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As far as the athletics event is concerned, shot put, discus throw, javelin and hammer throw are considered essential particularly for the field events. These events required different equipment, coaching techniques, technical rules and regulations, and venues. In regard to equipment for instance, shot put event requires an iron ball of 7.26 kg (or 4 kg for women) to be hurled in a specified throwing sector (Kleeman, G., 2007). Different scenario also applied to different throwing events. This paper is an attempt to develop a brief module of shot put event that covers some fundamental history of the event, equipment involves, venue and some basic training guide for a starter. In the initial part of this brief module, the writer will explain the nature of shot put as compared to other throwing events. Who are the athletes involve in the event particularly the record holders in the events? How stiff the shot put competition nowadays? What are the suitable throwing techniques to be taught to newcomers? are some of the questions that will be answered in this part. The second part of this module will briefly elucidate the shot put event from the historical perspective. By looking from the historical perspective of the event, we will be able to understand the current dominance of the event especially in major meets such as Olympic Games. Additionally, by tracing to the history, we could also see the dominant nation of the event starting from the first modern Olympics in Athens (Zemper, E., 2008). The third section of this module will briefly elucidate the equipment involves and suitable venue for the event. What weight of iron ball used for men and women? How about schools children, teenagers and veteran? Where is the suitable venue for throwers to hurl the iron ball? These questions will be answered and presented in this small module. The final part of this module will explain some basic training guide to train shot putter. A step by step guide will be given in order to ease coaches and teachers to train their athletes. The guide shows in this module is suitable for a newcomer for this event.

Plate 1: Shot Put athlete in action (Thomaz Majewski (Poland) 2012 London Olympic Gold Medallist)


The shot put event is fun as other track and field events. Basically, we could see athletes with big size bodies in the venues during the day of competition. It may due to the fact that a good body, muscle and fat composition is required for athletes who involve in this event. However, it may not necessarily importance especially when it comes to heptathlon or decathlon athletes as they engage in multi-disciplinary events in athletics. The latest development in this event shows the dominance of Germany and Russian block countries especially in major games such as Olympic Games. Indeed, it is not new. It has been developed since cool war between Eastern and Western in 1960s and 1970s (Bearmish, R., 2012). During those periods of time, the advancement of communist countries in sport was inevitable. Until 1988 Summer Olympic Games in Seoul, the pattern has changed where the champions of shot put event

were not coming only from communist countries but also came from more liberal nations particularly USA, New Zealand and Poland. What can be witnessed is that those winners possessed an endomorph body structure (see plate 2). At the senior level, the professional shot putters were basically throwing around 18 metres to 23 metres. This distance applies to both sexes. The longest distance ever thrown by man and woman recorded by Randy Barnes (23.12 metres) and Natalya Lisovskaya (22.63 metres) (Judge & Young, 2011). At the Asian continent, the level of throwing is relatively lower than their European and American counterparts. In the case of Malaysia, the longest distances recorded by Adi Alifuddin (17.54 metres) and Lee Chew Har (14.41 metres). As coach, we should have planned to our shot putters so that they will progress in their training. Some of the athletes might be slow and some might be quick, depending on our approaches and coaching skills and techniques.

Plate 2: Reese Hoffa (USA) is the example of shot putter with Endomorph body structure

HISTORY The throwing events can be considered as the oldest form of event. According to Homer as cited in Judge and Young (2011), during the classical ages, soldiers used to throw rocks as part of Archean sport. It has been supported by Gardiner (1910), who argued that the Archean rock throwing event might be seen as the earliest form of shot put. In addition, the shot put similar kind of event had also found in ancient Scotland as well as Ireland. The industrialisation that took place in Europe had triggered to the invention of iron ball as a tool for this event and later become popular. It has been used for intercollegiate competition in the midst19th century. As far as shot put as Olympic sport is concerned, the event was included since its inception in Athens Games 1896. However, in St. Louis Games 1904, the organiser decided to use the heavy version of iron ball weighed 25.4 kg as opposed to 7.26 kg (Zemper, E., 2008). Although it is not similar to enduring events such as long distant running events, the throwing events need considerable speed and explosive power that enable the thrower to hurl the equipment to some respective distance.


Plate 3: Iron Ball of 7.26 kg produced by manufacturer

Indeed, the main equipment of this event is iron ball with different weight based on sex. Normally, male and female athletes use iron ball weigh 7.26 kg and 4 kg respectively (See Plate 3). These two weighs have been used as international standard around the world. However, there are some exceptions when it comes to junior levels. The international standard weighs of iron ball used by juniors are as shown in table 1:

BOY 6 kg

GIRL 4 kg

Table 1: International standard weigh of iron ball for juniors In the case of Malaysia particularly they have been using different size and weight of iron ball according to age group. The Malaysian School Sports Council (MSSM) is using iron ball based on table 2: AGE GROUP Under 18 Under 15 Under 12 Under 10 BOY 5.25 kg 4.55 kg 2.72 kg 2.72 kg GIRL 4 kg 4 kg 2.72 kg 2.72 kg

Table 2: MSSM standard iron ball weigh used by Malaysian schools meet
Source: Ministry of Education, Malaysia

In regard to competition venue, the shot put event can be organized either in outdoor or indoor, depending on climate and weather. For outdoor competition, it can be organized in

any field that suits with the requirement of the event. It is advised to organize the event by considering the climate and weather factors as they are related to the security issues. Apart from suitable venues, the basic requirement to organize this event is throwing circle (See Plate 3). The throwing circle is indispensable as it projects athletes throwing position within particular space. Whatever throwing techniques the throwers choose, it must be confined to throwing circle.

Plate 3: Throwing circle for shot put event The athletes should throw an iron ball to specified area. Therefore, the organizers are basically drawn the specific throwing sector as shown in Plate 4. The athletes are allowed to hurl the iron ball as far as possible, depending on their strength, ability, technique and tactic. There are two common styles of throwing practice by todays professional. They are ; reversed and rotation techniques, as shown in Plate 5 and 6.

Plate 4: The Standard throwing circle and sector for shot put event The above illustration shows the standard throwing circle and sector for all level of competitions. The organizers therefore must follow this standard measurement while preparing the venue for this event. The failure to follow a common standard might lead to the techniqueal problems especially when the throwers broke the records.

Plate 5: The New Zealander Valerie Adam is using reversed technique

Plate 6: Reese Hoffa is using rotation technique while hurling the iron ball


It is essential to every coach to guide their throwers as suitable technique will determine the distance of their throw. Indeed, there are three basic style of throwing the iron ball namely; standing, sliding and gliding styles.

Standing style a basic for new comers Standing style of throwing the iron ball is undoubtedly a basic for any other advanced technique. Indeed, by applying the standing style, it will enable the athletes to train the proper angle of throwing. The coach must ensure their athletes are in ready position. The athletes are required to stand near the throwing board and face the direction of throw. Secondly, their shoulder should parallel to direction of throw and the coach must ensure that the left arm of their athletes extended in front of their body. To make it more effective, step back and bend right leg while body weight of the athletes are over bent right leg (Wilken, D., 2012; Klemeen, G., 2007) . In order to generate good explosive power, the athletes must drive their hips towards direction of the throwing sector before they can extend their right arm and release the iron ball, as shown in the below illustration.

Plate 7: A standing way of throwing the iron ball

Sliding style The sliding technique is another level of progression in shot put. In comparison with the first one, this sliding technique is basically followed the similar way of standing style. All are the same except that the athletes are required to make one or two moving steps before they could hurl the iron ball. This move will give a boast as the transfer of weight to the left leg occurred and give slide edge to the distance thrown by the athletes.

Gliding style Apart from those two techniques, the gliding style is known to be practised by most professional throwers. First of all, coaches must ensure that their athletes are in ready position, standing and facing away from the direction of throw. It is absolutely indispensable for athletes to put their body weight on right side leg. The iron ball must be placed on the left foot of throwing surface. The athletes must step backward by turning both feet 90 degrees in line with throwing board. Additionally, they are required to land on both feet simultaneously. It is advisable for the athletes to keep their right elbow away from body and forcefully extend right arm. As the final advice, the athletes must keep their thumb down. They must put the shot and forcefully snap the wrist and fingers outward.

Plate 8: A gliding style that used in hurling the iron ball

CONCLUSION In a nutshell, this paper cum mini shot put module is essential in giving some basic information on shot put event. The history of shot put, its development, equipment, venue and some basic guides of coaching have also presented. It is hoped that this paper and related illustrations presented will be a good tool for newcomers especially those who are at the beginning stage of their coaching career.

REFERENCES Derse, E.; Hansen, J.; ORourke, T. et al. (2012). Track and field coaching manual. LA84 Foundation: Los Angeles Judge, W. & Young, M. (2011). The shot put handbook. Coaches Choice: USA Kleeman, G. (2007). The throwing officials manual. USATF: USA Wilken, D. (2012). Track and field 2012-1013: coaches manual. NAIA: Kansas Zemper, E. (2008). The evolution of track and field rules during the last century. Paper presented at USA Olympic team trials for track and field in Eugene, Oregon