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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 7, Pp. 254-258, Jul., 2012.

The Development of Computer Multimedia Game-Based Instruction on English Idioms for the 2nd Educational Range at Bannakhao School
Sakesun Yampinij, Supamas Kongkachuay & Sopon Meejaleurn
Manuscript
Received: 1, Sep., 2011 Revised: 17,Oct., 2011 Accepted: 13,Jun., 2012 Published: 15,Aug.,2012

Keywords
Computer Multimedia Instruction, Game-Based, English Idioms

Abstract This research was aimed 1) to develop a computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range, 2) to determine the quality of the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range, 3) to find out the learning achievement of the students who learned from the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range, and 4) to find out the students' satisfaction towards the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range. The tools used for this study consisted of the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range, quality assessment form, learning achievement test, and questionnaire on satisfaction. The sampling group consisted of 30 students at Bannakhao School in the academic year of 2009. The research results showed that: 1) The quality of the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range was good for the contents with mean of 4.50 and the quality in terms of media technology was 4.75 on average or at very good level. 2) The learning achievement of the students who learned from the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range from the analysis between pretest score and posttest score showed that the posttest score was higher than the pretest score with the statistical significance at the .05 level. 3) The students' satisfaction towards the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range was 4.67 on average or at very high level.

1. Background and Significance


Computer multimedia is one important media because learners can learn and have interaction with the lessons as well as know the results or gain response. Multimedia can stimulate and enforce their learning, resulting in curiosity and understanding to meet the learning objectives. Moreover, multimedia can respond to individual differences because learners can learn in accordance with their preferred time, slowly or fast, based on their prior knowledge and their ability. Therefore, learning through computer multimedia can be useful for individuals [1-3]. Result from the O-NET examinations by Grade 6 students in the academic year 2007 shows that the average score for English test in that year was 38.67 points. This needed revision [4]. According to the problems related to instructional management for English class in the academic year 2008, it was found that the learning achievement for English in the 2nd educational range at Bannakhao School was at low level. Teaching English must take into consideration how to make learners remember vocabulary well so that they can use and know the meanings in a short time. Using clear presentation can help a lot such as posture or action with real objects or in real life to convey meaning. If learners can learn and connect vocabulary to real world experience, learners will remember better than lone word without context. Teaching new words, therefore, must go along with sample sentences so that learners can learn the meaning of the words at the same time [5-7]. Game-based instruction can use its ability in terms of media symbol system and media attribution to teach English vocabulary and game-based instruction can be used to improve skills and provide fun to children. It is a learning process which allows children to build up experience for themselves in order that they can improve their own knowledge and skills [8]. According to the above-mentioned problem and significance, the researchers decided to develop the computer multimedia game-based instruction to make learners curious and enjoy learning English, especially English vocabulary and idioms with the aim that they can use their knowledge in their daily life or in preparation for their higher level of English class.

Sakesun Yampinij, Department of Educational Communications and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand (saksunyam@kmutt.ac.th) Supamas Kongkachuay, Department of Educational Communications and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand (annask@hotmail.com) Sopon Meejaleurn, Department of Educational Communications and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand (soponmee@kmutt.ac.th)

Yampinij et al.: The Development of Computer Multimedia Game-Based Instruction on English Idioms for the 2nd Educational Range at Bannakhao School.

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2. Research Objectives
1. To develop a computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range 2. To determine the quality of the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range 3. To find out the learning achievement of the students who learned from the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range 4. To find out the students' satisfaction towards the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range.
T1

TABLE 1 ONE-GROUP PRETEST-POSTTEST DESIGN

Pretest

Treatment X

Posttest T2

Interpretation X represents Treatment or learning the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range and doing tests during study. T1 represents Pretest. T2 represents Posttest.

3. Research Scope
The scope of the research on the development of computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range at Bannakhao School, Kiansa District, Surat Thani Province was as follows: 1. Population consisted of 60 2nd educational range students at Bannakhao School, Kiansa District, Surat Thani Province. 2. Sampling group consisted of 30 2nd educational range students at Bannakhao School, Kiansa District, Surat Thani Province. They were chosen through simple random sampling method. 3. The contents of the developed computer multimedia game-based instruction contained 45 words and 20 idioms in accordance with the 2nd educational range curriculum for the learning group of foreign language.

6. Research Steps
The research steps were as follows: A. Step 1: The Development of Computer Multimedia Game-Based Instruction The game-based instruction on English idioms were developed in accordance with the principles of the computer lesson development proposed by [9-10]. The researchers developed the computer multimedia game-based instruction through 7 following steps: 1) Preparation: The researchers designed and collected resources about the computer multimedia game-based instruction, the contents related to English idioms, the curriculum for the learning group of foreign language, the learning target and objectives. 2) Designing Instruction: In this steps there would be elimination of ideas, task and concept analysis along with the combination of learning theories, theories of individual differences in order that the design of game and activities for the computer would allow interaction with learners so that learners can be interested in the lesson continuously. The design would be evaluated and revised in accordance with the experts in design. 3) Flowchart Lesson: Flowchart lesson would be made in sequence. The structure of the game-based instruction would present the information related to the program from introduction to the lesson, learning objectives, pretest, learning English vocabulary and idioms, play games on idioms and posttest. The presentation of the lesson could be in any order to meet the learning objectives of the learners. 4) Creating Storyboard: In this step the contents would be presented on paper before they would be shown on screen. The contents were evaluated by the experts in contents to verify the content correctness. The instructional scope was piloted with the sampling group to check whether they could understand the language. The items with unclear meanings would be revised to become more understandable and clear. The learning achievement test would be developed to cover the quality in terms of the behavioral

4. Research Tools
Tools used in this research consisted of the following items: Computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range Quality assessment form for the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range in terms of media and technology Learning achievement test for the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range, in other words, pretest and posttest with 20 questions Questionnaire on satisfaction for students after learning the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range

5. Research Methodology
The research methodology for this study was based on one-group pretest-posttest design in which the same sampling group did both pretest and posttest.

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International Journal of Advanced Computer Science, Vol. 2, No. 7, Pp. 254-258, Jul., 2012.

objectives in each lesson through Index of Congruence (IOC) analysis. 5) Programming Lesson: In this step, the original manuscript would turn into the computer multimedia through appropriate program to meet the demands of such lesson. In the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms, there were contents in texts, graphics and animation. Sounds to be used in this program need to be developed to gain variety. 6) Producing Supporting Materials: Supporting materials are important. There are 3 kinds of supporting materials: 1) learners guide, 2) instructors guide, and 3) troubleshooting manual. 7) Quality Assessment by Experts: All the lessons and the supporting materials would be assessed by the experts, especially for the presentation and the operation. There were 3 experts in English contents and 3 experts in computer multimedia. The errors would be fixed and the suggestions would be used to improve the quality of the lesson. The users manual or package instruction would be developed to accompany the computer multimedia game-based instruction. B. Step 2: Determination of Learning Achievement The researchers trained the sampling group how to use the lesson and then let the sampling do pretest. Afterwards, the sampling group learned the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English along with tests after each lesson. When the sampling group finished all lessons, the sampling group took posttest, which was parallel to the pretest. The pretest and posttest scores were analyzed to determine the learning achievement by t-test dependent [11-12]. The data were presented in a table along with summary. C. Step 3: Students Satisfaction: The researchers developed the questionnaire on satisfaction for the sampling group. The data from the questionnaire filled by the sampling group would be calculated to find out the average, frequency and standard deviation.

Fig. 1 Animation shows how to use

Fig. 2 shows Menu to access the contents

Fig. 3 shows the game called Fill in the Blank to practice English idioms

7. Research Results
The research results from the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range at Bannakhao School were as follows: A. Results from the computer multimedia It was found that the structure of the lesson consisted of introduction to the lesson, contents about 45 English words and 20 idioms. Animation was used to present the contents. There were also games for revision and tests.

Fig. 4 shows the game called Fill in the Blank to practice English idioms

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Yampinij et al.: The Development of Computer Multimedia Game-Based Instruction on English Idioms for the 2nd Educational Range at Bannakhao School.

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D. Results from the students satisfaction towards the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range It was found that the average for all aspects was 4.67. This means that the students satisfaction towards the computer multimedia game-based instruction was at very high level.
TABLE 4 THE STUDENTS SATISFACTION

Fig. 5 shows the test

Item to be assessed Results from the students satisfaction

S.D. 0.45

Level of Satisfaction Very High

4.67

8. Research Discussion
The learning achievement test of the students who studied the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range at Bannakhao School shows that the posttest learning achievement was higher than the pretest learning achievement with the statistical significance at the 0.05 level. This confirms the hypothesis. The research results were in compliance with the research by [11] and Siriporn Hattha in that the learning achievement of students increased because game-based instruction allowed students to participate in classroom and revise their knowledge by themselves from instant feedback. The learners could understand their progress and this could increase their interest. The students will not get bored and enjoy learning. The students satisfaction towards the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range at Bannakhao School shows that the average for all aspects was 4.67. This means the students satisfaction was at the highest level. When each aspect was considered, it was found that the students showed the highest satisfaction towards the game presentation. This is similar to [13] which says computer game provides fun and learning atmosphere to stimulate learners to learn. Similar research work by [11] indicates that the students satisfaction towards computer game was at high level because still images and animation could supplement the lesson to increase the satisfaction and the curiosity in the lesson. This could stimulate their learning.

Fig. 6 shows score from the test

B. Results from quality assessment by experts The quality of the contents was 4.50 on average for all aspects or at good level. The quality of the computer multimedia game-based instruction in terms of media technology was 4.75 on average or at very good level.
TABLE 2 THE RESULTS FROM QUALITY ASSESSMENT BY EXPERTS

Item to be assessed Contents Media technology

X
4.50 4.75

S.D. 0.52 0.26

Result Good quality Very good quality

C. Results from learning achievement The computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms for the 2nd educational range shows the learning achievement with the statistical significance at the 0.05 level.
TABLE 3 THE RESULTS FROM THE LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT OF THE SAMPLING GROUP

9. Suggestions
1. There should be research and development of the computer multimedia game-based instruction on other contents in order to develop innovation for instruction. 2. There should be research on other variables such as the retention after learning the computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms. 3. The computer multimedia game-based instruction on English idioms should be developed so that it could be

Test Pretest Posttest

N 30 30

8.30 15.43

SD 1.74 2.49

D 214

D2 1648

t-test 3.48**

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learned online through internet network and students could learn anytime anywhere without limitation.

References
[1] T. Harnjai, Computer Multimedia Lesson [Online], (2009) Available: http://thante.wordpress.com/ [9 December 2009]. [2] D. Kumpool, Study of Behaviors in Playing, Impact and Ways to Develop Computer Games for Thai Youths, (2004) a dissertation for Masters degree in Industrial Education, Program in Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, pp. 1-2. [3] Kanyarak Potha et al., 2004, Instructional Activities to Develop English Vocabulary for Grade 5 Students, (2004) a dissertation for Masters degree in Liberal Arts, Program in English, Naresuan University, pp.1-5. [4] Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development, Department of Educational Research, Research Reports on the Instructional Management of English for Primary Students in Accordance with the Curriculum of English in B.E.2539, (1999) Bangkok: Department of Curriculum and Instruction Development, Department of Educational Research, p.5. [5] Kroobannok, News on Education, [Online], (2008) Available: http://www.kroobannok.com/. [15 December 2009] [6] M. Alessi & S. Trollip, Computer-Based Instruction, Methods and Development, (1991) Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. [7] B. Sisa-aat, Research Basics, (1992) 2nd Imprint, Suweeriyasarn, pp. 50 98. [8] L. Saiyot and A. Saiyot, Techniques in Educational Research, (2000) 5th Imprint,Suweeriyasarn, Bangkok, pp. 74-211. [9] T. Sawananont, Computer-Assisted Instruction, (1986) Computer Review, pp. 56-57. [10] P. Piyanamwanich, The Development of Computer Multimedia Lesson through Game Entitled Introduction to Computer for Primary Students, (2007) a dissertation for Masters degree in Industrial Education, Program in Technology Education, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi, p.120. [11] S. Hattha, Results from Using Computer-Assisted Instruction with the Aid of Computer Game and Impacts on Learning Achievement on English Preposition by Grade 6 Students with Low Learning Achievement of English Language , (1996) a dissertation for Masters degree in Education, Chulalongkorn University, p. D. [12] T. Laohacharatsaeng, Computer-Assisted Instruction, (1998) Duang Kamol Production, Bangkok, pp.107-116.

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