem
EIR*
Equipment
Identity Register
MSC
Mobile services
Switching Center
VLR
Visitor Location
Register
CT
Craft Terminal
O
SSS
External
networks
A
HLR
Home Location
Register
AC
Authentication
Center
BSC
Base Station
Controller
BSS
PSTN /
ISDN
GCR*
Group Call Register*
1
SSP*
Service Switching Point *
2
*optional
*
1
for ASCI
*
2
for IN/CAMEL
OMS-S
Operation & Maintenance
Subsystem for the SSS
SC
Switch Commander
Description
based on CS1.0;
SR9.0
(GPRS: PO1.0)
Description
based on CS1.0;
SR9.0
(GPRS: PO1.0)
CS: Circuit Switchedl
PO: Packet Oriented
SR: SW Release
Fig. 13
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2.1 D900/D1800SSS Architecture
The following network elements determine the system architecture of the PLMN-SSS:
Mobile-services Switching Center MSC, Visitor Location Register VLR, Home
Location Register HLR, Authentication Center AC and Equipment Identification
Register EIR (optionally). For the support of ASCI functions the MSC integrates a
Group Call Register GCR and for IN/CAMEL support the Service Switching Function
has to be included.
The following description is based on the current Siemens solution for the Circuit-
Switched CS branch of the GSM Core Network (CS1.0), with Software Release
SR9.0. The GPRS part of the GSM CN (Packet-Oriented PO 1.0 / GPRS Release
GR 2.0) is not part of this course. It is described in course TM2110 GPRS
Introduction.
D900/D1800SSS HW Solution
All the network elements of the PLMN-SSS are realized with D900/D1800SSS nodes,
which are based on experienced EWSD technology. It is fully digital and modular with
respect to software and hardware.
A D900/D1800SSS node consists of a row of racks. There are two types of racks: the
classic rack and the innovation rack.
The racks are available in two height: 7 / 8 foot (2.13 m / 2.45 m). The classic rack is
770 mm width and 500 mm depth (incl. protective cover), the innovation rack 900 mm
width and 600 mm depth.
The rack is sub-divided into module frames, carrying special functional units. The
module frames are equipped with modules.
Combination of Network Elements
MSC and VLR are always co-located (associated) in an SSS node, and HLR and AC
are also always co-located in an SSS node. So there are SSS nodes with MSC/VLR
and SSS nodes with HLR/AC functions. Furthermore, SSS nodes can combine
MSC/VLR/HLR/AC functions. EIR are possible as stand-alone SSS nodes or in
combination MSC/VLR/EIR, HLR/AC/EIR or MSC/VLR/HLR/AC/EIR. For ASCI
services respectively IN/CAMEL functions the MSC is combined with GCR
respectively SSP function.
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D900/D1800SSS
HW Architecture
Module
Combination of
Network Elements:
MSC/VLR always associated
HLR/AC always associated
MSC/VLR/HLR/AC
EIR: alone, with MSC/VLR or HLR/AC
SSP (IN/CAMEL), GCR (ASCI) with MSC
Combination of
Network Elements:
MSC/VLR always associated
HLR/AC always associated
MSC/VLR/HLR/AC
EIR: alone, with MSC/VLR or HLR/AC
SSP (IN/CAMEL), GCR (ASCI) with MSC
Rack
Row
Rack
Module Frame
2.13 m /
2.45 m
0.77 m / 0.9 m *
0.5 m / 0.6 m *
* Classic / Innovation Rack
Fig. 14
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D900/D1800SSS: Block Diagram
The D900/D1800SSS are based on a modular HW and SW concept. They contain
the in the current SW version the following HW subsystems which are for the most
part autonomous:
Line/Trunk Groups LTG
Data Service Unit DSU
Switching Network SN
Signaling System Network Control SSNC (SSS innovation node) or
Common Channel signaling Network Control CCNC (SSS classic node)
Coordination Area (incl. Coordination Processor CP)
The LTGs connect the SSS node to the external world and contain several special
functions necessary for PLMN operation.
The DSU is included with interworking functions IWF to support data services.
The Switching Network SN is used to switch-through user connections and signaling
data. It is the link between the LTGs, CP and SSNC/CCNC.
The Signaling System Network Control SSNC (innovation node) respectively the
Common Channel signaling Network Control CCNC (classic node) is responsible for
the control of SS7 signaling traffic.
The Coordination Processor CP is the central element of the Coordination Area. It is
responsible in the SSS network node for common functions such as coordination of
the distributed peripheral microprocessor controls of the other subsystems and the
data transfers between them. Furthermore, it performs common functions like call
processing, operation and safeguarding.
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D900/1800SSS:
Block diagram
SN
Switching
Network
Coordination
Area (CP)
LTG
Line/Trunk Group
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
SSNC*
Signaling System
Network Control
*classic node: CCNC (Common Channel Network Control)
SM-SC: SMS Service Center
CSE: CAMEL Service Environment
VMSC: Voice Mail System Center
CP: Coordination Processor
DSU
Data Service Unit
DAS
Digital Announcement
Systems
BSS
ISDN /
PSTN
D900/1800SSS
Trunk Loop LTG
e.g. for MMC, lawful interception
Conference LTG
e.g. for MPTY, ASCI services
high speed SS7 links
SM-SC, CSE, VMSC
Fig. 15
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2.2 Line/Trunk Group LTG
The various LTG control and supervise incoming and outgoing traffic with SS7
signaling to and from:
the Base Station System BSS
other public networks, e.g. PSTN/ISDN or other PLMN
other D900/D1800 SSS network nodes
Short Message Service Centers SM-SC
Voice Mail System Centers VMSC
IN/CAMEL nodes (Service Control Point SCP / CAMEL Service Environment CSE)
the Remote Access Server RAS for Mobile Internet Access MIA / Wireless
Application Protocol WAP
Furthermore, the LTGs control call traffic for special functions, such as:
Interworking function IWF in the DSU (for GSM data services)
Digital Announcement Systems DAS in the MSC (for standard announcements)
Trunk loop function for Mobile-Mobile-Calls MMC
Trunk loop function for calls with lawful interception
Conference function (in relation to the Multiparty MTPY services or ASCI services
(VGCS, VBS))
The LTGs support all the usual signaling systems (e.g. SS7, MFC:R2) for calls to
fixed networks. Since SS7 is mandatory within the GSM-PLMN, this is the
predominant method.
The LTGs furthermore contain a large variety of additional functions, e.g.
Adaptation of Primary Digital Carrier PDC to internal SDC
Measurement of call duration and general traffic measurement
Insertion of tones and standard announcements (with OCANEQ digital
announcement equipment or DAS Digital Announcement System)
Duplication / re-assembly of data to / from both SN sides
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LTG
Line/Trunk Group
SN
Coordination
Area
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
SSNC*
RAS: Remote Access Server
MIA / WAP: Mobile Internet Access / Wireless Application Protocol
*classic node: CCNC (Common Channel Network Control)
DSU
DAS
LTG
T
r
u
n
k
s
control incoming & outgoing
traffic to & from e.g.:
BSS
ISDN/PSTN, other PLMN
other D900/D1800SSS nodes
SM-SC
VMSC
IN/CAMEL nodes
RAS for MIA / WAP
controls traffic for
special functions, e.g.:
IWF for DSU
DAS in the MSC
trunk loop function for
MMC, lawful interception
conference function for MPTY, ASCI
other tasks, e.g.:
adaptation: PDC SDC
traffic measurement / call duration
insert tones & standard announcements
duplicates data to both SN planes
Fig. 16
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LTG Connections
LTGs can be connected with Primary Digital Carriers PDC for a transmission rate of
2.048 Mbit/s (PCM30: 32 channels, each with 64 kbit/s). Every LTG can be
connected with up to 4 PDC lines to external network nodes.
The connections between the LTG and the SN are Secondary Digital Carriers SDC
with a transmission rate of 8.192 Mbit/s (128 channels, each at 64 kbit/s). Each LTG
is connected to both sides of the redundant SN. The LTG is responsible for the
adaptation between the PDC and SDC carriers and for the duplication / re-assembly
of the data to / from the SN.
LTG Hardware
Two different LTGs are used, depending on the application:
LTGN, for all kinds of LTGs and subscriber lines and for the implementation of a
conference LTG (MTPY / ASCI services), standard announcements LTG and
IN/CAMEL user interaction LTG for internal IP
LTGG as IN/CAMEL user interaction LTG for internal IP
The LTGN is the product of a long evolution to reduce the amount of modules for one
LTG: LTGB (2 frames), LTGG (1/2 frame), LTGM (1/5 frame) and LTGN (1/8 1/16
frame = 1-2 module).
The LTGN has two capacity stages:
Basics functions (1 module) and basics functions plus additional functions (1
module). The basic functions of the LTGN are implemented in Group Processor N
GPN.
Additional functions of the LTGN are accommodated when necessary on a second
module, the functional unit Line/Trunk Unit: Supplementary LTU:S. The following
additional modules are possible:
Conference Unit C COUC (for MTPY & ASCI services),
Digital Echo Compensator DEC120,
Operationally Controlled Equipment for Announcement OCANEQ (can replace
from SR9.0 the DAS for all available announcements in the MSC) and
Voice Processing Unit VPU (for analysis of received speech commands and
conversion into control commands for IN/CAMEL).
Only one additional module can be accommodated in the LTU:S in each case.
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Basic functions
SN1
SN
LTG
LTG
Connections /
Hardware
LTG Hardware:
LTGN
(current version; 1-2 modules)
LTGM, LTGG, LTGB
(old versions: 1/5, 1/2, 2 frames)
LTG Hardware:
LTGN
(current version; 1-2 modules)
LTGM, LTGG, LTGB
(old versions: 1/5, 1/2, 2 frames)
SN0
SN1
PDC
Primary
Digital Carrier:
2.048 Mbit/s
(32 x 64 kbit/s
channels)

LTG

SDC
Secondary
Digital Carrier:
8.192 Mbit/s
(128 x 64 kbit/s
channels)
1 module =
GPN
Group Processor N
Basic + additional functions
GPN:
basic functions
LTU:S
Line/Trunk Unit:
Supplementary
Conference Unit
for MPTY, ASCI
Digital Echo Compensator
Announcement machine
to replace DAS
Voice processing unit
for speech recognition
LTGN: 2 capacity stages
LTGN: 2 capacity stages
0
3
Fig. 17
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LTGN (GPN) Block Diagram
The basic functions of the LTGN comprise a single functional unit which is divided up
into task-related parts. The basic functions of the LTGN are implemented in Group
Processor N GPN. The basic functions of the GPN are realized by the:
Group Processor GP- part
Signaling Link Control SILC- part
Code Receiver CR- part
Digital Interface Unit DIU- part
Group Switch GS- / Line Interface Unit LIU- / Tone Generator TOG- part
Group Clock Generator GCG- part and the
Input/Output Processor IOP- part
The GP-part matches the incoming information from the surrounding network node
area to the internal message format of the system and controls all the parts within the
GPN. To do this it has interfaces to the IOP part (controls: DIU, CR, GCG,
GS/LIU/TOG and SILC part) and the LTU:S as well as to the controls on the front
panel of the module.
IOP part with SILC part: The IOP part controls the DIU, CR, GCG, GS/LIU/TOG and
SILC part. The SILC part functions as Input/Output processor. The SILC part is used
to connect a number of signaling channels via which either the protocol for DSU or
the ISDN D-channel protocol for primary access can be handled. On the LTG side,
the SILC part completes the L2-functions of signaling protocols (GP part peripheral
unit).
GS/LIU/TOG part: The GS interconnects the DIU, TOG, CR and SILC and connects
them to the LIU. The LIU is used to connect the duplicated SN (SN0 & SN1) to the
LTG. The TOG provides programmed tones.
The CR part provides 16 signaling receivers for the LTG call processing.
The DIU part includes connection facilities for 4 PCM30 lines.
The GCG part provides the clock for the speech data and for the signaling on the
LTGN.
Siemens Solution Siemens
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LTGN (GPN)
block diagram
GPN
GP part
Group Processor
controls all GPN parts (DIU, CR, GCG, GS/LIU/TOG, SILC via IOP part)
matches incoming information (from surrounding network node area)
to internal message format
GS/LIU/TOG part
Group Switch / Line Interface Unit / Tone Generator
GS: interconnects DIU, TOG, CR and SILC & connects them to SN;
switches from external PDC to internal SDC
LIU: duplicates LTG data to both SN halves
TOG: provides test tones
IOP part
Input/Output Processor
SILC part
Signaling Link Control
DIU part
Digital Interface Unit
CR part
Code Receiver
GCG part
Group Clock Generator
provides clock for
PCM30 / PCM24
provides signaling
receivers for LTG
call processing
controls DIU, CR, GCG, GS/LIU/TOG
& SILC for GP part
input/output processor
L2 function
connecting up to
4 PDC lines
SN0
SN1
LTU:S
Fig. 18
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2.3 Data Service Unit DSU
An Interworking Function IWF has been implemented for the D900/D1800 SSS
nodes MSC/VLR to support data telecommunication services (bearer services BS
and data teleservices TS). This entails the availability of transparent and non-
transparent network support control functions for data transmission. The IWF
guarantees compatible connections between two users of the corresponding BS or
data TS. The IWF is implemented in the DSU, in the CP and LTG (GP/GPN).
By introducing a general BS, the facility allows to use all available data rates of the
BS group and not just one. Moreover, the BS20 offers the HSCSD facility which
consists of the following two parts: combination of several Time Slots TS for one call
and uses of the new Coding Scheme CS with 14.4 kbit/s.
DSU Hardware
The DSU consists of:
Digital Line Unit System DLUS
Interworking Equipment high speed IWE:HS with integrated baby modem
The DLUS is responsible for the DSU control and clock generation, handles
information exchange with the IWF:LTG and includes a bus distributor function to
connect DLUS with the peripheral functional units of the IWE:HS.
The IWE:HS determines the DSU application; it is responsible for the data
interworking. One IWE per data connection is looped in for the users of BS and data
TS. Two IWEs are looped into the MSC for an MMC. The IWE:HS supports HSCSD
channel combining and CS with 14.4 kbit/s.
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DSU
Data Service Unit
SN
LTG
LTG
IWF-LTG
DSU
MS
BSS
PSTN
DLU: Digital Line Unit
IWE:HS
DLUS
DSU: InterWorking Function IWF
in D900/D1800SSS
support of data services
DLUS: DLU System
DSU control, clock & interface to IWF-LTG
IWE:HS: Interworking Equipment:
High Speed
- determines DSU application
- support of single- & multislot operation
- support of 0.3 - 9.6 & 14.4 kbit/s services
DSU: InterWorking Function IWF
in D900/D1800SSS
support of data services
DLUS: DLU System
DSU control, clock & interface to IWF-LTG
IWE:HS: Interworking Equipment:
High Speed
- determines DSU application
- support of single- & multislot operation
- support of 0.3 - 9.6 & 14.4 kbit/s services
PDC
Fig. 19
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2.4 Switching Network SNB
In a network node, the Switching Network B SNB is the link between the following:
LTGs for speech and data connections
LTGs and Coordination Processor CP for message exchange
LTGs and SSNC/CCNC for SS7 message exchange
A central function of SNB (which is an especially compact version compared to old
SN) is to switch subscriber calls received in one LTG through to the destination LTG.
SNB sides: SNB0 / SNB1
For security reasons, the SNB is always duplicated, i.e. it consists of two SN sides
SNB0 and SNB1. Each connection is switched redundantly through both SNB sides.
For the redundant switching, an LTG has redundant connections to both SNB sides.
It sends identical connection data to both SNB sides and receives identical
connection data from both SNB sides.
Siemens Solution Siemens
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SN B
Switching Network B
SN
SNB
Coordination
Area
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
SSNC*
DSU
DAS
LTG
*classic node: CCNC (Common Channel Network Control)
switching calls from LTG to LTG
- linking LTGs for speech & data connections
linking:
- LTGs and Coordination Processor CP
for message exchange
- LTGs and SSNC / CCNC
for SS7 message exchange
switching calls from LTG to LTG
- linking LTGs for speech & data connections
linking:
- LTGs and Coordination Processor CP
for message exchange
- LTGs and SSNC / CCNC
for SS7 message exchange
SNB always duplicated: SNB0 / SNB1
each connection switched simultaneously
through both sides
SNB always duplicated: SNB0 / SNB1
each connection switched simultaneously
through both sides
Fig. 20
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SNB: Functional Units
The SNB consists of two HW functional units:
Time Stage Group B TSGB
Space Stage Group B SSGB
The TSGBs and SSGBs perform the switching in the SNB according to the principle
Time Space Time.
In the smallest SNB:63LTG there is a combined Time & Space Stage Group used.
The larger SNBs consists of TSGBs and SSGBs. An SNB capacity stage can be
equipped on each SN side with 1, 2, 4 or 8 TSGBs and with 0,1,2 or 4 SSGBs. The
number of TSGBs required for the two SNB sides of an SNB capacity stage depends
on the number of LTGs to be connected.
Each group (TSGB or SSGB) in the SNB is controlled by an own Switch Group
Control SGCB. The SGCB accepts setting commands from the CP call processing
programs. (The CP call processing programs use setting commands to initiate the
switching of a connection path.)
SNB: Interfaces
A TSGB has a total of 64 SN-external interfaces comprising the following:
A maximum of 63 SDC:LTGs for the connection of a maximum of 63 LTGs.
Speech and data connections between the LTGBs are carried via SDC:LTG as
well as message transfer between LTG and CP. The no. of SDC:CCNC decrease
the no. of SDC:LTGs.
the SDC:TSG (Time Stage Group) interface for the message transfer between the
CP (via Message Buffer Unit for LTG MBU:LTG) and the LTGs connected to the
TSGB.
The SDC:CCNC for the SS7 message transfer between CCNC and LTG.
Additionally, an SDC:SGC exists for the communication between the CP (via
MBU:SGC) and the Switch Group Controls SGC.
Siemens Solution Siemens
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SN B
Interfaces &
functional units
SN B (0 or 1)
TSGB
Time
Stage
Group
1,2,4,8
depending
on SNB
capacity
stage
SGCB
Switch
Group
Control
SSGB
Space
Stage
Group
0,1,2,4
depending
on SNB
capacity
stage
SGCB
Switch
Group
Control
SN-
external
interfaces
SN-
internal
interfaces
SDC:LTG
SDC:LTG
SDC:CCNC
SDC:TSG
SDC:SGC
SDC:SSG
SDC:SSG
LTG
LTG

SSNC / CCNC
Coordination
Area
MBU:SGC
MBU:LTG
TSG & SSG perform
switching
Time - Space - Time
SGCs control / set
TSGs & SSGs
setting commands:
CP SGC via SDC: SGC
message transfer
CP LTGs via SDC: TSG
TSG & SSG perform
switching
Time - Space - Time
SGCs control / set
TSGs & SSGs
setting commands:
CP SGC via SDC: SGC
message transfer
CP LTGs via SDC: TSG
CP
Coordination
Processor

MBU: Message Buffer Unit


1 TSGB
with
max. 63
SDC:LTG
Fig. 21
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SNB: Capacity Stages
Different capacity stages of the SNB are available, depending on the number of LTGs
to be connected:
SNB:504LTG for the connection of up to 504 LTGs
SNB: 252LTG for the connection of up to 252 LTGs
SNB:126LTG for the connection of up to 126 LTGs
SNB:63LTG for the connection of up to 63 LTGs
The innovation nodes, using the new Message Buffer D MBD and SSNC, are
equipped with up to 100% of the above listed maximum possible no. of LTGs. The
classic nodes, using the old Message Buffer C MBC and CCNC, can only be
equipped with up to 50% of the above listed maximum possible no. of LTGs. If (1 or
2) SDC:CCNCs are used, the number of LTGs is reduces accordingly.
The SSS nodes can be distinguished in switching nodes (MSC/VLR or
MSC/VLR/HLR/AC/ EIR) and non-switching nodes (HLR/AC or EIR).
The capacity stage SN:63LTG is generally used for non switching nodes.
The capacity stages SNB:126LTG to SNB:504LTG are generally used for switching
nodes.
The SNB needs between one rack (SNB:63LTG) and 10 racks (SNB:504LTG at max.
capacity stage). Or to be more precise: It needs between 2 and 20 frames, distributed
to 1 - 10 partially used racks. The remaining frames of the racks are filled with LTGs.
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use SNB:63 LTG
or
HLR AC EIR
SN B
Capacity stages
SN B
TSGB
Time
Stage
Group
1..8
depending
on SNB
capacity
stage
SGCB
SSGB
Space
Stage
Group
1, 2 or 4
depending
on SNB
capacity
stage
SGCB
SDC:LTG
SDC:LTG
SDC:CCNC
SDC:TSG
SDC:SGC

SNB:63 LTG up to 63 LTGs*


SNB:126 LTG up to 126 LTGs*
SNB:252 LTG up to 252 LTGs*
SNB:504 LTG up to 504 LTGs*
SNB:63 LTG up to 63 LTGs*
SNB:126 LTG up to 126 LTGs*
SNB:252 LTG up to 252 LTGs*
SNB:504 LTG up to 504 LTGs*
SNB:126LTG - SNB:504LTG for:
MSC VLR
MSC VLR HLR AC EIR
or
* 1) - 1 / 2 LTG for SSNC/CCNC
2) only valid for new Message Buffer D
Fig. 22
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2.5 Signaling System Network Control SSNC
Signaling System Network Control SSNC / Common Channel signaling Network
Control CCNC
The SSNC and CCNC are responsible for the control of SS7 signaling traffic in an
SSS network node.
The CCNC is part of the SSS classic node. A maximum of 112 signaling links (each
of 64 kbit/s) can be processed by the CCNC.
The SSNC is the main part of the SSS innovation node. The maximum system
configuration allows the connection of 1500 signaling links.
In the current SW version the SSNC or the CCNC can be supported. For that reason
coexistence of SSNC and CCNC operation will be possible within the same APS
(Application Program System). This coexistence is static only. That means only one
of the mentioned SS7 platforms is running at one time. The choice has to be made
during APS installation. If the SSNC is supported, the Message Buffer D MBD has to
be used.
In the following, the SSNC is described.
SSNC functions
The SSNC provides the protocol functions of the Message Transfer Part MTP (Level
1 3), the Signaling Connection Control Part SCCP and the Operations,
Maintenance & Administration Part OMAP.
The SSNC offers maximum efficiency for SS7 signaling. It can also be used as a
gateway between different networks and network operators. For such applications
the SSNC offers special features for recording and verifying the amount of traffic with
adjacent network nodes and also for protecting the own network against misuse. It is
a future-proof system which also supports the connection of SS7 high-speed
signaling links HSL.
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SN
SSNC
Signaling System
Network Control
SN
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
SSNC/CCNC
DSU
DAS
LTG
CCNC: Common Channel Network Control
OMAP: Operation, Maintenance &
Administration Part
SL: Signaling Link
control of SS7 signaling traffic
provides protocol functions of:
MTP, SCCP & OMAP
support of SS7 high-speed
signaling links HSL
control of SS7 signaling traffic
provides protocol functions of:
MTP, SCCP & OMAP
support of SS7 high-speed
signaling links HSL
Coordination
Area (CP)
high speed
SS7 links
SR9.0 supports SSNC (new)
& CCNC (classic)
CCNC: max. 112 SLs
SSNC: max. 1500 SLs
SR9.0 supports SSNC (new)
& CCNC (classic)
CCNC: max. 112 SLs
SSNC: max. 1500 SLs
Fig. 23
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SSNC Hardware Architecture
The SSNC Hardware is based on EWSX ATM technology. It is nearly identically to
the architecture of the Siemens SGSN. The SSNC functions are spread over several
functions. This results in a high degree of flexibility. Adaptation to future requirements
regarding message throughput and new features is possible, due to the scalability of
the main processor platform.
The SSNC Hardware comprises the following units:
Line Interface Cards LIC
Main Processors MP
ATM Switching Network ASN
ATM bridge Processor, type C
Line Interface Card LIC: the LIC converts incoming message streams from the SS7
network from synchronous transfer mode with 3 Mbit/s to internal ATM cell streams
with 207 Mbit/s and vice versa. The LIC is also the interface to high-speed links HSL.
Up to 248 signaling channels, i.e. 8 PCM30 links or 8 HSL can be connected to a
LIC.
Main Processor MP: the MP is the key component of the SSNC. Up to 50 MP exist
in the maximum SSNC configuration:
Up to 47 MPs for Signaling Link Termination MP:SLT (handling MTP, SCCP),
1 MP for Signaling Manager MP:SM (MTP & SCCP management & maintenance),
1 MP for Statistics MP:STATS and
1 MP for Operation, Administration & Maintenance MP:OAM
ATM Switching Network ASN: The ASN interconnects the individual MPs and links
the LICs to the MP:SLTs. An ASN40 with 40 Gbit/s switch capacity is used.
ATM bridge Processor, type C AMPC: The AMPC is the interface between the
ATM equipment in the SSNC and the Coordination Processor CP in the Coordination
Area. It converts the ATM data from the SSNC to the CP communication mode and
vice versa. For functional purposes the AMPC belongs to the SSNC, but it is located
in the module frame of the CP.
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SSNC
HW Architecture
SN
LTG
LTG
SSNC
ASN
ATM
Switching
Network
40 Gbit/s
LIC
LIC

MP:SLT
MP:SLT

MP:SM
MP:STATS
MP:OAM
Switch
Commander
CP AMPC* MBD
207
Mbit/s
ATM
207 Mbit/s
ATM
2 Mbit/s PCM30
SS7 links
(64 kbit/s)
ASN: ATM switching network
ATM switch; interconnecting
LICs, MPs & CP (via AMPC)
LIC: Line Interface Circuit
interfaces max. 8 E1 / HSLs;
convert SS7 data: external
PCM30 SSNC internal ATM
MP: Main Processor
SSNC key component
- 1..47 MP: SLT for Signalling Link
Termination (MTP, SCCP)
- 1 MP: SM for Signaling Manager
- 1MP: STATS for Statistics
- 1MP: OAM for OAM tasks; OMAP;
interfaces Switch Commander
AMPC: ATM bridge processor C
converts SSNC ATM data
CP communication mode
ASN: ATM switching network
ATM switch; interconnecting
LICs, MPs & CP (via AMPC)
LIC: Line Interface Circuit
interfaces max. 8 E1 / HSLs;
convert SS7 data: external
PCM30 SSNC internal ATM
MP: Main Processor
SSNC key component
- 1..47 MP: SLT for Signalling Link
Termination (MTP, SCCP)
- 1 MP: SM for Signaling Manager
- 1MP: STATS for Statistics
- 1MP: OAM for OAM tasks; OMAP;
interfaces Switch Commander
AMPC: ATM bridge processor C
converts SSNC ATM data
CP communication mode
2 Mbit/s
PCM30
/ ATM
* AMPC belongs to SSNC for functional
purposes, but it is located in the CP module frame
Fig. 24
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2.6 Coordination Area
Coordination Processor CP113C/CR: The CP is a central elements of the SSS
network node. It is responsible in the SSS network node for common functions such
as the coordination of the distributed microprocessor controls and the data transfer
between them. The CP performs the following functions: Call Processing, Operation
and Safeguarding. Normal SSS nodes use a CP113C, CP113CR is used for
rural/container SSS (MiniSwitch).
Message Buffer MB: The MBB is used in the SSS classic nodes (with CCNC), the
MBD in the SSS innovation nodes (with SSNC). With usage of the new MBD there
are no LTG mounting restrictions of SNB. The MBD controls the message exchange
between the individual subsystems, i.e. between CP113C and the LTGs, CP113C
and the SN, LTGs, LTGs and SSNC.
Central Clock Generator CCG: The CCGB (type B) is used (with CCNC & MBB) in
the SSS classic nodes, the CCGE (type E) is used (with SSNC & MBD) in the SSS
innovation nodes. The CCG supplies the SSS network node with a highly accurate,
stable clock. It locks onto an external reference (e.g. a cesium frequency standard).
The clock is available even if all reference signals fail.
Craft Terminal CT: PCs (Craft Terminals CT) are used for local O&M of the SSS
nodes. They are equipped with Windows NT and CD-ROM drives.
External Memory EM: The EM are Mass Storage Media. It used e.g. for programs &
data that do not always have to be resident in the CP, as mirror image of all resident
programs & data for automatic recovery and call charge and traffic measurement
data. It consists of two Magnetic Disc Devices MDD, a Magnetic Tape Device MTD or
Magneto-Optical Disk MOD for input & output.
Authentication Centers: Authentication Centers are connected to the CP only when
the SSS node includes AC functionality.
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Coordination Area
SN
SN
SSNC*
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
DSU
DAS
LTG
* classic node: CCNC + MBC + CCGB
*
1
only if HLR/AC node
MOD: Magneto-Optical Disk Device
MTD: Magnetic Tape Device
MDD: Magnetic Disc Device
Coordination Processor
CP113C central element
of D900/1800SSS nodes
CP113CR for rural/container
SSS (MiniSwitch)
CP coordinates peripheral
microprocessor controls &
data transfer between them
CP performs:
Call processing
Operation
Safeguarding
Coordination Processor
CP113C central element
of D900/1800SSS nodes
CP113CR for rural/container
SSS (MiniSwitch)
CP coordinates peripheral
microprocessor controls &
data transfer between them
CP performs:
Call processing
Operation
Safeguarding
Coordination Area
CP 113C
CCGE* MBD*
EM CT AC*
1
Craft Terminal
for local O&M
CT boot
Switch Commander
Craft Terminal
for local O&M
CT boot
Switch Commander
Central Clock Generator E
provides SSS node with
highly accurate, stable clock
locks onto external reference;
often: caesium frequency standard
Central Clock Generator E
provides SSS node with
highly accurate, stable clock
locks onto external reference;
often: caesium frequency standard
External Memory
MOD / MTD, MDD
for data storage
External Memory
MOD / MTD, MDD
for data storage
Message Buffer D
controls internal
message exchange:
CP LTG
CP SN (SGC)
LTG LTG
LTG SSNC
Message Buffer D
controls internal
message exchange:
CP LTG
CP SN (SGC)
LTG LTG
LTG SSNC
Fig. 25
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Coordination Processor CP113C/CR
The CP113C/CR consists of a modular multiprocessor system. It performs the
following functions:
Call Processing (digit translation, routing, zoning, path selection through the
switching network, charge registration, traffic data administration, network
management),
Operation (input/output to/from EM, communication with CT, communication with
the Switch Commander SC) and
Safeguarding (self-supervision, error detection, error treatment).
The CP consists of the following functional units:
Base Processors BAP: 1 BAP operates as Master BAPM, 1 as Spare BAPS. The
BAPM processes O&M tasks plus some of the call-processing tasks, the BAPS
handles only call-processing.
Call Processors CAP: The CAPs (between 0 and 10) handle call-processing
tasks only. They form a pool (n+1) redundancy.
Input/Output Controls IOC: The IOCs form the interfaces between the BCMY
and the IOPs. 1 / 2 pair are used.
Input/Output Processors IOP: Various types of IOPs connect the CP113C/CR
with the other HW subsystems and functional units of the SSS node. IOP types
uses in the CP113C/CR are: IOP:MB (IOP for MB, used for the connection to MB,
SYP, CCG, CCNC), IOP:TA (IOP for Time & Alarms), IOP:UNI (UNIversal IOP for
O&M devices), IOP:SCDP (IOP for Serial data Communication Devices with
BX.25/X.25 Protocol; i.e. for connection to the Switch Commander and Operation
System OS) and IOP:AUC (IOP for Authentication Center).
ATM bridge Processor AMPC: The AMPC links the CP113C/CR to the SSNC
and converts the ATM data (SSNC) to CP format and vice versa.
Common Memory CMY: The components of the CMY include the database
shared by all of the processors, and the input & output lists used by the IOPs for
MP (IOP:MB) and the communication areas used by the IOPs linked to the O&M
periphery.
Bus for Common Memory BCMY: The BCMYs interlink all processors (BAP,
CAP, AMPC) including IOCs and links them with the CMY.
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IOPs connects CP to:
MB
CCG
EM/CT
SC
AC (AC = IOP:AUC)
external clock
external alarms
...
IOPs connects CP to:
MB
CCG
EM/CT
SC
AC (AC = IOP:AUC)
external clock
external alarms
...
IOC
1
AMPC
1
Coordination
Processor
CMY
Common Memory
BCMY
Bus for Common Memory
AMPC
0
ATM
bridge
Processor
CAP
0
Call
Processor

CAP
5/7/9
Call
Processor
BAPM
Base
Processor
Master
BAPS
Base
Processor
Spare
IOC
0
Input/
Output
Control
IOC
3
IOC
2
SSNC
IOP
IOP
IOP
IOP
Basic
capacity stage
of CP113C
includes database:
shared by all processors
I/O lists for IOPs
includes database:
shared by all processors
I/O lists for IOPs
links BAP, CAP, IOC & CMY
links BAP, CAP, IOC & CMY
call-processing
call-processing
call-
processing
call-
processing
O&M tasks
+ call-
processing
O&M tasks
+ call-
processing
control
interface
CMYIOPs
control
interface
CMYIOPs
0
15

15
0
Fig. 26
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2.7 Summary D900/D1800SSS
The D900/D1800SSS contains the following HW subsystems:
Line/Trunk Groups LTG
Data Service Unit DSU
Switching Network SN
Signaling System Network Control SSNC (SSS innovation node) or
Common Channel signaling Network Control CCNC (SSS classic node)
Coordination Area with:
- Coordination Processor CP113C/CR
- Message Buffer MB (MBD / MBC)
- Central Clock Generator CCG (CCGE / CCGB)
- External Memory EM
- Craft Terminal CT
- Authentication boxes (optionally)
In the SSS classic node the CCNC is used together with the CCGB and the MBB.
In the SSS innovation node the SSNC is used together with the CCGE and the MBD.
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SN
Switching
Network
LTG
Line/Trunk Group
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
LTG
SSNC*
Signalling System
Network Control
DSU
Data Service Unit
DAS
Digital Announcement
Systems
BSS
ISDN /
PSTN
D900/1800SSS
Trunk Loop LTG
e.g. for MMC, lawful interception
Conference LTG
e.g. for MPTY, ASCI services
high speed SS7 links
SMS-SC, CSE, VMSC
Summary
D900/1800SSS
Coordination Area
CCGE* MBD*
EM CT AC
CP 113C
Fig. 27
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3 Operation & Maintenance
Siemens Solution
Operation & Maintenance
OMS
Operation &
Maintenance
Subsystem
SSS
External
networks
SBS
PSTN /
ISDN
BTSE BSC
LMT
T
T
O
Abis Asub
LMT
LMT
OMC-B
Operation &
Maintenance
Center
for the BSS
T
D900/D1800SSS
MSC/VLR / HLR/AC / EIR
SC
Switch
Commander
(innovation nodes
with SSNC)
OMC-S
OMC for
the SSS
(classic nodes
with CCNC)
A
TRAU
O
Dedicated
lines
CT
N ailed-up
connection
NUC
LMT, CT: local O&M
OMC-B & SC: remote,
centralised O&M
LMT, CT: local O&M
OMC-B & SC: remote,
centralised O&M
Fig. 28
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Operation & Maintenance O&M
O&M of the SBS and SSS network elements can be done locally, i.e. at the site of the
particular node, and centralized.
Local O&M
For local O&M in the SBS Local Maintenance Terminals LMT (portable PCs) are
used. LMTs can be connected via proprietary T-Interface to BSC, BTSE and TRAU.
For local O&M in the SSS Craft Terminals CT (commercial Windows NT PCs) are
used.
Centralized O&M: OMS
Remote, centralized O&M is done in the Operation & Maintenance Subsystem OMS.
The OMS is split up into OMC-B (Operation & Maintenance Center for the BSS),
OMC-S (OMC for the SSS) OMC-S for the SSS classical nodes (including the CCNC)
and SC (Switch Commander) for the SSS innovation nodes (including the SSNC).
SC and OMC-B are used for GPRS network elements / enhancements, too.
OMC-S and OMC-B are connected via PSDN (X.25) to the SSS / SBS network
elements.
The OMC-B is always linked to the BSCs of the BSS. The link between BSC and
OMC-B is realized either via dedicated X.25 (64 kbit/s) lines or via MSC PCM30 links
(nailed-up connections NUC).
The SC is connected either via PSDN (X.25) or via LAN (Q3) with TCP/IP protocol to
the SSS nodes.
SC / OMC-B: Network Components
Central components of the SC are Craft Terminals CT and the SC Servers. Central
components of the OMC-B are the O&M Terminals OMT and O&N Processor OMP
Server.
CTs / OMTs and the SC Servers / OMP Servers are connected to LANs in the OMC.
The CTs and SC Servers are commercial computers (Windows NT PCs / Windows
NT Servers). The SC is a highly scalable system and can be configured from a single
workplace system to 40 communication servers and 300 clients using a 100 Mbit/s
LAN.
The OMP Servers are commercially computer (SUN Sparc/Enterprise), the OMTs
SUN graphical workstations WS or X-Terminals X-Ts (SUN Sparc classic X). Up to 8
WS or X-Ts with an X-T Server are connected in an OMC-B to the OMP Server
(optionally duplicated) via LAN.
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SSS SBS
BTSE BSC
LMT
T
T
Abis Asub
LMT
LMT
T
D900/D1800SSS
MSC/VLR / HLR/AC / EIR
A
TRAU
CT
Network Components
CT: Windows NT PCs
SC Server: Windows NT Server
SC: up to 40 Server / 300 clients
OMP-Server: SUN Sparc/Enterprise
OMT: SUN WS /X-Terminals
OMC-B: max. 8 WS, 2 OMP Server
CT: Windows NT PCs
SC Server: Windows NT Server
SC: up to 40 Server / 300 clients
OMP-Server: SUN Sparc/Enterprise
OMT: SUN WS /X-Terminals
OMC-B: max. 8 WS, 2 OMP Server
OMC-B SC
SC
Server
OMP
Server
OMP: O&M Processor
OMT: O&M Terminal
LAN LAN
OMT CT
CT: Craft Terminal
WS: Workstations

O
X.25
O
NUC
PCM
30
X.25
Q3
(TCP/IP)
OMC-B & SC
used for
GPRS, too
OMC-B & SC
used for
GPRS, too
Fig. 29
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Central Functions
The OMC-B includes the following central functions required for centralized O&M of
the BSS network elements and the OMC-B itself:
Configuration Management CM: The task of configuration management is the
administration of network resources, i.e. administration of network changes,
support of installation and recovery action, provision and display of status
information.
Software Management SWM: Software can be downloaded from the OMC-B to the
BSS network entities (First SW installation, Patch handling, SW changes &
upgrades,..).
Test Management TM: Operator-controlled tests are available to verify proper
working of managed objects. Diagnostics are very important for the process of
fault treatment and restoration of repaired units.
Fault Management FM: FM includes all the measures required to detect and repair
faults (down to a single module) in the PLMN.
Performance Management PM: monitoring the traffic load and network
performance. Short- & long-term traffic, performance and quality-of-service
measurements are recorded and made available.
Security Management SM: access protection mechanism.
The Switch Commander software includes basic system and application software
functions.
The basic system includes the following parts: installation, recovery, central functions
which allow general access to utilities, LAN & WAN communication, file transfer
functions to the network elements of the SSS.
The application software includes basic applications and SSS applications. Basic
applications are security management SM, user interface, computer & database
structure, facilities for interworking the CT to the SC.
The SSS applications include configuration management CM, fault & maintenance
management, performance management PM, accounting management and
automated patch supply (autopatch).
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OMP
BSC BTSE TRAU
Configuration Management CM
Sofware Management SWM
Test Management TM
Fault Management FM
Performance Management PM
Security Management SM
CM SWM TM FTM PM SM
OMT
LMT
OMC-B
Basic
Functions
SC
Basic System
Installation
Recovery
Central functions which allow
general access to utilities
LAN & WAN communication
file transfer functions to SSS
network elements
Basic System
Installation
Recovery
Central functions which allow
general access to utilities
LAN & WAN communication
file transfer functions to SSS
network elements
Application SW
Basic Applications:
Security Management SM
(access protection mechanism)
user interface
computer & database structure
facilities for interworking
the CT to the SC
SSS Applications:
Configuration Management CM
Fault & Maintenance Management
Performance Management PM
(also with help of STATS application)
Accounting Management
Automated patch supply (Autopatch)
Application SW
Basic Applications:
Security Management SM
(access protection mechanism)
user interface
computer & database structure
facilities for interworking
the CT to the SC
SSS Applications:
Configuration Management CM
Fault & Maintenance Management
Performance Management PM
(also with help of STATS application)
Accounting Management
Automated patch supply (Autopatch)
Fig. 30
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