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DYEING PRINTING POLLUTION CONTROL STUDY MATERIAL

UNIT I BLEACHING
TEXTILE PRETREATMENT DEFINITION: Pretreatment means any treatment, which is done before actual (dyeing and printing) process. Textile pretreatment is the series of cleaning operations. All impurities which cause adverse effect during dyeing and printing are removed in pretreatment process. Pretreatment can be defined as a series of cleaning processes or steps or operations that ma e the fabric fit for the preceding (next) process e.g. !yeing or Printing and "inishing# AIM OF PRE-TREATMENT: To convert the fabric from hydrophobic (not absorb the water) nature to hydrophilic (absorb the water) nature. To remove dust, dirt, etc from the fabric. To achieve the degree of desire whiteness CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON: As discussed earlier pretreatment is the series of cleaning operations. $n pretreatment all the impurities present in cotton are removed. %otton fiber by nature contains& %ellulose *il and +axes Pectin.s %arbohydrates Proteins 2alt +ater %olour Pigments *thers Natural Impur t !": *il and +axes, Pectin.s, %arbohydrates, Proteins, 2alt in these all the impurities are called as natural impurities $n cotton, except cellulose and water all other impurities are removed in pretreatment '(.') ,.-) /.,) ,.0) /.1) /.,) '.0) /.,) 1.,)

IMPURITIES REMO#ED DURING PRE-TREATMENT: 3 3 3 3 3 2hort "ibres Applied $mpurities (2i4e 5aterial) Artificial $mpurities (*il, 2trains, !ust, !irt) 6atural $mpurities (*il, +ax, Pectin.s, Proteins) %olour Pigments (6aturally present in cotton) S $%! $% D!" & $% S'(ur $% S'(ur $% Bl!a') $%

PRETREATMENT PROCESS OF COTTON FABRIC: $nspection of grey fabric. 5ar ing of grey fabric. 2titching. 2hearing 7 %ropping. 2ingeing. !esi4ing (only for woven fabric) 2couring. 8leaching. *- INSPECTION OF GREY FABRIC: After receiving the cloth from grey godown, it should be thoroughly chec ed and inspected before sub9ecting it to wet processing. The cloth is examined for the following& FABRIC DEFECTS: *il, rust, stains, holes, damage selvedge and weaving faults li e floats and read mar s etc. FABRIC SPECIFICATIONS: +idth, length, yarn count, ends and pic s per inch and fabric composition. +, MAR-ING OF GREY FABRIC: 8efore carrying out any process, mar s are made on the material for identification. "or mar ing special in s are used capable of resisting all subse:uent treatment which the material may have to go undergo.

., STITCHING: 2mall pieces of fabric are stitched together so as to form a continuous length, which is wor able in the subse:uent processes. The stitching must be very secure so that the fabric may run smoothly on various machines. /, SHEARING0CROPPING: ;emoval of fibres, tufts and loose threads from the surface of material by cutting them with blades on shearing or cropping machines. This process is carried out in open width. $n this process tufts are not removed as closed as by singeing. 1, SINGEING: 2ingeing is the process in which protruding fibres present on the surface of the fabric are removed. $n order to achieve the smooth surface which facilitate printing. 2, DESI3ING: !esi4ing is the process in which si4e material is removed. 4, SCOURING: 2couring is the process in which natural as well as artificial impurities are removed 5, BLEACHING: 8leaching is the process in which we remove the colour pigments in order to achieve the degree of whiteness. 6, MERCERI3ATION: 5erceri4ation is the optional process or in on the customer re:uirement. 5erceri4ation is done to achieve the luster, strength, more absorbent etc. THE BASIC OPERATIONS +e can consider the wet processing sector to have three distinct types of process included within it. These are represented along with their aims. *- PREPARATION PROCESS: <xists to ensure that the textile has the right physical and chemical properties to enable it to be coloured or finished. <=A5P><& !esi4ing, 2ingeing, 2couring, 8leaching, etc. +- COLOURATION PROCESSES: <xists to provide the textile with colour either for aesthetic reasons or for some functional purpose determined by the end?use of the product. <=A5P><& !yeing, Printing. .- FINISHING PROCESSES:

<xists to provide the textile with the properties that the end?use demands and which have not already been provided by any earlier processes. <=A5P><& +ater ;epellency, "lame ;epellency, Antisoiling finish etc. BLEACHING I$tr(7u't ($ The natural fibre and fabrics even after scouring still contain naturally occurring colouring matter. This yellowish and brown discolouration may be related to flavone pigments of the cotton flower. The climate, soil, drought and frost can also cause various degrees of yellowness. Tips of leaves or stal s coming in contact with the moist ball after opening will cause dar spots and discolouration. !iscolouration may also come from dirt, dust, and insects or from harvesting or processing e:uipment in the form of oils and greases The ob9ect of bleaching is to produce white fabrics by destroying the colouring matter with the help of bleaching agents with minimum degradation of the fibre. The bleaching agents either oxidi4e or reduce the colouring matter which is washed out and whiteness thus obtained is of permanent nature. %hemical bleaching of textile fibres is further aided by addition of optical brighteners. Bl!a') $% Pr('!"": 8leaching is a process to ma e the fabric or yarn loo brighter and whiter. This is achieved by oxidi4ing or reducing the coloring matters in to colorless form Purp("! @$mproved whiteness @>evel dyeing properties T8p!" (9 Bl!a')!" Full-Bl!a') $t is done generally when highest degree of whiteness is re:uired and going to be used as a white fabric for apparels or to be printed with white bac ground. This is achieved by bleaching with hypochlorite followed by hydrogen peroxide bleach. Hal9-Bl!a') $t is done for fabrics meant for dyeing and printing where more absorbency is re:uired than the whiteness and fabrics going to be used during finishing. This is generally done using by bleaching with hypochlorite or hydrogen peroxide of ade:uate concentration.

A general classification of bleaching agents is shown in

8leaching agents can be divided in to two groups /. *xidation 8leaching Agents 1. ;eductive 8leaching Agents O: 7at ($ Bl!a') $% A%!$t" These agents use oxygen directly or indirectly for the the bleaching action. 6ascent oxygen decomposes colouring matter completely into simpler compounds which can be washed away with water during and which do not give any trouble at a later at stage A good bleaching agent should have following properties& ? /) $t should ensure a pure and permanent whiteness to the fabric. 1) $t should give level dyeing properties. A) $t should not cause any tendering of the fabric, which cause the loss in tensile strength of the fabric.

The selection of bleaching agent depends on various factors& (a) Types of fibres and blends to be processed (b) The standard of white re:uired (c) The need for fabric damage to be ept to a minimum (d) The processing machinery available (e) %hemical and processing costs as part of total preparation economics.A%!$t"