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JOURNAL OF INFORMATION, KNOWLEDGE AND RESEARCH IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

CONTROL OF AN ACTIVE POWER FILTER BY USING SOFT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES


1

M.SWETHA,

N.PRAPULLA

M.Tech St !e"t F#$% St.M&#'() C$**e+e O, E"++ A"! Tech"$*$+',H'!e#&-&! swethamareddym@gmail. !m


A"STRA#TThe control of a shunt active power filter (APF) designed for harmonic and reactive current mitigation. In this paper, two soft computing techniques vi ! fu " logic, neural networ# are used to design alternative control schemes for switching the APF. The models for these control schemes are designed and simulated in $AT%A&. A comparative stud" of the results o'tained using these artificial(intelligence('ased schemes is presented. I. INTRODUCTION SOFT COMPUTING is a technology to extract information from the process signal y !sing expert "no#le$ge.It either see"s to replace a h!man to perform a control tas" or it orro#s i$eas from ho# iological systems sol%e pro lems an$ applies it to control processes. The main areas in soft comp!ting nota ly are f!&&y logic' ne!ral net#or"' ro!gh sets' etc. (oft comp!ting has experience$ an explosi%e gro#th in the last $eca$e partially $!e to !ncertainties an$ %ag!eness in the process signal an$ occ!rrence of ran$om e%ents' an$ partially $!e to nonlinearity an$ complexity of the processes. The system can e complex #ith nonlinearity an$ parameter %ariation pro lems. )n intelligent or self* organi&ing control system can i$entify the mo$el' if necessary' an$ gi%e the pre$icte$ performance e%en #ith a #i$e range of parameter %ariation. (oft comp!ting is an alternati%e sol!tion to meet the process an$ !ser+s re,!irements sim!ltaneo!sly. In this paper #e ha%e $e%elope$ algorithms ase$ on f!&&y logic' ne!rof!&&y for controlling the s#itching of a sh!nt acti%e po#er filter -)PF. config!ration. The comparati%e merits an$ $emerits of these schemes incl!$ing those of a con%entional PI algorithm are $isc!sse$. II. PRO/01M ID1NTIFIC)TION Most of the loa$ an$ control e,!ipment to$ay !se comp!ters' em e$$e$ systems' microcontrollers' an$ po#er*electronic $e%ices an$ con%erters to o tain the $esire$ control performance. These $e%ices an$ controllers $ra# non sin!soi$al c!rrent from the s!pply' res!lting in the generation of c!rrent an$ %oltage harmonics. )PFs ha%e no# ecome an alternati%e sol!tion to harmonic filtering technology. )n )PF is a po#er*electronic con%erter that is s#itche$ to in2ect e,!al !t opposite $istorte$ c!rrent in the po#er*s!pply line' connecte$ to a nonlinear loa$. Its s#itching' reg!late$ y P3M' generates the harmonics an$ reacti%e po#er re,!ire$ to maintain the mains c!rrent sin!soi$al an$ in phase #ith the mains %oltage' irrespecti%e of the loa$ c!rrent. ) n!m er of metho$s exist for $etermining the reference* s#itching c!rrent for the )PF .In this paper' #e ha%e consi$ere$ the control strategy ase$ on the reg!lation of the $c capacitor %oltage. (oft comp!ting techni,!es ha%e een applie$ to )PF control to a certain extent ho#e%er4 $etaile$ in%estigations an$ possi le com inations of these metho$s ha%e not een explore$. The o 2ecti%e of this paper foc!ses mainly on $e%eloping soft comp!ting algorithm* ase$ control strategies for s#itching single*phase sh!nt )PFs. They offer an efficient control metho$ !n$er the !ncertain an$ %arying loa$ an$ s!pply con$itions an$ offer a m!ch etter $ynamic response. III. )CTI51 PO31R FI0T1R The main o 2ecti%e of the )PF is to compensate the harmonic c!rrents $!e to the non linear loa$. These filters are generally $esigne$ aro!n$ a P3M ri$ge con%erter ha%ing a capacitor on the $c si$e. Fig. 6 sho#s the sh!nt )PF config!ration #ith a proportional*integral -PI. controller. The s#itching fre,!ency of the ri$ge $etermines the fre,!ency range of harmonic c!rrents that are generate$ y )PF. It is expecte$ to correct !p to f78orf769 . The aim no# is to control this s#itching so that the %oltage so!rce lines' the nonlinear loa$' an$ the filter #or" together. This lea$s to $esigning the control algorithm #hich is est s!ite$ to compensate the harmonic an$ reacti%e c!rrents. In the follo#ing sections' #e ha%e presente$ the st!$y !sing some intelligent algorithms' s!ch as f!&&y logic'

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ne!rof!&&y' #hich ta"e into acco!nt the !ncertainty $!e to the $ynamics in loa$. A. PI Algorithm The PI control scheme in%ol%es reg!lation of the $c !s to set the amplit!$e of reference c!rrent for harmonic an$ reacti%e po#er compensation ;<=' ;8=. )ss!ming no po#er losses in the compensator' the $c*lin" %oltage remains constant if no real po#er is $ra#n from it. >o#e%er' practically' there are s#itching losses in the )PF that increase #ith the increase in the reacti%e po#er $eman$ of the loa$. These losses are s!pplie$ y the capacitor' an$ its %oltage $rops. The capacitor also has to s!pply acti%e po#er $!ring transient states #hen the real*po#er $eman$ of the loa$ increases. Th!s' in either case' the capacitor %oltage $rops.

(imilarly' the capacitor %oltage #ill increase if the reacti%e7real po#er $eman$ of the loa$ $ecreases. >ence' y monitoring the capacitor %oltage' the real po#er s!pplie$ y the )PF can e estimate$ an$ the amplit!$e of the f!n$amental acti%e component of the s!pply c!rrent #as estimate$ in$irectly !sing the real*po#er alance theory. The control is on the s!pply c!rrent $irectly. Only one sensor is re,!ire$ to sense the s!pply c!rrent an$ there is no $elay in the compensation process. ) PI control algorithm is !se$ to reg!late the $c lin" %oltage of the sh!nt )PF. This metho$ is preferre$ eca!se the reference c!rrent is generate$ #itho!t calc!lating either the loa$ c!rrent harmonics or the loa$ reacti%e po#er. This res!lts in an instantaneo!s compensation process an$ the associate$ har$#are is simple to implement' there y increasing system relia ility. The loc" $iagram of the o%erall control scheme is sho#n in Fig. 6. The control %aria les !se$ y the PI control algorithm are the $c !s %oltage' s!pply c!rrent' an$ s!pply %oltage. In the control scheme in%estigate$ here' a sample*an$*hol$ circ!it is !se$ to ta"e capacitor %oltage samples at e%ery 69 ms for a s!pply fre,!ency of 89 >&. The error inp!t to thePI controller an$ the amplit!$e of the s!pply c!rrent pro%i$e$ y the controller are th!s ma$e a%aila le at &ero crossing only an$ the s!pply c!rrent is maintaine$ constant for the entire perio$ of one cycle. >ence' the correction action is achie%e$ e%ery half cycle. The ripple in the capacitor is eliminate$ #ith this techni,!e an$ there is no nee$ to !se lo#pass filter. The $c capacitor %oltage has to e maintaine$ at more than t#ice the pea" s!pply%oltage for proper operation of the sh!nt )PF system. This is ta"en as the reference $c*lin" %oltage -5ref.an$ compare$ #ith the act!al %oltage of the capacitor -5$c.. The res!lting error at the th sample instant is expresse$ as The compare$ res!lt is fe$ to a PI controller an$ the o!tp!t of the PI controller is gi%en y #here?p an$ ?i are proportional an$ integral gain constants of the %oltage reg!lator. an$ are the o!tp!t of thecontroller an$ %oltage error at the the sampling instant. This o!tp!t of the controller is limite$ to a safe permissi le %al!e $epen$ing on the rating of the

)PF s#itches' an$ the res!lting limite$ o!tp!t is ta"en as the pea" %al!e of the reference s!pply c!rrent for harmonic an$ reacti%e po#er compensation. The phase information is o taine$ y a !nit amplit!$e sine #a%e $eri%e$ from the mains %oltage. The reference c!rrent so o taine$ is compare$ #ith the act!al s!pply c!rrent an$ fixe$ fre,!ency P3M is !se$ to generate the s#itching signals for the )PF con%erter. The s#itch control applies 5f or *5f on the ac si$e' forcing the compensation c!rrent to trac" the reference c!rrent. From Fig. 6 of the )PF' the follo#ing e,!ations can e #ritten@

The filter o!tp!t %oltage can e controlle$ only y the $!ty cycle of the ri$ge. Therefore' #e o tain

The pro lem of a soft comp!ting control algorithm is' therefore' to $etermine the $!ty cycle in s!ch a #ay that remains as constant as possi le an$ pro$!ces the right harmonic*compensate$ c!rrent. &. )imulation *esults The harmonic mo$el of a comp!ter consisting of a $io$e ri$ge rectifier #ith a large smoothing capacitor is !se$ to represent a typical nonlinear -N00. loa$. The loa$ #as sim!late$ for a s!pply %oltage of AB9 5' 89 >& an$ an$ the performance parameters #ere fo!n$ as B.<6 )' C 6<D.EF' C 9.6A<F' C 9.DG' 6.<DE' an$ 9.8G8. It is seen that the root mean s,!are -rms. s!pply c!rrent is increase$ $!e to the presence of harmonics an$ lo# po#er factor. D!e to the presence of the smoothing capacitor' the loa$ c!rrent is seen to e $iscontin!o!s ;Fig. A-c.=. The PI control algorithm is applie$ to control a sh!nt )PF for compensating harmonic an$ reacti%e po#er $ra#n y the comp!ter loa$. The system is sim!late$ !sing M)T0)/ an$ the res!lts are presente$ in Fig. A. The #a%eforms for s!pply %oltage' s!pply' loa$' an$ filter c!rrents an$ $c*lin"

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%oltage are sho#n in Fig. A-a.H-e.. It can e seen from Fig. A- . an$ -c. that the s!pply c!rrent ecomes sin!soi$al #hile the loa$ contin!es to $ra# c!rrent in nonsin!soi$al p!lses. The harmonic spectr!m of the s!pply c!rrent efore an$ after compensation is sho#n in Fig. B-a. an$ - .' respecti%ely. The total harmonic c!rrent $istortion is re$!ce$ from 6<D.EF of the !ncompensate$ loa$ to <.<DF after compensation. The po#er factor is impro%e$ to 9.DG from 9.8G8 of the !ncompensate$ loa$. The compensate$ rms s!pply c!rrent is A.IIG ) an$ it is seen that the rise in s!pply c!rrent $!e to the presence of harmonics is effecti%ely ro!ght $o#n. The $ynamic response for a$$ition an$ remo%al of the loa$ can e o ser%e$ from Fig. A- .. The s!pply c!rrent settles smoothly to a ne# stea$y*state %al!e #ithin a half cycle of a 89F $ecrease in loa$ at9.6 ms an$ a A99F increase in loa$ at 9.B ms. There is a small change in the $c* !s %oltage ;Fig. A-e.= at the instant of $ist!r ance in the loa$ to alance extra energy $!e to an increase$ or $ecrease$ le%el of compensation. The $c* !s %oltage settles to its stea$y*state %al!e #ithin a fe# cycles. The )PF #ith PI control for a self*s!pporting $c !s has se%eral a$%antages %i&4 instantaneo!s compensation' no nee$ to sense reacti%e po#er $eman$ or loa$ harmonics' the a$%antage of !sing only one c!rrent sensor' an$ simple control logic an$ har$#are. >o#e%er' in this scheme' the nonlinear mo$el of the )PF system is ass!me$ to e linear an$ the PI controller $esign is ase$ on a mathematical mo$el of the lineari&e$ system. ) set of e,!ations that $escri e the sta le e,!ili ri!m state of the control s!rface is $e%elope$ y the root loc!s or some other metho$' an$ coefficients are assigne$ to the proportional an$ integral aspects of the system. The PI controller applies the mathematical.mo$el to a gi%en inp!t an$ pro$!ces a specific o!tp!t from the mathematical algorithm.

The PI mo$el may seem to e simple an$ economical for a set of $esigne$ PI parameters an$ the harmonic compensation achie%e$ y the )PF an$ the response to step change in loa$ is satisfactory' !t a ten$ency to o%ershoot the set %al!e still exists' #hile compensating large errors. F!rther' for the same set of parameters' the system may lac" the capacity to

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a$2!st satisfactorily to large fl!ct!ations an$' hence' fine t!ning of the $esigne$ parameters #as necessary. Practically' the fine t!ning of PI parameters is mostly accomplishe$ y trial an$ error' #hich is a time* cons!ming process. >ence' soft comp!ting metho$s are $e%elope$ in this paper to $e%elop a relia le a!to t!ning metho$ in or$er to a!tomate this process. I5. FUJJK CONTRO0 )0GORIT>M F!&&y logic is a m!ltile%el logic system in #hich the f!&&y logic set has a $egree of mem ership associate$ #ith each %aria le. /asically' a f!&&y set has three principal components@ 6. a $egree of mem ership meas!re$ along the %ertical axis -K.4 A. the possi le $omain %al!es for the set along the hori&ontal axis -x.4 an$ B. the set mem ership f!nction -a contin!o!s c!r%e that connects the $omain %al!es to the $egree of mem ership in the set.. ) large class of f!&&y sets represents approximate mem ers of one type or other. (ome of these f!&&y sets are explicitly f!&&ifie$ n!m ers #hereas others simply represent the f!&&y n!meric inter%al o%er the $omain of a partic!lar %aria le. F!&&y n!m ers hence can ta"e many shapes triang!lar' trape&oi$al' sigmoi$' an$ ell shape' etc. The f!&&y set principally attri !tes t#o f!&&y n!m ers@ a center %al!e an$ a $egree of sprea$. The $egree of sprea$ is also calle$ the expectancy -1. of the f!&&y n!m er4 #hen the f!&&y n!m er is a single point' it is calle$ single tone. )s the expectancy increases' the n!m er ecomes f!&&ier. This res!lts in an increase in information an$ entropy. The triang!lar f!&&y mem ership shape is commonly employe$ in control applications $!e to primarily lo# comp!tational costs of creating an$ integrating triang!lar f!&&y sets. >o#e%er' they are less ro !st. The sigmoi$ f!nction an$ ell*shape$ f!&&y n!m ers are etter in ro !stness since their center %al!e is not a single point. The trape&oi$al n!m er is slightly $ifferent from the triang!lar an$ sigmoi$ n!m er shapes eca!se the set $oes not pi%ot aro!n$ a single central n!m er. Con%entionally' only stan$ar$ triang!lar MFs are !se$ in f!&&y control an$ the s!ita ility of other mem ership f!nctions is not in%estigate$. In the present st!$y' the f!&&y*logic control system #as $esigne$ #ith fi%e f!nctional $efinitions of MFs %i&4 triang!lar' trape&oi$al' p(igmoi$' Ga!ssian an$ Ga!ssian /ell MFs. )fter a comparati%e st!$y in terms of harmonic compensation achie%e$ !n$er stea$y*state an$ transient loa$ con$itions' it #as o ser%e$ that the Ga!ssian MFs ga%e the est res!lts. Fig. < sho#s the str!ct!re of the f!&&y controller for )PF.

. A. Fu " +ontrol )cheme for APF In or$er to $e%elop the f!&&y*logic control algorithm for )PF' t#o inp!ts@ 6. the %oltage error -reference %oltage min!s act!al capaciti%e %oltage' e.' A. the change of capaciti%e %oltage -pre%io!s error min!s c!rrent error4 ce. #ere consi$ere$ o%er one sample perio$. The t#o inp!ts #ere represente$ y sets of se%en mem ership f!nctions an$ expresse$ in ling!istic %al!es as negati%e ig -N/.' negati%e me$i!m -NM.' negati%e small -N(.' &ero -J1.' positi%e small -P(.' positi%e me$i!m -PM.' an$ positi%e ig -P/.. The range for the LerrorM inp!t #as set as;*B9'B9= an$ that for Lchange of errorM #as set as;*69'69= . ) limiting loc" #as intro$!ce$ efore the f!&&y loc" in or$er to tr!ncate %al!es eyon$ these ranges efore s!pplying them to the f!&&y*logic controller. The shape of these mem ership f!nctions #as %arie$ an$ the effect on the system #as st!$ie$. The inp!t to the $ef!&&ification process is a f!&&y set -the aggregate o!tp!t f!&&y set. an$ the o!tp!t is a single non f!&&y n!m er' o taine$ y the center*of* gra%ity -COG. metho$ of $ef!&&ification. The o!tp!t -magnit!$e of reference s!pply c!rrent' . is represente$ y a set of nine mem ership f!nctions -MFs. -N5/ to P5/. #hose shape #as ta"en to e similar to the shape of the inp!t MFs. The range for the o!tp!t #as set as =. The o!tp!t of the f!&&y*logic controller #as m!ltiplie$ y a !nit sine #a%e in or$er to ring it in phase #ith the s!pply c!rrent efore comparison. The )ND metho$ !se$ $!ring interpretation of the IF*T>1N r!les #as LminM an$ the OR metho$ !se$ #as Lmax.M )lso' LminM #as !se$ as the implication metho$ #hereas the LmaxM metho$ #as !se$ for aggregation. The inp!t an$ o!tp!t MFs so applie$ are sho#n in Fig. 8. The <D f!&&y IF*T>1N #eighte$ r!le ase #as $esigne$ to maintain the capacitor %oltage constant y pro%i$ing the re,!ire$ reference c!rrent amplit!$e. R!le generation an$ #eighting #ere $eci$e$ ase$ on the pen$!l!m analogy. The res!lting r!le matrix #ith assigne$ #eights is sho#n in Ta le I. &. )imulation *esults The PI controller loc" in the control scheme of the )PF -Fig. 6. #as replace$ y the $esigne$ f!&&y

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inference system -FI(.. The )PF #as then sim!late$ for the same loa$ #ith all other parameters maintaining the same. The sim!lation res!lts for the f!&&y*logic controller $esigne$ #ith Ga!ssian MFs are sho#n in Fig I

Fig I sho#s that the s!pply c!rrent is sin!soi$al #ith the total harmonic c!rrent $istortion re$!ce$ from 6<D.EF of the !ncompensate$ loa$ to B.EF after compensation. The seemingly triang!lar form the !ncompensate$ c!rrent is $!e to c!rrent spi"es an$ higher or$er harmonics. Fig. I. Dynamic performance of the f!&&y control scheme #ith Ga!ssian MFs for an )PF #ith comp!ter loa$@ -a. s!pply %oltage -5.' - . compensate$ s!pply c!rrent -).' -c. loa$ c!rrent -).' -$. filter c!rrent -).' -e. %oltage across $c capacitor -5.' -f. harmonic spectr!m of the compensate$ s!pply c!rrent' an$ -g. performance of the f!&&y control scheme #ith Ga!ssian MFs for an )PF #ith the comp!ter loa$@ Transient eha%ior for a large error in $c*lin" %oltage. The harmonic spectr!m of the compensate$ s!pply c!rrent is sho#n in Fig. I-f.. The po#er factor is

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impro%e$ to 9.DDGB. It is o ser%e$ that the capacitor %oltage is maintaine$ constant y the FI(. The $ynamic response for the a$$ition an$ remo%al of the loa$ can e o ser%e$ from ) typical r!le in a (!geno f!&&y mo$el is gi%en as

The o!tp!t le%el LJi M of each r!le is #eighte$ y the firing strength of the r!le. For an )ND r!le in the aforementione$ case' the firing strength is gi%en y 3iC)ND;F6-x.'FA-y.= -G.

The s!pply c!rrent settles smoothly to a ne# stea$y* state %al!e #ithin a ,!arter cycle of a 89F $ecrease in loa$ at 9.6 ms an$ a A99F increase in loa$ at 9.B ms. The $c* !s %oltage settles to its stea$y*state %al!e #ithin a fe# cycles ;Fig. I-e.=. The response of the system for compensating a large initial error of 89 5 is also o ser%e$. The capacitor %oltage reaches the stea$y*state %al!e #itho!t o%ercompensating or o%ershooting the set %al!e' as sho#n in Fig. I-g.. The FI(*controlle$ )PF #as fo!n$ to pro%i$e etter an$ ro !st performance !n$er transient an$ %arying loa$ con$itions. 5. N1URO*FUJJK )0GORIT>M The ne!ral net#or" $eals #ith nonlinear mapping of o 2ecti%e pro lems an$ this is a ,!antitati%e metho$ of extracting the re,!ire$ information from the ra# process signal. The o!tp!t is gi%en y the e,!ation

Fig. G. /loc" $iagram of the propose$ )NFI( training algorithm. 3hereF-..are the mem ership f!nctions for inp!ts 6 an$ A. The final o!tp!t of the system is the #eighte$ a%erage of all r!le o!tp!ts comp!te$ as

The (!geno system is comp!tationally efficient an$ compact an$' hence' #as chosen to constr!ct the f!&&y mo$els. A. >ere'3i represents the connection #eights an$ no set g!i$elines or r!les are present to select these #eights. In o!r present st!$y' #e ha%e comp!te$ these #eights #ith a f!&&y*logic tool' !sing a hy ri$ metho$ for training the ne!ral net#or". The hy ri$ approach $eals #ith ling!istic %aria les an$ n!merical %aria les. In this type of mo$el' the con$ition part !ses ling!istic %aria les an$ the concl!sion part is represente$ y a n!merical %al!e. Fig. E sho#s the general f!&&y ne!ral*net mo$el. In this scheme' instea$ of choosing the mem ership f!nction parameters ase$ on the system eha%ior' the artificial ne!ral net#or" -)NN. #as traine$ to choose mem ership parameters a!tomatically. The system is mo$ele$ y !sing the (!geno*type FI(' #hich is i$eal for implementing ne!roa$apti%e learning techni,!es. In a (!geno*type system' the o!tp!t mem ership f!nctions are either linear or constant. ,euro(Fu " +ontrol )cheme for APF

The ne!ral net#or" #as !se$ to c!stomi&e the mem ership f!nctions so that the f!&&y system est mo$els the control $ata. In a f!&&y ne!ral system' the ne!ral net#or" essentially implements the f!nctions of a f!&&y system. The first net#or" f!&&ifies the crisp inp!t $ata an$ the secon$ or hi$$en net#or" layer implements the f!&&y r!les. Finally $ef!&&ification of the f!&&y o!tp!t is performe$ y the thir$ net#or" to pro%i$e the crisp $ata o!tp!t. Fig. G sho#s the loc" $iagram of the propose$ )NFI( training algorithm. The training inp!ts to the )NFI( are error an$ change of error' an$ the training o!tp!t is the magnit!$e of the reference c!rrent for triggering the acti%e po#er filter. The ne!ral net#or" #as traine$ to generate an o!tp!t ase$ on the training inp!ts s!ch that it closely matches the pro%i$e$ training o!tp!t. ) n!m er of iterations #ere performe$ to train the

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ne!ro*f!&&y system an$ the training error #as calc!late$ for e%ery iteration. The training error is gi%en y the $ifference et#een training o!tp!t $ata an$ the )NFI(*generate$ o!tp!t. )n error tolerance limit an$ epoch n!m er #as pro%i$e$ to the )NFI( to concl!$e the training process #hen either the training $ata error is #ithin the tolerance limit or the iteration n!m er excee$s the epoch n!m er. Mo$el %ali$ation #as accomplishe$ y pro%i$ing a Chec"ing Data set in or$er to pre%ent )NFI( from o%er fitting the $ata. In the propose$ scheme of $e%eloping an )NN* ase$ f!&&y inference system -)NFI(. for control of the acti%e po#er filter' the follo#ing steps #ere !se$. (tep 6. Training $ata@ )n array containing error %al!es -range 4 (tep@ 9.8.' change of error -range 4 (tep@ 9.8.' an$ the o!tp!t -generate$ y the Mam$ani* type FI(' #ith <D r!les an$ Triang!lar MFs' for the correspon$ing inp!ts of error an$ change of error. #ere pro%i$e$ as training $ata. Ne!ro*f!&&y FI( #ith fi%e MFs for each inp!t traine$ y the hy ri$ training algorithm generate$ a A8*r!le FI(' #hose MFs are sho#n in Fig. D-a.H-c.. It #as o ser%e$ that the f!&&y partitioning is e%enly $istri !te$ #itho!t $iscontin!ities or irreg!larities. >o#e%er' the f!&&y partitions are $ifferent than that $esigne$ for the <D*r!le f!&&y*logic system. The res!lting ne!ral net#or" is sho#n in Fig. 69-a.. The system #as sim!late$ for 6999 epochs an$ the %ariation of training error #ith a n!m er of epochs is sho#n in Fig. 69- .. The system #as traine$ in 2!st fi%e to six iterations an$ the training error #as 9.EA as is e%i$entfrom Fig. 69- .. The chec"ing $ata error #as also seen to e constant at a minim!m of 9.EE #itho!t an increase in any iteration' in$icating that no o%erfitting of the mo$el ta"es place.

Fig. 69.)NFI( ;88= hy ri$. -a. FI( mo$el. - . 1rror %7s epoch. no. -c. FI( o!tp!t s!rface map. Fig. D. )NFI( ;88= hy ri$@ -a. Generate$ inp!t*6 MFs. - . Generate$ inp!t*A MFs. -c. Generate$ o!tp!t MFs. (tep A. Chec"ing Data@ )n array containing error %al!es -range =4 (tep si&e@ 6' change of error -range@ =4 (tep si&e@ 6. an$ the o!tp!t -generate$ y the Mam$ani*type FI(' #ith <D r!les an$ triang!lar MFs' for the correspon$ing inp!ts of error an$ change of error. #as pro%i$e$ as chec"ing $ata. The (!geno FI( #as selecte$ #ith the most commonly !se$ triang!lar inp!t MFs. The n!m er of inp!t MFs #as ta"en as fi%e' lea$ing to A8 r!les. Constant MFs #ere selecte$ for o!tp!t. The hy ri$ metho$ #as applie$ for training the generate$ FI(. Training #as limite$ to 6999 epochs an$ the tolerance limit #as set to &ero for the training error an$ chec"ing error. The )NFI( th!s generate$ #as teste$ to control the sh!nt acti%e po#er filter. The M)T0)/ po#er system an$ (im!lin" tool oxes along #ith the f!&&y*logic tool ox #ere !se$ for sim!lation. &. )imulation *esults The propose$ scheme #as sim!late$ !sing the M)T0)/ )NFI( e$itor to $esign the t!ne$ (!geno* type FI(' #hich#as then !se$ to control the )PF y incorporating it in thef!&&y*logic controller loc". The system #as teste$ for a fixe$ as #ell as a %aria le loa$' an$ the res!lts are sho#n in Fig. 66. It #as o ser%e$ that the ne!ro*f!&&y system em!late$ the f!&&y performance satisfactorily an$ #as comp!tationally more efficient an$ faster. It #as o ser%e$ that the s!pply c!rrent after compensation ecomes sin!soi$al #ith a total harmonic c!rrent $istortion of <.GDF. The transient response !n$er %arying loa$ con$itions #as fo!n$ to e the same as that achie%e$ y the f!&&y control system. 5II. DI(CU((ION Tra$itionally' the $esign of a control system is $epen$ent on the explicit $escription of its mathematical mo$el an$ parameters. The system can e complex #ith nonlinearity an$ parameter %ariation

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pro lems. )n intelligent or self*organi&ing control system can i$entify the mo$el' if necessary' an$ gi%e the pre$icte$ performance e%en #ith a #i$e range of parameter %ariations. The con%entional PI algorithm for sh!nt acti%e po#er filter control ass!mes the system to e linear an$ the PI parameters are $esigne$ y $e%eloping the lineari&e$ mathematical mo$el an$ the /o$e or Ny,!ist plot. Fig. 66.Dynamic response of the )NFI( ;88= hy ri$. -a. (!pply %oltage -5.. - . Compensate$ s!pply c!rrent -).. -c. 0oa$ c!rrent -).. -$. Filter c!rrent -).. -e. 5oltage across $c capacitor -5.. -f.. >armonic spectr!m of the compensate$ s!pply c!rrent. -g. )NFI( ;88= hy ri$@ Transient eha%ior for a large error in $c*lin" %oltage. respon$s to the change$ loa$ con$itions #ithin a ,!arter of a cycle. Tho!gh %ersatile' the f!&&y alternati%e to con%entional PI control #as seen to e slo# an$ comp!tationally intense as <D r!les #ere in%ol%e$. Despite the a$%antages of f!&&y control' its main limitations are the lac" of systematic proce$!re for the $esign an$ analysis of the f!&&y control system. The he!ristic an$ iterati%e approach to fine t!ne the r!le ase an$ mem ership f!nctions can e %ery time cons!ming an$ in%ol%e$. ) fe# other $iffic!lties in f!&&y control are a lac" of completeness of the r!le ase an$ a lac" of $efinite criteria for the selection of the shape of the mem ership f!nctions' their $egree of o%erlapping' the le%els of $ata ,!anti&ation' an$ assigning #eights to the f!&&y r!les. )lso' the r!le* ase metho$ re,!ires $ef!&&ification of the control %aria le #hich increases the comp!tational complexity an$ ma"es the FI( slo#. The a$%antage of the flexi ility an$ ro !stness offere$ y the f!&&y*logic controller o!t#eighs the limitations an$' hence' the ne!ral net#or" #as !se$ to o%ercome these limitations. The ne!ral net#or" #as !se$ to i$entify f!&&y r!les an$ t!ning of mem ership f!nctions. The com ine$ ne!ro*f!&&y algorithm that #as $e%elope$ retains the a$%antages of !sing f!&&y logic !t gets ri$ of the pro lems in%ol%e$ in $esigning the FI( y a!tomating the $esign process. The ne!ro*f!&&y control algorithm #as $esigne$ y !sing the relational approach of f!&&y*logic $esign' an$ a re$!ce$ r!le ase #ith !nit #eights assigne$ to the r!les. (ince there is no nee$ for $ef!&&ification in this metho$ an$ the $esign proce$!re is simplifie$ #ith only A8 r!les instea$ of the <D r!les in the f!&&y*logic controller' the spee$ of the FI( increase$. F!rther' it #as o ser%e$ that the t#o performances are the same. It #as o ser%e$ that the performance of f!&&y control an$' conse,!ently' ne!ro*f!&&y control is limite$ y the !se of stan$ar$ mem ership f!nctions. The mem ership f!nction shape is important $!e to the inter$epen$ent relationship et#een the r!le set an$ the mem ership f!nction to gi%e the est harmonic compensation o%er the other schemes.

Fig66 The $esigne$ parameters #ere fo!n$ to pro%i$e satisfactory performance in terms of harmonic an$ reacti%e compensation !t #hen the same system #as s! 2ecte$ to a large error' the PI parameters ha$ to e again a$2!ste$ to a%oi$ o%ershoot an$ o%ercompensation. Practically' this has to e $one y trial an$ error #hich is a lengthy an$ time*cons!ming process. (oft comp!ting schemes #ere !n$erta"en #ith a %ie# to simplify an$ a!tomate the controller $esign. These techni,!es #ere not consi$ere$ to e feasi le for practical implementation !ntil recently !t #ith the a%aila ility of po#erf!l single*chip microcontrollers an$ $igital signal processors' this is no longer an iss!e. (elf*organi&ing f!&&y*logic control o%er the $c !s of the sh!nt )PF #as $esigne$ to replace the con%entional PI controller. The <D*r!le FI( #ith Ga!ssian mem ership f!nctions gi%es the $esire$ performance !n$er %arying loa$ an$ s!pply con$itions an$ is pro%e$ to e a etter alternati%e to con%entional techni,!es. It is o ser%e$ that the filter

RESULTS P; c$"t#$**e# <;th APF

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F ==' c$"t#$**e# <;th APF R1F1R1NC1( ;6=Parmo$?!mar'mem er'I111')l"aMaha2an'Mem er'I111M(oft Comp!ting Techni,!es for the Control of an )cti%e Po#er FilterM I111 Transactions On Po#er Deli%ery' 5ol. A<' NO. 6' NanA99D ;A= M. 1l*>a ro!"' M. ?. Dar#ish' an$ P. Mehta' L)cti%e po#er filters@ ) re%ie#'M Proc. I--- -lectr. Power Appl.' %ol. 6<E' no. 8' pp. <9BH<6A' (ep. A999. ;B= /. (ingh' ?*)l*>a$$a$' an$ ). Chan$ra' L) re%ie# of acti%e filters for po#er ,!ality impro%ement'M I--- Trans. Ind. -lectron' %ol. <I' no. 8' pp. DI9HDE6' Oct. 6DDD. ;<= 3. M. Gra$y'M. N. (anoty2' an$ ). >. Noyola' L(!r%ey of acti%e po#er line con$itioning metho$ologies'M I--- Trans. Power .el.' %ol. 8' no. B' pp. 68BIH68<A' N!l. 6DD9. ;8= >. 0. No!' N. C. 3!' an$ >. K. Ch!' LNe# single*phase acti%e po#er filter'M Proc. Inst. -lect. -ng., -lectr. Power Appl.' %ol. 6<6' no. B' pp. 6ADH6B<' May 6DD<. ;I= ?. Chater2ee' /. G. Fernan$es' an$ G. ?. D! ey' L)n instantaneo!s reacti%e %olt*ampere compensator an$ harmonic s!ppressor system'M I--Trans. Power -lectron.' %ol. 6<' no. A' pp. BG6HBDA' Mar. 6DDD. ;E= N. Dixon' N. Contar$o' an$ 0. Moran' LDC lin" f!&&y control for an acti%e po#er filter' sensing the line c!rrent only'M in Proc. I--- Power -ng. )oc. +om.' 6DDE' pp. 669DH666B. ;G= K.*M. Chen an$ R. M. O. Connell' L)cti%e po#er line con$itioner #ith a ne!ral net#or" control'M I--- Trans. Ind. Appl.' %ol. BB' no. <' pp. 66B6H66BI' N!l.7)!g. 6DDE.

ANN <;th APF

5III. CONC0U(ION The o%erall aim of this paper #as to consi$er metho$s of achie%ing etter !tili&ation an$ control of acti%e po#er filters $ealing #ith harmonic an$ reacti%e c!rrent compensation. )lternati%e schemes ase$ on soft comp!ting techni,!es ha%e een propose$. Nonmo$el* ase$ controllers $esigne$ aro!n$ f!&&y logic' ne!ral net#or" #ere applie$ to control the s#itching of the acti%e po#er filter an$ #ere fo!n$ to pro%i$e m!ch etter response !n$er %arying loa$ an$ s!pply con$itions.

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