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FORBES LIBRARY
NORTHAMPTON
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ANATOLICA.

ANATOLICA;
OR,

THE JOURNAL OF A VISIT TO SOME OF THE ANCIENT RUINED CITIES

CARIA, PHRYGIA, LYCIA,
PISIDIA.

AND

• •

••

• • • •

"BT'fHfi

*

••

H.B.M.'s Episc.
:•

Consular chaplain, Alexandria.
;*• •••
• •

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/.

""••••

Honlion;

GRANT &

CO.,

TURNMILL STREET,
1874.

E.C.

r

LONDON

GRANT AND

CO.,

PRINTERS, TURNMILL STREET, B.C.

••#.«(

PREFACE.

Many
pened
'*

years ago,
to

when a boy

at school,

I

hap-

receive a copy of Sir C.
s

Fellows's

Asia Minor and Lycla."

Thenceforward
to
visit

it

was a dream of

my

life

the Interesting country

therein

de-

scribed.

There seemed
ever

little

prospect of the dream

becoming a

reality;

but

circumstances
;

made me a

resident in the East

and

at last

^
^
c30

in

1872, during a temporary leave of absence

from

my

post,

I

was able to accomplish the

long cherished, desire.
GO

O o

It is

with some diffidence that

I

venture to

publish the following account of

my

journey

;

The brief time I could give to the journey. I in the affairs of the have tried to describe things faithfully as I saw them. but Egypt — must be my excuse for any errors or deficiencies. reference and the want of all of a library of — indeed in those in literary aids exist which abound not Europe. Alexandria. still little known to Europeans. it but may perhaps contribute something to our knowledge of a most beautiful and interesting country. although so near Europe.vi PREFACE. and perhaps destined to play a great part hereafter East. 1874. . August.

— CONTENTS. — — — Diana's Bath — Bournabat — Gardens— Sunset Plain— Boujah — Camellias at Bournabat — A Greek — Its board the Austrian Lloyd's Steamer Deck Passengers Negro Slaves Slavery in Egypt The Sporades Want of Wood Sponge Fishery Leros Samos Scio Mastic^-^ The Gulf of Smyrna Sanjak Kalesy— Distant View of Smyrna Fortress on Mount Fagus Interior of the City Its Climate and Health Heat The Imbat Land Breeze Position of Smyrna Water Supply Octroi Exports Figs and Raisins Cemetery at Caravan Bridge — The Meles — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — in the Drago- man CHAPTER Smyrna and Aidin Railway Plain of Boujah II.Plains of Anatolia — Malarious Fever— Cholera — Yourouk Shepherds — Kedji Kalesy — The Cayster — Greek Brigands — Manouli — Aiasolouk — Gateway Mosque — Aqueduct — Storks — Changes the Formation of the Plain of Ephesus — Instance from Pliny — Port of the Great Temple — Changes in the Position of the Old City Hill of Prion — Street of Tombs — Wild Fennel — Magnesian Gate — Thermae — Odeum — Theatre — Port of the City of in Ephesus Earthquake in the Reign of Tiberius— Great Gymnasium Walls of the City and along the Ridge of Coressus Monolithic Basin Stadium Site of the Temple of Diana Pausanias' Account of the Worship Its Double Pavement of Artemis Changes in Name and Position of Ephesus— Great Quantity of Alluvium deposited by the Cayster Harbour of the Old City ruined — — — — — — — — 24 . — Aqueducts behind the Castle Hill — Caravans . CHAPTER On I.

Furniture. Richard Chandler's Account of the Temple of the Ephesian .— viii CONTENTS.46 CHAPTER Ravine near the Azizieh Tunnels IV. in Pass — Scenery of the Bedra Pass — Thunderstorm — Plain of Denizli — Town of Denizli — Khan-^Greek Khanji — Eski Hissar (Laodicea) Aqueduct — Benefactors to the Old City— Its Wool Stadium — Thermae — Gymnasium — Small Theatre —Large this fine — Hospitality of Theatre— Odeum— Sculpture— Destruction of the Antiquities of Laodicea —Desolation of the City 78 . CHAPTER III. Artemis as described by the Ancient Authorities . and Food of Peasantry — Makuf— Kilidja Bolouk — Number and Beauty of the Children — We lose our Way — Ascent of the Seiteen Yailas — Volcanic Evidences — Forest — Descent of the Mountain — Cafe at the Mouth of the Bedra Pass — Defeat of the French Crusaders under Louis VII. — Parched District — Caffinehs in the Mountain Passes Tomb of a Muslim Saint — Tcheragh — Cairn — Curious Custom — Mount Cadmus — Plain of Dawas (Taboe) —View from Top of Pass — Torrent Bed Edge of Plain — The Dagh (Mount Cadmus) Beli Pass of Tcham at " Stranger's Room " in a Turkish Village Turks — Kara Hissar— Dwellings. . Aqueduct— A Soldier —Ancient of the Turkish Contingent in the Crimea Anecdote of the Damascus Massacre in 1857— Ravine of the Lethaeus First — View of the Plain of the Mseander at —Aidin (Tralles) — Cemeteries in the Maeander Valley — Khan at Nazli — Bazaar Nazli— The Zeybeks— Zeybek Robbers— Costume — Our Party — Our Muleteers — Opening in Mount Messogis — The "Asian Meadow" — Stream and Bridge of the Maeander—Valley of the Mosynus — Cafe at Ali Aga Tchiftlik — Formation of the Country— River Ak Soo (Mosynus) — Chalk —Verdure of the Country — Kara Soo — Torrent — Ravines — Khan Kara Soo — Descent from the Town — Geera (Aphrodisias) — Walls of the City — Great Number of Inscriptions — Gateway— Stadium — Temple of Aphrodite — Agora — Remains of other Temples —Vast Mass Sarcophagi — Their present of Ruin — Material —Two Beauty Cliffs — Mount — Messogis— Its Its at fine Use 60 CHAPTER Torrents from Baba V. PAGE Dr.

our 97 CHAPTER — — Yourouk Tribe Bridge over the Lycus Parched District Emigrating Shepherd's Bridge Ravine of the Ak Soo Barrow— Remains of the Old City PetriSite of Colossse Explanation of its Chasm of the Lycus fying Streams Formation Last Bishop of Colossae Ride to Khonas House of Village of Khonas Beauty of the Country Ibrahim Aga No Antiquities at Khonas Beauty of the Children Visit of the Villagers The Kadi Want of EducaBeauty of the Country to the west tion among the People Our Escort Mount Khonas Khonas— The Kazik Pass of Tchukour— Brigands' Place of Ambush Plain of Karajuk — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Crops— Soil IrrigaCibyratic Confederation Its Rivers tion—Geological Formation Karajuk Bazaar— Khau Greek Khanji Disturbed State of the Country— Arab Servant at Khan Ravine and Village of Geunahi Barren Soil and Miserable Crops Eschler Yailas Desolate Aspect of the Country Poverty of the Villagers Money-lenders Causes Salt Lake of Salda of Misery in a Turkish Village — — — — — — — — — — — Karaatlu — Our in — Host — His — — — House — Crops — Forests — Careof the . in . of Storks' Nests Hierapolis (Pambouk Kalesy) —Tree — View over the Plain of the Lycus — Our Host's Family — Turkish Women a better position than Arab Women — Their Musical Voices — Position of Hierapolis — Effect of the Petrifying Waters —Watercourses — Deposit of Calc TufF —The Cascade — Basins in it— Heat of the Water— Properties — Pine Water-vessels — Visit to the Ruins — Bridge over the Ravine to the West — Mausolea— Rock Tombs Street of Tombs — Sarcophagi — Ruins of great Church Monument of Stephanus — Other Ruins —Theatre — Great Depth — Deadly Exhalations of Carbonic Acid Source — Gas — Ancient Accounts of the Plutonium — Strabo — Pliny — Dion Cussius — Thermae — Gymnasium —Epictetus — Greek Church suppressed by the Latin Crusaders — Wool of Hierapolis full —The Ak Soo (Lycus) — Our PAGE Lodging in Its Its — Its Party present Desolation — Return to Smyrna of most of VII. the • Forests — rOur Evening Meal .— CONTENTS. IX CHAPTER Bridge over the Caprus at VI. 113 . — lessness the Management . Forests— Fires . .

.— X CONTENTS. 135 CHAPTER Suburb of Sparta tion — Pass through Volcanic Hills — Strange Forma—Yaila Foot of Aghlasun Mountains — Ascent of the Mountain Chain — Fine View from the Summit — Steepness of the Mountain —Paul Lucas on Ruins of Sagalassus — Ruined Temple and Fort the Pass — Village of Strata at in of Aghlasun — Position of the Ancient City — Rock Tombs in Perpendicular Cliff behind the City — Ruin of a Large Christian Church Site of Great Temple — Agora — Portico — Another Temple Great variety of Columns Theatre Fine Subterranean Corridor Architecture and Ornamentation of Buildings — Ravine leading up to the Site of Sagalassus — — — Thunderstorm — All Antiquities taken by the Government Notices of Sagalassus and the Pisidian Race — Government — Arrian's lassus Pisidia —Their Language - Account of the Capture of Sagaby Alexander the Great Strabo's Account of Selge Livy's Account of the Expedition of C. CHAPTER Rock VIII. . Manlius Vulso into — — Submission of Sagalassus — Strabo's Notice of the 155 City . PAGE Carvings at Karaatlu Dangers of Wealth in Turkey The Poppy Opium Village of Naoulo Lake of Yarishli — View — Inscription the — — — over the Village Fountain Statue near the View over Villagers — — Government Police (Zaptieh) — Pambouk Khan Mosque — Greek Schools — Greek not spoken here quite lately — An Antique Statue from Cibyra (Horzoom) —How Sparta was Founded — Its Thriving Appearance — Mines in the District — Want of Roads — Railroad might easily be made — We are Summoned before the Governor — Greek Church — Good Houses— Pretty Situation of the Town — Im— of Sparta till Cemetery Yasakeui Rich Colour of Cliffs and Soil Buldour Khan Our Evening Environs of the Town Meal Tchartchin Guschla Volcanic Formation Rich Colour of Soil Yaila Yaraseen Road through Volcanic Hills to Sparta Plain in — Inscription Lake^Appearance of Country Beauty of Lake of Buldour Village of Yarakeui The — the — — — — — — — Lacina — — — — — —A — provement — in the Behaviour of the Turks to Christians Wealth of People Climate Crops Expense of Transport ^Instance A Railway Projected from Sparta to Adalia — — — — Bargaining of Orientals —Earthenware Plates IX. .

— CONTENTS. 177 CHAPTER XL Pass of Termessus Minor Steepness of the Road Ruins of Wheelmarks the Ancient City and Fort The Roman Road in the Pavement Ruins at the Foot of the Pass The Plain of Adalia Its insalubrity Emigration of its Inhabitants in Summer Village of Kovajik Our Bivouac Proper Diet for — — — — — — — a Traveller in these Warm Regions — Misery of the Villagers — Heat — Fleas — Mosquitos — Fever — Want of Water Fertility of the Soil — Superior Condition of the Pastoral Races in Anatolia — Value of Sheep sold in Smyrna by Yourouk Chief— Amount of Government Taxes — Aspect of the Plain of Adalia — Khan of Tchibouk Boghazi — Bridge over the Duden Soo (Catarractes) — Petrified Deposit on Surface of Plain — Ateran Cafe — Heat of Plain — Drunken Cafe — Lower Plateau on which Adalia stands Greek a at — — — — Appearance of Cliff —Deposit like that at Hierapolis— Cause . XI CHAPTER — X. Cemetery of Aghlasun Yourouk Tribe Emigrating Village of Assarkeui Ravine of Assarkeui Stupendous Precipices Romantic View of the Mount Taurus Range Primeval Forest We lose our way Thunderstorm Descent and Ascent through the Forest —Arrival at Girmeh (Kremna) Our Lodging and Host Magnificent View of the Valley of the Kestrus Ascent to the Old City Its Position Stupendous Precipices View from the Plateau Desolate Aspect of the Country Thick Forest Grand Mountain Ranges and their i'osition Depth of the Ravine through which we had come Zosimus' History of a Blockade of Kremna Round Temples— View of Davre Paved Area Site of Agora and Temple Vast Cisterns Fluted Columns Triumphal Arch Paved Street Second Paved Street Fortifications of Old City Seat Quarried in the Rock at Edge of Precipice Great Gateway Mausoleum Strabo's Notice of Kremna Captured by Amyntas Sandalion Kremna made a Roman Colony Road through the Forest Our Host His Opinion about our Journey to Boujak Exactions of Government Officials and Misery of Peasantry Plain of Boujak Native Carts Aspect of the Country Khan at Soosuz Cafe of Badem Aghadj — Suspicious Company Ravine Leading to the Pass of Termessus Minor — — — — — — — Page — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Great Number of Cemeteries — Cretopolis — Village of Beli .

. Collection of Antique Medals at Adalia Heat in the Plain Ignorance of the People concerning the Natural Features of their Country Kepez Cafe—Bed of Petrified Deposit Theory of its Formation Sarcophagi Uzumkoyou Cafe Ancient Well Ruins of Aarassus Deep Torrent Bed — — — — — — Almalu Pass — Gulelik Dagh — Hellenic Wall and Forts in the Pass —Yenijah Khan Cafe — Ascent to the Ruins of Termessus —Arrian's Account of the Old City — Position—Dense Vegetation — Ancient Paved Road — Two Ancient Guardhouses — First Wall — Enclosed Ravine leading up to the —Vast Number of Sarcophagi — Ruins — Spring— Second Wall across the Ravine — Another Spring — Ruins — Third WaU — Site of the City — Difficulty of Examining Ruins Fourth Wall — Deep Precipices round the Plateau — Paved Street — Agora — Cisterns — Ruins of other Buildings — Theatre — View from the City—Desolation of the Place — Thickets of Wild Roses — Water Supply the Khan — Alexander's Attack on Termessus — submits to Manlius — Strabo's Notice of —The Almalu Pass — Solar Heat — Yaila Head of Pass — Plain of Almalu — Appearance of Country— Torrent of Stenez — Descent into the Plain of Karditch — Great Extent of these Plains — Bivouac of the Villagers of Soosuz Its Cit}^ at It it at Misery of the Peasants . and Danger of Malarious Fever—We are unable to pass through the vSouth of Lycia Wall of Adalia ... — Catarractes Pasha's has flowed in Different Channels — Nedjib PAGE —Various Inscriptions — Gateway near the Port—Exports — Notices of Adalia — Attains Philadelphus — Louis VII. — Magnificent Ranges of Mountains opposite Adalia — Climax — Solyma — Bey Dagh — Takhtalu Dagh (Olympus) — Zenicetus the Cilician Pirate — Alexander's passage under Climax — Heat..— — xii CONTENTS.. Road Description of Adalia Old Fortifications Wreck of an Egyptian Frigate Marble Gateway in Port — — — — 200 CHAPTER XII.. XIII.. Its Sterility 220 CHAPTER Heat of the —Yaila —The Overshot Mill — Horses break down — Town of Almalu — Position — Mountains round — Description of Almalu — Khan Day— Cold of the Night on this Plateau Desolate Country — Plain of Almalu— it .

Makri.— CONTENTS. Deserted Village Polygonal Masonry Heavy Thunderstorm Lake Caralis Souood Gol Village of Souood The Stranger's Room Heavy Rainfall Severity of the Climate in Winter Keep Drainage of the Lake Fever for the Cattle in Winter 241 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . and Kalamaki This Band afterwards broken up Horse Dealing Cold and Rain Mount Massicytus (Ak Dagh) Deserted Village of Tchobansa Alarm of our Muleteer Description of the Country Yaila on the Mountains Kiziljah Dagh Rabat Dagh Douroular Curious Ancient Gateway and Yalinli. Rock to West of Lake Caralis — Rich Pastur—Baindir—The Caularis Amnis of Livy—Pastoral Beauty District — Heavy Rain —Plain in Front of Horzoom of Immense Expanse of Wheat — The River Dollomon — Position of Horzoom — The Stranger's Room — Our Host — The Mudir of Horzoom — Opinion of our Host about our Journey — His Domestic Arrangements — Polygamy—We Sup with Turca " — Visit to the Ruins of Cibyra — Poor our Host " Salary of the Mudir— Position of Cibyra — Stadium — Theatre — Odeum—Ancient Sculptures and Money found there age this alia — The Villagers had used up the Inscribed Stones Statue broken up by them in hope of finding Money inside it Strabo's Notice of Cibyra The Tctrapolis Military Strength of Cibyra Its Kings The Language of its People Its Chief Industry Polybius' Account of the King Moagetes and the Roman Consul Manlius Trade of Cibyra Ancient Coin Igneous District to North of Cibyra Yussuftcha Plain of Karajuk Violent Storm Difficulty of Advancing Halt at Bedrebey Miserable Condition of Villagers Seasonable Rains Heavy Taxation of Beautiful Evening —A — — — — — — — Villagers — Tobacco — — — — — — — — Regie at Constantinople — Women . CHAPTER District of Igneous XIV. Xlll PACK Account of Riot at Smyrna Prejudices of Greeks against Jews— Our Supper Osmanlis do not make good Cheese Cheapness of Living at Almalu Petmez Koshaff Tahilnn Yaourt Pilaff A Native Dinner Temperate Diet of the People The Bazaars of Almalu Costume Fine Physique of the People English and Turkish Crimean Medals Dress Descent Trade of the Place A Retail Tradesman Mosque of Omar Pasha Fine Spring Change of our Route Fortunate Escape in Consequence Brigands attack Leveesi.

the only us "Bucksheesh" —Turks respect — Cafe in Nazli— Mocha for this at of Coffee among the Turks Peasants as to their way of Living —Neglect tries — Reason — Lack of Gardens and Vegetables in the Interior of Domestic Matters — Decadence of these Coun—Their Flourishing State in former Ages — Population point — A Change Art — Luxury — Testimony of Livy on the better may be expected — Unpleasant Ride from Nazli to Aidin — Heat — Camels — Arum Dracunculus — Fertility of Maeander Valley — Might be much increased — Torrent Beds Kiouschk — Heat of Aidin — Khan — Antiquities Aidin Departure Smyrna — of our Interpreter — Brigandage District — Greek and Zeybek — Malaria in the Plain of Ephesus — Tourbali (Metropolis) — Heat of Smyrna — Garden of Cafe — Theatre — Hotel Miiller— Excavations this —Their wretched Dwellings — Carelessness of for at for Illness in this Italian Pergamus .— xiv CONTENTS... in the Dawas — Attack by Brigands on the Servants of a French Merchant — Sheikh's Tomb at foot of the Pass — Extreme Beauty of this Spot — Continued Descent from the Highlands — Change in the Season and in the appearance of the Country — Harvest — Aphrodisias Cafejis escort us through the Forest River-bed — Head-waters of the Harpasus — Springs — Return to the Tcham Beli Pass — The armed Descent into the Mosynus Valley Long Ascent to Kara Soo— Heat in the Valley of the Mosynus The Cafe at Ali Aga Tchiftlik Exhausted appearance of the People Site of Antiocheia ad Mseandrum— Change in the Springs owing to — — — — advance of Summer Bridge over the Maeander People who importuned superior to Arabs Coffee —Use —Ancient Wells —Vultures — Wooden —Tchingannis (Gipsies)... Anatolia as compared with Syria Life at 282 Difficulties of Travel in mans — Supplies — Tent — Climate— Malaria— Malarious — Drago- .... CHAPTER XVI... Unveiled— Bad Accommodation— Hadji Payam Evgarrah The Domou Pass over Boz Dagh Armed Zeybeks Grace and Agility of our Guide His Sandals Village of Kilidja Sebastopolis— Descent to Uzoumbounar Varieties of Marble and Lava Reception by the Villagers Difficulties of Travel Its Advantages in Anatolia 259 — — — PAGE — — — — — — CHAPTER Plain of XV.

but in others doubtful ..— — — CONTENTS... Old System of Provincial Government Its Abuses and Advantages The Vilayet System Provincial Medjlis Representation Provincial Government good in Theory Purchase of Offices Reason why Public Works are so Expensive in Turkey Instance Degrees of Offices in Provinces The Kadis Their Authority Declining Taxation of the Empire Taxes on Land The Dime Farmers of this Tax The Vergui Mortgages on Land in Turkey The Kharaj The Bedeliyeh Conscription Exemption of Christians from Serving in the — — — — — — — — — — — — . Colnaghi in Lycia in 1854 Excesses caused by Want and Desperation of Peasantry Our own Experience Lefteri. Districts XV — Lycaonia — Beauty of the Country Antiquities — Sporting— Game — The — Anecdote of a Panther— Forest —The Woodless District Destruction of Forests — Causes — Carelessness of Government and People — Brigandage — Present State of Country — Government tries to maintain Order — Diary of Mr. Viceroy of Egypt Treatment of Orientals by Europeans often Unjust Canal of Suez— Jealousy of European Corruption of the Administrations Employes Publicity stifled No Public Opinion Want of Education among the Turks Education among other Races of the Empire Ottoman Patriotism Rayah Patriotism Discordant Populations of the Empire The Ruling Race— Gradual Rise of the Christian Populations Comparison of Osmanli with European His good Qualities Often deteriorated by contact with Europeans Disadvantages of Agricultural Population Heavy Military Expenditure Provinces sacrificed to Constantinople Want of Labour and Capital European Improvements a doubtful Benefit to People without a Reform of Government Apparently Defenceless State of Constantinople — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Fleet — Comparison of Turkey with Russia — Conquest of Turkey by Russia dangerous to Europe — Concessions made the greatest danger to Ottoman Empire to Russia —What — Population of Turkey — Polygamy — Plague — Cholera Causes of Decline in Population — Decline in some Districts is undoubted .. — — 299 CHAPTER — — — — XVII. the Brigand of — Mountains Tiger — Lion — Panther PAGE — — Bithynia — Feeling of People towards Europeans — Sentiments — — of Turks of higher Rank Change since Crimean War Resources of Empire can only be developed by European Help Turkish Distrust of Europeans Anecdote of Abbas Pasha.

. — Ottoman Law— and the sources whence was derived D.. — March of the Consul Manlius against the Gaulish Tribes of A. B.. — The Famine of 1874 i^ Asia Minor G. . — Cilician Piracy and suppression by the Romans F.. .. Army Their Dishonesty Money-lenders Government Agricultural Banks Their Failure Difficulties — Professional — PAGE of Agriculture in Turkey Impartiality of the Government in Matters of Religion Religious Bigotry generally Diminishing Syria and Ibrahim Pasha Conversion of Mohammedans — — — — — not to be Lightly Expected Different — — Difficulties of in the vi^ay of it Religious of El Ideas Muslim and Christian Simplicity Islam— Its Inferiority to Christianity — Engrafted on Mohammedanism Muslim has generally come in contact with a less pure form of Christianity Morals of Europeans Growing Tolerance of Muslemin Education of their Children American Schools in Egypt Sdperscitions — — — Prospects of the Conversion of tianity Mohammedans to Chris- 323 APPENDIX.. • • 349 352 353 356 358 it . . 359 361 364 Routes Time Table General Route • 370 371 373 . . Asia Minor — The Lycian Confederation E.. — Mithridatic War and Massacre of Romans in Asia Minor 347 —History of Aphrodisias 348 C. .... —The Pastoral Races of Asia Minor — Locusts in some Provinces of the Ottoman Empire —The Mountain System of Lycia K... .— Xvi CONTENTS. its . H. I. ...

. ../* 108^ ? 115 —The Thermae . . . . Ruins of a large Christian Church. . . . . . 107.. .32—' Plan of Ephesus Laodicea Remains of the Gymnasium. Supposed Hierapolis site — ' .1 10-^ . from Mount Gallesion in the distance the Stadium of . 115— . . ..W. . . XVU GRAPHIC. .. . 41 f Specimen of the Section of Chalk Cliffs in the Valley of the Mosynus Sections of the Ascent from the bed of the 70 — "" Mosynus . Style of Tombstones at Colossoe . PAGE 17 View from Caravan Bridge and Part of the Great Cemetery. Aiasolouk. .. . . AND HELIOTYPE.. 103— lod /^ The Theatre at Hierapolis View from the Theatre. . at Hierapolis. The Theatre 346 feet in . LIST OF MAPS. .10—1 . . or Terraces in the — . .. . 29 The Mosque of Sultan Selim.. . . . Hierapolis . and the Petrified Aqueducts on the right 37 '^'^ — Laodicea — General View over the Stadium Mosque of Aiasolouk. . Prion and Coressus in the . . 39"^^ Ephe. Hierapolis.. The Castle and sus. Hierapolis (large) . of Kara Soo.. of the Plutonium. —p f distance. . . . Cairn or Barrow at Colossae Sarcophagus Sagalassus at Eski Yerrah. Hierapolis .. and the Plain of the Cayster. ..... Aiasolouk. diameter . showing the Excavations on the Site of the Temple of Diana.— —^ / CONTENTS.. near Buldour .. . . 72 74 — — (^ 91-^ ^ Hierapolis in Phrygia and the Petrified Cascade Distant View Water Vessels of the Cascade. . . Distant View of the Bay and City of Smyrna . 100--/ made of a section of Pine Tree . of the Stadium.116 144158 161 — Rock Tomb Inscription at Sagalassus . . . . . . . looking S. LITHOAND WOODCUT ILLUSTRATIONS. . . 99 loi- . —I . . to the Town . General Map and Detailed Map of the Author's Journey Facing the Title Page. Smyrna the Castle Hill. PLANS. 30 .. . from the East. and of the Grassy Slopes Mosynus Valley The Temple of Venus at Aphrodisias (Geera) Hierapolis General View .. ..

. . ... . . Specimen of Hexagonal Columns and Plinths 165^ 165 Curious Architectural Stone at Sagalassus Stones of the Arches of the Ruined Theatre at Sagalassus . ... 196 201 — 215-^ . ..... Sagalassus . .223^ 225 -^ 227 228 '^ Theatre at Termessus.. . .... PAGE at Sagalassu^. at Sagalassus . FAC-SIMILES OF ANCIENT INSCRIPTIONS.. 167 Ornaments on many of the Pedestals....Xviii CONTENTS. .. 208 feet in diameter Theatre of Cibyra diameter 266 feet .. the ancient Termessus Marbles in the Gate of the Port of Adalia Sarcophagus at Ariassus Ancient Gateway in the Village of Yalinli Greek Shields carved upon the Sarcophagi Spring with pointed Recesses.. . ... Boujak Gulelook Dagh.. Ravine .. .. .. .. .... . . . and Cart-wheel of Solid .. . Rock with round PlanofKremna Plateau of projecting Buttresses in the Assarkeui Diagram of the bearings of the Ranges of Mountains seen from the Kremna Gatewa) of Kremna Ploughs. . &c. .231 272 273 — The Stadium of Cibyra. at .. ... and an Iron Tire . 169 178^^ 183^' 186 192-^ Wood . .. . . .. . . .. Termessus ..

save an occasional purchase of the Khedive's sugar. passes the summer in the cooler and healthier climate of Europe.— ANATOLICA. The annual emigration of Europeans from Egypt had begun for when once the cotton season is . the i6th of April. little business remains to be transacted. — — — — — — — — — — — — — Mount Pagus — Interior of the City— Its Climate and Health Heat —The Imbat —Land Breeze — Position of Smyrna —Water Supply — Octroi — Exports — Figs and Raisins — Cemetery at Caravan Bridge — The Meles — Diana's Bath — Boumabat — Its Gardens — Sunset in the Plain—Boujah — Camellias at Boumabat —A Greek Dragoman. by the Austrian Lloyd's steamer Trehisonda. . I left board the Austrian Lloyd's Steamer Deck Passengers Negro Slavery in Egypt The Sporades Want of Wood Slaves Sponge Fishery Leros Samos Scio Mastic The Gulf of Smyrna Sanjak Kalesy Distant View of Smyrna Fortress on On Alexandria for Smyrna. 1872. The ship was crowded. or speculations in the Egyptian funds. so that I had some difficulty in obtaining a berth. CHAPTER On I. and every one who is able to leave. past.

or amicably feeding in small family parties.2 ANATOLICA. but I was the only English passenger. salt cheese. were a few Russians. cr canvas. have ever heard. would be for a moment but during nearly the . cumbered the deck. and a portion of the deck is always arranged for their accommodation. yaourt. calico. from the interstices of which one could catch at times the flash of a pair of dark eyes. Persian." they could not have veiled their charms more carefully from the profane gaze. where on outspread carpets and " lahafs " they calmly squatted. sardines. &c. Maltese. Some of the more fortunate had already secured snug corners. strug- gling crowd — Greek. over and around surged a vociferating. the Orientals are usually deck passengers. the beauty of even of the highest rank. Turk. In order to spare expense. transcendent . black olives. Syrian. from copper bowls full of eternal coffee salad. by tying up pieces of chintz. bound there either to the islands or to Constantinople . From all I Eastern ladies. or a hand of a put forth waxen and unhealthy tint. is not but had the native ladies who were passengers on board the Trehisonda been beautiful as " houris. gesticulating. discussing the and tchibouque. &c. Armenian. . Each family had rigged up a kind of extemporaneous tent. of the most nondescript : character. Circassian. Arab. The scene on board was amusing a mountain of baggage. Jew. Most of the passengers were Greeks. this.

indeed. have no scruple in purare Christians.ANATOLICA. some twenty black female slaves were taken from our ship by the police authorities. their many of whom had purchased. family which able to . Whether this would improve the condition of the slaves themselves is very doubtful —probably . seldom quitting their position. on passage through Egypt. at the when afterwards I reached Constantinople end of May. . We had on board a number of pilgrims returning from Mecca. and deprive them of their unlawful possessions and. I know not how it may in is Ottoman Empire. negro slaves. and that on their arrival the police would be waiting to arrest them. keeps one or more black slaves even the Copts and and many of the Greeks and Levantines. a negro female ser^'-ant may be readily purchased for from £20 to ^30. is The traffic now somewhat discouraged and obliged to be still carried on in secret. both I was told at Smyrna that information of this fact had been sent on by telegraph to Constantinople. B 2 . for them would be only a change of masters nor can much be expected from a few spasmodic it attempts while it to is stop the slave trade at one port. but Egypt every Mohamafford it medan Syrians. male and female. who chasing negresses for domestic service. perfectly legal and unfettered through be in other parts of the out the Empire in general. 3 whole voyage the women sat or slept with exemplary patience.

It would be far more difficult to prevent the sale of white slaves. and the brutalities of the " jellabs " (dealers) quite overpower any con- and now that the conscience of civilised Europe is aroused. by the Nile. and the Egyptian Government. could easily effect thus much. but the atrocities of the slave-hunts in Central Africa. were rigorously interdicted. and the sale of a slave except from poverty on one side.4 It is ANATOLICA. But it is difficult The custom feeling of the country. with the domestic affairs of their upon which perhaps neither the Sultan . say. will be the suppression of the slave Persian Gulf. uphold domestic slavery. true that invariably domestic slaves are very kindly treated. and by the ports of the Red Sea. slavery would in time come to an end of itself. we may hope that soon this iniquitous traffic will be no longer tolerated. I must. as this would necessitate an interference subjects. however sale effect. and the reli- gious of the if Muslim. if sincerely desirous of doing so. Once in the hands of a master. trade in the Red Sea and In justice to the Egyptian authorities. their lot is certainly tolerable enough. is considered a disgrace to the owner. or bad conduct on the other. Perhaps amongst other eventual benefits to which the Canal of Suez w^ill powerfully siderations of this nature . that they are trying to put down the to of slaves gradually. contribute. Yet the importation of black slaves from the Soudan.

the richer " fellahs " (native cultivators) began to venture upon the luxury of Circassian slave-wives but it was regarded with the utmost disfavour by the Turkish authorities. I do not think that this would be tolerated at the present time. and the native crier walking up and down with them. Our deck passengers did not settle down in . The expulsion of the Circassians from the Caucasus districts in 1863-4 gave an immense impulse to this traffic. 5 nor the Khedive could venture. and soliciting purchasers. sharply reproved for his presumption. two young Circassian children openly exposed for sale in the Great Square at Alexandria. in 1864. even supposing them willing to attempt it. So long this. and many were purchased by Turks and Egyptians really more from charity than any other motive. as of for. when Egypt was gorged with gold. and deprived of a white slave-girl whom he had purchased. a reform of is many other abuses. the "Mudir" (governor) of the province.ANATOLICA. as the present state of Government and not to be looked Society endures at Constantinople. and I heard of one instance where a very wealthy Egyptian " fellah " was summoned before . During the cotton crisis of 1862-6. I recollect seeing. for numbers of that unfortunate people were obliged to sell their children to save them from dying of absolute starvation.

either the mainland or some of the islands. the breeze freshened. to outline of Episcopi all (Telos) is very sterile Though are savage and look on. many the disputes. all the way to Smyrna. and we had a rough sea with concomitants. or ash grey. all its unpleasant Next day the high mountains of Crete appeared. . of various A few patches of scrub-oak. them the remarkable. far away on our left. so he managed to arrange the motley crowd He was a veritable ! . either by force of tongue or of arm. in colour of a faint shades. they contain fertile valleys. like a faint cloud upon the sea. mostly Trachytic. and land always in sight.6 ANATOLICA. Henceforward we had a smooth sea. and scattered pines. over which sparse olive groves throw a greenish tint. who kind of quartermaster-general. and on the morning of the i8th we were amongst the group of islands near Rhodes. is Their formation red. and walking polyglot gradually. - their places without the arbiter of their quarrels was a to good-humoured acted as a Greek belonging ship. everybody had recovered his good humour. . precipitous bare and lofty and generally with peaks of fantastic form amongst cliffs. in abrupt. stout. that by the time we had lost sight of the low sand-hills of Egypt. Gradually as night drew on. The latter are all volcanic rising from the sea .

but covered with a tough and shiny black skin. Syria. But the ravages of the Greek coal. unknown charcoal. in a . under which is an offensive white liquid. cup-like shape. although thirty or forty years ago 7 are the only forest trees to be found in them. pursue this branch of industry some of the more enterprising even go as far as the coasts of Crete. and Barbary. the springs and rivulets are fast drying up. The sponge grows from the rock. soap.ANATOLICA. in Europe). Syme (which we saw But all the islanders. and their people are very skilful divers. far sponges. . and I heard at Smyrna anecdotes of the difficulty and hardship endured by the divers in bringing them up from this great depth. many of them were covered with magnificent forests. so that soon many districts in them will become absolutely barren. The best qualities grow at a depth of thirty fathoms. for want of water. rounded. and on our right) and Calymnos are the islands which produce most sponges. more or less. wine (some of exquisite quality and . which must be squeezed out to prepare the sponge for market. Their principal products are oil. War of Indepen- dence. fruits. their climate is remarkably healthy. Attempts have been made to . the constant export of firewood and char- and the careless improvidence of people and Government alike. raki. Although hot in summer. have destroyed the wood in nearly all of them and in consequence.

use the diving-bell in the deep-sea sponge-fishery. we passed Patmos on its eastern side. Our vessel glided past the long low island of Stanchio (Cos) behind it rose the high mountains . and are sometimes drawn up insensible. on the mainland. and at about 3 P. and stayed for about an hour in the little bay of Klidhi. the pressure upon the heart and lungs being dangerous to life. or with the blood oozing from nose or mouth skilful divers will make from eight to ten . the deep-sea diving becomes too severe for them. the water close to the land is town of Klidhi appeared to be clean.. descents per day.M. but after they have reached the age of thirty-five or forty years. heavy weight quickly . The channel between the two islands is narrow and fiiU ot islets. but as in all these volcanic formations. we passed between Leros and Calymnos. and there were many good houses on the heights little The round the bay. above Boudroum (Halicarnassus) and there being passengers for Leros. . 8 ANATOLICA. in order to sink they remain from one to two minutes under water. in their hands. coasting along it near enough to distinguish the few scattered cottages upon the cliffs on this . The divers take a but without much success. and as we passed between one of these and Calymnos. reached Samos. it seemed but a stone's throw from the deck to either side of great depth. After leaving Leros.

hard bargains with the April 19th. and nothing could be seen except the lights on shore. We reached Scio (Chios) late at night. are great lovers of to fetch a this The gum seemed high price. but I noticed that our Greek passengers drove very seller. . 9 remote side of the island. but it chiefly used to give flavour to raki. and knitted stockings. for Scio is a very favourite residence of the Greeks from Egypt. and the deep rugged ravines by which the surface of the land is seamed.ANATOLICA. spirit. attribute is many curious properties to it. and Scio produces the best quality Oriental ladies are very fond of chewing it. This gum is obtained by puncturing the stem of a species of lentisk which grows the here.'' and after preparation known by the name of mastic. many of the leading Greek merchants of Alexandria being About midnight lighters came alongside bringing barrels of fruit (oranges and natives of the place. Many Samos appears richer . lemons) for Odessa . came on board. and behind them on the mainland we could distinguish the famous chain of Mycale. The natives. On every side . — Soon after daybreak the steamer entered the estuary of Smyrna. sweetmeats. a spirit from grape " must. both distilled Christian and Muslim. also sundry vendors of hand- and gum mastic. and better wooded than any of the islands we had yet seen a lofty ridge of mountains rises in the middle of the island. of our passengers landed here.

The Two and almost Brothers " (Mount between its All along the south side of the estuary." " the crown of Ionia. as a defence. . owing to the encroachment of the river shallows. and on the south side of the estuary. called " Corax). deadly malarious fevers prevail in shore of the estuary is flat (evidently The northern formed by the alluvium of the Hermus. it is contemptible. and the hills lie much farther back from the The water is everywhere turbid and full of especially opposite mouth of the river but although centuries back it was predicted that Smyrna would experience the same fate as Ephesus. After passing this point we had our first view of Smyrna " the lovely. built in 1656 to defend the city from the attacks of the Venetians.10 ANATOLIC A. at certain seasons (especially in autumn) the most it. deposited in the course of ages). On our except the west were ranges of mountains. this result seems as far off" as ever." " the ornament of Asia. but. the deposits. and that its harbour would become an inland lake." rising from the water's edge . stands upon a low spit of land projecting into the sea. right rose two peaks of beautiful outline exactly alike. who had just destroyed It the Turkish fleet in the Hellespont. is the fort Sanjak Kalesy. extended the range of Mount Pagus base and the sea was a level tract beautifully cultivated. and full of villages and country houses but . I was told that beautiful as this district appeared. About half an hour's steaming from Smyrna. sea.

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backed by mountains not high. rising gradually to the acclivities of hill. dark broad patches of green mark the burial-places of the city. but exquisite in colour and in shape on the north. and interspersed with gardens and trees many a . They are the groves of cypress trees with which the Muslim loves to plant his cemeteries. Founded by Alexander's greatest captains. finally now. Turk. . and which are as though not so extensive. till and Christian ruinous. dismantled and abandoned. crowning the summit of the rounded volcanic hill. city 1 towards the ridge of Pagus at the back of the most picturesque and beautiful was the harbour crowded with ships and the scene steamers of all nations (conspicuous among them the Austrian ironclad Ltssa]. Conspicuous miles away. white minaret and cupola towering above the low Behind and above all. : The head . with many a brilliantly painted cafe projecting into the sea . stands the old fort with its square towers and battlemented walls. fine. Manisa Dagh (Sipylus) on the south. Antigonus and Lysimachus. also. the Castle the Turkish town with its quaint wooden houses painted in the brightest colours. on then. ANATOLICA. and : then the line of the Frank piles city. it hosts. as those of Conof the estuary is stantinople. it has stood dwelling houses.1 . innumerable sailing boats and caiques darting across the blue water . the brunt of many is a siege from Byzantine.

that the British Consulate had recently been treatment that trabeen. a little " bucksheesh helps matters amazingly and I afterwards heard . It is immeasurably inferior to Alexandria . —the great staple of Smyrna I —had nearly ceased for the season. is My porter led me to is not rich in hotels. Nif In these ranges are two openings. as " everywhere else in the East. but the rooms inferior. Through the latter passes the Smyrna and Aidin Railway. and there is not Smyrna much choice. one due east leading to the plain ot Nymphi. the other to the south-east leading to Boujah and Sedikeui. conspicuous among them the dark towering cypresses and luxuriant gardens of Bour- The vessels in number to those but the export of port seemed very far inferior in in fruit the harbour of Alexandria. the table is good. However and it may have was treated very civilly. my baggage the Hotel not even examined. d' Europe. Round the head of the bay are scattered the trees and country houses of Cordelio. This hotel tolerable. nabat. Dah (Olympus). found the Custom-house people very civil of course here.12 ANATOLIC A. and due east across the rich plain may be perceived the village retreats of the Smyrniots. However beautiful may be the appearance of Smyrna from the sea. . I obliged to complain of the vellers sometimes received from the Custom-house officers. the illusion disappears on landing.

decomposing water. is somewhat has been built within the still last twenty-five years such is the general character of the town and even in the east end. angular stones. ! . or sewer. not of the nineteenth century eastern quarter of the town for it . open ditches. full of stagnant. by French "concessionaires. paved with uneven. exhaling the most pestiferous odours — no gas-lamps. sufficient to account for any amount or intensity of fever A large quay is being constructed along the sea front of this part of the town. trudge on their if heedless path — Smyrna is evidently a city of the ! seventeenth. as a city. few above two stories high. burdens — long strings of under laden camels. he would escape being crushed. Its streets 13 —or rather lanes—narrow and and ankles after half without side-walks. and yet more stolid drivers. near the Aidin Railway Station.— ANATOLIC A. and the upper story mostly of wood on account of earthquakes down the middle of almost every street an open gutter. excruciating to feet an hour's walk over them — its houses old and mean. obliging the stranger to be on the alert. The better. as the stolid brutes. joints of made to dislocate the an unlucky passenger. and so cumbrous that the narrow streets will not allow two of them abreast to pass unconscionable —porters staggering along. except a dozen or so of antiquated coaches. I noticed a whole quarter of the town intersected by fetid. no conveyances.'' and a considerable space of ground will .

whenever this giving wind drops for any length of time. the deadliest malady of the Levant. "to her faults. and if the drainage be yet further disarranged the consequences may be most dis! astrous ! Perhaps those who gave me the information were like the lover with his mistress. or even higher. in the summer life- perfectly pestilential indeed. and to Add when to all this. at intervals from May September " Oh. leaving the authorities to do the rest. Smyrna would be . a perfect stagnation of the air (Ipt/Saivo." but " very blind." Quite true ! were not for the westerly breeze which sweeps up the gulf nearly every day during the hot months." ceases to blow. this . But since that time the concessionaires have made openings for the drains through the quay. the so-called . work but I was told that in consequence of some misunderstanding with the authorities. Yet the sanitary state of Smyrna is said to be good To judge from the evil odours of the place. " but when the Imbat it is blows.! 14 ANATOLIC A.) the " Imbat " then a heat in the shade of 90 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit. and is succeeded by the land breeze from the cool high lands of the interior almost every night. If it very pleasant." not " a little." said the Smyrniots. no provision had been then made be reclaimed by to carry the drains of the city out into the sea. I cannot imagine how this can be.

I was told that the octroi duty in Smyrna amounts . . here the European residents used to assemble every evening to eat and drink beer. having most of streets at right angles to the sea breeze. The whole geological formation is volcanic. The water supply of the town is excellent. and amusement. the audience fully appreciated them numbers of . ladies attended . Even the most necessary public works are neglected in Anatolia one may say that the Government does literally nothing for the public good. indeed. owing unfortunate position of the city lofty hemmed on every side by its it mountain ranges. which have suc- ceeded here admirably. these cool breezes to the in is to Yet the advantage of a great extent lost. and that of excellent quality. and the single open spot we could find along the beach was the garden of a cafe near our hotel ices . and which are very numerous. one could find no other spot in which to enjoy a breath of fresh air. from the aqueducts behind the Castle partly from artesian wells. and there appears to be an immense reservoir of water. so that cannot enter them Smyrna has no public promenade. short of taking the rail- way Boujah or Bourn abat. at no great depth below the surface. and directly. nature in part prevents the sad effects of man's neglect and shortcomings.ANATOLIC A. " pernicious fever/' 15 for. may be looked Happily. An Italian theatre supplied The actors were really good. It to arises partly hill.

more than . then slightly in by hand. the rule of thumb prevails The finest figs and raisins are brought from the district near Aidin. Whether any account is taken of the way in which this great revenue is expended to I cannot tell — it simply disappears without result.^ 5 0. was the information I received.000 per annum. The exports of Smyrna. cotton. as in most other matters in this blest land. with a small quantity of tions). the good for ten or twelve months.6 ! 1 ANATOLIC A. and that out of this immense sum little or nothing is spent for the benefit of the town. The figs are simply allowed to remain on the tree until they fall . of obtaining an accurate calculation. Mats are placed allowed to dry a flattened to catch them they are then little on the mats. The wood ashes being astringent. oil mixed with it (I forget the propor- The clusters are then dried on mats. and packed boxes for ex- portation. the oil keeps out the air in a measure. of themselves. . may amount to between four and the value of the five millions of pounds sterling imports is nearly as much but there are no means Such. cause the skin of the grape to shrivel up slightly. consisting chiefly of dry fruits. opium. In this. madder root. at least. Raisins thus prepared remain If kept longer. then carefully plucked. and carpets of excellent quality. and dipped in a ley made of water and the ashes of vine wood. — . Grapes are allowed to ripen thoroughly.

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but w^orthy representatives of the old stock yet remain in The days of the great and the trade of Smyrna Smyrna. The railway to Bournabat only. the handsome. is no longer so exclusively in the hands of our countrymen as in time past (wider and richer fields having opened to British enterprise). pulp turns wholly or in part into candy . it crosses the Meles near Caravan Bridge. heard several most . After traversing the suburbs and gardens of the town. the country round it is a very terrestrial paradise. Accordingly I accompanied him on the evening of April 19th. de C. who most kindly invited me to visit him at his country-house in Bournabat. Levant Company are over. amusing anecdotes concerning this but I apprehend it is the same all over the Turkish Empire. and the traditional hospitality its residents is worthily sustained by the present generation. Amongst my introductions. I had a letter to Mr.ANATOLIC A. But with all its natural advantages the country it cannot prosper as should. is a short line of six or seven miles well carriages excellent. owing I to the extreme corruption of the authorities. however unpleasant as a residence Smyrna itself at times of may be. 17 some of the clusters attain to a very great size and weight. a vast grove of old cypress this spot. a solemn shadow over willingly disturb their The Turks never . the stations managed. But. Here is the great Turkish cemetery trees flings .

8 1 ANATOLIC A. A deep and slowly flowing brook forms the marsh. there. is called by the Smyrniots " Diana's Bath. many semi-tropical clime. nor will they bury twice over in the same ground. as cemeteries. I noticed the alder. willow. smothered in the tenacious mud. . Especially is this the case in the valley of the Maeander. who had entered it to shoot ducks. Its source. miserably perished. and many English trees thrive in this fertile district. pear. Beyond the Cemetery the line passes through a marshy tract. full of tall canes. and they always plant trees round the graves of their friends. and blackberry. apple. one may see in them trees growing as nature permits. The olive trees . and the floods of the past winter had carried away a large portion of the wall that faces the stream but even thus early in the summer it was but a muddy. which is a warm spring under the hills to the right. and here the trains always go slowly. The marsh. The Meles flows in a deep bed along the edge of the Cemetery. There. is dangerous not long before my arrival a gentleman of Smyrna. The plain through which we passed was in splendid cultivation. but owing to malaria few country houses are built I had no opportunity of visiting it. the cemeteries in Anatolia are very beautiful and picturesque." The soil round this source is fertile. which seems to yield the products both of a temperate and of a centuries old . scanty brook.

. and set upon a ground of greenest turf for the sun has not yet scorched up the spring herbage they display the tints of those brilliantly varied carpets which the Oriental workman weaves in such perfection. The orange groves are very gardens of the Hesperides country houses . Arrived at the terminus. 19 but . consisting mostly of . ANATOLIC A. hangs on the same tree side by side with the blossoms and green oranges of the present season everything was bursting into bloom the air was laden with fragrance. — — is a large.. c 2 . now of the most resplendent scarlet. in a tapering pyramid of dark green foliage. Amongst the many beautiful gardens that I saw was one that had belonged to the late Mr. abundant streams of water flow down every road but the great beauty of Bournabat is its verdure. where I was introduced to his family. From this deep and well watered soil the cypress towers to an astonishing height. most remarkable was the colour of the poppies seen in masses they appeared now of the deepest crimson. Mixed with the rich blue and yellow of other flowers. ripe golden fruit . straggling place. were extremely fine. Whittal. in which the scent of white acacia and orange blossom was predominant. a few minutes' walk brought us to my friend's hospitable house. The gardens. mostly enclosed by high walls. are full of magnificent trees. and after a short Bournabat rest we walked out to see the village.

The Sultan when he came to Smyrna paid a . especially during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. an old resident of Smyrna. The last house we visited was that of the Misses W. or the dreary sand-dunes of Alexandria. and . which had built their nests in every corner of the portico terrace.. a British subject. as day began to wane. and expressed great admiration but of it. beautiful and up exquisite taste while. in which he at takes great interest. is rich in rare plants and in but it has not been laid out is many fitted years. tame expanse of the Delta.20 ANATOLICA. Certainly the trees are very beautiful can so much water and vegetation be good for health in this southern climate ? Yet the residents Bournabat make no complaint on that point. The next garden I saw was that of Mr. I had no opportunity for further examination. of which one very interesting portion all a collection the travels made in the Levant. trees. His house Levant. showed me several very rare was about to and valuable books but as he leave next day for Europe. He received us most courteously. His garden. The . Here I was amused at the number and tameness of the swallows. but speaking only French. visit to this place. he of very . a rare occurrence in the magnificent is possesses a library. and covered And now. E. a prospect opened enchanting to eyes that had for years gazed only on the flat.

towards the west. We agreed to make the expedition together. and night. The distant city. amid orange and of Bounarbashi. Seiif. with its mass of shipping. Such was my first evening in this lovely land to April 2oth.— Returned to town and called upon the gentlemen Miiller's who were I Hotel form our party. opposite spread the dense groves which mark the Springs and the port. plain.! ANATOLICA. all blue and silver in the clear evening air. In the afternoon I paid a visit to Boujah. but hitherto had been unable to find any one who could accompany him. the cool land breeze began to sigh amidst the waving branches. faint green. as evening still drew on. the stars struggled forth. lay below. and I was most fortunate in finding so pleasant a companion. and grey prevailed till. the colours and mountains gradually altered the bright gold on the ridges of Sipylus and Olympus changed to the tenderest rose-tint. fullest purple then. who. like diamonds set in ultramarine. like myself. tilled 21 like a garden. At found a gentleman of Dresden. — veiled earth's beauties from our gaze. to be succeeded shortly by the deepest. one by one.'' of the plain : . "quae colores abstrahit rebus. and beyond them the graceful mountains on the southern edge of the gulf. was desirous of making a more extensive journey into the interior. Then as the sun declined. could be just distinguished. crimson-burnished clouds. Mr. This .

22 ANATOLICA. The house he occupied is shown. a Greek of Smyrna. Whittal but owing to the heat the con- gregation was not numerous. They were from eight to twelve feet in height. I sent friend at Aidin. but I could not help laughing when he seriously told me that left an armed escort when we we should " require Aidin. came to offer his services. the ! beauty and variety of which were truly admirable They had been purchased General of France. planted in large tubs. I called upon the missionaries of the healthier." Even had . — In the village late is a pretty . little chapel. Later in the day. In a greenhouse belonging to one of the British merchants (Mr. It was in this village that Lord Byron stayed whilst visiting Smyrna. higher in position. I spent the day with my kind friends at Bournabat.) there was a number of the finest camellias I ever saw. village has not the beautiful gardens of Bournabat. the sun extremely powerful. P. (literally) and covered with hundreds of flowers. for of the late Consul- — Engaged in making preparations a telegram to our a start next day. begging him to find us an interpreter. who had come out their to summer quarters. who spoke Italian and Turkish. April 22nd. built by the Mr. and. April 2 1 St. I should imagine. and in about an hour and a half he replied that he had found one. and not a breath of wind. A very hot and oppressive day. but it is Church Missionary Society.

Here we met to make the final arrangements. we vation would have decided 23 not already engaged an interpreter. and my time so to start fully occupied. and I myself too fatigued. that I was unable to visit the objects of interest in the neighbourhood. Mr. this obser- me against engaging him.ANATOLICA. . so as to visit the ruins of Ephesus. many and when we returned from the interior the heat was too great. My stay at Smyrna was so brief. and our friends were to join us at Aiasolouk on the day after. S. There is a very good German "Bier-haus'* (Lohmann's) on the Marina. for sight seeing. and myself agreed on the morrow.

The deep ravine through which the stream runs is spanned by two fine aqueducts. near the Great Cemetery. Smyrna and Aidin Railway Aqueducts behind the Castle Hill Plain of Boujah Caravans— Plains of Anatolia Malarious Fever Cholera Yourouk Shepherds Kedji Kalesy The Cayster Manouli Aiasolouk Gateway Mosque Greek Brigands Aqueduct Storks Changes in the Formation of the Plain of Ephesus Instance from Pliny Port of the Great Temple Changes in the Position of the Old City Hill of Prion Street of Tombs Wild Fennel Magnesian Gate Thermae Odeum Theatre Port of the City of Ephesus — Earthquake in the Reign of Tiberius Great Gymnasium Walls of the City and along the Ridge of Coressus Monolithic Basin Stadium Site of the Temple of Diana Its Double Pavement Pausanias' Account of the Worship of Artemis Changes in Name and Position of Ephesus— Great Quantity of Alluvium deposited by the Cayster Harbour of the Old City ruined. . both apparently in ruin.— CHAPTER — — — — — — — — — II. * I by the Grand Vizier. the City Wall and the Theatre (the scene of Polycarp's martyrdom) were demolished. —We left Smyrna for Aiasolouk. It crosses where. the Meles through some deep cuttings in the volcanic rock. together with the Bazaars and various other public buildings. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — April 23rd. It was built in 1674-5. Ahmet Kiuprili. To supply materials for these works. The railway passes round the base of Mount Pagus. The lower is one of the very few public works constructed by the Turks. Chandler's am told that both are still serviceable. overshadowed by gloomy cypresses.* although at the time of Dr. and enters the plain of Boujah. sleep generations of Muslim dead.

. part under culture. and its water. better adapted for the passage of mountains than the Egyptian camel. which cause great damage. succeed each other. hardly deserves the praise Pausanias bestows upon it. on every side rise steep and lofty ranges of mountains. a finely-wooded mountain range. begins to soil is which is only in open. almost up village of Sedikeui. is the large Smyrniots possess. is subject in winter to sudden inundations. till in the extreme distance all blends together in the blue hazy into far-away and the plain runs up atmosphere.ANATOLICA. of Devlikeui. we were opposite At the village Alaman Dagh (Mount Galesion). slopes of the hills are grey with olive groves. Here the fertile. nooks and corners amidst them. dried in The Meles. hair He is larger. They moved slowly along in single often 200 to 300 (or more) in number. and each sub-division of these large caravans was headed by a donkey. muddy and unwholesome. of being the finest stream the Beyond Boujah. and has long bushy down the front of the throat. The camel ot Anatolia is a cross from the Bactrian breed. summer. visit in 25 1764 the lower of the two supplied Smyrna with water. tracts of marsh land covered The with rank vegetation. evidently very broad fields of wheat. with a magnificent grove of cypresses near it. Long on their trains of laden camels passed continually way towards Smyrna. plain. and its dark red Patches of vineyard. file.

. was a large pond. over which passed the old caravan road. colour of the flowers is most brilliant. not half of the land is cultivated. It was always most virulent . groves of fine oak and ash cover the plain. Already the heat is intense. this rich district might become. such as no doubt it once was. The plains in this part of Anatolia seem. malarious fever was very prevalent in that neighbourhood. under better auspices. to have formed the bottoms of lakes for many miles together they are perfectly level. owing to the great spread of cultivation. at some remote age. Near Tourbali. but that it had now much diminished. He told us that thirteen or fourteen years before. mixed with Indeed. and the plain being quite bare of trees. covered with tall flags. and there is a beautiful view of the western portion of Mount Messogis. everywhere the bright yellow flowers. railway entered our carriage. the flocks were lying under the shelter of huge sheds in one of these hung the shepherd's rough felt overcoat (kepen^k). the station for Baindir. 26 ANATOLICA. thick as a board and proof against wind and weather. as it Though their soil had been deposited gradually. a perfect garden. tor instance. from Smyrna to Aidin. that presented a mass of the richest yellow. and the mountains rise abruptly from them. At Khias. and here the plain was covered with patches of poppies of the most brilliant crimson. Here one of the Englishmen employed on the .

had not prevented the spread of the if had been discovered here. several feet underground. cholera had appeared in 1866 and had proved most fatal.400 feet above the sea level assigned for the appearance of the epidemic village . residing at Azizieh. The . was not usually very have heard a (Upon this point. who were a temperate race. No local reason could be 1. It is true many of them were not of sober habits. but though weakfatal. and both air and water seemed perfectly pure but a case of contagion was established. the was clean. the houses well kept and not crowded. when land was ening. may have been an Smyrna flocks inn or a guard-house on the road between and Ephesus. ANATOLIC A. I different opinion. had bought in Scala Nova the coat of a man who had died of cholera on his return home he also sickened and died. but he could not say if the latter had been saved. with a fine gateway. over which was a long Greek inscripThis tion in perfect preservation. a place some and very healthy. where he lived.. A Turk. On all sides were large herds of cattle and . it 27 first ploughed up. he said that while engaged in making a cutting near Tourbali he had found a our inquiring On any antiquities large building.) At the Azizieh station. however. Aga of Azizieh caused the man's clothing to be burnt. Eighteen of the English employes had died. but the disease was equally fatal to the Greeks. but this disease.

passes under the stupendous rock-precipices of Alaman Dagh (Mount precipitous Galesion). or walk. but. now much swollen by the late rains. although speaking the Turkish language. At were groups of their black and many of their burial-places strange. and alongside the rapid and turbid stream of the Cayster. somewhat lax able. High above. . These men come down into the plains for pasturage in the spring. in consequence of the inundation of the rivers. The Yourouks seem to be one of the original races of the land. like the in their practice. generally well disposed and hospit- Muslim Bedouins. but with no further record or memorial of the dead. on a peak of the mountain. They are physically a fine race. The rail- road under it. not of Turkish descent. as the plains become most unhealthy after the end of May. each grave marked by a lichen-covered stone. but in the rainy season they are obliged to withdraw from the lowlands. The railway here goat's-hair tents. During the hot months they live in the mountains. professedly in religion. which turns all these plains into marshes. and not supposed to be very orthodox in their intervals along the line belief. solitary little spots. the property of the Yourouk* shepherds. supposed to have been one of the ancient Persian watch-towers. After crossing the passes close * From the Turkish "yurumek. of sheep and goats." to march. stands the Kedji Kalesy (Groat's Fort).— 28 ANATOLIC A.

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In this district brigandage had for the moment been entirely suppressed. The pools were full of beautiful water-lilies. After engaging horses and a guide from him. The Turkish village on the sides and round the base of a rocky hill. stadium. 1300).ANATOLIC A. But even these easy terms do not seem to attract cultivators. about five miles and a wide. About two years ago a band of seven Greek brigands from the islands. but inferior in height. It seems to have been built entirely of materials from Ephesus. Any of the waste land we had passed through may be rented of the Turkish Government on condition of paying a tenth of the produce. the left a fine old bridge of four arches the sea was on our right. It is nothing any stones interest. Manouli. we distant. after a desperate resistance. of ot The fort fort summit of the but contains resembles the on the of Smyrna. At mid-day the train arrived at Aiasolouk. started to explore the ruins. with their chief. The restaurant at the station is kept by an Englishman. marshy plain bordered the river. resembling the hill of Ephesus (Prion). It contained neither theatre. and their heads sent to Smyrna. hill nor temple. river 29 we saw on .D. were killed by the Turkish troops. surrounded by heaps and pieces of . and high above us in the air flocks of vultures and eagles soared and wheeled. and was a place of some importance under the Seljook rulers of of Aiasolouk is this country (about A.

The rest of the building is of limestone.. A line hill. are inserted masonry. doubt. lie Wood thinks. but there are still several bas-reliefs in various parts of the Gateway and buttresses. The roof. now disused and in ruin. Some of the antique sculptures above the Gateway. Wood. were These. of wall once encompassed the crown of the pele mele and in this is the Great Gateway. facing the hill of Ephesus. bases. were removed some years ago. is of polished blocks of white marble. as Mr. ANATOLICA. architraves. in the came to hand. Many fragments of some in good condition. surmounted by two cupolas. without brought from the ruins of Diana's site Temple. is supported by four large monolithic columns of granite brought. Chandler. John.— 30 marble. Masses of brickwork lower down the hill perhaps mark the site of JustiThe Mosque. as discovered hill. is still very interesting. Its west front. Round the interior of the court a . and of a declining style of art. fragfriezes. from the Great Gymnasium near granite columns the City Port — and many smaller within the court of the Mosque. principally taken from sarcophagi. mentioned by Dr. inscriptions. is near the foot of the and at no great distance. Round windows fine arabesques and sentences from the Koran are carved in the pure the doors and white marble. the of which. ments of columns. by Mr. though nian's Church of St. built in as each &c. it Materials of every kind have been employed in —blocks of marble and limestone.

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hills on the north-east. His — I of all animals the is tameness very remarkable often . and they have shown no sign of fear. both birds threw back their heads upon their backs and made a loud clapping with their beaks. and in the centre the usual basin for ablution before prayer but the whole is much overgrown with bushes and vegetation. It was apparently the breeding season. surmounted by heavy arches of The materials of the piers are of the strangest description — cornices. have approached within twenty paces of these birds. Many of the arches have fallen. It consists of huge square brick. all built in together at random. capitals. columns.ANATOLICA. stood near. plain and inscribed blocks. . piers. and then turned to look at me. is constructed of marble blocks from Ephesus. and on the top of nearly every pier. and in most of the trees around. or heavily flying. resting motionless on one leg. 31 marble portico once stood. brought food for his mate . bases. storks have built their nests. The gentleness different of the Osmanlis to animals from the Arabs — — so is an amiable feature in the traveller never so often excite his their character. which enters the plain from the . amongst them sees the shocking sights which disgust in Egypt and perhaps stork is their favourite. and one of the birds was always on the nest the other either . each time he returned to the nest. but simply stalked off in the most leisurely way a few yards. The Aqueduct.

We rode as far as the hill (Pactyas) behind small Aiasolouk whence the Aqueduct emerges. brook descends from the hills close by. and especially at the mouths of the Hermus. but no water now flows from it towards the Aqueduct. had been joined the mainland in consequence. anciently He also states that — (perhaps at the time when the Ionian . and on the south the long ridge of Immediately in front and projecting is the plain the hill of Prion —the site of it ancient Ephesus. and to says that even in his own time an island at the of the river. This is in some places fully twenty feet in depth. Cayster. shape. Pliny (ii. and this A perhaps was the chief source of supply. called Syrie. From the foot of the hill of Aiasolouk the marshy plain of the Cayster extends without interruption to the sea. The whole inlet of the sea which has been gradually filled up by the alluvial deposit of the Cayster. and even more on the site of the Great Temple. 29) mentions the vast quantity of the Cayster and its silt brought down by mouth many tributaries. of no great A and with rocky and precipitous sides. and Mseander. The same process has been going on for ages along the coast line of Anatolia. Coressus. As seen from in a distance appears nearly circular elevation.2 ANATOLICA.2. On the north the offsets of Galesus bound into it. deep ravine separates it on the south from plain seems to have been once a great Coressus.

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and shrine. and to this era belongs the construction of the Theatre. Ephesus consisted of the Temple and the city which thus grew up around it but Lysimachus . From the reign of Crcesus to the partition of Alexander's Empire. and the long wall which. by the shepherd Pixodarus. was upon the west and north-west sides of Prion that the Ephesus of the victorious lonians was established. surface of the hill but we visited some of the vast marble quarries with which its sides are honeycombed. settlers 33 under Androclus arrivedj —the sea extended the decline of the past the north side of Prion up to the very foot of the Great Temple. and from which the materials for the city and Temple were hewn. either extremity with the walls is connected at upon the top and round the sides of Prion. city Even till an elaborate system of canals and basins continued to maintain the communication between the Temple and the sea. until the powerful kings of Lydia forced the citizens to quit the height of Prion and settle in the level ground around the Temple. D ." Vitruvius gives an account of the discovery of marble on a mountain. One of the largest is the scene of the legend of the " Seven Sleepers. but without mentioning the name of the mountain.ANATOLIC A. and this continued to be the site It of the city. The limited time at our command did not permit us to examine the whole . the Stadium. passing along the ridge of Coressus. compelled the citizens to return to the former site.

of this street has been excavated by Mr. The gate itself seems to have been blocked up at some time. The of tombs here turns sharply to the right. and along it ran the famous portico of Damianus. 34 ANATOLICA. entirely The of the old city . Never in any place have site I seen such rank vegetation. Much perfect. of which remains continutions. a huge building of solid and heavy construction. another road from the east. Most of the private houses of the city seem to have been built on the north slope of Coressus facing it. but not beautiful beyond this the ravine opens to its greatest width. bordered like the former with tombs and sarcophagi. This street is considerably above the general level of the plain. hill. are the ruins of the Thermae. also enters the gate here. some very ally occur.. • ^ A street bordered with tombs and sarcophagi passed round the east and north-east sides of the base of the hill. Wood. either wholly or in part. was overgrown with wild fennel the sides of Prion were covered with its bright yellow flowers. In almost every direction traces of buildings and foundations of walls are to be seen. At the south-east portion of the we entered street the ravine between Prion and Coressus. with masonry. stalks of it and as thick as the wrist often rose higher than our heads as we sat on horseback. and lying a little . and a number of inscrip- have been discovered. To the right of back from the road. and passes through the Magnesian Gate .

" It is strange their estimates should differ so greatly. is the Odeum —which must have been building a very beautiful —constructed in sztu. A little past the Thermae. probably funereal. Cockerell (Leake's "Asia Minor") makes 660 feet — discrepancy too great to reconcile. the ravine. immense size nearly 500 feet in exterior diameter — (Wood). to the left of the path and nearer Coressus. Beyond on every the Odeum Then are ruins of public buildings at the south-west entrance of side.* and the rows of seats rise against the side it * Mr. D 2 . and just as the path turns to the right. remains are fragments of huge once covered with plaques of marble. we came to the famous Theatre. Curtius' ** Beitrage zur topographie Klein Asiens ") makes it ** over 200 metres. as appears from the apertures pierced to receive the fastenings of the slabs. . of extremely white and fineof the rows of seats still grained marble.a ANATOLICA. the public buildings of the city stood along the bottom of the ravine. Many remain and amid the heap of broken columns and marble fragments. are the ruins of the Gymnasium its . of this all that walls. Between the Odeum and the City Gate is a large basilica and two round monuments. At last. are a few pieces of sculpture. on the west side of the It is of hill. The ruins of the Temple of Claudius lie close to the Gymnasium. on the right. Prion . and many columns of finely-polished red and grey granite. 35 their foundations may be traced over all this space. Herr Adler {vide Prof.

and an abundance still . seems to have been attached to it. but far into the vaults not possible to penetrate below the proscenium. but much must still exist. still The substructions of the scena it is remain com- paratively entire. All the statuary. . are mixed in one promiscuous all heap. but most of it has fallen some of the marble columns still stand in their places. have been the causes of this destruction. : e V cr e pw p pa (t i\ e w v It is not easy to account for the utter and con- fused ruin presented by the Odeum and Theatre. reliefs. War and fire. but broken off. 36 of the hill at ANATOLICA. Part of the scena is still erect.. they are of a fine mottled marble. buried under the vast heap of ruin which covers the orchestra and proscenium.— . Blocks and broken columns. appear Near the entrance the following was rudely scratched upon a column about. basto red and greenish in colour. Fragments of inscriptions lie &c. owing to A large portions the fallen blocks and rubbish. fi-om which successive generations have drawn materials for their grandest edifices. but above earthquakes. For many centuries these buildings have been quarries. a somewhat steep angle far above it but from their ruinous conditionto ascertain their is not possible number. have been carefully demolished. portions of the edifice the most dissimilar.

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The west coast of Anatolia has been always subject to earthquakes. scene painting The wide space extending from the west foot of Prion to the edge of the marsh is full of vast ruins.! ANATOLICA. during the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. but all lonely and uncultivated or covered with thick marsh ! ! . on either side the graceful outlines of the mountains form a background superior to any vegetation . Amongst them are the retire. which in the third cities* year of Tiberius destroyed twelve great of Asia Minor. especially * Tacit. whose construction dates from the first and second centuries of our era. Vast mountains sank down tracts of ground hitherto level were lifted up into heights the earth clave eruptions of fire burst forth. so that the City Port was at one time close under the Great Theatre. 47. remains ! 37 But we searched in vain for a perfect It inscription. iv. 55) by the citizens of Halicamassus.200 (1) years past no earthquake had troubled them Pergamus in like manner. But see a curious statement (Tacit. The historian does not mention Ephesiis amongst the cities which suffered by this calamity. whose ruins still encumber it. According to the opinion of Herr Adler the sea once covered all this space. But it must have been a fearful visitation. and. or an unbroken piece of statuary would be difficult to imagine a more utter destruction The view from the Theatre towards the west the plain extends for many miles in is very grand an unbroken level towards the sea. probably caused the sea to that all this wide space was left dry. was used as a site for the great public buildings. Ann. But the terrible earthquake. ii. that for 1. so Ann. — — — : ." Sec. "It happened in the night time.

reddish marble. the harbour. thickly overgrown with canes and plants. To basin the north of the Theatre (erroneously It is is a fine monolithic Baptistry of St.38 ANATOLIC A. . and it are the eastwards along the north side of Prion. the whole forming a vast circuit of strong defences. Beyond skirting massy walls of the town. after the roofing of the central hall The was supported by a style. the roofing of solid Gymnasium. The walls on substructions are of rough marble blocks. called the John). and descending its eastern slope. may have been the fountain of . The is port. another wall connected these with the west extremity of Coressus (erroneously and from this may be traced the wall of Lysimachus (or perhaps of a called St. immediately little m front of the Theatre. of huge arched This was erected brick-vaulted arches. marsh The whole circuit of the harbour on the city side seems to have been surrounded by strong walls fort at the . and running northwards. running along the ridge of Coressus. now a morass. once connected with the sea by a canal. of a dull. Paul's prison). Forum. yet earlier builder). and a further to the north-west' the very extensive ruins of the Great vaults. about fifteen It feet in diameter. opposite the Magnesian Gate. In general style and massiveness this building re- sembles the baths of Caracalla at Rome. Roman number these of granite columns of colossal size four of now stand in the Mosque of Aiasolouk.

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have transposed the first two figures in his note-book. perhaps. and it is of vast extent. and afterwards used as a baptismal font. is a magnificent monolithic fountain of the age of Trajan. Klein Asiens. the work of Lysimachus." * This — . public granaries. is a long range of immense arched vaults of Roman work. its north side rests upon hill. Its is about 850 but nearly feet* in length.. "Wood. similar to hill. which may have been connected with the canal that led to the Temple. in Cyprus. that on the east side. which was used Ephesian throughout the middle ages as a baptismal font.ANATOLICA. vast arches. 39 one of the public places in the city. although the air so clear that distances which are really great seem small. stores. &c. to the east. But Ephesus is now a is the measurement kindly communicated by Mr. perhaps. Beyond these another street of tombs. He may. borders the base of the The is site of the old city is very grand and beautiful. It is like the Theatre. little beyond the Stadium. At the Convent of Bel Paese. Adler makes it 229^ metres (about Vide Professor Curtius' " Beitrage zur topographic 755 feet). either the substructions of some building that has all its A perished. south side hollowed from the rows of seats have been removed. Chandler made it 687 feet. to this At the north-west corner of Prion is the Stadium. or. The same may have happened basin. Of this we had constant experience in the course of our journey.

Preon. He thought that the central hill was Coressus. very nest of fever and malaria. had been advised to avoid exposure to the night air.* for the central hill "to saw"). . stating that certain images dedicated to Artemis were taken from the Great Temple. but now only a few poverty-stricken peasants cultivate a patch here and there over its buried palaces and temples. and we were tolerably comfortable. is uncertain. the other serrated the central hill. He thought that a very large * But the real name of the cent'-al hill . its name. and therefore retired early. Its magnificent ruins. attest its former grandeur. Pion. but in various inscriptions it is called Preon (Upriuv). Our host was very attentive. or Prion so that no valid argument can be founded on the meaning of it Pausanias constantly names Pion. and this would most naturally be is rounded. carried round the Coressian hill. and he had also found in the Great Theatre an inscription. as a hill projecting into the plain. as his assistant was absent with the key of the We — magazine. waste. and dangerous. We examined his plan of the ruins. from its position. Wood. and not Prion [Trplcu. lonely. partly on account of the name.— 40 ANATOLICA. could not show us the marbles last excavated. . and replaced in the Temple. We called upon Mr. the very mass of fine white and coloured marbles after so still remaining much spoliation. The former name may have been given on account of the fertility of its soil the latter. He April 24th. It is called indiscriminately.

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To Mr. portion of the old city slope of the other 41 was hill. has quite disappeared bases of . which might be employed for the false miracles. to the and onward to the Magnesian Gate. This wall. Wood belongs the fame of having at length discovered the site of this famous edifice. the upper supported by massy columns. and very little could then be seen. and the lower pavement had been laid bare but the late heavy rains had covered all with water. and even one of the had been discovered in situ. He Paul's prison). columns . about two feet thick. &c. remains. of the columns. The many itself. and he had traced it to the gate near the Stadium.. more than twenty feet deep. thus forming a crypt. We visited the site of the Great Temple. was of old Greek work. both this and built full the slopes of all the mountains round are of foundations of houses and remains of buildings.ANATOLICA. . enclosing the fort to the west (St. Very large excavations had been made. from ten to twelve feet high. oracles. the lower pavement. he thought. harbour at the south-west corner of the city. on the northern Indeed. This upper pavement of finely-wrought marble slabs. but still of irregular blocks of marble. considered the most remarkable remains to be those of the old Greek wall which ran up the side and along the ridge of (his) Prion. The Temple had two pavements. It extended earlier than the age of Lysimachus. of good work. for which the Temple was famed.

distinct but not remote from the. when warring against Theseus and the Athenians. led the lonians Ephesus. no doubt. which was. " Other races. founded the Temple. in still greater number. and from the latter came the name of the city. which was reputed to be very sacred. as the ancient geographers describe it. an autochthon. and also the Amazons. The inhabitants of that district were Leleges of Carian race.city. were the earliest removed to Constantinople. ii) concerning the worship of Diana " The worship of the Ephesian Artemis existed there long before the lonians settled in that country. (vii. of modern times brought them again is : The following the account of Pausanias cap. till the researches to light. but did not the Temple. Lydians. Pindar says the worship was instituted by the Amazons. and Ephesus. son of Codrus. for the erection of Justinian's famous church. son of the river god Cayster. settled round this Temple. or Coresos. "St. harm those who dwelt round Androclus was slain in war against . Sophia. and drove out the Leleges and Lydians. but that Cresos. and so — left undisturbed for centuries. its foundations were gradually covered by the silt of the muddy Cayster. and.— — 42 ANATOLICA." and when the polished marble blocks of which it was built. and expelled or conquered the Carians. and its magnificent sculptures and columns the work of Scopas and his pupils had been removed. Its spoils. to Androclus.

past the Temple of Olympian Jupiter. "the back of Lepre. to the Magnesian Gate." The city of Androclus only included part of Prion and " otherthe ground near the fountain " Hypelceus was buried at Ephesus. the time of Alexander the Great forced the citizens but Lysimachus to to remove the slope of . i) says that Prion was anciently called Lepre Acte. and various other honours. &c. owing till to the vicinity of the Temple. and carried a sceptre.ANATOLICA. had precedence at the games. and a new city arose in the plain near the Temple. not far therefore from the monolith fountain west end of the Stadium. Alopes then Ortygia and Merges. They had the title of *king. by the side of the road which leads from the Temple of Diana. Strabo (xiv. This is described by Hamilton as a beautiful little spring in the low dry ground at the north of the marsh.. — — — wise called Callipia or Halitoea. This monument was the figure of an armed man. and the slope between it and Coressus Opistholepria. the Carians. but in later Mount became partially deserted.' wore purple. then Smyrna Trachcea. His descendants continued to possess hereditary honours under the Emperor Tiberius. &c. 29) mentions that the city had been called by many names before it took its final title. gradually spread over times the hill and the southThe city of Androclus Prion. This continued ." Pliny (ii. and 43 and his tomb still existed in the time of Pausanias. At the time of the Trojan war.

by taking advantage of a heavy rain and stopping up the water courses so as to flood the low ground. the city of Lysimachus was in its turn deserted. &c. But the event was quite opposite to their expectations. To the age which witnessed this removal we must attribute the erection of the Aqueduct. King of Pergamus (B. even to its rendered the entrance. When Ephesus began to decline. &c. executed. Yet the it great natural advantages of Ephesus enabled it bear even this misfortune. and therefore the citizens finally re- moved to Aiasolouk. and Attalus Philadelphus.) It is likely that even this diminished area proved too large to be secure. and his engineers supposed that by narrowing the mouth of the Cayster the force of the current would carry Accordingly the work was off the deposit of mud. and portions of the embankment wall still remain. and they were then glad to remove. and it was still in . and that the port being changed into a morass would become unhealthy. 159-138). for the silt being retained in the sea. It had always been shallow.C. port and not carried off by the floods of the river and by the ebb and flow of the harbour shallow. Coressus. Strabo gives an account of the way in which the port of Ephesus was ruined.44 ANATOLICA. Gateway. and an inner wall was built from the wall on Mount Prion past the Theatre to the port.. (This may be the heavy brick wall to the west of the Theatre and near the morass.

88). Here. line of was made a province is That the Romans did not rule their Asiatic subjects either mildly or justly evident from the conduct of most war with Mithridates. King of Pergamus. 133). On kings the it extinction of the Pergamean (B. Strabo's time (B. but chiefly by hatred of the Romans. also. Scipio Africanus (Livy xxv.C.-xxi.D. and in a single day slaughtered of the Asiatic cities during the all of Roman (B.! ANATOLICA. Antiochus was obliged to surrender all Asia within Mount Taurus. It was here the exiled Hannibal lived. 281) Ephesus and nearly all the south of Asia Minor fell under the power of the Greek kings of Syria. and the Roman Senate then bestowed Ephesus on their faithful ally Eumenes.'' xx.C. 24) the greatest em- porium of Asia within Mount Taurus. took place the famous interAfter the defeats of view between Hannibal and his conqueror.C.) some shocking details of this tragedy. they rose in arms. After the death of Lysimachus (B. or Italian blood who were settled in Asia gives Appian (" De Bello Mithr. Eighty thousand persons are said to have perished in this fearful massacre The Temple of Diana though professedly an — inviolable asylum —did not save the unfortunate . 14).C. Impelled partly by the threats and promises of Mithridates. Thermopylae and Magnesia. which recalls to mind similar events in more modern times. 54 45 —A. until the ruin of all Antiochus the Great forced him to seek another asylum.

" It commences list A with Timothy and St. of the Christian bishops of Ephesus is given in the " Oriens Christianus. The number of names given is seventy. Amongst the celebrated citizens of Ephesus were the painters Parrasius and Apelles. . John and ends in the year 1 72 1. fled thither.46 ANATOLICA. for the Romans who and put them Ephesians tore the suppliants from the very statues of the goddess to death.

would close our account of Ephesus with the preceding chapter. though the Temple had been restored seven times. The vulgar afterwards believed It was never changed. sacrificed to her there . it fell down from Jupiter. but the curious reader will what is become of the renowned Temple of Can a wonder of the world be vanished Diana like a phantom. we searched for the site of this fabric to as little purpose as the who have preceded at us. Richard Chandler in his " Voyage Minor. related. without leaving a trace behind We would gladly give a satisfactory answer to ? ? such queries travellers . " The worship it is of the great goddess Diana had been established Ephesus in a remote age.— CHAPTER III. account is His as follows : "We ask. Dr." in 1764. has compiled nearly all be found in the ancient writers concerning the Asia that can in famous Temple of the Ephesian Artemis. Amazons. Dr. Richard Chandler's Account of the Temple of the Ephesian Artemis as described by the Ancient Authorities. the image was first set up by them under a tree. but to our great regret. and some writers affirmed. The on their way to Attica in the time of Theseus.

stories of the : we found near the sacred herald. idol. were not titles observed. who was the third time consul in the year of our Lord seventyfive. but in process of time. a noble Roman. " The priests of the goddess were eunuchs. as was evident from the It was of wood fashion.48 ANATOLICA. Mutianus. and curtain exceedingly respected by the people. The the of some of the inferior ministers are perhaps recorded on the marble which entrance of the valley the holy trumpeter. It and may be imagined that many power and interposition of the goddess were current and believed in Ephesus. which some had pronounced cedar and others ebony. . and had many holes filled with nard to nourish and moisten it. affirmed from his own observation that it was vine. and to preserve the cement. except when service was performing in the Temple. a bar of metal — it is likely of veil —was placed under each hand. The old in- stitutions required that virgins should assist them in their office. The than which none has been ever more splendidly enshrined. it having the feet closed. the in- censer. was of a middling size and of very great antiquity. the vest embroidered with emblems and symbolical devices.* It was gorgeously apparelled. these. and to prevent gold its tottering. A or which was drawn up from the floor to the ceiling hid it from view. as all Strabo has remarked. the player on the flute at the libations. * Pliny.

it now is vast stones to the necessary height. but it did not succeed so well as was expected with a marble of prodigious size. that not only : — * among the Ephesians. doorway. and may be thus translated To the Ephesian Diana. dess. 179. . and of the respect paid a decree of the Ephesians inscribed on a slab of white marble. while sleeping. apparently from its own weight. we met to her. He was excessively fell and weary the god- of ruminating asleep. in our way from Smyrna. " Near the path after passing the Aqueduct at Aiasaluck. existence and of her regard for her suppliants 49 " The most striking evidence of the reality of her was probably furnished by her supposed manifestation of herself in visions. when he beheld . It is with a curious memorial of the importance of the goddess. In the history of Massilice. and that she commanded her to accompany the Greek adventurers by whom that city was founded. had invented a method of raising the Marseilles. Inasmuch as it is notorious. p.* related that she was seen by Aristarche. who bade him be comforted she had been his friend. * Strabo. "MetageneSjt one of the architects of her Temple at Ephesus. The next day the stone was found to have settled. as he wished. f Pliny. but also ever3rwhere among the Greek nations temples are consecrated to her.ANATOLICA. designed to be placed over the troubled. a lady of high rank.

but he was probably Roman. and is erected statues of those who conquered. and that besides the greatest token of the veneration paid her. and has an altar dedicated to her. to yearly by the lonians with " A people convinced that the self-manifestations . and sacred portions and that she is set up.50 ANATOLICA. and the Artemisiac panegyris and the hieromenia the entire month being sacred that in the whole . have determined by it this decree that the observation by them be altered. month Artemision. to the goddess. the nurse of : its own. by the Macedonians and other Greek nations Artemisi5n. and that nothing be attended to on them but the yearly feastings. "His name a not preserved. augmented the prizes of the contenders. The feast of Diana was resorted their families. . on account of her plain manifestations of herself. in which general assemblies and hieromenia are celebrated. the Ephesian goddess the people of Ephesus. deeming her of it proper that the whole month called by sacred. a is called after her name . name be and set apart to the goddess. Therefore it is enacted. the days be holy. as his kinsman who provided this record was named Lucius Phaenius Faustus. month by us Artemision. for from this improvement in her worship our city shall receive additional lustre and be permanent in " its prosperity for ever/ The person who obtained this decree appointed games for the month. but not in the holy city.

religion.' would be the general and her self-manifestations. filled with affectionate regard for and feeling complacency from their conviction of her attention to them. The superstitions derived on Greek Church from this source in a remote period. in the early ages of Christianity. By what arguments cry . besides the miraculous agency of the a in spirit in prophetic fits of ecstasy. and of her power. "And this. It was encouraged and currency to procure to inculcated. * See an instance in the year 408. perhaps. or Virgin Mary. E 2 . is the true reason why. helped by its and confirm the credulous votary. could not turned to a religion which did not its pretend to a similar or equal intercourse with divinity. 5. like those of Diana anciently. would even now be attested by many a reputable witness. belief of supernatural interposition by the Panagia. prevent or refute the cavil of the heathen. " Great * is the Panagia. shall a people. to exalt the new the and to deprive the established of its ideal superiority. would principally impede the progress of any who should endeavour to convert its members to the nakedness of reformed Christianity.* and by saints appearing daily or nightly visions. easily be 51 of the deity before mentioned were real. Sozornen vii. and still continuing to flourish in it. be prevailed on to accept our rational Protestantism her.— ANATOLIC A.

52 in ANATOLIC A. " of their Diana provide for her The is fortunate discovery of marble in Mount Prion gave them new vigour. and finally canonised. one of them missed his antagonist. to visit the spot and to sacrifice to him monthly. He was highly honoured for his accidental discovery. The Ephesians. . c. the Ephesians changing his name from Pyxodorus to Evangelus. under a penalty. and two rams fighting. It has served an inexhaustible magazine of marble. were met it is related. edifice when they worthy of first resolved to provide an to agree their Diana. x. or Prion. tributed largely to Its bowels are excavated. the good messenger.* * * Vitiuvius.' and enjoining their chief magistrate. which was received with excess of joy. 7. He ran into the city with this specimen. and the expense it was foreseen would be prodigious. " At this time a shepherd happened to be feeding his flock on the mountain. and conthe magnificence of the city. exchange ? for their fancied but satisfactory revelations "The reputation and the riches had made the Ephesians desirous to a magnificent temple. and striking the rock with his horn. among the curiosities of Ionia enumerated as by Pausanias. Mount Pion. lib. broke off a crust of very white marble. which custom continued in the age of Augustus Caesar. on importing materials. The quarries then in use were remote.

ANATOLICA.
"The
was
cities of Asia, so

53

general was the esteem

for the goddess, contributed largely,

and Croesus

at the

expense of

many

of the columns.

The

spot chosen for the building

was a marsh,

likely to preserve the structure free

most from gaps, and
as

The foundation was made with charcoal rammed, and with fleeces. (?) The souterrain consumed immense quantities of The edifice was exalted on a basement marble. with ten steps. The architects Ctesiphon of Crete,
uninjured by earthquakes.

and Metagenes his son, were likewise authors of a Demetrius, a servant of treatise on the fabric. Diana, and Peonius, an Ephesian, were said to have completed this work, which was 220 years
about.

Temple and the quarries did not exceed 8,000 feet, and no rising intervened, but the whole space was

"

The

distance between the site of the

level plain.

Ctesiphon invented a curious machine,
a
description
is

of which

preserved,

for

tranif

sporting the shafts of the columns, fearing

a

carriage were laden with a stone so ponderous as

each was, the wheels would sink deep into the

soil.

"Metagenes adopted his contrivance to convey the architraves. These were so bulky that the raising of any one of them to its place appeared a miracle. It was done by forming a gentle ascent higher
than the columns, of baskets
filled

with sand,

emptying those beneath when the mass was arrived, and thus letting it gradually down upon

54

ANATOLICA.
By
this

method the prodigious stone formerly mentioned was inserted over the doorway. " This Temple, which Xerxes spared, was set on fire by Herostratus (on the same night in which Alexander the Great was born, October 13th- 14th, B.C. 3.56), but the votaries of Diana proved so extravagant in their zeal that she was a gainer by his exploit. A new and more glorious fabric was begun, and Alexander the Great, arriving at Ephesus, wished to inscribe it as the dedicator, and was willing for that gratification to defray the whole
the capitals.

expense, but the Ephesians declined accepting this

magnificent

offer.

"The

architect then

employed was the famous
the forming

projector*

who proposed

Mount Athos,

when he had finished, into a statue of this king. " The Temple now erected was reckoned the first in Ionia for magnitude and riches. It was 420 1 feet long, and 220 broad. Of the columns,
which were sixty feet high, 127 were donations from kings. Thirty-six were carved, and one of them perhaps as a model, by Scopas. The order

was Ionic, and it had eight t columns in front. The folding doors or gates had been continued
was Cheirocrates, who also was the engineer and planner of Alexandria, in Egypt. + Twenty-five. (Mr. Revett.)
feet broad, and the columns were sixty must have had twelve columns in front, for then the pieces of the architrave from centre to centre of the columns would be nineteen feet long, and that in the centre intercolumniation twentyfeet high,
it

* This

X If the

Temple was 220

ANATOLIC A.
four years in
glue,

55

and were made of cypress wood, which had been treasured up for four generations, highly polished. These were found by Mutianus, as fresh and as beautiful 400 years
after,

as

when new.

The

ceiling

was of

cedar,

and the steps for ascending the roof, of a single stem of a vine, which witnessed the durable nature of that wood. The whole altar was in a The manner full of the works of Praxiteles. offerings were inestimable, and among them was a picture by Apelles, representing Alexander armed with thunder, for which he was paid twenty
talents of gold.

The

structure

was so wonderfully

great in

its
it

adorned,

and so magnificently appeared the work of beings more than
composition

human. The Sun, it is affirmed, beheld in his course no object of superior excellence or worthier of admiration. The Temple of Diana had the privilege of an asylum or sanctuary before the
time of Alexander, but he extended
or half a quarter of a mile.
it

to a stadium,

Afterwards Mithridates

Angle of the Pediment, and his boundary exceeded the stadium, but not much. Mark Antony, coming near him, enlarged it so as
shot an arrow from the

three feet in length, in order to extend the breadth of the edifice to

220

feet.

The

distance of nineteen feet from centre to

centre of

answer to 425 feet, the length of the Temple, supposing the columns to be twenty-three in number and their diameter seven feet. (Note by Mr. Revett, Dr. Chandler's companion on his journey.)

column

will exactly

S6
to

ANATOLIC A.
comprehend a portion of the
Caesar.
city,

but that

concession

proving inconvenient and dangerous

was annulled by Augustus

have mentioned before, that the distance of the Temple from the quarries did not exceed 8,000 feet, and that the whole way was entirely From the detail now given, it appears that level.
the

"We

Temple was

distinct

from the present

city,

and

the distance

may

be inferred, for

Mark Antony
was

allowing the sanctuary to reach somewhat more

than a stadium from
without the

it,

a part of the city
It

comprised within those

limits.

was, moreover,
I

Magnesian

Gate,

which,
;

should

suppose, was that next Aiasaluck

and, in the

second century, was joined to the city by Damianus,
a Sophist,

who

continued the way

down to

it

through

the Magnesian Gate, by erecting a stoa, or portico
of marble, a stadium or 625 feet in length, which

expensive work was inscribed with the
ministers

name

of his

wife and intended to prevent the absence of the

when

it

rained.
in the
its

He

likewise dedicated a
for

banqueting-room
its

Temple, as remarkable
It

dimensions as

beauty.

was adorned with
in

Phrygian marble, such as had never been cut
the quarries before.* " The extreme sanctity of the
universal

awe and

reverence.

Temple inspired It was for many

ages a repository of foreign and domestic treasures.
* Philostratus, p. 601.

ANATOLIC A.

57

There, property, whether public or private, was
secure amid all revolutions. " The civility of Xerxes was an example to subse-

quent conquerors, and the impiety of sacrilege was
not extended to the Ephesian goddess.

But Nero

was less polite. He removed many costly offerings and images, and an immense quantity of silver and gold. It was again plundered by Goths from beyond the Danube, in the time of Gallienus* a party under Raspa crossing the Hellespont and
ravaging the country until compelled to
retreat,

when they carried off a prodigious booty. " The destruction of so illustrious an
temporary historians.
reformers,

edifice

deserved to have been carefully recorded by con-

We may

conjecture

it

fol-

lowed the triumph of Christianity.

The Ephesian
edicts,

when

authorised

by the imperial

rejoiced in the opportunity of insulting Diana,

and

deemed

it

piety to demolish the very ruins of her

habitation.

" Hence, perhaps,

while

the

columns of the

Corinthian temple have

owed

their preservation to

their bulk, those of this fabric, with the vast architraves,

and all the massive materials, have perished and are consumed. Though its stones were far more ponderous, and the heap larger beyond comis

parison, the whole

vanished,

we know

not

how
it

or
as

whither.

An

ancient author has described

* In the year of Christ 262.

58

ANATOLIC A.

standing at the head of the port, and shining as a
meteor.

We may add, that as such too
city port,

it

has since

disappeared. " It has been supposed that the souterrain

by the

morass or

with two pieces of ancient wall

by one of which is the entrance to it, is a relic of the Temple but that spot was nearly in the centre of the city of Lysimachus and besides, the Temple was raised on a lofty basement with steps. The edifice was deemed a wonder, not for its form, as at all uncommon, but for the grandeur of its proportions, the excellence of its workmanship, and the magnificence of its decorations. "The vaulted substructions* by the Stadium
of square stone,
;

;

might,

it is

believed, furnish an area corresponding

better with this idea,

and more suited
it

to receive the

mighty

fabric

;

which, however,

has been shown

above, was in the plain, and distinct, though not

remote, from the present

city.

"A
*

writert

who

lived toward the

end of the

high on

These vaulted substructions are in the plain, and support an area all sides above the level of the ground, but on this upwards of thirty feet, which, from its extent in length and breadth, may be judged capable of including the peribolus or enclosure of the Temple. The opposite side of this area joins to the foot of Mount Prion, and ex-

tends itself parallel with the Stadium, near the length of it, forming a hollow way between them about forty feet wide and eight feet deep,
scattered over with broken pedestals and bases of columns, probably

the remains of the peristyle erected stadium. (Mr. Revett.)

byDamianus, the length of the
See the Sibylline
verses, lib. v.

t Clemens Alexandrinus,
p. 607.

i.

p. 44.

ANATOLICA.
the earth opening and quaking, the

59

second century, has cited a sibyl as foretelling, that

Temple

of

Diana would be swallowed, like a ship in a storm, into the abyss and Ephesus, lamenting and weeping by the river banks, would inquire for it, then
;

inhabited no more. " If the authenticity of the oracle were undisputed,

and the sibyl acknowledged a genuine prophetess, we might infer, from the visible condition of the place, the full accomplishment of the whole prediction.

"
is

We now
;

seek in vain for the Temple

;

the city

prostrate

and the goddess gone."

— —

CHAPTER
Ravine near the Azizieh Tunnels
the Turkish Contingent in the Crimea

IV.

—Ancient Aqueduct— A Soldier of — Anecdote of the Damascus Massacre in 1857 — Ravine of the Lethaeus — First View of the Plain of the Mseander — Mount Messogis — Its Beauty— Aidin (Tralles) — Cemeteries in the Maeander Valley — Khan at Nazli Bazaar at Nazli — The Zeybeks — Zeybek Robbers — Costume — Oui Party — Our Muleteers — Opening in Mount Messogis — The "Asian Meadow " — Stream and Bridge of the Maeander— Valley of the Mosynus — Cafe at Ali Aga Tchiftlik — Formation of the Country —Verdure of the Countiy — River Ak Soo (Mosynus) — Chalk — Kara Soo — Its Torrent — Ravines — Khan at Kara Soo — Descent from the Town — Geera (Aphrodisias) — Walls of the City— Great Number of Inscriptions — Gateway — Stadium — Temple of Aphrodite—Agora — Remains of other Temples —Vast Mass of Ruin — Material —Two Sarcophagi—Their present Use.
Cliffs

fine

At

9

A.M.

we

left

for Azizieh.

Our

route

lay-

through a most beautiful glen, bordered by high

mountains on either side, all well wooded. Before the Smyrna and Aidin Railway was made, the caravan road between these two cities passed

had been roughly paved, but is now in bad repair. At intervals were the guard-houses of the zaptiehs, now all in ruin, and cottages once tenanted by the English employed in
through this ravine.
It

constructing the line

;

a beautiful

little

stream,

buried in thick wood, traverses this glen, and near
the Azizieh Tunnel a fine ancient aqueduct crosses
the ravine, consisting of two ranges of arches

;

ANATOLIC A.
three large below, six smaller above.
its

6i

Except that

ends are broken

off

it is still

in

good preserva-

tion.

Above

the lower range of arches runs the

following inscription in Latin, with the correspond-

ing Greek below
.

:

DEANA EPH ET IMP CAESARI ET TI CAESARI AUG ET CIVITATI EPH (OFEL)LIUS PF VOX POLLIO CUM OFILLIA A F BASSA UXORE SUA
.
. . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

PROCULO F SUO CAETERISQUE LEIBEREIS SUEIS PONTEM DE SUA PECUNIA FACIUNDUM CURAVIT
ET O OFILLIO
. .
. . . . . . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

The bushes were full of singing birds, amongst them numbers of blackbirds and nightingales
large tortoises crawled at the side of the path

was a great variety of flowering shrubs and flowers (many English species), but all this verdure disappears during the heat of summer. Some friends from Smyrna who were to accompany us joined us at Azizieh. Whilst waiting for
there

the train I

fell

into conversation with a

man who
officers,

had served
in

in the

Crimea, under British

the Turkish Contingent.
at

He had

also been

quartered

Damascus during the outbreak

of

1857 i^ which so

many

Christians were massacred,

and he told me that the colonel of his regiment had been shot, by sentence of a court-martial, though perfectly innocent of any share in the massacre It was commonly reported that some
!

a part beautiful. It is a deep dell shut in by lofty mountains. their outlines most fantastic. strips of rich pasture border the stream . on the edge of the plain. covered with snow. At I P. and with thickets of arbutus rich red . . which are crowned with little forests of pine river (the rocky bed far fall in silvery and oak. . the country through which the railway passes resembles the most beautiful ravines in Cornwall or Devonshire. The soil is of a here and there patches of gravel. Near Balajik the railway enters the plain of the Mseander. A beautiful ancient Lethasus) foams along in its below luxuriant plane trees and . The modern city lies . diversify its surface. especially Besh Parmak. and myrtle. close under the lowest slopes of Messogis the ruins of ancient Tralles are on the high plateau above the town but neither then. torrents cascades from above the intermediate heights are covered with yellow broom. . The distant mountains.62 ANATOLICA. first appears. are very The chain on the north side. .M. nor on our return. is rugged and broken it is a succession of peaks green and wooded to the summits. had we time to visit them. or rocks of sparkling white marble and limestone. of Mount Messogis. on the south side of the plain. of the most guilty had been suffered to escape and innocent Between Azizieh and Balajik. yet singularly At Karabounar the top of Baba Dagh beautiful. we reached Aidin. men put to death instead of them. (Mount Cadmus).

who have no scruple in eating them. vineyards. There is even a good road. had our horses ready.30 P. Bradech.ANATOLICA.M. Messogis itself is 63 composed of some kind of conglomerate. being a waving but unbroken chain. The of plain of the Maeander fertile. . These peaks are almost inaccessible. of Aidin. filled with verdure. smooth. The range to the south of the plain (Mount Latmus) is in complete contrast to Messogis. and on either side of it are olive grounds. with here and there patches of the brightest red colour. and with abundance of wood and water.. run up into the very heart of the chain. who was to be the leader of our party. well cultivated. with a surface comparatively . especially with wild boars. enclosed with walls and well-kept hedges in most parts. Beyond the nearest range of Messogis rose another range. and deep valleys. &c. Mr. The Turks shoot them and sell them to the Christians of the country. and at 3. which are most destructive to the crops. is the finest district Anatolia. w^e started for Nazli. The whole range here is broken up into detached hills and peaks in the strangest and most picturesque manner the broken summits are thickly wooded. and abound with game. and it is this district that sup- plies the finest figs and raisins for the Smyrna market. loftier and less wooded. in the highest state of cultivation .

49 is —4. a supper of eggs and pilaff was served. and at short intervals fountains of them plane trees many of and many excellent water fell murmuring . was assigned to us.— . ance of the cemeteries they are of vast extent in some places extending for miles on both sides of the road. was the appear. room. and we lay down to sleep.15 P. yard. happened to be market-day so breakfast.. with divans all round it. into stone basins. but there was a brilliant moon. and.M.M. and whilst waiting for fresh horses It to be brought.M. P.M. a large mineral spring. toilet at — Rose at 5.25 P. We halted again at Aktcha Keui. beautiful Very strange and very .M.30 A. or marble sarcophagi these streams are brought . centuries old. down from it is the hills on the north in conduits and looked upon as a pious action to defray the as follows: cost of such a work. 6. Sekkeui. Numerous streams from the hills meandered along the road. close upon midnight.. we strolled through the bazaars. Imamkeui 5 P. and made our after the fountain in the middle of the court. a A large large and well-built edifice of stone. Night had now come on. They are full of beautiful trees. River Kutchak halted half . Our route was near this 5. April 25th.. reached the Khan at Nazli. of enormous size... As night came on the deep gloom and silence of these places were most impressive. Keuschk here we an hour for refreshment. 64 ANATOLICA. A few .

olives in sacks. saw one man who the Crimean war The appearance of the peasants in their coarse goat's-hair clothing but strangest of all is the most clumsy costume of the Zeybeks. Turkish). In some of the shops were lumps of frozen snow. absurdly high. grain. We entered the horse market of Anatolia are much inferior to The horses the Arab horses of first. It appears. Not many years ago a formidable revolt broke out w^as . Greeks from the islands. several sheep were roasting fires. that the worst brigands are . unquiet set. and inherit the daring and intrepid spirit of their ancestors. flour. There was a large quantity of coarse native embroidery. so that the bazaars are new. Egypt. the and. years 65 back great part of Nazli was burnt.. and many of the shops have even iron shutters. . Even now they are a restless. were set out for sale. These people are descended from the ancient Carians.ANATOLICA. cheese. and being market-day. however. as in it Damascus . medals for French. according to Eastern custom. and the prices asked were. or Greece proper Zeybeks are better than their reputation . and the whole of this district is so full of forest and mountain that an outbreak would cause great embarrassment to the Government. silver I wore three (English. amongst them.. sherbet. Great quantities of madder-root. but most of the goods for sale were European. &c. for cooling water. whole before enormous wood &c.

The whole costume had a most singular effect. of Dresden and Bradech. allowing the shape of the body to be seen under this was a pair of tightfitting white breeches. but was not strong. which came to just above the knee below these was a bare space. round it . &c. and winter and summer) reaching just below the buttocks. Mr. but towards the end became more accustomed to the . with a finely-embroidered turban wound . . cartridges. who spoke French well. as far down even as the pit of the stomach.66 ANATOLICA. Government has no sympathy dandy in happily. quite short. and only reaching just below the arm-pits the whole throat and breast. . Messrs. and then . tightly-fitting gold-embroidered gaiters. . he suffered much from fever on our journey. was bare (this is the custom round the stomach. Our party consisted of three gentlemen from Smyrna. He wore a very tall square iez of crimson." with pouches for carrying called a of the stomach weapons. Barth. Our interpreter was a young Greek of Aidin. the Turkish for brigandage. . Stannius. but it is heavy . I noticed the dress of one Zeybek particular. more or less. a plaided silk sash was tightly wound. " sillahhlik. . Every one was armed. of Aidin myself. and Fisher Mr. In front was a huge leathern belt or case. knives. a gold-embroidered jacket. it is generally worn by the country people from Smyrna eastwards up the valley of the Mseander. Seiff. and inconvenient.

a wide . always good-tempered. and far behind. his face deeply pitted with marks of small-pox. Mehmet —a good-natured strange. Methinks I hear him now. and ready to please. and took great care of us. We found him country. as he gently roused the snoring " Emin. The old Mehmet's voice was soft and musical. but equally broken and at the spot where the road turns southwards to the Maeander they are yet lower and less wooded. and much of the pleasure of our journey was due to this judicious selection. who never hurried himself or allowed any- thing to put him out. until then our " katerji " was a stout. privations 67 in and hardships of travel such a At Nazli.! " . He was to join us for the journey at Denizli Bradech had engaged him. obliging. The boy "Emin. jovial old gentleman. ANATOLICA. our muleteer. we left Nazli. lower. He " got on " admirably with every one.M. joined us. however a good soul much that mischie- vous individual might provoke him. powerful man. Mr. for be it remembered a good " katerji (muleteer) is one of the chief points to be attended to. with an ugly but shrewd never lost his temper. Truly he was At 9 A." a was to accompany our Mehmet. Mehmet." and face. also named soul. He was a tall. through which a small river issues. F 2 . funny character. an excellent fellow. Opposite Birlebey there is a remarkable opening in them. The hills behind the town are a continuation of the Messogis range.

io A. " the people of the country considered to be the Asian meadow' of Homer.! 68 ANATOLICA. but not now deep. * At lo. crossed by a long. may extent of richly-wooded and grassy country be distinguished through the ravine. as many of the planks were broken. muddy and is in rapid. and considered it to be Strabo's " Leimon " (" the meadow "). And yet this is the only communication for many miles between the north and south sides of the river . It is traversed by a stone causeway. owing to inundations. Dr. which wooden bridge some seventy paces a very ruinous state.M. Near the river the ground is marshy. The is stream. It is made piles to of transverse beams of wood supported by driven into the river bed." About an hour and a half beyond. We were advised dismount and to be careful where we walked. The effect of light and shade on Messogis was exquisite. and the whole plain up to the foot of the mountains was magnificently wooded. thirty stadia and which Strabo says. but at present the marsh is covered by the cattle and tents of the Yourouks and Tchingannis (gipsies). Chandler noticed this. a torrent descends in a large waterfall from Messogis and enters the plain not far from the town of Kuyudja. we reached the Mseander. and during the winter this road must be nearly impassable. apparently a fine upland basin in the bosom of the mountains. distant from Nysa. which is in many parts quite ruined.

but old city. in the season the heat was and at 12. a fine athletic negro. site This pretty little spot opposite the of Antiocheia ad Maeandrum. the heat fatigued . which we were now about From the entrance of this valley there a view of the whole range of Mount Messogis westwards till the view is lost in the distance. sandy or gravelly. Emerging from river this 69 the cultivated ground near the we and entered a sandy and arid tract. we is gladly halted at one of the cafes in the village of Ali Aga Tchiftlik. but of this there seems immediate prospect. we did not visit the was overpowering and we much nor could we with the glass distinguish any remains of buildings on the hill where the old city stood. The whole length of the valley is thirty hours on horseback. and there . and properly to develop the resources of Its soil is this rich district the Smyrna and Aidin Railway little should be extended. and it slopes rapidly from the mountains down to the river.ANATOLICA. parallel Behind with the river ran the richly- wooded chain of the Harpasa mountains. The people all seemed friendly.15 P-M. fine valley. The cafe was full amongst the guests . armed and dressed in the most picturesque way. I noticed one remarkable figure. This upper part of the Mseander valley fertile is less and less thickly peopled than the lower part. Although so early intense. and these to is turning to our right formed the west side of the Mosynus enter.

the soft rustling of foliage. The character of the country had quite changed On our right the Harpasa mountains ran here. and the the turtle-dove. situated on a by the Ak Soo (Mosynus) river. 70 ANATOLICA. condition with ours. we again and in about an hour hill passed the village of Yenikeui.. soft sleepy plaint of " Kutcha-ka-chee-a-kutcha " — such are Tchiftlik. my memories of the garden started. them a series of great rolling hills descends to the river. at Ali Aga At close 3 P. down to sleep on mats The warm and perfumed little blue haze over the distant mountains. lively conversation was a among them as to who we were and what . but they finally decided that we were only travelling for our Some of them contrasted their own pleasure. brought.M. parallel with the river and wooded to their sumFrom their base and at right angles to mits. now and then brook a few notes from a nightingale." We cafeji lunched in a garden near the cafe under the shade of a magnificent walnut tree afterwards most of us lay which the air. saying that we were "fortunate who could go about in this way where and how we pleased. Its bed was very deep. like so many gigantic "reens" or ridges in a ploughed corn-field. could be our object in coming amongst them some thought we had come from Stamboul on a Government mission. Through these the river had cut its way. a that watered the murmur from the garden. and at .

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.

" This land was grandly built. The valley is well cultivated. and bordered with hedges. was somewhat thus. all so exquisitely green that even England itself.1. The section of these rolling hills." said Mr. rich grass. a rapid to slope from the mountains on either side down Seen from a distance. and all these great rolling hills and deep valleys were covered with wood. could not surpass them. is descent is The soil near Ali Aga chalk Tchiftlik . the angle of surprisingly abrupt. and waving crops of corn.) of the country is The general formation the river. chalk succeeds hills it Towards Kara Soo. intervals high 7 and precipitous chalk cliffs overhung (See the stream. sketch. as seen from the river. a micaceous sand. (See sketch. under its best aspect. leaving a steep precipice of from 200 to 300 feet in height. and full of fine trees the roads well kept up. mixed with here and there are patches of the deep red loam already mentioned.) Here and there we passed great grassy slopes descending from the mountains at a considerable angle. . ANATOLIC A. were surprised at the great extent of the country. We S. is its (" "). as evenly as if artificially levelled . in some cases the terrace would be broken off abruptly. pure it on the north-east consist —the from this the river and almost entirely of — derives name " Ak Soo " the White Water . Anything more grand and at the same time more lovely than the scenery we saw .

The town of Kara Soo. . Night had set in the great revolt of 1739.) These deep torrent beds protected Kara Soo when it was attacked by the rebels under Soli Bey Oglu. with Messogis beyond glittered like Gradually Mount Cadmus appeared. Its name (" the black water ") is it. where against the deep blue sky. The ascent is very steep. derived from the torrent that passes through Mosynus. which a deep rocky bed down to the Ak Soo. rising to a snow-covered peak. (See sketch. We entered the town at about 7. of the more remote till We could the continued see to pass up the valley we it. town. to-day I had never beheld yet even this - was surpassed by the scenery interior. We had to ascend to Kara Soo from the river level. another range the north end of Boz Dagh closed the view. and we had to cross other deep ravines ON the slope. — we were to halt that night. behind us only the upper corner of Mseander valley. and close under the mountains. is at the top of the great slope above mentioned.15 P.M.. which silver The country between us and it seemed very vast. and which is clearer than the in before we reached the khan. famous for its The little manufacture of . after crossing a large bridge over the stream of the flows in Kara Soo. and this occupied us one and a half to two hours. and far away in front. as it does not flow through a chalky soil.— 72 ANATOLIC A.

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.

and a covered gallery running round the square. was well matted.40 A. all. myself. and above them a story of similar rooms. though there are many of wood. de- scended to the river by one of the many valleys hills formed by the rolling yesterday. though small. and a pair of tough old hens and we turned in and slept — — soundly. some yaourt. —Left We . though fine. There was a number of small rooms on the ground floor. pottery. with rickety staircases leading to balconies. Our course was down to the Ak-Soo and up the April 26th. and into which each room opened. we saw Mount Cadmus ravine towering above them corner of far on the left a Mount Tmolus. The whole was distorted and out of the perpendicular in the strangest way. . The khanji supplied our supper a pilaff. its houses are good. was not equal to that of On emerging before us from the Ak Soo and still the hills above Geera. It was built round a square open space paved with large rough stones. like most of the khans in Anatolia.ANATOLICA.M. already mentioned but the scenery.. opposite slope to Geera (Aphrodisias). and solidly built of dark stone. S. The room allotted to Mr. but there seemed to be no particular plan in its construction. Kara Soo at 6. covered with snow. and tolerably clean. The khan at which we lodged was entirely of wood. and our interpreter. 73 seems to be very flourishing.

At 8. our right was a great upland basin. marble. observing on the sides of the road that led to sarcophagi. The city wall and the Temple of Aphrodite (Venus) are the most interesting objects. but was mostly in wood and pasture. and.74 ANATOLICA. and gradually diminishing in height till The general surface of this basin it disappears. The high ground we were passing was chalky and sterile.M. is being exactly later The upper part (like the Aqueduct at Aiasolouk) the restoration of a age —perhaps and under one of the Byzantine emperors. remains are very extensive. where some good erected) is brickwork has been the built of massive cut blocks of white . the Harpasa range forming its southeast limit. seemed even. It is a . averaging three feet by four in size lower part is of very fine workmanship. we reached the gateway in the wall of Aphrodisias. owing to the it material of which was built white marble — are —a close-grained still very perfect. surrounded On by mountains. has been removed as far as the level of the ground the portion still standing (except in one place. after an earthquake. A large Roman portion of the former . it many broken columns and Aphrodisias stands in the plain between Mount Cadmus and Its the hills to the east of the Mosynus. It was cultivated in a few places. but the glass showed that it was furrowed by numerous torrents and ravines. the blocks fitted together.40 A.

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with the it finest polished fret ornament. still . having been adapted for that . It would require many days to copy them. inscriptions built into the wall are very 75 congeries of capitals. shafts.ou vUns. architraves.— ANATOLIC A.. but most is a confused assemblage of blocks. seats." Near it is a bas-relief of a winged inside the Victory. and a finely executed cornice of rams' heads and oxen. and I could only decipher the words ^^Ciilp vyisUs y. fifteen fluted Ionic columns stand. circular in shape of very fine workmanship. bases. It but overgrown with bushes little the circular ends are in a better condition than the rest. deeply carved upon S1515I515L The Temple has evidently been used for a Christian church. Over the arch outside is a long inscription defaced. &c. The numerous and perfect. /^ ^JJ another bas-relief of a winged Victory. and of centuries widely remote. and built of the white marble. is and a portion of the cella. The Stadium near the gate in large characters city wall is about 600 feet long by about eighty feet contains eighteen or twenty rows ot . and a lion roughly carved . friezes. Of it the Temple. put together without selection. and perhaps not a single inscription has escaped notice by earlier travellers. broad. Part of the gateway is of fine workmanship.

the south side of the city and in a field. all sides purpose by the erection of rude interior walls. and the rich materials employed. here. a large single column. city. " To sarcophagus described by Sir C. Much has been removed in the course of ages. &c.: 76 ANATOLIC A." and one of them I believe^ the richly ornamented Byzantine is. Sec. two other. upon some of which the architrave still remains. and the site of other columns which have been removed may be still distinguished .. very a small temple in ruins of flutings the Corinthian style another porticus (perhaps) on . as in every other ruined city of Anatolia. testify to the former opulence of the In an enclosure belonging to one of the peasants we saw two large used for making These are now *' petmez. but the prodigious mass of ruin still left. with a portico of two rows of red granite columns. A few scattered columns spiral remain erect two small. the city wall is covered with prostrate columns of marble and and fine fragments of huge size. The whole open space to around the Temple and up granite. with beautiful. of which only a few feet remain. Near the present Turkish village are the remains of what was perhaps the Agora. belonging to . what base uses. but this building still ." We observed neither sarcophagi. is of inferior style. . opposite the Great Temple. and on appear Christian emblems and inscrip- tions. Fellows.

ANATOLIC A.D. . 77 Aphrodisias had a Christian bishop (the last) in the year 1450 A. Of the history of the town almost nothing is known. Aqueduct nor Theatre.

good stone bridges span them There seems a scarcity of ! water along this district.20 p.m. through a sandy but well cultivated the villages of past Emir Keui and Sekkeui. and across several deep torrent beds cut by the streams which descend from Mount Cadmus when the snow melts . and to judge from the appearance of the torrent beds these must be terrible streams in spring time. left of the Antiquities of Laodicea We Aphrodisias at 12. Furniture. —Parched District —Pass — Caffinehs in the Mountain Passes —Tomb of a Muslim Saint — Tcheragh — Cairn — Curious Custom — Mount Cadmus — Plain of Dawas (Taboe) —View from Top of Pass Torrent Bed at Edge of Plain — The " Stranger's Room " in a Turkish Village — Hospitality of Turks — Kara Hissar — Dwellings. Our route was district. Wonderful for Anatolia. No perennial brook or fountain appears to descend from the mountain on . in the Bedra Pass —Thunderstorm — Plain of Denizli — Town of Denizli — Khan— Greek Khanji — Eski Hissar (Laodicea) — Wool — Stadium Aqueduct — Benefactors to the Old City — —Thermae — Gymnasium — Small Theatre — Large Theatre — Baba Dagh (Mount Cadmus) Beli Tcham this oi Its fine Odeum — Sculpture — Destruction — Desolation of the City.— CHAPTER Torrents from of V. and Food of Peasantry— Makuf—Kilidja Bolouk Number and Beauty of the Children — We lose our Way — Ascent of the Seiteen Yailas —Volcanic Evidences —Forest — Descent of the Mountain — Cafe at the Mouth of the Bedra Pass — Defeat of Pass — Scenery the French Crusaders under Louis VII.

was not very steep. of "Tcham Beli otherwise called " Koregoze Beli. and at 4. we reached ('* continually the foot ascending from Pine Pass "). The repose. are always acceptable enough after the steep ascent of the passes. for wood is so abundant that often the woodmen do not take the trouble to remove what they have cut in the forest . and it is the custom to stop at all such places and take coffee. The cafejis are in general half brigands. however. and we never omitted conforming to the custom of the country.50 p.. There the tomb Muslim sheikh. Not many- years ago Zeybek robbers rendered this road almost now the people of the country sensational alarming it. but most of the finest had been felled many were lying where they fell. the soil is full of large 79 rounded boulders if it mixed with smaller pebbles and sand. we reached the cafe. —perhaps —stories con- cerning Near the top of the mountain passes in this country there is generally a cafe." ANATOLIC A.*' evil This pass has an impassable. and this is a mild way of levying black mail. and the slight refreshment.M. as been long submerged. . The ascent. and even tell reputation. though long. the shelter.m. this side. had At about 3 P. Geera. and evidently much respected by the people. were no very large pines which covered all this side of the mountain. Just before of a we began the ascent It we passed was a very lovely spot.

. and all the wood near the incision is found to be saturated with turpentine. at Af ka.M.8o ANATOLICA. however. common enough in Egypt. vol. Quite a different style of country appeared when we reached the top of the mountain chain. cairn of stones near the way side was a large —our . no longer from one end only. several inches deep. p. no reason or origin for it. Many of the trees are cut with the axe . and over it was a tree thickly hung with* fragments of rags.) 372-287) more than 2. This great chain. was of a beautiful ash colour. under the name " tcheragh. on the Adonis river. of various shades. for pure Mohammedanism does not allow such observances. It is then used as flambeaux. iii. with its three principal summits. in the Lebanon.. But it seems to be a common superstition amongst Muslims that by tying or nailing a small piece of their garments to a tree planted over the grave of some holy personage they may free themselves from any trouble or sickness that afilicts them. we reached the top of the pass. and after a certain time the tree is felled. In the "Thousand and One Nights " (Lane. confesses that he can assign Mr. * This must be a relic of some heathen custom. It is.000 years At 5. near the root the turpentine flows towards this part.45 P.. 222) there is a very pretty anecdote connected with this custom. people religiously added their quota to the heap it was close to the tomb of some holy man or — other. and I once observed the same thing at the ruined Temple of Venus. votive offerings it may be. &c. I believe. &c. On our left was Mount Cadmus seen in its length." (The same process was described by (B. Theophrastus ago.C. . its base thickly covered with forest. Lane. down. candles.

was the chain of Boz (" Ice Dagh Mountain "). rose the great snow-clad mass of Ak Dagh (Massicytus Mons) in Lycia. and ex- tending far to the right. though not bright green of the prevent us from distinguishing the dark woodland and the young wheat and barley. and it had by no means the same charm. portions of the chain above many smaller ranges rose on either It was near sunset . farther to the right we could discern other snow mountains. on the opposite side of the plain. but all 8 above bare.000 feet high. but only wStill its loftiest summit was visible. close to the * I WJ\s saw the same view on our return. more than 10. the top of Boz Dagh glittered like beaten gold in the setting sun. anciently Mons Salbacum Far in the south covered with perpetual snow. Involuntarily we drew bridle. lay the plain of Dawas famed for its wheat . and gazed a while !* in admiration At the bottom of the pass I noticed the bed of a . but the evening shadows had already sufficiently so to settled on the plain.— 1 AXA'l'OLICA. and side of the plain. except the highest peak. there no contrast of liglit and shadow. which still was thick with feet.000 (Taboe) Before us. in appearance the crater of an extinct volcano. G . far below. seven or eight hours distant. edge of the plain a slender rivulet was trickling along at the bottom of a chasm torrent. but it was early in the day. Moollah. snow and rose to a height of above 6.

At 8. of course. we reached the village of Kara Hissar. The country was well cultivated. Still the will is present . the poor people are kind. and with abundance of fruit and forest trees. deep . the villagers could and did entertain strangers is gratis. Perhaps in former days. a great generally treated with curiosity— is of civility. friendly. are generally foundations of private charity perhaps charges upon an estate often of very old date. the road good and bordered by hedges or walls of mud brick. to this depth the stream had cut its way through the soft red soil of the plain. when travellers were less common. whatever be his nationality or religion. and this of Kara Hissar was one of the worst we saw. Now payment expected for everything except the lodging. which nearly everywhere afford the only attainable shelter to the traveller. 82 full thirty feet ANATOLICA. .30 P. we met only in one instance with an entertainer who absolutely refused all remuneration but when we lodged in In the course of our journey . and indeed in many places the villa- gers are so poor that they cannot afford to supply the wants of their visitors free of cost. There was no khan.")* In nearly every village of Anatolia a house set is apart for the accommodation of passengers few of them afford much comfort. • These places. Every traveller. may claim shelter in — them.— . so after some delay we were conducted to the " Musaffir odasy " (" Stranger's room. ready to oblige.M. and the traveller European object —though.

but even our muleteer had great difficulty in obtaining a little grass for our horses. not only were we left supperless. some relative of the master. or they may even have supposed us to be European employes sent by the . 83 the house of a private person. we lay down on the floor of the room to sleep as might be expected.ANATOLICA. Perhaps some party of travellers before us had treated the villagers badly. and they visited the faults of others upon us. trary. we expected On the conthat food would have been brought. either the servant. for he had been treated with the utmost kindness. and the present given was but an equivalent for what we had consumed. Next morning we had some little explanation of their conduct. for often so large a party as ours must have put our entertainer to much inconvenience. These people were miserably poor. and the chief people of the place had called to see him. Knowing the custom of the country. Still we had offered to pay for what we needed. G 2 . We were the more surprised as one of our party had visited this village about three years before and met with a very different reception. and had. the night was far from agreeable. owing to the exactions of the Government taxgatherers. and no barley could be However. I do not mention this in dis- paragement of the hospitality of the people. or was always ready to receive our acknowledgment as we were mounting our horses to start. some firewood was brought.

a . often room square or oblong in without a window. has a chimney. unlike the village houses of Syria. and therefore of the Government upon some mission. and ewers. for here in winter large wood fires are necessary. to roll the clay roof In general each hut has also a fragment of an antique column. The roof projects beyond the main wall of the hut in front. dwelling only : speak here of the men's of the family almost are of clay (a the women invariably live apart. over which brushwood and clay. and food of the country people. less often. of stones set in clay of regular masonry exceedingly uncommon). and only lighted I from the open door. which serves watertight. not A few copper pots. and is supported by posts. flooring is is sometimes of wood. They consist of one low form. the roof of rough poles. thus forming a kind of porch — indeed. and so keep it The fireplace is large. the Greek Temple laid is nothing but a refined imitation of the peasant's hut. is In the matter of furniture the oriental luxurious. These upright posts rest upon blocks of — the spoil of some ancient temple or theatre when not too distant— and are thus prevented from stone sinking into the ground. - And now to give a short description houses. dishes. The of clay. they wished to appear poor. and. The dwellings of the peasantry are nearly alike over the whole interior. furniture. The walls is mixed house with straw.84 ANATOLICA. except in the large towns.

villages must be are in general very honest. plates are superfluous same dish or knives and forks their fingers r are not required.5 some quilted cotton mat- tresses for sleeping. for have they not They little lie down on the floor to sleep in the clothes they have worn during the day. .ANATOLICA. without . 8. eggs. which can be easily opened from the outside. to secure a As the plains are hill. apart. is same Having or nothing to lose. is The position of their almost always good. is not of much value in Anatolia. to bake. they eat together from the . not healthy they usually choose the side of a and are careful supply of good water. Their food consists of farinaceous matters. Land open air. and the door It only fastened at the top by said. a few vege- and various preparations of milk meat they do not taste from one year's end to another. so that their huts are built at all some distance live The door is day long. or coffee Their sugar. too. that they a kind of slight latch. drink is water. a few cushions laid upon the mats against which to rest the back when seated on the floor but this is a refinement not often seen —such As — is the usual furniture of the peasant's hut. casserole. or rather to be warmed through. stool to serve as table. and they mostly in the open is so that the sanitary state of their villages thus better than might be expected. milk. Their bread is simply flour and water mixed and poured out in a thin paste upon a hot iron plate tables. they are not afraid of thieves.

but the peasant is one of the most temperate of men. But whatever other privations exquisite.M. had now been gradually ascending for two days. but nothing seems of the old soil to be left town except a few fragments of is wall. at least the climate is For the greater portion of the year is mere existence as they are of a pleasure in that land . but not so beautiful. We The small I children of the village were very numerous. Our route was parallel to the line of Mount Cadmus. like those of the Mosynus valley. great consumer. his circumstances in most cases would prevent it. but it is sad to see the condition of the peasantry. The here of red or pale yellow loam. and were high above the level of the Maeander valley. disposed in rolling hills. It would be difficult for a man to Even tobacco.10 A. there may be. At 8. we reached the large and flourishing village of Kilidja Bolouk. is now much dearer. Such is the style in which the Turkish peasant of Anaiolia lives. deser\dng something better ! April 27th.15 A. half an hour site of — Left Kara Hissar at 6. This is on the the ancient Trapezopolis. of which he is a exist with less. and even if his religion did not forbid him to drink fermented liquors. owing to the Tobacco Regie (the new regulation lately established by the Government). and could not help noticing the great beauty of many among .M. of the Many Osmanlis have learnt the vice of drinking to excess. In we reached Makuf.86 AXATOIJCA.

who were looking for partridges (the "ajil'' of Syria). so steep that we were obliged to dismount.M. were quite delighted at our passage. had dogs. them. and were proceeding as Kieppert's map indicated towards the pass. fine ruddy blue eyes and blonde apparently brothers. turned on our left tov. Here we fell in with three Turks on horseback. between the east end of Cadmus and Khonas Dagh. They told us we had come out of our way. are fine healthy looking creatures. the direct road They were well mounted. . and laughed and waved their hands till we were out of sight. they said. intending thus to reach Denizli. we should find a practicable path leading over the summit. reached the summit in threethe heat quarters of an hour was great. a They advised us to cross the Seiteen shoulder of Mount Cadmus. and a decoy partridge in a cage. after passing through a thick forest we . with 87 All over this mountain district the children little complexions and often hair. At about 10 A. and so to Accordingly enter the pass. guns. we reached Sara Ova. but the . that the road we were now following was very circuitous. we followed a deep ravine leading to the foot of the mountain. Two little fellows. by which.xWATOLTCA. and. The ascent was of pine and oak. to Denizli. Denizli being eight We should have hours distant by that route.^ards the mountain near an overshot mill we had passed this would have brought us into the Bedra Pass. Yailas.

sparkling surface. On the top we enjoyed a cool and refreshing breeze. pale ash colour. forest. between us and Khonas Dagh lay a a deep amphitheatre. its covered with snow. did not notice any continuous lava stream like those around Vesuvius.88 ANATOLICA. with scanty patches of cultivaIt is only when one sees it from a height that the vast extent of this wonderful country can be perceived. after a short rest. but our observation was. with fragments of calcined rock and lava of every shade. with bright. . high above us of behind like us. following the cattle paths through the thick forest. air pure mountain The three great ash-coloured peaks of Mount Cadmus towered . The descent was very abrupt. in others I it is of the deepest red. and. of necessity. At intervals patches of mica-schist occurred — in colour greenish or yellow and brown. and everywhere are traces of the convulsions of Nature which cast up their mighty mass. far below. and of lava in every shade of red. separate from Cadmus. lower slopes thick with pine volcanic. The soil is of tufa. kept away fatigue. in shape like an steep sides. lay the plain Dawas . we descended the side of the mountain. full wide forest tion. and yellow in some places the rock is calcined to a All these mountains are . of and pasture. The heat in the ravine had been excessive. green. Khonas Dagh with very its is another great top mountain. is and the whole surface of the soil composed of tufa. district. limited. inverted basin.

around. and which recalled pleasant memories of bygone days.. we rested by the stream. and everything was fresh and fragrant. The cafe was on a little patch of level ground. when their rearguard was surprised and destroyed by the enemy.ANATOLICA. It was in this neighbourhood indeed it must have been in this very pass that the French Crusaders. delicious. and we were soon obliged again lead our horses. narrowly escaped death or in the . in 1148. We were now close to the Bedra Pass. and defeat- ing the Turkish army near Laodicea. which leads due north to Denizli. met with a great disaster. Here reposing on turf. to 89 dismount and and The fragrance amongst many for of the pines was a other beautiful flowers I observed large beds of primroses. they were carelessly advancing through the mountains to the south of Denizli. . Heavy rain had fallen here on the previous day. under a fine plane-tree. After — — forcing the passage of the Maeander. forced to fight with his own hands. Amongst the slain were thirty of the principal " seigneurs " army and the King himself. under Louis VII. green as an emerald. and in about an hour from the summit we reached a cafe on the main road to Denizli. Our guide led us directly down the mountain side. ^ plant I had not seen now eleven years. shut in by Many singing birds warbled all lofty precipices. and the sound of the wind in the forest was strangely sad and musical.

down which a stone could be thrown. execrable. but the The road is scenery wonderfully grand. the Yourouks. hundred yards from the part of the pass begins. There was not a house in sight but high above. inaccessible precipices above their path Deuil.go AXATOLICA. we resumed our journey.M. a description to which this defile At 3 P. which seamed the moun- not yet in were bordered with fine walnut-trees leaf. . . it the most difficult Like the Tcham is said to be the scene of frequent robberies indeed a told us man was then resting at the cafe who he had been robbed and stripped of his clothes a few days before. on the grassy slopes. The deep tain sides. . At intervals we passed great caverns hollowed out in the steep rock precipices. The mountains rise steeply above on all sides. and in several spots the road ran along the edge of precipices 800 or goo feet deep. As before. we were much surprised at the extent and ver- dure of the mountain pastures. the only dwellers in that wild place. torrent beds. and the spring seemed fully a month later here than in the plains. The ravine through pass is here a tremendous the mountain chain. we could distinguish a few tents of . an eye-witness of the event. speaks of the deep gulfs below exactly answers. Otho de and the capture at the hands of the infidels. and far away on the opposite side of the gulf. cafe A few Beli.

I may mention feet . roadway.<^^^^'^^' . and when we reached the northern end of the pass the rain began to fall in torrents. that our interpreter. We left Denizli at 9. As we descended from 91 the pass on to the plain of the Lycus. i Pfeilizii is ^sti^a^^^lifigtown of 'b'f' some Its .30 P. —A heavy rain of yesterday. feeling the ap- proach of fever.AXATOl.lye^llj '»upp|i6"4o MH'l-h. eiecfc.. April 28th. like a floating cloud.M. new and clean 'but' Yhfe-'khanji. over Hierapolis. shone faintly through the mist..000' or trees. desired some hot water for his but the khan could not supply a vessel large either to enough heat the water required or to splendid morning followed the » serve as a bath for the feet. by a steep rock staircase. in the • midst of very violent *] ic^L-iix 15.2*6. run- ning up the mid4l6'.llent streets haW 'd toie'rkbly 'good -pci^ed' causeway.M. of the barbarous As an way of living in these lands. which had been raging on the other side of the plain.25 A. covered with broad patches of white incrustation. We reached the khan at Denizli at 7. and the high cliff on which the old city stood. and consequence instance paid no attention to our wants. with very violent thunder and lightning.'666' petjpi'e)' full' ' gardens and fine water. We could see it gradually approaching. a thunder- storm. having been delayed by the difficulty we . burst upon us.ICA. had been in indulging too much in raki. iciijid' '. Our khan w^as a Greek. Hierapolis lay almost due north about five hours distant.

10. and the Greek but we found a shops were nearly all closed man who sold what we required. ing that we " were strangers. t The villagers livings on the S'pot' knew "nothing of it. enclosed a large side of the plain. Strabo says it became great in his time. however. which to ^ said have supplied the baths of the oM -city. like that of Hierapolis.M. At first he made a scruple about selling.aqueduct. the price. But we passed the'-reBraims cf a large . but at last. which can be traced without much difficulty. extent of ground.35 On we reached Eski Hissar (Laoway we searched in vain for the is hot spring.92 ANATOLICA. his conscience by adding a few piastres to the A. It was the Greek Easter Sunday. Its former prosperity may be inferred from the style and great size of its public buildings. was high so perhaps he quieted ." he allowed us to have what we needed. observ. partly from the benefactions . and in that of the preceding generation. At dicea). This hill part of a chain of broken hills of chalk. V lyii^g" east and west. or chalk-like tufa. in found making some necessary purchases.wsneih < < Laodicea was built on -an' "irregular is oval hill. and on a journey. The charge. and corresponds with the Hierapolis chain on the other The town walls. which rises in the middle of the plain of the Lycus. the arches and piers of which "v/ere co-C^ered with incrustation deposited by the.

It is about 220 yards long. more than 2. ." he calls it). The east end of the building may have been the Gymnasium.'conitriicUonV. . who for his many excellent qualities was made head of the State of Laodicea by Antonius.C(7i1te!m'^ a few apse-like recesses (perhaps others niches" 'for 'Vt^fues). 18). and his sou Polemon. without any State aid. . was softer than the wool of Miletus. in but most many instances covered with plaques of marble. A Christian Church was early founded here (i Colossians iv.000). of Laodicea were of solid white marble of limestone.t ' The west. This. xiv. 14 The town flourished even to the middle ages. . and * Amongst these were Hieron. fj^t :eit}i6ir\ end a few arches "the west). perhaps. some facing north but all in so ruinous a state that nothing can be clearly made out. examined the Stadium first.opac^'h xp^^f " raven colour. remain* (four' at 'tKe central portioH east.d. . 15) but was soon corrupted (Rev. he says. 27). In a. the damage was made good by the citizens (Tacitus.* partly from the excellent quality of the wool produced there. iii. and of a deep glossy black {x. and confirmed in that honour by the Emperor Augustus. of 93 some very wealthy citizens.000 talents (nearly ^500.ANATOLICA. Ann. for Colossse also produced wool of equal excellence. and many of them have been: quite 'f-femtiyeci. — .' nihe*"a. lAl} '^^o^g llie\ north side of We ^ the Stadium is* a ma'ss'of "bliildirfg' of very solid but coars^". 62 the city was partially destroyed by an earthquake but. Many of the public buildings . All this district seems to have possessed a similar property. but the rows of seats are much overgrown with brushwood. who bequeathed to the citizens and adorned the city with many gifts besides afterwards the rhetorician Zeno.

'mH*30Qr. and facing is Mount Cadmus. is a long building ofveVy "solid cdnslriictiori. It a large Theatre. and the scena lies 7vithin the curve of the orchestra but all in ruin. mortar had been employed in all this struc- and there must be a great accumulation of rubbish inside it. the'fvyrnrn'asi'iinV. Inside the end of the Gymnasium stood a fine column of red-veined marble. and ba. diameter. with heaps of debris. a small Theatre. but more to is the north. was covered with a thick stony crust.^ being^' far ^tbo. but it is com- and only a few of the seats remain. pletely ruined. This. Exactly opposite the small Theatre. with V a diazoma about half-way down. and the corresponding column or columns have been removed. and connp/:'te(^^'\^^i{1l'. which are either quite with a stony deposit.s6s bf^cMbmns in situ : ' . ]tl^e. The angle : at which the seats are built is very steep the cavea exceeds a semicircle. at the the Thermae must have been here. — perhaps a Palaestra. A remarkable feature in its . for in the mass of masonry filled extreme east end there is a number it of large earthen water-pipes. Only a portion of it is left. No ture. and covered .•'•"•' ••• " • On the north side of this building. too.94 ANATOLICA. massive for its presfefit 'height. looking like a coating of plaster. wfth eight or nine doorways. . and embedded a curious illustration of the petri- fying quality of the water throughout this district.' Lying 'a little to the north. or covered with in it. 364 feet in exterior contains fifty-five rows of seats.

down the cavea for There are nine the passage of spectators. foundations The whole is . facing the west. they had not strewn on every side. broken or and a street of tombs seems to have extended westwards to a bridge of three arches. one the head of a child. but only remain. escaped iconoclastic zeal. and still towards the north. but is not easy to say of what building they formed part." Beyond the Theatre it are fragments of large (or columns. but of limestone. are the remains of a very fine building. ANATOLICA. for in either the nose of had been carefully destroyed. in a little better preservation. . The Odeum and perhaps another is Theatre). construction is 95 a deep and wide recess. Next the Odeum. and the other a head of a young girl but small as these were. but quite ruined also of a second. in the middle of the ''pulpitum. but only fifteen or sixteen rows of seats staircases remain. of a semi- circular form. The proximity Denizli has caused much ruin to the antiquities of . To its the north- west stood a basilica. amidst the pieces of marble two fragments of sculpture. We searched in vain for an inscription but while resting on the south-west side of the hill one .. which crossed the ravine to the west down which the Caprus runs but the arches have fallen. . of our party discovered. slope of the hill towards west all and north displaced covered with sarcophagi. constructed of large blocks of white marble. entirely of marble.

who had visited this place ten years previously. y and naked —has been fully accomplished ! . Laodicea. " rejection of the Church that was "neither hot nor cold" before God all —that. . amidst knew not that she was "wretched. and miserable^ and poor. to form Muslim tombstones On the same occasion he had found the foot of a colossal male statue. The threatened her wealth. A Turk was then ^ some of the marble seats our party. There is a small hamlet at the south-east corner of the hill on which the old city stood.96 ANATOLICA. but it was too heavy to remove. but all else is utterly desolate. ! work removing of the Theatre and one of at no doubt much might be discovered. and blind. said that he had then seen a Greek mason hewing in pieces the really fine bas-reliefs under the scena of the north theatre. If the Ottoman Government would permit excavations to be made at Laodicea.

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— CHAPTER Bridge over the Caprus Hierapolis VI. we left Laodicea.50 P. At the side of our lodging feet in height. each consisting of a huge bundle of sticks. and passing under the bridge over the Caprus. The birds. In this tree not than seven pairs of storks had built their nests. showed not the least . shallow. stream from the cliff. never being molested.48 P.M. near which ran a branch of the hot rapid. A ride of three-quarters of an hour brought us to the foot of the cliff of Hierapolis. and we were lodged in a cottage. finding and turbid with white mud.M. turned north to Hierapolis. it We crossed the Lycus at 2.. was a less tree not more than twenty but with wide-spreading branches. Its Its — The Ak Soo (Lycus) Our Lodging at (Pambouk Kalesy) Tree full of Storks' Nests View over the Plain of the Lycus Our Host's Family Turkish Women in a better position than Arab Women Their Musical Voices Position of Hierapolis Effect of the Petrifying Waters Watercourses Deposit of Calc TufF The Cascade Basins in it— Heat of the Water Its Properties Pine Water-vessels Bridge over the Ravine to the West MauVisit to the Ruins solea— Rock Tombs— Street of Tombs^Sarcophagi— Ruins of — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — At 1.. great Church — Monument of Stephanus — Other Ruins —Theatre — Great Source — Depth — Deadly Exhalations of Carbonic Acid Gas — Ancient Accounts of the Plutonium— Strabo— Pliny— Dion Cassius — Thermae — Gymnasium — Epictetus — Greek Chuich suppressed by the Latin Crusaders — Wool of Hierapolis— present Desolation — Return to Smyrna of most of our Party.

On its north side it was still thickly covered with snow but on the south. monotony of left. From the door of our lodging sign of fear. may have something * I particularly noticed here the soft musical voices of the Their language. . SeveThey ral other women of the village came in. From Boyudjak Dagh the hills circle round. Between this and the mountain above Tripolis (Boyudjak Dagh) the view was closed by a part of Messogis. and a little corner of yet another . Their children were of great beauty. gradually subsiding into the plain. xj Here. though their nests were almost within reach of the hand ! was a view of the mountains and the plain of the Lycus. for instance. The owner of the cottage in which we lodged had married a Yourouk w^oman. which is singularly euphonious. and splendid teeth. and some were very good-looking. and they receive far greater consideration from their husbands. In every country seem superior to way the women of this the women of Egypt. its sur- In front. on our extreme Dagh. its chalky soil sparsely cultivated and full of marshes. until they join the heights behind Hierapolis. snow only remained on the highest peak. the latter gloomy and solitary. . with fine scarcely a tree to relieve the face. eighteen or the long chain of Khonas twenty miles distant next came the Seiteen Yailas then Mount rose . She had a dark but healthy complexion. wore no veil. w4th fine blonde complexions.98 ANATOLICA. one never hears* women. Cadmus. chain appeared in the extreme distance.

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to the 300 feet in height north. Its waters have flowed over resting . at The oldest deposit is of a dull ash the newer white. often of considerable height. up to which the ground rapidly slopes. About half-way between the cliff and the base of the hills. . which the water continues at There are seven well-defined spots which the stream has flowed over the cliff various ages. is the famous source of hot water. grating. and most unpleasant but the negro and Abyssinian slave women resemble the Turks in this respect. has gradually been formed. and about 1.700 feet above sea The south edge of the plateau is formed by level. covering the whole face of the precipice more or less thickly . H 2 .ANATOLICA. with a deposit of porous stone (calc tuff) and wherever a branch of the stream has descended. along a distance of several miles. The voice of the Egyptian women is harsh. do with it but it is a peculiarity of the race. rise well-wooded mountains. and about and behind the city. along the top of to flow. upon the mountain limestone. colour. the disgraceful abuse and wrangling so 99 common between the Egyptian husband and wife. the cliff. ancient Hierapolis The was built a cliff of travertine (or in great part of travertine). stretching out into the plain like a lofty watercourse. it is Close to the present In cascade to of the purest white. like fine salt. upon a plateau or shelf in the side of the mountains to the north of the Lycus. at different spots. and nearly threequarters of a mile distant from either. a long rib of stone. .

and number of small basins. Above are much larger basins. none exactly alike. of a bright V yellow colour. of herbage. It is a singular and very beautiful phenomenon. gether and covered with the deposit but these beautiful objects are too fragile to bear carriage.. like sulphur again. The water in these basins varies in colour from the faintest pearly blue (which is exquisitely above another. but each surrounded by a small rim. leaves. others. deposit tinged with red in . have been matted . Wherever the water runs over these ribs. the whole surface of the cliff seems to be in motion the strangest way. At the foot of the basins. beautiful) to blue with a tinge of red or yellow. everywhere the ground whole surface is covered with stony ribs in the most regular manner. cliff is The x/ easy to mount its . like wave marks on firm sand. fall it is near the large fall of a beautiful grey. with strong projecting ribs the pipes of an organ) descending from their edges and converging below. a little some places branch of the stream leaves a . moss. The hot water of the source in is . nor at the same level. These form an innumerable sounds hollow. Of course the shape and size of these basins are continually changing. to- flowers. one are a number of small shallow These are formed of the stone which is deposited gradually by the water as it drips from the edge of the upper basins into those below.loo ANATOLICA. sticks. In many places masses &c.. (like snowy white.

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April 29th. and ferruginous. the inside is may be drunk. though not palatable. old city from the west side. loses loi strongly charged with carbonic acid gas. The water is of a mawkish taste. These vessels are very durable and strong. like salt or snow. posed to the for the first air it loses its injurious properties. and ascended to the plateau on which the citv stood. ing water. slightly acid. Here I and saw time the wooden vessels used for carry- They is are made of a section of the pine : hollowed from below. a mile along the base of the we turned up a ravine on our right. and minute bubbles form on the surface of the body when bathed so that when held under water it looks like still retains its heat. frosted silver. and it is so soft that no soap is needed for washing or to remove grease spots. but. —We began our examination of the After passing about cliff. Our accommodation was poor. we lay down upon the mats and slept as best closed we could. It is not wholesome. which it ^ and then the water deposits on everything over which it flows a it when is exposed to the air . and the bottom by another piece of wood exactly fitted into it. At a distance of fully a mile from the great spring the water of air in it.ANATOLICA. and good drinking water must be brought from a considerable distance but after the water of the source has been thoroughly ex. fine pearly alkaline substance. thoroughly tired. .

an inscription legible : in large letters. interior divided into stories. long western street. across the ravine. one with .AEEIZ . the sides of the ravine amongst others.. with the stony deposit from The constant dripping filled of the waters has till it gradually up the arches. A. some thirty feet in height. city is a Both on the east and west of the street of tombs. The road. TTVZtOLS^. now forms nearly a solid wall.— I02 ANATOLIC A. upon the top of the building. On an eminence to the west of the ravine Its is a is very massy sepulchral building. AIETASETO Tl(3' k1^ KAEriNOZ APXlEPEaE AIE 00. in continuation of the was here carried over the ravine by of the stream from the great this a bridge.. is placed a large sarcophagus with coarse . .y£Qov61oL . but only in part /3ov){?^ ets (xnapoLLT-oTOV . SCQCLVOOTLKCLIC. A branch it source has at / some time flowed over bridge its and covered waters. Outside. bas-reliefs carved upon it and probably the stages in the interior were intended to receive funereal Many rock tombs and mausolea are on urns. but the spaces are not large enough to contain sarcophagi such as those that were lying around.MODXAI K\EnNoi: AiioXm * For ncv^ioii ? .

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monuments which is are The material of w^hich these made is the mountain limestone. built of large blocks of stone. without mortar. In a ravine to the north-east of this street of is the ruin of a large Christian church of octagonal form. but not one remains unopened or uninjured. The mixture This of letters in the inscription is 103 curious. Some of them are really beautiful. Many of them are of great size. and in almost every case fine lichen has overgrown the crumbling and obscured the outline of the letters. man may have been a high priest of Cybele. Very solemn and impressive these lines of massy funereal monuments must have been while as yet comparatively new and uninjured.ANATOLIC A. Here and there portions of an inscription may be found more sheltered. number of sarcophagi. and with the cross inscribed upon tombs extends It is bordered by a great for about half a mile. and therefore in a little better preservation. whose worship prevailed tombs it in Hierapolis. V less durable than marble. and close to it the remains of a large and handsome church. and of the inscriptions not one of the many we examined was in many places. but most cannot now surface of the stone be deciphered. in some parts three or four deep. About the middle of the street of tombs is a wall of very solid and massive masonry. and presenting a great variety of shape. and . The street of legible throughout.

thus inscribed in large and deeply cut letters : TOTTO TO HPaON STEOANHI HEPrA2IATnNBAcDE<QN.— I04 ANATOLICA. and behind them are the ruins of private houses. . The corresponding Greek below it : — SICO PONT 3^eyond this is MAX TRIB flat). carved V the labarum Near it. Over the arches is with great open arches. is a large sarcophagus. POTE. such as existed in most of these ancient cities.e. The space between these and the columns had been roofed over and served as a portico or covered way. of which only part legible. on the other side of the street. a double row of half-columns having the back part The street passes be- tween them . [i.) Beyond this is a triumphal archway (of three It is arches). with a round tower on either is side. (The Dyers' Company [erected] this monument to Stephanus. but all are prostrate. bears a Latin inscription.

— 2. Gate. FragmeTi. 7.— 3. with the arch fragments of wall on of the gateway stone. Massy Wall. A watercourse —now dry—passes from the great .— 9. Inner Gate. Precipitous Cliff. — 5. Triumphal Arch with Towers. Richly carved fragments or are built into of marble scattered about. Tomb of (all fallen). hill on the The edge lie of the cliff was on the south. PLAN OF PART OF THE RUINS OF HIERAPOLIS.ts>> vVall extending towards Kills. the inner gate.— 4. Ruins of large Church. Colonnade City Gate. X. Stephanus. with a wall extending towards the north. — 6.— — ANATOLICA. Street of Tombs. is side inscribed the cross A few yards beyond this is another gateway. is north side closed with massive blocks of and the doorway is thus left square as at On its inner Kremna and several other places. not many yards distant. Next we passed 105 through its the City . Road towards TLcrijiae.— 8.

hill. remains.. with five circular recesses over each is a smaller square recess. all of fragments having been inserted in the as the wail. the ruins and debris of the city over which it flowed in its course. looking towards injured than the south-west. intended perhaps as waiting places for messengers or attendants on the spectators. this The upper building has been restored at a late age in the same way sorts Aqueduct at Aiasolouk. Columns and fragments of all kinds are embedded in the stone. interior 100 feet. In the w^all behind the diazoma are some niches. io6 ANATOLIC A. yet seen. A stream has at some direction. perhaps part of intended to receive a statue. four small and one large these are ornamented . and It is less any we had commands a fine view over the site of the old city. twenty below it. with its stony deposit. with the rooms for the actors. others perhaps being hidden by rubbish. time been branch of the turned in this V and the water has fastened together. still The scena. is and at the side of the the Theatre. the whole forming a kind of wall several feet above the present level of the ground. Beyond this watercourse are the remains of a large solidly built edifice. in great part V There are five doorways in the scena. There are twenty-five rows of seats above the diazoma. On a higher part of the plateau. source towards these gateways. . Its diameter (exterior) is 346 feet.

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for There are four vomitoria the upper rows. some doorway &c. lintel 107 with sculptures.ANATOLIC A. We had feet depth. and the at white marble pavement bottom. this The eye cannot penetrate gulf. . of a slight blue tint. gloomy but it this deep Probably must be of great depth. but we could see at a depth of about tv^^enty or twenty-five fragments of columns and portions of a w^ell- made marble pavement. along the sides and finely executed. is The inscription over the great illegible. the usual confused heap of bas-reliefs. and fragments. In the centre of the "pulpitum" there appears to have been a deep niche. no beautiful. still faintly visible through the clear The same wall-like has rent and distorted the solid watercourses formed in the . figures. South of the Theatre is the great source no means of measuring its . two square for two round the lower. are water. and before the gateway lies columns. thrown down perhaps by an force earth- quake. was then blue laid the The pure effect of the tinted water doubt. pool is On far one into side of the a deep rift in the rock at the bottom. have escaped : demolition. it is a large and deep pool of water. reservoir was artificially formed to its collect the water of the hot spring (for if sides are steep as the rock had been cut). that above the very white It marble the was. one or two however. would over seem also a its temple once stood source.

But the eunuch priests of Cybele (a. misty vapour.mo\. The villagers told us that several persons had been drowned while bathing here. were sometimes killed. after speaking of the hot spring. course of ages by the different streams that have issued from the \-/' From every hollow hill. bubbles of the gas to incessantly from bottom of the great the surface. so that difficult to see the ground. Strabo (xiii. overpowered by the noxious gases. quite The in air outside this enclosure all pure it calm weather. dragged down by an "efreet" who lived in the spring.1 08 ANATOLICA. but animals that enter die directly: even bulls are killed by the vapour. " a deep aperture under a small cliff in the hill side above the town. and one of our party found two sparrows just dead they had alighted to drink and were stifled by the vapour. as they thought. so that they even approach the aperture and stoop down and look into it and — . carbonic acid issues with a hissing rise sound the . Fdxxoi) can go in without hurt. . like source and mount upwards flickering particles of silver. 4).moy. and it is this is filled by a is thick. Doubtless the exhalations from the waters and earth are sometimes very concentrated and deadly.. large enough for a man to enter. in the ground along the bottom of the from gas every little patch of marsh. In front of it was but. a square enclosure about fifty feet in circum- ference. mentions the Plutonium. source. Goats. too.

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plunge into firmly. Sinuessa. he did not know saw the relates exactly what he and heard.." ot Hierapolis as being " innocuous to the priest of Mother orifice [i. Pliny (lib. as in cases of enthusiasm or perhaps employed .. £/ and made that it trial of the vapour with himself stooped over and looked at and the vapour birds.e. in the province of Asia." &c. Amsanctus. into one of the many deep gulfs water the marshy ground ." He is in doubt which. cap. and that it kills all animals. We Caution is or the unwary\y walker may suddenly of hot fall . strong antidotes. Probably up.— ANATOLICA. speaking of Trajan's in to an the earth near Babylon.. from which a deadly mephitic vapour rises.. the Mighty &c. ii. saw nothing resembling necessary in examining the spring.svYi rm)y and there was a place from which to see it (S-e'ar/jov). it 109 — so long as they hold their breath which they did till they seemed to be choking. cap. 27). . Perhaps all eunuchs had this immunity. this aperture has long been blocked it. except men who reason. or perhaps only the eunuchs of this temple could do so or they were saved by a divine Providence. was enclosed in a kind of receptacle (iv ^E^x{jt. but are eunuchs . says that he had " himself examined another similar aperture at Hierapolis. speaks of the Plutonium only. 93). after mentioning similar deadly exhalations at Soracte. Puteoli. Cybele) Dion Cassius visit (lib. Ixviii.

They they may have belonged cliff. attached to the interior sounds hollow beneath are of the foot. masses of hall ruin. and they are often half hidden by a thick fringe of rushes growing round their margin. We observed the square pillars mentioned by Sir C. truly The arches and in are gigantic in their proportions the blocks of which they are built. no ANATOLIC A. The east are other ruins. admirably \/ in and from the holes the stones they seem to have been formerly fitted covered with plaques of marble. . but together. depositing The whole surface of the their incrustations. The Gymnasium Thermae is filled with debris.. and not waterfall. to courts in which the bathers could take exercise after the bath. and strangely w^arped by the sun Fellows. Of the Thermae a huge vaulted of and mighty arches remain. consisting of . the edge of the Along and just over the waterfall. massy walls much and not far distant out of the perpendicular was a large basilica with three naves. some kind of coarse conglomerate. over which the waters have flowed. without mortar. round the source is full of them. All these buildings are constructed of great blocks of limestone. On the edge of the cliff. far from the are the remains of the Thermae and Gymnasium — enormous solidity. connected with the Gymnasium by walls immense Along their outer base runs the principal channel of the hot water from the source.

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Paul (Colossians iv. Church was founded there at a very early period.1 ANATOLICA. his master to put an end and long afterwards was for this banished and finally executed by the Emperor his Domitian. 1 1 its street of numerous sarcophagi but in overpowering heat we did not to the tombs and consequence of the visit them. slave of Epaphroditus. pure .) so excellent that they might even vie with the it rich scarlet and precious sea purple. fell the rival Churches soon before their common enemy. 1066. to who helped life. but here. Hierapolis." Its last bishop was in A. side of the city has also . It was the birthplace of the famous stoic philosopher Epictetus. properties of its says that the mineral water rendered the root dyes of Hierapolis (madder. 13) mentions " them in Hierapolis. Of the time when the city was finally abandoned we have no record. &c. Doubtless the Greek Church Christian A there was treated in the same way as in other places by the Latin Crusaders. like its neighbour Laodicea. Its And was famous as a bathing place. who seemed to have suppressed it whenever they had the power and to have established the usurping Church of the West in its place .. as elsewhere. owed most of Strabo its prosperity to its woollen manufactures. and St. the victorious Muslim. Hierapolis in the time of Pliny was devoted worship of Cybele. the infamous freedman (libertus) of Nero.D.

myself." the . V abundant waters. This signifying " Cotton Fort. Pambouk Kalesy is is are left. the romantic woods and mountains in its neighbourhood. which in these great plains already intense. but its The in rich gifts of nature are place of the flourishing city.M. and the two muleteers remained. Our 3 friends from Smyrna and Aidin all left us at to is P. For the rest of the journey only Mr. our interpreter. Seiff. all helped to make it famous in the ancient world. with polished and wealthy citizens. so as escape the heat.. But its glory has disappeared like a dream I have seen few spots more gloomy and depressing than the old Thermse ! of still Hierapolis. the beauty of its position. there. its ANATOLICA.. only the black tents of a few wandering shepherds and the poor peasants of title. .112 air. name by but the which the place known to the Turks ruins of the old city have no tenants except the few Yourouks who bring their flocks to pasture there. intending to travel night.

we of one of the tributaries hills the Lycus. — Bridge over the Lycus —Yourouk Tribe Emigrating — Shepherd's Bridge — Ravine of the Ak Soo — Site of Colossse Barrow— Remains of the Old City— Petrifying Streams — Chasm of the Lycus — Explanation of Formation — Last Bishop of Colossae — Ride to Khonas — Beauty of the Count v — Village of Khonas — House of Ibrahim Aga— No Antiquities Khonas Beauty of the Children — Visit of the Villagers — The Kadi — Want of Education among the People — Beauty of the Country to the west of Khonas— The Kazik Pass — Our Escort — Mount Khonas — Tchukour— Brigands' Place of Ambush — Plain of Karajuk Its Rivers — Cibyratic Confederation — Crops— Soil — Irrigation Geological Formation — Karajuk Bazaar— Khan— Greek Khanji Disturbed State of the Country — Arab Servant Khan — Ravine and Village of Geunahi — Barren Soil and Miserable Crops Eschler Yailas— Desolate Aspect of the Country — Poverty of the Villagers — Money-lenders — Causes of Misery in a Turkish Village — Salt Lake of Salda — Karaatlu — Our Host — His House — Crops — Forests — Carelessness in the Management of the Forests— Fires in the Forests — Our Evening Meal. its at at April east.. — Left Hierapolis 6. crossed After passing the Keui. dry. Ghirlani.m. Our course was due hills. in weather cloudy and very sultry.30 a.— CHAPTER Parched District VII. and scantily covered with herbage. In the descending from the on the north. along the base of the will over a soil chalky. and summer villages of Dagh on our left. . all which soon be scorched up as Eldenizli advances. 30th.

114 ANATOLIC A. When- ever we passed near any shepherd us. had we reason to complain of the peasants on this point. many . cattle. no villages Lycus is very parched and barren appear in it. by two Close \y ranges of barren chalky Hierapolis. but between the range of Laodicea and the high mountains to the south of it lies the plain of Denizli. Nowhere.M. we (Tchorouk by a good stone bridge. indeed. but the black Yourouk tents are at this season thickly scattered over it.40 A. camels. of sheep and goats they were well dressed. powerful them the fine and dogs would bound fiercely of towards in but their masters were most careful off. and ascended the hills to the southeast of the stream. The country to the east and north-east of the . and some of the men mounted on good horses their women (who did not wear a veil as most of the Muslim women) were . On our way we met a large Yourouk family or calling them tribe en route for some other pasture ground. The plain of the Lycus is : bordered Laodicea. forty They had thirty or and some hundreds . hills one the range of the other that rises a of behind the former higher limestone range. All these high mountains are volcanic. to plain our right were the villages of Aktche ' Tchesmasy and Tchetmejas. and the highest point of Khonas Dagh appears to have been the crater of a volcano. crossed the Lycus At Soo) 8.

.

) v^*^ r-'' v<v ^^ ^' v^"o^ v^. 346 JEfci IN DTAMliTER. . THE THEAlRh OF hluRAPOLIS. '"^^^^ ^sm^?^ ^*vii!^^J*^ STYLE OF TOMB STONES AT COLOSS/t. (Only half the rows 0/ seats m tht cavea are represented.

tied to the soil. and were passing up the bank. By mistake south we had crossed the stone bridge. who of are. and crossed this frail structure singly. It consisted of trunks of trees laid across from two rocks on opposite sides of the stream. 1 2 . good circumstances their roving life enabling them to escape the exactions of the Government officials better than the village - peasants.* The title) ruins of Colossse (or rather the site Colossae. really good-looking. valley at reminded me of the the great source of the Orontes. for of ruins we saw none deser\'ing the are on the north side of the Lycus. and covered with brushwood and earth. us directed Some shepherds whom we met to a spot where we could recross a deep the stream and rapid torrent by a bridge which the Yourouks had made for the passage of their cattle. which here spans the river. this a very picturesque spot. . Though and not so large or beautiful as the valley is of the Mosynus. It on the which here borders the quit river and some provinces they cannot permit their villat^es without a . — here — The valley. — even their is destination must be specified but in the interior this rule less strictlv enforced. in a manner.ANATOLICA. . site of Colossae at 1 1 A. 115 Altogether they seemed in . river descends rapidly tlirough a narrow of betw^een cliffs chalk or limestone. We is * In special reached the cliff. in the Anti-Lebanon. We dismounted.M.

several is a curious cairn or barrow. says that wool. over which were placed either massive stones or monuments. and possesses strongly petrifying . and apparently no public buildings of any importance nothing but rude — limestone blocks scattered over a space of half to three-quarters of a mile square. city wall. and near it three streams one —the largest —flowing from east to west. from the north-east the qualities) . it. close to the barrow above : mentioned. Nothing appears to be left of the town but a number of rough lichen-covered blocks of limestone and rock tombs. Strabo. In this poor upland valley. and far out of the route of Colossae could never have been s/ their {ytopoi^r} a place of however. soil. Ak Soo. no theatre.ii6 ANATOLICA. nearly all We saw no remains of a of the same shape. another. they made good profits from was of the same raven black wool of Laodicea. called the (this is probably the head water of the Lycus. x9^^ ^^ ^^ A unite bridge crosses the river. which much importance. exactly opposite to on the other side of the Lycus. with a barren traffic. (We noticed parts similar artificial mounds in various of Anatolia).

. emits a fetid odour of sulphuretted hydrogen indeed town. Near the bridge the whole north bank of the river seems to be a deposit of the Ak Soo. along the edge of the cliff till it met the similar deposit of the stream. Hamilton. vii. we nowhere saw inscription. with better success than previous travellers. which turns some overshot mills near the bridge. and the stream.7 ANATOIJCA. " x^Tpca yrjs h(^oixxujv (Herod. formed by the constant deposit of the Ak Soo. We dotus searched. which (as before said) falls over the cliff into the Tchorouk Soo on the south . nor the slightest record of the old While riding up the north bank of the Tchorouk Soo we passed several petrified watercourses like those of Hierapolis. for the spot in which Hero- says the Lycus disappears under ground after and again emerges a course of about five ss stadia (about half a mile). supposes that this place was the narrow ravine below the bridge. for to many no miles round. 1 1 in a considerable waterfall over a the south full The rocky banks but of the river are single of tombs. a crust now simply and that the "chasma" was under which the river flowed. and that the above Ak Soo once entered the Tchorouk Soo there^ and not as the bridge. — the whole country. third falls cliff. 30). whose description is very exact. seems abound with waters like those of Hierapolis.

The master . ride from Colossse It up to Khonas is very passes through a belt of cultivated trees of cherr}''. one of the few spots of we saw— out of the valley the Mseander which seemed well planted with fruit trees. their the streams would be diverted from stone course by the they themselves long before they could cover over a ravine which. and apricot. is yet relatively deposited — to such an operation —wide. one of the principal men of the place. We rode through shady lanes.d. We reached the village at 2. though narrow. and richly-wooded country. have caused great changes in the surface of the country here . The pretty. Yet for it side. walnut. vine. elm. although doubtless part of the city was on this side of the river. Near Khonas itself the land is barren and stony. passing many small streams and fountains. amidst kinds many pear. A bishop of Colossae (the last) is mentioned under the reign of Manuel Comnenus (a. At intervals w^ere antique fragments. and were lodged in the house of Ibrahim Aga. or a piece of roughly sculptured marble.. — oak.30 P. I 143 — I 180). but we did not obser\'e any important remains.M. Doubtless lapse of but. &c. ash. is time. It is plum. earthquakes.. altogether. is not easy to see how this could occur. this still question of the "chasm" of the Lycus one of the unsolved difficulties of ancient geography. a few broken columns.— iicS ANATOLIC A.

himself was 119 absent . The house was situated in a large courtyard overshadowed by fine trees plane and walnut. On one side of it a fountain of excellent water poured in plentiful stream into an old sarco- — phagus. He was a man of some forty years. tall and thin. and he was endeavouring to recover it. finely-cut features. A negro slave waited upon us and showed us every attention. We then went of the village called us : their out to see the village. While to coffee was being served — the first and indispensable point see —the at notables head Mustafa Effendi Almaluli. the Kadi of Khonas. There are no ancient remains the hill — only . After giving the necessary orders for our comfort he retired.ANATOLIC A. In front was a tall wooden erection some- thing like an election platform. upon trees. a deserted mosque on the side of and although we questioned our visitors closely. this visitors sat. we could obtain no certain information as to any ruins in the neighbourhood perhaps — the villagers neither knew nor cared about their . his horse had been stolen. but well matted and shade of the — — tolerably clean. but roofless and dilapidated . and soon the rest of our visitors followed. and very courteous and well-bred. under the and enjoyed pipes and conversation. with handsome. The house itself consisted of one goodsized room low and dark with the usual small windows and low doorway.

ANATOLICA. who was a native of Almalu. I thought I had never seen a more perfect picture Towards sunset we returned to our lodging. &c. understanding that we intended visiting Lycia. and then no was meant. I could not help the children. wellbuilt. gave us some inwith her bright blue ey^s. Few travellers visit this retired spot. a pitcher at one of who was the many engaged fountains in the village. their land was not productive " barakat yok ("there is no blessing!") they said. and beautiful flaxen " as she turned to look at the " Giaours Her hair was of a which a kind of tranquil surprise was evident. in formation as there as to the best routes. remarking great little beauty of especially one girl of six or seven years. in He said was no fear of brigands Lycia — this. This was the only occasion on which I heard the word " Giaour " (unbeliever). he will be seen. but many Greeks live amongst them. but we heard that about two years before. and healthy. most filling picturesquely attired. — ! — several other places. colour. was not quite correct —but .! I20 existence. and Mustafa Effendi. Visitors again dropped in. But our hosts complained of " poverty. It was synonymous with European. The position of the village at the foot of Khonas Dagh is fine it is clean. the so here. The majority of the people are Muslim. As at offence . in two Europeans had stayed a while the village.

and two of his own At servants. but none worth buying. intolerably close and sultry. strongly advised us to take the Kazik Pass. After visitors long and desultory conversation us. and brought with him our escort. consisted of rice. but they were intelligent and very polite. dull and gloomy.M. he frankly confessed " would be best to say that of education there was none. I In reply to my inquiries for antique was told that about eighteen months back the Ottoman Government had sent men round and collected all the antiquities. ourselves in might easily have imagined a mild. we started. coins. which the villagers possessed. A few were &c. — Up at 5 A. as to the state of education it in the village. We . a dish of stewed pilaff. coins. flat another of beans. and the prices asked were ridiculously high. yaourt. and our with a cakes of unleavened bread. dull July morning in England. a negro and a fine young Turk. soup. The previous day had been 7. left The circle of their ideas was limited. On inquiring of the village moollah. the route 121 an escort through we were to follow on the morrow. The kadi again came to bid us adieu. brought.M.ANATOLIC A. but clear to-day was I May St." Our supper was sent from the " hareem " of It our host. who was one of our visitors. a zaptieh (native policeman). . Some of them were extremely fine and handsome men. peas..25 A.

except on the slopes of the hills. and the scenery is far inferior to that of the Bedra Pass. a broad and well frequented and passing through a wide valley in the mountains. It is we reached the entrance of the Kazik road. turned southwards the plain . through a beautifully wooded and grassy district filled with bit birds and wild flowers. and to it the road gradually ascended. first At our route was to the west. Just at the head of the pass our guides pointed left. As we rising very gradually. mountain basin was well cultivated. and still ascended beyond it. some 4. and like some neglected of forest country in England. 9 A. only frequented by the Yourouk shepherds. and there in the hills on our right were patches of deep red soil. fresh and green. — us.122 ANATOLIC A. There is but little wood. out a small lake on the in trees thickly for embosomed any robbers — a usual place of ambush lurking in who might be the neighbourhood. At Pass.M. we could distinguish Denizli in between us and it lay a number of grassy hollows. and below one of these lay the village of Tchukour as its name implies. till we could feel the cold breeze coming over the snow. which was at no great distance above . its summit crowned with pines and tipped with snow it was of that beautiful ash Here colour already noticed in Mount Cadmus. . Mount Khonas rose on our left. a deep This hollow surrounded by high mountains.000 feet without a break.

rising in the and till its tributaries.. receives rivers and more than a hundred Bubon. which lay due north from us. It is watered by the Gerenis Tchai (Indus Amnis) This river. Balbura. which amounted to 100 talents (nearly cities of this district The — Cibyra. ANATOLIC A. After passing this our guards path. Of these cities the first was able alone to raise within six days the heavy contribution exacted by the Roman Consul Alaulius in 189 B. left 123 us.. moun- tains of Lycia. — ." 2^) says that "the Indus.C. sixty perennial torrents. some forty miles west of Makri (v. Cillanian Karayouk). This magnificent plain fifty district — the ancient — extends in an unbroken level for nearly miles towards the south-east. to the base of the mountains which form the northern limit of Lycia. rising in the Cibyratian mountains. and ^noanda formed a rich and powerful confederation. on the other side of the plain. and rapid stream. flows northwards and north-west within three or four hours of Karajuk Bazaar it then the turns suddenly to the south-west. and we reached the summit of the pass by a steep rocky We could still plainly see Hierapolis. deep.. and under name of Dolomon Tchai Pliny (Calbis) enters the sea in a large. After an hour's rest at the cafe a short descent brought us into the plain of Karajuk [pron.

g. or left uncultivated because of the heavy taxes or trees. The plain subsoil of the very tenacious of water. the water bucket plain is The low^er end of the transverse pole. serves to draw up when full. In a few places occur igneous rocks east to the and north of Cibyra). especially on south-west edge. but a large portion of the soil is now either lying fallow.124 . ANATOLICA." Two upright posts support upon a pivot a long pole. and even a slight rain disappears slowly.ooo) bushels). The great mountain ranges around it are of limestone. The apparatus for raising water is like the Egyptian " shadoof. high rent demanded. intervals There are few very few villages. but at we passed large wells. being heavy. and iron ore is plentiful.000 medimni of wheat is (15. [e. even that of the plain of the Lycus for we had every now reached the great The temperature was side mountains central plateau of Anatolia. and 10. soon a heavy thunderstorm burst over the pass we had A . dense haze hung over the plain. and far in the south rose the high ranges of Lycia. to the extremity of which a brass chain and bucket are attached. Fine crops of grain and opium are grown here. in sight.000 The level of this plain considerably above . The is a tertiary its formation. and no streams in this part. On were many still covered with snow. and the chalk crops up. sensibly colder. in hills of considerable height.^25..

and many travellers met long trains of on foot and on horse- back. 125 and a cold. . and at certain seasons of the year fairs are held here. these have a flat brushwood covered wath clay. and had visited nearly all the ports in Anatolia. wide enough to insert the hand. driving rain began to fall . the temperature was selves in the many at is degrees colder than we had lately experienced. made us a huge fire of pine logs. having lived a while in Alexandria. a small village. We camels. however. and with a row of small one-storied chambers along the sides of the square roof . which are very numerously attended. good. Near the khan are large sheds for sheltering the camels and their loads. He was very attentive. The khan itself is simply a square yard. which had fallen off in great part and exposed the mud bricks of which the walls were There was a small window. boards of course no glass and the door as usual low and narrow there were several chinks in the wall. The chamber assigned to us had been plastered inside with clay. which was very acceptable. just left. and useful now as ventilators but fortunately the roof was of made — — . great. The khanji. a Greek who had been a seaman.ANATOLIC A. closed by two built. surrounded by a wall of unbaked brick. containing khan Karajuk Bazaar only about 200 residents. . knew a little Arabic. and we gladly sheltered ourKarajuk. The number of passers- by is.

his account was somewhat highly coloured leading of the Medjlis . by orders from Stamboul. " that a had been robbed only a few days before. the people were lazy and therefore poor. He told us the usual tales about brigands. we agreed to hire an armed Turk. Although our room was unpromising. of the cold and inclement climate (" Kool hoo jebal. and at present there was no authority in office. the mats . who by some chance had found his way to this out-of-the-way place. an Arab from Jaffa. but he had married a woman of the country and could not leave. though he wished himself back again at his beloved Jaffa. or two that : and drink a few cups of the country He said was in a very disturbed state the Kaimakam of Karajuk had been disgraced. whom the khanji recommended. to accompany us The servant at the khan was as far as Geunahi. company to prepared us a tolerable supper. and we should at all events require a guide. He complained of the poor pay he received. and very ready to attack travellers. member as the country we should pass through on the morrow was wilder and more solitary than that we had hitherto seen. they were too fond of the chase.. 126 ANATOLIC A." &c. for some serious offence the Medjlis (village council) had been dissolved. His delight at hearing his native tongue was great. Perhaps still." " it is all mountain. and then favoured us with his smoke a tchibouque coffee." he said) .

called the Even grass fails here there is nothing but stunted woods of pine the whole Eschler Yailas. district is volcanic. ridges and boulders appear. but not continuously by far the greater part was waste at 9. even the cemeteries. Our was due hills east. ravine. up a narrow between rounded covered with large loose boulders of sienite.45 a. a large village hill. The people are wretchedly poor . were clean. A small stream traverses the valley . Geunahi. rocky. — At 8. we reached pines at the foot of a conical were growing. At the very top of the ascent from Geunahi .ANATOLIC A. These hills form the east and all this part consists of Further up the granitic and sienitic formations. Auschar and Sertchalik. and we passed a tolerable night. there were no fleas for a 127 wonder. limestone.m. barren. it the soil was cultivated. and uninhabited. I never saw thinner or more wretched crops than those around this village it seemed as if they would not repay the cost of seed and a on which few magnificent . we left Karajuk. . After passing Geunahi we ascended country. May route 2nd. fire and it seems as if a devouring had passed over it. and limestone mixed with granite along . valley. labour. After passing the small villages of a. with their rough wooden monuments to a tract of instead of stone.m.15 or covered with brushwood. granite and limit of the plain. show signs of poverty. .

for the Turk is really an honest man. resolute men might easily rob a whole party if they could but surprise them in this spot. and he confirmed our impression of the poverty of the village and district. &c.128 ANATOLIC A. When the creditor finds that his debtor can pay no to the authorities.) in addition to this is . open space with high and the only exit is by another Nearly at the summit of the Eschler Yailas is a no proits inmates could afford guard-house tection in case of real danger. but on this lonely . &:c. He said the peasants could only afford to eat bread made from Each person required for "tchudar" [i. implements.. is there a spot which looks like a veritable robbers' trap : the track passes through a narrow opening in the tufa rock to a small and steep sides.^ rye).. The villagers pay as long as they have course risk the power .^. " The village was heavily indebted. who of make a charge in proportion to the (2. much beyond the fair price). more he generally applies and . &c. the year's consumption about 350 Turkish piastres worth of this (about. Denizli. they require from the native merchants of Aidin.. the expense of their clothing./j2 15s. tract it is pleasant to find a human habitation. The zaptieh at the guard-house was a native of Geunahi.e. Two or three narrow opening like the former. in the hands of w^hat the money-lenders the villagers speedily sink into They obtain clothing." and once the most wretched condition.

and a plentiful incrustation of salt has formed all round the edge of the west end water.ANATOLICA. the defaulter is 129 imprisoned released. the other free from A few hundred yards from the guard-house we crossed the highest point in the yaila. . mon 3y-lender pove'ty. . but when at last it is evident that nothing more can possibly be obtained of the man he is An attempt had been made by the Government to afford relief banks in adv mces nia: by the establishment of agricultural various districts. money-lenders . The poor people hav« then no other resource but application to a and once embarked in this unfortunate course the villagers are always in a state of . The waters of the lake have the same bluish metallic lustre that all salt lakes present. This perhaps accounts for the striking contiast often to be seen between two neighbouring villages debt. with the village of Salda at Kaiadeveh (the village indicated in Kieppert's map) is at its east end. &c. which should make lower interest than the / to the peasants at a the very exorbitant rate demanded by it Arme- had failed. but owi g to failure of the crops. —the one is indebted. In general the beginning of monetary troubles in a Turkish village is inability to pay the Government taxes. . and saw below us in a deep hollow surrounded by well wooded Salda hills of no great height the salt lake of its (or Salta).

&c. and surrounded by bare On the left were the Yalanlish mountains. At 2. upon the walls were rudely painted yellow. and large cushions to rest upon. and consisted of a spacious inner room ceiled with pine planks. and round the walls hung weapons of various kinds. it rises to a high plateau. which were supported by The floor extremely fine round beams of pine.35 P.I30 ANATOLIC A. amongst them some fine old Arnaout flint guns. a small vil- lage in a hollow of the plain built in the midst of a group of Dolomite limestone rocks. without hills. trees. road. and blue. only half cultivated. in red. The fireplace was spacious. but he was dignified and courteous and seemed much respected by the people of the His house. the mountain above Sparta. We were entertained in Hadji the house of " Karaatluli of Karaatlu. was of unbaked brick raised upon a stone foundation. we halted at Karaatlu. tion —a clock. which was the best we had yet village. seen. was well matted there were carpets. which here project in white masses from the in general level surface. The great plain opens. which is very good.M. and far in front rose the snowy top of Dauruz Dagh.. green. descends nearly to the level of the water then passing Kaiadeveh on the left. flowers. There were some attempts at ornamenta. . Here another . Omer Zadeh Ali Aga." the Kadi V Our host was not so handsome as the Kadi of Khonas.

was a spacious summer room its roof was supported by fine beams of pine. Throughout all this district it is the custom to live reception . but its sides were open. deep The wheat harv^est begins at is about our month of August. balcony extending several feet over the roadway. Some of these open rooms are really handsome in their Attached to this outer room is a large way. during the warm season in such a summer room. K 2 . and not separated from it. From 131 the road outside six or seven steps led up to a wide wooden stage. but although surrounded by mountains they suffered much at times from drought. and that no stranger can enter it. flies for in the cool pure air of this high plateau and mosquitoes are seldom troublesome. land was good. He said their their village only contained about 150 people. had two men serving in the army. I need not say women's part of the house (" hareem ") separate. but this year no rain had fallen at the favourable season. intense. and it is here that the master of the house and his sit friends during fine weather.ANATOLIC A. Their village In winter the cold snow lying over the whole country. upon which the door of the room ("salaamlik") opened. Last year the crop of opium was large and of good quality. less that the is quite After taking the customary cup of coifee into conversation with we fell our host. Nearly all the houses in this part of Anatolia are formed more or upon a similar plan. On a level with this stage.

if this all opened up by railways and necessary for the will be absolutely . afterwards heard the same thing at Constanti. but that so rapid and plentiful was the growth of the pine forest in the mountains that he did not think the supply likely to fall short. plains cavalry can act with effect. for the feeling of the whole country was opposed I to any restriction in the use of the forests. nople a great disturbance even had been caused to in various places an attempt on the north coast of Anatolia by prevent the villagers from exercising a privilege they had their right of "foresting." enjoyed from time immemorial. He assured us that there were no brigands in all that district the forests were not extensive and on these wide open — . The magnificent beams house gave wood in his . country should be at roads. lately established Constanti- nople. and then fells the tree. it And yet. He had to bring his firewood from a mountain. and building timber needed a woodman is sent. who marks on the bark the name of the man for whom it is intended.132 ANATOLIC A. me occasion to ask about the forests V he said that no care whatever was taken of them. difficulty He in thought that there would be great enforcing the rules of the at Forest Administration. so that brigands have less chance here than in the thickly-wooded of pine districts further west. sometimes they supplied more. any one might if freely take is what he required. at about one hour's distance .

I know not if this be correct or not. number of deep copper dishes . and thus the forest often takes fire. We sat smoking and talking. and dreadfully of forest along the banks of the — i/ — hungry.ANATOLICA. notice of a terrible fire that had broken out in the on the mainland near Rhodes. Nor is the mischief limited to the mere destruction of the wood. Government the forests. In these southern regions the disappearance of forest is inevitably followed by drought. Again. in 1873 a very large extent Jyhoun in Cilicia was destroyed in the same way. however well wooded a country may be its forests are soon exhausted. to take in 133 of hand the management Already the export of timber from some ports is large. a till at length our supper appeared. (casseroles) First. and when the demand becomes great. The shepherd tribes burn the dry grass in autumn in order to obtain fresh pasturage. were brought in containing the food these were placed . till as in most of the Greek islands and throughout nearly the whole of Syria and Palestine there is a chronic scarcity of water and rain. and said that for it it rivalled in extent the great fires in extended from Boudroun to Marmarice. Levant Times forests In the course of last summer the — a Constantinople journal — contained America. which every few years causes a famine. and immense mischief is done. unless care be taken to protect and replant. a distance of seventy miles.

some "yorghans" (quilted coverlets of cotton) were brought out. and some sweet thickened milk. and we sat down to our meal. fire . . a dish of poached eggs. a copper pot of soup. and yet all perfectly polite. was placed a large round copper tray (sunneeah). the attendants finished what was left of the supper. The supper was good. next.134 ANATOLICA. near the table . a this low stool (khursi) — the native . floor to sleep. served up with tomatas and yaourt slightly flavoured with garlic (and very palatable). but it was rather embarrassing to be surrounded by fifteen or twenty people all curiously watching our awkward attempts at eating in the native style. and we lay down upon them on the a pilaff. upon consisted of a dish of stewed peas. After we had eaten. and a number of flat cakes of unleavened bread some wooden spoons and a few green onions were laid It round the tray. a large closet in the wall was opened.

consisting of two tall standing figures. Sparta in Cliffs till Inscription over the Village Fountain — Lacina— Statue of Yarishli— View near the lately Its easily in to May 3rd. perhaps of the same age. and I concluded that it was of the same nature. Carvings at Karaatlu— Dangers of Wealth in Turkey — Opium— Village — The of Naoulo— Lake —Appearance of Country— Beauty of View over the Lake of Buldour — Village of Yarakeui — The Villagers — Inscription the Cemetery —Yasakeui— Rich Colour of and Soil — Buldour Khan — Our Evening Meal — Environs of the Town— Guschla Tchartchin —Volcanic Formation — Rich Colour of Soil — A Yaila —Yaraseen—Road through Volcanic Hills to Sparta— Plain of Sparta — Government PoHce (Zaptieh) — Pambouk Khan — Mosque — Greek Schools — Greek not spoken here quite An Antique Statue from Cibyra (Horzoom) — How Sparta was Thriving Appearance— Mines in the District Founded — Want of Roads — Railroad might be made — We are Summoned before the Governor— Greek Church — Good Houses Pretty Situation of the Town — Improvement the Behaviour of the Turks to Christians — Wealth of People — Climate — Crops Expense of Transport — Instance — A Railway Projected from Adalia — Bargaining of Orientals — Earthenware Plates. near Yeuzgatt. It make nothing rock carvings at Eujuk.m. on a crystalline white limestone rock in the village. but so much defaced and worn that we was evidently not Greek work. as the could of them. which Mr. .5 a. —We left Karaatlu at 6. As we were starting the villagers pointed out to us some coarse bas-reliefs.— CHAPTER Rock Poppy Lake VIII.

before Tanzimat and publicity became the order of the day in Turkey. his life was as much at the mercy of the officials as his fortune. We learnt that our host had just been released He was the from a forty days' arrest at Buldour. remote of this it Fortunately even in these districts of the empire such cruelty as that impossible. and should he in the least point transgress the law he is in A rich man unmercifully " squeezed. and which he thinks were Lydian work. which was covered with fine crops of young wheat and poppy." In the old times. and in a dispute with some one who had injured his horses had beaten the man severely. At Aidin several fearful stories were related to us of the cruelty of Hafiz (or Tahir ?) Pasha. which were of white . Government "menzilji'' (postmaster). although man is is now almost cannot be denied that grievous injustice and of oppression common occurrence. In this elevated district the latter is not yet in bloom. who was deposed in 1840 by Sultan Mahmoud. but in the more sheltered valleys the ^ fields were gay with its flowers. The Governor of Buldour had referred the matter to the Governor of Kirk Aghadj. another. Hamilton describes. Our course was due east over the plain. and our host had been released but during his arrest his post had been given to .136 ANATOLIC A. Turkey is always exposed to the exactions of the Government officials.

was closed by Dauruz Dagh. been made in the seed washes off the milky sap before it has coagulated.ANATOLIC A. to visit it would have taken us far out of our way. and great care is required in scraping off the opium when dry this is done by the women and children of the villages. and is passed through Yarishli. falling after the incision has vessel. Two Naoulo. but even had their information been less vague. The village fountain surmounted by a cornice of close-grained limestone. and beyond it range after range of mountains. The people of the village told us that at the west end of the lake stood a statue with its arm extended. and. They even pointed out stood . with water of the deepest blue. 137 and lavender or deep slate colour. hours' brought us to the village of From the high ground near the village is ride a fine prospect of the lake of Yarishli. . The old town of Lacina was in this place. From Naoulo we descended till the view into the deep depression in which the lake lies. . as . bearing a long inscription. covered half way down from its summit with snow. but much of it is illegible. the spot where the figure carefully but though we examined the whole neighbourhood with the telescope we could perceive nothing of what they mentioned. It is a somewhat precarious crop cold weather at seed time injures both quantity and quality of the drug rain .

. inNMETI . nPECBIACACHN(Y)CENEni0EONKOMUO AONTPYOXlNAnOAAUNIAOYYnOCKOMENOC YTA AnOnPOIKOCIAAOCOYIN TPOCIAIACHPnAOCnPOC4>IAOTEIUHC AMENOCMETATHCrYNAIKOCAMUINEAAOY {J>ro ?) 7.. Much quite illegible.. 3... and it was not easy examine . (rest illegible) KA I TON A I C..TXlNKPIAHN.— 138 usual. were a few columns.... there .EOTHPOMATP ANXaNEINOT.. 4. 5. CYNnANTOCOIKOTTX^NCEBACTnNKAI lEPACCYrKAHTOTKAIAHMOYTOYPXlMAinN EniAN©YnATOYTOYAAMri POTATO Y. Many of the letters are much is defaced.nNAOTONEniTnKAIAYT ACAIABIOYMETEXEINEK T E AECTO BAAAN E lONHAPEAnKEN.NnAA. and only stopped long enough to copy Cemetery but neither we the following inscription. line is quite illegible LINE I. 8. ANATOLIC A. in the saw nor heard of other remains.... 2. TONAIAMONH . : Great part of the first nACIKAI ... KAIEICTONBACIAXITHC.. NEAC HPAC lOTMAC .NTO.. &c. 0YrATPOCA. As to nearly as I could is make out this the inscription. . TAPIOYTITIANOYTHTAYKYTATHnATP lAITilNTAKINEXlMAHMnMETAnACACAP(x) ACTEKAIAEITOYPriACKAIAIAnOPITION {T AK N EaU pro A A K N E n N I I ?) 6..

who had borne sundry public charges and duties amongst others apparently a deputation to the Emperor Commodus. bordered by low quite bare and here commenced a tract of country such as we had not There were at rare intervals a few yet seen. scanty patches of wheat. one behind the other. He gives the bath " complete/' with the consent of various relatives. ANATOLICA. and we stopped involuntarily The foreground was the plain. On mounting we rocky hills the hill at the east end of the lake entered a wide sterile plain. on condition that they should " have the use of it during their life. we had a magnificent Below us was the lake of Buldour. No village was in sight." The date of the inscription is A. 211 — 217. the son of Apollonides.. and at its extremity one of the snow mountains we had seen from Karaatlu Borlu Dagh. but on reaching the highest point in the plain prospect. but most of the ground was covered with bitter or aromatic herbs. dull green or yellow herbage then the patches of white clay and shining salt at . encircled by ranges of mountains. It was a lovely sight. records the dedication of a bath to his " dear native place " —the Demos of Lacina— by a certain — Tryphon. which of vegetation . during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla. scarcely afforded pasturage for a few miserable sheep. — covered with pale. owing It 139 to the position of the stone and the intense sunlight.D. to look at it.

some fifty miles distant. sinking downwards lake in most beautiful outlines the deep blue waters. showing the presence of the red loam so often mentioned masses of deeper violet marked the pine forest on the mountain sides one range immediately under Borlu Dagh had no trees on its summit. and it appeared of a pale rose tint the glittering snowtopped peak. . and yet they were very polite they made us coffee.— . One old peasant was spinning string from flax V examined his string. fibres. of beautiful scenery in this wonderful there is country no monotony. but so far as regards colour the district we passed through to-day surpasses The nearer hills and mountains are bare all ! of trees. the soil is sterile and not a tenth of anything it cultivated. Every day has disclosed some variety throw a faint haze over ! . They stared. at the " strangers' room " (musafiir odasy). and in return he timidly examined my riding gaiters. the nearer end of the lake next the gardens and . but the colouring surpassed I could have imagined. . and nearly the male inhabitants of the village came to look at us. I . with great patches of carmine. towered above all. We rested all an hour in the village of Yarakeui. walnut and poplar trees of Yarakeui of mountains. . and yet the colourSome of the mountains were ing was wonderful violet. for which they refused all payment. I40 ANATOLIC A. to then ranges towards the — a fitting frame to sunlight seemed The bright all.

v\ov yz\oixivov " Colonel Leake explains this inscription correctly. ^ probably Arundel reads " ^Is. inquiring for antique coins. at which there was a general laugh. Our him that the ornamental sewing was the work of young ladies. *' 141 Yawuz ! Yawuz ! " (excellent) he exclaimed. have seen. one man said. with a laugh. I : In passing through the Cemetery copied from a column the following well preserved inscription KA-nGAAFIAE THC KATACKGTHC TOT MNHMGIOT nPONOI AN nOIHCAMGNOT KAA AIKAGOTC AIC TOT TG NOMSNOT ANAPOC ATTHC. It is I noticed women do most of the work At 12. they were clean. we left Yarakeui. but his clothing was of exemplary cleanness. true the one quite in rags.M. although they could not even have heard of. constructed . they seemed to enter into the interpreter told idea." Though evidently very poor. On much less ancient. (thus ^ — : read) in the following manner — (" The by monument) of Claudia Pelagia. they " could not get modern coins.30 P. scarcely a sewing machine.— ! ANATOLICA. But when I explained that not only such things but even boots and clothing were sewn by machinery.

But I read the inscription as written here. and. e. but the latter seemed more prosperous. which is washed down in great quantity by the rains. and is cleaner and Having passed through the village better built. only leaving room for the road. keeping close to the lake.M. ! guard-house. Vis rou ysvofji^evov. I noticed the rich colour of one cliff. and formed of soft tufa. we rode along a small muddy stream which ran much the towards the crossed left. and the hills are of a pale cream colour. which displayed five or six shades of red and yellow. . who was doubly the son of her husband " — the father of Callicles married Pelagia. than a mile and a half apart. and some cream colour and close The blue of the to it was a rock almost carmine sky was in brilliant contrast with the yellow cliff. we entered Buldour. All this district is of volcanic formation. I. a large and well at the foot of tufa town situated in a recess which rise high above it. after which Callicles married the daughter of Pelagia by a former husband.. near the Government house (Beylik Konak). At built hills.142 Callicles. built in the midst of a group of rounded white limestone rocks. viz. Soon after 3 P. some very pale ash. we another stream by an angular wooden Here the rocks approach close to the lake. The road passed through a pretty shady lane The two villages were not more to Yasakeui. we reached the bridge with stone piers. 5 P. .^ ANATOLIC A.M.

ANATOLIC A. perhaps this may have had something to do with their dislike to eight mosques .M. followed by raisin sherbet cooled with snow. with a left few raisins at the bottom. The town has Christians — if. indeed. and "koshaf.. and he gave us a good room.—We left Buldour at 8. and even found us some quilted coverlets (" yorghans "). was not the usual round flat cake. and with a very intelligent look. of excellent quality. but oval and much thicker. May 4th." made of " pekmez " [i. Our bread. almost always fine..35 A. the any but a and whatever — may have said they were not outwardly rude. soon brought him to reason. Many were of extreme beauty." We and a sweet dish called " tahhunn. but the khanji at first The khan was good. The streets of the town are paved with large stones finished our repast with yaourt . eyes teeth beautifully white. inspissated grape juice) flavoured with sesame oil. bracing atmosphere. However. As we passed along the streets to the 143 khan the people stopped to gaze at us. civil. our muleteer. necessary at night in this pure. their complexion generally blonde. and our interpreter said their remarks were far from complimentary. Mehmet. they is have European they I traveller a rarity here. not very There was no meat or usual dish of eggs pilaff to be had.e. also noticed here number and healthy appearance of the children. so the was served called up.

but all the villages from wards to this Kaiadeveh eastplace are of unbaked brick. . and it seems a busy. thriving place. The gardens of Buldour stretch along the shore of the lake to Judging from th6 size of the but they are not extensive. In the Cemetery was a plinth bearing in front a female bust. large patches of salt appearing at the left. we again of cypress. stone. stretches the plain To the north and east of Ketchi Bourlou. Guschla is built stone. as the soil soon becomes salt. It bore the Greek shield and lance on one side.) there was on the roadside a hollowed . a tree we had not observed since we left the Mseander valley. At Guschla. A few some of them of coloured marble.144 ANATOLIC A.000 to 18. the houses are well and solidly built well stocked. are in the Cemetery of Buldour and at Eski Yerrah (9. the bazaars town it may contain 15. on the other a vase and a flambeau or quiver. the east end of the lake. Heavy clouds cast a violet hue over the mountains. along the base of the tufa hills. There are few antiquities in this neighbourhood. Our road was towards the east. . saw the the first village we passed. now used as a drinking trough.000 people. The village possesses two mosques one shaded . fluted columns. and on one side a triple bunch of grapes but the inscription was illegible. . which overhang and almost surround the town. and these were reflected from the motionless surface of the lake as from a mirror.55 A.M.

i s at nsKi vi:rra!i.'/ -^y ^•:^W *: \. •'^ . .woik .. niiar iu i.~i»i)6'- .— '^• i^taaamsssitef—-- SARCorii.\(.

.

which plain. is is carried down in great abundance to the of soft clay filled with pebbles. all Many of them are of great extent.35 A."*a level for the the general name mountain pastures and elevated basins in the highlands of the interior.ANATOLIC A. L . had and this not being homogeneous. but formed of a mixed mass of substances. olive. and afford pasture . east side of Tchartchin I observed a ridge On the cliffs of rock of a deep rich carmine colour. Even in the great heat of summer the air in these districts is bracing. carmine. Tchartchin. by a magnificent fountain in front. Ridges and detached peaks of whitish limestone projected through hills all. the waters had forced a passage through it in a strange way. through the summer The literal meaning of the word *'yaila"is "a summer encampment. poplar. and turned into the hills on our Here the torrents . hill After a very steep ascent to the summit of a we reached * This is at 11 A. leaving high detached pinnacles of harder substance. and the above us were tossed one above another in the wildest confusion. and many shades of ash colour. and at night even cold." Most of the villages on the others are well cultivated.M. a small "yaila.M. and in the near it were beds of dark grey tufa inter- mingled with horizontal strata of sandstone. cut very deep channels in the loose soil The loose soil. we reached right. At some remote age a tremendous volcanic eruption had taken place in this immediate neighbourhood. and with 145 an abundant At 10. In one bank cut by a torrent the earth displayed four or five shades of lake.

top of grassy spot at the bracing.g. and which bears the name of the village e. Above them rose the snowy chain of Aghlasun Dauruz was in Iront. It lay under the hills to our right." — . and The air here was we had a fine view of Dauruz Dagh towering above all the mountains round it. Like all the plains in Anatolia it is surrounded by lofty mountains those on our right.55 A-M. At 11. like the heights we had passed. producing fine crops of grain. and never free from snow. and — . but below extremely fertile.M." to which they emigrate every summer. and at the foot of the mountain passed the village of Yaraseen. watered by a clear streamlet. pointed volcanic peaks of all shades of colour. and near the village of Lawuz was a large hills. Everywhere the and I observed a large soil was a light tufa dust column of dust fully 200 feet in height carried along by a whirlwind.45 P. road to Sparta or Isbarta (the ancient Baris) descending through a narrow winding ravine in the chalk-like tufa Everywhere along our course were tufa and lava of the most varied tints.— — 146 ANATOLIC A. quantity of trachyte. coast and in the low plains have a corresponding " yaila. V which on that side was barren. The hills were rounded and barren.^ Seydeleer yailasy literally. surrounded by poplars and walnuts not yet in leaf.we began to descend. We were now on the high . we emerged on the plain of Sparta. " Seydeleer its yaila. the mountain path. even cold. At 2.

is determined. weapons. piastres. Vegetation is still backward in this elevated district. In the evening we called upon a Greek gentle- man who resides here (Mr. which did not look inviting. In for is a fine mosque — fine. The Government provides these men with horses. not many times. lay As in the morning. but office * Since this was written the Sultan has changed his Ministers. and. in its way. and they receive 300 Turkish piastres (about -£2 I OS. We rode into Sparta with one of the Government zaptiehs. the mountains and the plain were covered with the most beautiful tints. and having its roof covered with sheets of metal. to put down brigandage. and a tolerable only costs We front alighted at the Pambouk khan. which to the north-east. L 2 .) per month. Anatolia —with a cloister of pointed arches. 147 we had seen from Naoulo. Mahmoud Pasha. and proved to be the dirtiest and most wretched of it in which we had yet sojourned. It seems that the new Grand Vizier*. and uniform. Indeed the whole country east from Karajuk presents quite a different aspect from that on the coast. if possible. is equally or even more beautiful. that is. few months was the average duration in A of a Grand Vizier. and has greatly increased the number of zaptiehs. Shere^f-ed-din-Oglou). Borlu Dagh. to whom I had an introduction from the Imperial once. horse Living is very 800 cheap.ANATOLICA.

like all the elderly people in Sparta. schools are very well attended.: 148 ANATOLIC A. sweetmeats. Greek schools were opened in Sparta to teach the These rising generation their ancestors' language. is a most agreeable bacco were offered. and well-informed man. Accordingly we went to his house. where again coffee. but Mr. He speaks French with a . which happily relieved him for the time but he never quite lost the fever. S. At length we returned to our wretched quarters. junior. and we sat smoking and beguiling the time by trying to keep up a conversation in Turkish. at Smyrna. and the younger Greeks can in consequence now speak Roumaic but I was told that the Greek Bishop of Adalia is Ottoman Bank opposed to them. May 5th. He was from home. as thinking they will corrupt the orthodoxy of his people. and on our return to Aidin we left him there sick. S. who. but we were received most kindly by his father. Mastic (raki) and rahat lokoum (the Turkish sweetmeat) were offered. We waited a long time for Mr. could About eighteen months ago only speak Turkish. The attentions of the khanji a little reconciled us to the khan. S. —We had intended to start early. where we had left our interpreter suffering from an attack of fever. mastic. and toMr. With some difficulty we induced him to take a strong dose of quinine. came and very kindly pressed us to accept his hospitality. .

Isbarta is either upon or near the site of Baris. but was stuccoed together though not without merit. It had been broken. and holding in one hand an eggy in the other something like a small cup inverted. French traveller who made three veiy extensive journeys in Asia Minor in the years 1705. about two feet and a half in height. I know not what authority there may be for this particular account. who had been expelled from the Peloponnesus in a civil war. under their king. : this neighbourhood. little 149 and with a good accent. but he gave us a history of the foundation of Sparta that it was colonised by a party of Spartan emigrants.) It is a young and graceful male figure. could only speak Turkish. standing. He. existed at a place called Dourdan. which its possessor had bought for two Turkish liras (about £1 I2S. but there seems to have been considerable settlements of Laconians in hesitation. too. brought us to the house of a neighbour to show a statue from Horzoom (Cibyra). Next we called at the house of an old Greek gentleman near the river.: ANATOLIC A. after- wards by the Lacedaemonians. and Lucas* was told that extensive ruins. probably of old Isbarta. of Strabo expressly says that Selge the great city was founded first by Chalchas (no doubt the legendary account). with long wings. He having received his education at Smyrna. and 1715. but well. it is not of very fine execution. It seems to represent the genius of Birth. * A . 1706.

and there would be no great natural difficulty in the way of extending the Smyrna and Aidin Raihvay to . younger brother and sister. . it may be intended to show special attention to guests. and such towns are not favourable to the preservation of ancient monuments. as the line of country to be traversed has no great mountain chains. lying parallel to the proposed route nearly all the way from Aidin to Sparta the . some of the wine of the country. at which host's we were waited on by our . We returned to a dinner alia Franca. but the town seems a modern thriving place. Wood coal is is scarce here. . these for the most part indeed. although.I50 in the ANATOLICA. Our host told us in course of conversation that there is a coal mine near Buldour. this being the patriarchal custom in families here also. the elevation of Sparta above considerable (3. but unworked there are also various other mines in the same neighbourhood. the mastic was excellent. I noticed very few remains of afitiquity in Sparta. A railway would be of the greatest advantage to that district. and in consequence char. country is level or rises gradually. the sea of is course. We tasted Sparta. but it is not of good quality on the other hand.250 feet). mountains to the west of the present city. burned this is brought from forests at a considerable distance.

he having gone to pay a visit to Hussein Avni Pasha." wandering The Governor. received politely enough by the officials.* He is said to lead a very comfortable life. During our walk we noticed many very good * We He has long since been recalled. (1874) Grand Vizier. and our passports (teskery) alone proved sufficient. ex-Minister of War. Such are the vicissitudes of Turkish official . On returning to the 151 khan we found to that a messenger had been sent Governor. although exile from Stamboul rank. Accordingly taking with us our travelling firmans. we went to the Governor's audience room but we did not find it necessary to produce them we were . which presents nothing remarkable. He is now life. and that the charge against him was a mere political manoeuvre.'') said the secretary. We did not see the Governor. geldiniz. who is exiled here on a charge of malversation. and the interview was soon over. it seems. and has not been deprived of his property. in order to summon us before the show our passports and in thus "explain what was our object about the country.ANATOLICA. I is a sad infliction to a Turk of high that afterwards heard he is a very polished and agreeable man. and even nominated to a post in the Administration. safa geldiniz " (" "Khosh you are welcome. is a man of the old school — a somewhat bigoted Muslim. . were then taken to see the new Greek Church.

come perfection. about 3. three. The cost of transport of course thus . that a few years ago he could seldom enter the bazaar (market) or pass through the streets without now. and from twelve to The latter were for- Our host said merly very bigoted and intolerant. especially apples. changed. thousand Osmanlis. is Cholera rare. but he attributed the improvement entirely to fear. or at most ten thousand — pounds are the " fortunes " of Sparta. and a site of the fire. — There are no large fortunes in Sparta there are no great risks and no great gains in business there and two. A large part of the town was burnt on the about three years ago. had great never reached the town. and fever Vegetato and fruit. The built position of the town is really pretty — it is on the slope of a long hill. is of which a large quantity sent to Adalia on is camels. Our host praised the bles climate. five.152 ANATOLIC A. which heart of the Aghlasun mountains and flows down through the town — give a great charm to the place. matters are quite being insulted .500 Greeks. consists The population fifteen of about 150 Armenian families. however. A number of well kept gardens and groves of fine trees — especially rises in the along the sides of the torrent. and almost every street is traversed by a brook. new is quarter. houses. The export consists chiefly of wheat. of exrising tremely well-built stone houses.

but way * The " Koniah. One would think that in that district at least a plain road would be preferable but there seems. mentioned to us when we saw him at Ephesus the reputed discovery of an important ancient city a day's journey north of Sparta but the account of it had been much Mr. as before said. At khan we had a curious instance of the which Orientals transact business. Wood had exaggerated. rendered enormous. . declares that "if this The journal design be carried out course there it will is necessary to improve the harbour of Adalia." The temperature is very cold in winter. who had himself dis- covered able. with a view to the future construction of railways. but in summer the climate must be exquisite. We required a few common earthenware plates. but well nigh impossible to carry a railway ." may be bought in the interior for from TP. owing to the great snow-covered mountain ranges in all directions.* 153 Wheat. Surveying parties are exploring many districts by order of Government ble passes in the mountains. 1873)." a Turkish journal of. mentions that a staff officer of the Ottoman army had been appointed to examine the country between Ad alia and Isbarta with a view to the construction of a railway between these two towns. which will fetch at the seaports from TP. 8 per"kyla. which be absolutely at present bad and inconvenient.ANATOLICA. 25 to TP. . other and more practica- by the route we came it would be and such is the nature of the whole country that the expense would be enormous whatever route were taken. it. said that it presented nothing remark- We the in parted from our hospitable friend with regret." Of may be . for our host. no great difficulty in caiTying a line from Aidin to Isbarta. and so on through the interior. 6 to TP. 30 per " kyla.Constantinople (July.

2d. like true Hellenes.154 ANATOLICA. each. is Almost all the trade of the place in the of Greeks. each afterwards bought exactly the same plates in the bazaar for about 3d. and I the for at the rate of is. is The hands far-famed willow pattern not here to be seen. shopman demanded them. . only im- port earthenware bearing the portraits of King George and his Queen. and they.

A shady lane bordered by fine trees and village of Dere Maalleh. May —Left A hill pretty slopes above the town up to the foot of the mountains. — Pass through Volcanic Hills — Strange Formation —Yaila Foot of Aghlasun Mountains —Ascent of the Mountain Chain —Fine View from the Summit — Steepness of the Mountain — Paul Lucas on Ruins of Sagalassus— Ruined Temple and Fort in the Pass — Village of Aghlasun — Ravine leading up to the Site of Sagalassus of the Ancient City Rock behind the City Ruin of a Large Christian Church Site of Great Temple Agora Portico Great variety of Columns Another Temple Theatre Fine Architecture and Ornamentation of Subterranean Corridor Buildings Thunder Storm All Antiquities taken by the Government Notices of Sagalassus and the Pisidian Race Their Language Government Arrian's Account of the Capture of Sagalassus by Alexander the Great Strabo's Account of Selge Livy's Account of the Expedition of C. whose waters foamed over huge led to the mill boulders that had rolled down into it from the . Manlius Vulso into Pisidia Submission of Sagalassus Strabo's Notice of the City.— CHAPTER Suburb of Sparta of Strata at IX.m. suburb extends all along the steep 6th. — Position Tombs in Perpendicular Cliff — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — Sparta at 7.25 a. for vine flourishes this volcanic soil. Here we entered the mountains by the narrow rocky ravine down which the torrent flows towards Sparta. is and all this space the covered with gardens and well in vineyards. The road led towards south-west up the bed of the river.

as if in some deep cutting in the course of ages it has forced itself a way through all this strangely jumbled mass of volcanic substances. jected ridges of limestone and each little projecting peak a dust had gathered. which we were obliged to cross continually. entrance at Dere .156 ANATOLICA. its The length of this singular ravine from Maalleh to the foot of the main chain of Aghlasun is from six to seven miles. I observed a pinnacle ! fifty or sixty feet high. The sides of the ravine heights above. around and amid which it winds in the strangest . scarcely leaving room for the passage of the stream when have swelled its waters. just like a gigantic pin In several places the rocks the rains and snows of winter nearly met. fashion. The torrent itself. in others the soft dusty soil had been washed away and the harder substances left bare. cliffs . were in some (like parts high hills of light cream coloured tufa the volcanic hills we had passed through through which pro- between Buldour and Sparta). which was marble . and round finest heap of the dispersed in clouds by the slightest puff of wind. thus forming high cliffs and rocks In one place often several hundred feet in height. strata had been cut through by the river and left standing in abrupt banks. We noticed the remains of a or even more. lay at a vast depth. In other places great rocks and of trachyte rose high and far steep on either side above towered the red In some parts the peaks of the mountain chain.

of men appeared on the ridge far off to our right and began to advance towards us. As usual there was a cafe close to the highest point in the pass. Dagh of . range beyond range. but before they could come up with us we were already half way up the steep ascent of the pass. At this amphitheatre-like yaila the torrent whose course we had been so long following. Aghlasun still towered above us i .30 A. a corner of the plain of Sparta Borlu ridges could be seen. a glorious panorama of mountains appeared. The agility and ease with which they descended the steep face of the mountain were very striking. and its sources are not far distant in the very heart of the great limestone ridge.000 feet or more patches of snow lay all around. The mountain rose close behind us on our left like . of volcanic we looked down upon hills through which we had the just Far below. At 9.ANATOLICA. fort D/ bridge and what seemed to be the ruins of a small when about half way through the pass. we reached a small yaila at the Here a number foot of the pass over Aghlasun.M.) occupied us three-quarters of an hour to descend. diverges. lay north-north-east. and the main chain of Taurus all snow in the The highest — — extreme distance. Arrived at the top maze come. (These were the mountains we It afterwards saw from Kremna. of the most fantastic shape. and that view of them was the wildest and strangest of all. and a few paces beyond this.

lay the pretty plain and village of Aghlasun." It must be admitted. as steep as art for nearly half scarped by way down. dont les maisons que je . for not a single entire edifice now remains erect. Ton n'y remarque aucuns habitans de sorte que Ton les regarderoit plutot comme les pais des fees. continually descending. our path was extremely rugged and Below. and also towards the left. sont baties des plus grosses pierres de taille. je ne croiois moi-meme qu'avec peine veux dire des villes entieres.M. that the remains of Sagalassus as at present existing scarcely come up to this description . and difficult. que comme des villes veritablement . columns. The French Paul Lucas (1706) mentions these ruins in the account of his route from Aghlasun to " J'y contemplai longtemps. we came and on a very lofty hill to the left of the fountain.. existantes. Quoique ces lieux soient tout charmans et d'une magnificence a enchanter.. although the stupendous foundations. &c.30 A. a high square doorway (of which only the uprights and lintel to a fountain at the foot of the pass. and hardly even any to ruin of importance. At 11. . every-where be found sufiiciently mark its former magnificence. if a vast precipitous wall.158 ANATOLIC A. however. remained) with other buildings was visible —these marked traveller the site of Sagalassus. quelques-unes meme de marbre. des merIsbarta : — veilles.

*5 -^ SI. 5 « s ? s . S^ « S '1 -5 ^ ? SI SSi ^ 5>-^ ji tj '^ - ft-.

.

is the shelf or terrace at the mounA tain side upon which the old city was built. and a great heap of lie piled together and overgrown with brushwood.M. of the ruin of a small circular building of fine Friezes. fragments workmanship. Soo ") beyond the — (the Kestrus of head waters of the — and a short disfountain. the village. is Further on. broken columns roofing carved in lozenges. After a short rest village as guide. on the lefthand side. until opposite the lofty (already mentioned). Vegetation was much more forward lately traversed. The ascent soon became it . upon the right. which forms the Adalian Kestrus tance is — " Ak down its course. 159 The road to the village of Aghlasun turns leftwards down a valley. architraves. which we had the high wall-like mountains forming a screen to was tained many fine and conwalnut and poplar and a few beautifully green cedar trees. apparently the ruins of two small forts or block-houses. then we turned up a broad so steep that ravine on our right. there a heap of large square limestone blocks on the lefthand side. thick with trees and brush- wood.10 P. we took one hill of the boys of the and rode back by the road we had near the fountain come. but we found no inscription. high above which. here than in the district the valley. At we reached had yet seen. small stream traverses the valley Sagalassus.ANATOLICA. and were " installed in one of the best strangers' rooms " we 12.

mostly hewn stone. and about i.i6o ANATOLIC A. strengthened by strong walls built along their edge. but doubtless one exists buried under the soil. but in polygonal masonry. its general direction lying northThis shelf is backed by a high west and east. The Sagalassus is a plateau or shelf of irregular width and uneven surface. for this ravine formed the chief approach to the city. and all honeycombed with rock tombs. is narrowest where we ascended. almost perpendicular.ooo feet above the plain. the hill was covered with the hewn stones that had been carried down in the course of ages. Precipitous cliffs defend and these are yet further it on all other sides. about a mile to a mile and a half in length. The general its surface of the plateau slopes upwards from cliff. No trace of a paved road appears. the foot of this east. cliff. some parts of rough Very numerous rock tombs . southern edge to but it is and longitudinally towards the very irregular. and is divided by it several deep valleys or depressions so as to form various smaller separate plateaux or hills . At various parts on the side of the heights and along the edges of the plateau which extended back both on right and left beyond the steep ascent above mentioned — —were portions of the old walls of the built of city. horses. was necessary to dismount and lead the The ascent occupied site of fully half an hour. and the high abrupt sides of the ravine prevented any The surface of view of the ruins till near the top.

ANATOLICA.
are sunk in the face of the precipitous
north.
cliff at

i6i

the

They

are mostly square or arched niches,
far out of reach.

many high up and
have edge
with

and

These must been reached by means of ropes from the of the cliff above. All had been once closed slabs, but not one has escaped desecration, the inscriptions which covered them are

illegible.

As

in the

monuments
is

of Hierapolis, the

surface of the stone
fine lichen,

corroded and covered with

although inside some of the tombs the
chisel are as fresh as if cut yesterday.

marks of the

Of the many inscriptions I examined, the following was the only one I could at all decipher. The
letters

were roughly

cut,

apd of archaic form.

At the north-west extremity

of the plateau and

to the left of the ascent are the remains of a large

building with an apse (but angular, not round) at its south-east end. Portions of its walls are still

M

1

62

ANATOLIC A.
it

standing, but most of

is

level with the ground.

Along the top

of the walls that form the apse,

both on the inside

and

outside^

runs a cornice of

sculptured masks

;

these were no doubt taken from
It

some

earlier building.

has evidently been used

as a church, for the cross
places,

was carved

in several

amongst others over the great central doorway. It had a portico at its north-west the fluted columns composing it are lying as they fell, and there are other columns of granite and fluted marble within and at the sides of the building. The edge of the plateau was protected all along this side by a massy wall, and in several directions are heaps of ruins, marking the site of what were
:

once

fine

buildings.

In one place

there

is

a

number of marble gurgoyles

of lions' heads.

Turning now towards south-east we crossed the all this part was spot where we had ascended covered with debris, great fragments of stone, and Before us on an eminence prostrate columns. were the remains of a building constructed of
;

large square stones fitted together without cement.

and west walls are now standing, the former curved and out of the perpendicular. The eminence on which this building stood was high above all that portion of the plateau, and commanded a fine view of it. In the wide ravine below, and to the east and

Only

its

east

south-east of this building, once stood the principal
edifices of the old city, built either at the

bottom

ANATOLIC A.
lower extremity of
it.

163

of the ravine itself or on the sides and towards the

The mass
confused

of ruin

is

here prodigious, but

all

so

and mingled together that it is very difficult to distinguish one site from another. As one descends the side of this ravine, the first
ruin
is

that of a very large building, probably a
:

Temple, measuring roughly 1 80 feet by go feet its area is very well paved, and is at a little lower level than the ground round it, especially that on the
north.

On

all

sides of this, but especially south-

wards, are vast foundations of massive cut stones

and pavements, and over all of them a prodigious mass of debris. The ground then sinks considerably southwards, and below the site of the Temple
there
is

another large oblong area (probably the

Agora) with massive foundation walls, and paved like the former with well-cut and closely fitted
blocks of limestone or marble.

In

all

directions from this, extend foundations of
it is

massive walls, but so heaped with ruin that
stood there.

not possible to say what kind of buildings once

Again the ground sinks southwards, and a portico of very considerable length succeeds. It had been apparently a covered street, and led to what had evidently once been one of the most beautiful
buildings of the old city

—a

Corinthian temple,

with about thirty fluted columns and richly orna-

mented Acanthus

capitals.

Yet further down, on M 2

1

64

ANATOLIC A.
hill,

spurs of the same

are the rernains of two other

buildings, both of large size.

One

of these spurs

is

separated from the main plateau by a deep ravine

with steep sides, and overhangs the road to
lasun.
calls
It

Agh-

may have been

this height

which Arrian

X6(pof

Trpo rris itoKzoJS.

The number and
for statues,

variety of the pillars, pedestals

which encumber the paved area of the Temple, Agora, and the line of the covered street, or portico, is most surprising they must amount to several hundreds but I did not observe one unbroken or uninjured. Most are Intermingled with them are numbers of fluted. hexagonal pedestals, and I noticed one extremely fine octagonal pillar. On a huge fragment of
&c., &c.,

stone lying near

it is

carved in high relief a finelythe temples receding from
is

executed female face of the purest Greek type. The cheeks are rather
oval.
full,

the cheek bone, so that the outline of the face

The mouth and
is

chin are beautifully renis

dered, although the material

coarse*

— even the
is

dimple on the chin always the case,
" fascia "
is

given.

The

nose, as

broken.

The

hair rises to a
falls in ringlets

above the forehead, and

down

the side of the face.

On

the hair above the

temples on either side are two small wings.

A

wreath of fruit and flowers, ending below in a large

bunch of grapes, connected the face with other
* It appeared to me to be of limestone, but it was very roded by exposure and might have been white marble.

mach

cor-

/?',-*

Tv#;


'

V-^'-"

:/^--:-r:~'!P<;^''

:*
e>.

'

SPECIMEN OF THE HEXAGONAL COLUMNS AND PLINTHS AT SAGALASSDS.

k

ANATOLIC A.
sculptures that have disappeared.

165

The wreath

is

supported on either side of the face by a winged
infant figure,

which is of course mutilated. Besides the fluted columns there was also a large number of plain hexagonal shafts. Their bases have elaborate mouldings, and they are placed upon massy plinths consisting of a single block.
(See sketch.)
I

observed also a very large mass of stone of the

annexed shape.

The

central part

was concave

like

the under side of a shield.
tion of the roof of a portico.

Perhaps

it

was a por-

Amid
tals,

the heaps of cornices, architraves, capi-

&c., &c., I

found no sculptures except the
;

single piece mentioned

but

though in all probability mostly employed seems to have been the fine mountain limestone but all is so corroded by time and exposure, and so overgrown with lichen, that
;

much must still exi^, mutilated.* The materia]

it is difficult

to distinguish

what

is,

from what

is

not marble.
*

My

companion saw other

sculptures, but few

and

ill

preserved.

1

66

ANATOLIC A.
of rough stones and red tiling

Heaps
site

mark

the

of the private houses of the city, and fragments

of thick red pottery or tiling,

mixed with pieces of

a very fine red pottery and bits of glass, are plentifully scattered about.
I

observed no cisterns, but
buildings, for there ap-

doubtless they exist under the pavement of the

Agora and other public

peared to be no stream from the heights or aqueduct to supply water to the
city.

For

travellers,

who can

of necessity only afford
it is

time for a cursory examination,
sible to reduce to

almost impos-

any orderly mental arrangement such a chaotic mass as the ruins of this fine old Could city present. It was the same at Kremna. we have remained several days on the spot we might have given a more detailed description, but as it was we could only give three or four hours in each case, and even for that, very great fatigue and exposure had to be endured and, unfortunately, after all, I lost afterwards the rough plan I had taken of these most interesting places. The Theatre facing the south-west is on the side of the hill towards the eastern end of the plateau high above the city, but with no very remarkable
; ;

view.
hill is

It is in fine preservation.

As the

slope of the
is

very abrupt, part of the circuit of the cavea

supported by very massive and well-built arches, the
stones of which are admirably fitted together and

most of them bevilled scena there appeared

(see

next page).

Under

the

to

be vaulted corridors or

ANATOLIC A.
passages, but they are so
fallen blocks
filled

167

and cumbered with
to

and rubbish as

be inaccessible.

On
of

either side of their entrances very

heavy masses

masonry project
at

like strong buttresses

—perhaps
hill
is

they are only the prolongations of the side walls

and

the point where the slope of the

steepest

is

a very large and solid erection, extend-

ing from the outer wall of the cavea beyond the
south-east end of the

scena—too

large to be called

a buttress, but most likely intended to support the

heavy mass of the cavea at the weakest point. There are sixteen upper and twenty-four lower rows of seats, separated by a very spacious diazoma about ten feet wide. On the whole the cavea is in good preservation, although several large walnut trees have grown up amidst the rows of seats and
displaced the huge blocks of which they are built.

The scena
five

also

is

in

good preservation

;

it

has

doorways, and the uprights of the great central
still

door are

standing

;

part of the orchestra and

the proscenium are covered with the usual confused

mass of

ruin.

We

could find

no inscription or
to the nature of

statuary, but there are a few" pieces of sculptured
friezes, &c., all ill-preserved,

owing

the stone.

at a distance of sixty or seventy yards.1 68 ANATOLICA. is a heap of fluted columns. all I do not think that a single tomb has escaped violation. but the vomitoria were I still uninjured. civilisation of the people who could erect such magnificent buildings as the edifices of this ancient city. In front of the Theatre. and being almost uninjured of ancient it is truly a noble monument it architecture. In returning to the place where we had tied up our horses I crossed a spot where there was a number of polygonal pillars. was reminded of the masonry in the Thermae of Hierapolis when I looked on the huge blocks of one cannot help which this corridor is built forming a high estimate of the artistic skill and . and at the door of our lodging in the village of Aghlasun was part of one of twenty sides cut with the utmost precision. where touches the the entrance at the other extremity seemed to be obstructed. hill side . The number of rock tombs and sarcophagi scattered about the east end of the plateau and on the sides of the ravines is very great but of them . extremely fine arched corridor passes completely round the Theatre under the upper rows of seats An —even under the portion which excavated side — and afforded access to the different in the is hill scalse. The entrance to at the lefthand side of the scena. . It is very spacious (twelve or fourteen feet is in height). but all broken in pieces.

— wreaths of and flowers on the friezes. severe and chaste. but much was of a far earlier age perhaps belonged to the finest era of Grecian The echinus ornament. and we returned to our " konak " (lodging) in a heavy thunderstorm. SAGALASSUS. on the pedestals a palm branch. 169 Most of the buildings of Sagalassus were of the Corinthian order of architecture. a quiver. erected doubtless under the Romans. a shield and lance.ANATOLICA. . fruit &c. masks. The heat had been intense during the day. lightnings to play in the mountains. Scarcely had we finished our survey when clouds began rapidly to gather. ORNAMENTS ON MANY OF THE PEDESTALS. — such is the ornamentation of a great part of all the buildings. beautifully executed art. tremendous peals of thunder echoed from the precipices above us. the ornament below (whatever it may be).

He whose public funeral is mentioned by Tacitus was high in favour both with Augustus and Tiberius.. and were (xii. but whom Herodotus declares to have belonged to the Carian race) settled amongst them. says that in ancient times certain emigrants (a wandering Pelasgic race. The Pisidian race to which the people of Sagalassus belonged was one of the many nonunsuccessful.000 men of in the neighbouring cities. 48.lyo ANATOLIC A. judging from what Strabo says of the people of Homonada^ a resisted city between Sagalassus and Selge.C. Ann. successfully and at killed (B. Hellenic peoples of Asia Minor. last These. all Pisidia.. 2. but all had been collected by orders from Constantinople. 25) Amyntas. Romans and he removed 4.* them.. They held all the chain of Mount Taurus from the frontiers of Lycia on the west to the frontiers of Isauria on the east. says that they lived in the high Pliny (v. and settled them * Sulpicius Quirinius. 7) once called Solymi. inquiries for antique . . Luke ii. who had conquered But afterwards they were reduced by famine and forced to surrender to the under Cyrinius. iii. and must have been most troublesome neigh^ of the Leleges hours to the peaceful inhabitants of the plains. My medals and coins were About a year back there were many in the possession of the villagers. 27) ch^n of Mount Strabo Taurus. with the help of the Cilicians.. . although not a patrician. He is the Cyrenius of St. nearly Tetrarch of Galatia.

and. A passage in Strabo (xiii. surrounded by precipices almost inaccessible. end) says that the people of Cibyra on the borders of Pisidia. Greek. 4. The Lycians came over from Crete. is Strabo proceeds to say that " there a fertile plain in the higher parts of Taurus. ** having mountains which "yaila"). to The Solymi appear . and Lydian of the last not even a trace remained in Lydia. and so left 171 Homonada without any adult males.ANATOLICA. " spoke four languages the Pisidian. . defend their country like walls " {sy^ovrss ^pr^ No remains of the Pisidian language are extant so far as I know. judging from the remains of their language. and were conquered and expelled by the invading Termilae or Lycians.. yet the Solymi were the aboriginal people of eastern and north-eastern Lycia.'' And although the geographer may perhaps have applied -here the term " rri " ^oXvfjLOJv " [yXcorrri) in a loose way to the " Lycian which was and of Lydian descent) (a city — — language. but had their dwelling places in the heights above it or in caverns but their usual occupation was to be in arms and harry the lands of other people. have been a Semitic race akin to the Cilicians. and divided into a number fertile of valleys " (probably an extensive and These Homonadenses used to cultivate this plain. so that it is not probable the original languages of those races were alike. Solymian. were of Persian or at least Zend descent.

-viii. While thus engaged he received an embassy from Selge. — Xenophon speaks of expeditions made against them by Cyrus the younger (B. however. afterwards became a powerful city of 20. gives ander was obliged to blockade the its latter city.C.172 It ANATOLIC A. 2. 404). was by the Lacedaemonians. as he writes it.). and Greek never however much they may have been affected by Greek culture and civilisation. combine for common defence. Telmessus). in his history of Alexander's Expedition an account of the attack made by the Greek army upon Sagalassus and AlexTermessus (or. would appear. Doubtless the various dialects of these mountain races continued till a late age. (See also Acts xiv. for natural defences rendered it almost impregnable. They could. that the Pisidian language differed both from the Lycian and Solymian languages. Arrian. entirely supplanted them. or at most yielded only a nominal obedience to the " great king " (the King of Persia) their rugged and difficult country and their warlike spirit always preserving them from subjection. but hostile to * This city.C. (cap. It "founded first by Calchas.cxx) . 333). They were quite independent. Strabo says. xxvii.\Moi ("kings").-ix. as they showed when Alexander the Great invaded Asia Minor (B. then. and mostly governed by rvpa.) The cities of Pisidia seem to have been autonomous.* another strong Pisidian city..

and is as strong for defence as the fortress. good government. to the north of their mountains). Twenty Greeks and one killed . escaped. the Termessians had contrived to send them aid. 39. mountains. The city had always maintained its independence. lightly armed and knowing the ground. xxxviii. considerable all whose people were the bravest of the Pisidian race. were fell ." Although blockaded.) . of the Pisidians about 500 the rest. The most remarkable productions of their country were a kind of gum from the styrax tree used as incense and the perfume iris. Its people had made an alliance with Alexander the Great. which are formed by the rivers Kestrus and Eurymedon. having posted themselves on "the height which is in front of their city. and the citizens.. his successors. made from the Selgian (Straboxii.ANATOLICA." they had forced their way up the height. 7. with abundant pasturage for all kinds of cattle and forests of various kinds of trees. and when the archers and light armed troops mounted to the assault the barbarians attacked them on both flanks and repulsed them. on account of the fertile lowlands of Pamphylia and those inhabitants. These rivers rise in the Selgian mountains and flow into the sea of Pamphylia. but were continually at war with the various kings. 173 During the blockade of Termessus proceeds to Alexander called Selgessus — " a Sagalassus — otherwise city. fertile.' " (i. who ruled Asia Minor. owing to its Although high up in the and olives.e. end. but could not with their own inferior arms resist the heavy Macedonian infantry. its soil is extremely rich in vines * within the Taurus. easily dispersed the half-armed mountaineers. to the See also Livy.. fragrant They submitted Romans on conditions. The Greek cavalry could not act here. Cleander. officer. owing to its very strong position in a district full of precipices and torrent beds. Termessus. who as soon as awaited the attack.

and w^hen twenty-two years later the favour of Rhodians lost the of the Romans by taking the part . castles. To the former was given nearly all Asia Minor south of the Mseander. 56. and lands. But Alexander followed them up closely and captured the town by assault. King of Pergamus. 6). except such cities as were free "the day before the battle in Asia with King Antiochus. the Roman Senate shared the spoils with their allies the Rhodians and Eumenes. 189. made of various Pisidian at- Antiochus the Great. and many complaints were made to the Roman Senate (Livy xli." (Livy xxxvii. B.. but the Pisidian towns remained independent.C. would seem without much success arose but after him an resist —the enemy Romans. in the scanty records of is that age.) They seem to have governed all these countries with much harshness. Perhaps the strong walls. and on the side of Pisidia all the towns. otherwise it is not easy to see how the Greeks could thus have stormed the place. that during the troubled times We may suppose Here and mention it that followed the partition of Alexander's empire the mountaineers were selves.. villages. 174 ANATOLICA. cities.. King of Syria. whom nothing could After the overthrow of Antiochus in the great battle of Magnesia. of which we saw the remains along the edge of the precipices. were not then in existence. tacked them. left very much to them- there.

and their city. numbers and the strength of * The Rhodians seem to have experienced the usual troubles of neutrals — or at least of half-hearted allies — in a naval war. (Livy xliv. . 37. and were punished by being deprived of Lycia and Caria. subdue. confident in their no deputation to the Roman Consul but when he began to lay waste their lands they submitted. and nearly lost his triumph. Many of the smaller cities. in Peroea. Sagalassus. The people of Sagalassus.. rich and prosperous communities. The only enemies left in Asia Minor after the defeat of Antiochus were the Gaulish tribes.ANATOLICA. were pillaged their inhabitants having fled at the approach of the invaders.) .* the last 175 King of Macedon. received the command of an army for that purpose. and accordingly the Consul. which had been long established in Phrygia and Lycaonia. 14. Termessus.. and Oroanda paid heavy sums. Cn-Manlius Vulso. His march from Ephesus is given in detail by Polybius and Livy. Caunus . Taboe (Dawas) Cibyra. Perseus. sent . On entering Pisidia his chief object seems to have been to exact contributions from its cities and petty kings for which he was afterwards severely censured in the Senate. the people of Cibyra promptly sent troops to help which had revolted from Rhodes. end). These the Roman Senate resolved to 47. and under whose barbarous ferocity the Asiatic cities had long groaned (Livy xxxviii.

000 bushels little is From this time forward but heard it is of Sagalassus in history. . Strabo's notice of and not easy to explain. till Byzantine misgovernment and the invasion of the Muslim completed its ruin.000). 20. ay(z^6v ri xal rpixaovriz (7roc^ia>v a<^o rou spvf/. Its prosperity must have gradu- decayed with the decay of the empire.y quantity of barley nearly).acro^ " (** havfort- ing a descent of about thirty stadia from the ress ") ally is obscure.^ 1 talents (about 2.176 ANATOLIC A. and his expression. fifty obtained peace on payment of . of each 30. There is no record of the time when it was finally deserted. He says it is a day's journey from Apamea (which seems much too little).000 medimni of wheat. brief.e. and the same [i. but it long continued to have Christian bishops. " Kar^^^/SaTiv 'iyovaa.

In the lane leading up to the village we met a Yourouk community emigrating. N .50 A. their property.— We or fifty camels carrying their tents. Cemetery of Aghlasun—Yourouk Tribe Emigrating—Village of Assarkeui — Ravine of Assarkeui — Stupendous Precipices — Romantic View of the Mount Taurus Range — Primeval Forest We our way — Thunderstorm — Descent and Ascent through the Forest —Arrival Girmeh (Kremna) — Our Lodging and Host — Magnificent View of the Valley of the Kestrus Ascent to the Old City— Position — Stupendous Precipices View from the Plateau — Desolate Aspect of the Country —Thick Forest — Grand Mountain Ranges and Position — Depth of the Ravine through which we had come — Zosimus' History of a Blockade of Kremna — Round Temples — View of Davre — Paved Area — of Agora and Temple —Vast Cisterns — Fluted Columns — Triumphal Arch—Paved Street — Second Paved Street— Fortiof Old City— Seat Quarried the Rock Edge of Precipice — Great Gateway — Mausoleum — Strabo's Notice of Kremna — Captured by Amjoitas — Sandalion— Kremna made a Roman Colony — Road through the Forest Boujak — Our Host — His Opinion about our Journey—Exactions of Government and Misery of Peasantry— Plain of Boujak — Native Carts —Aspect of the Country— Khan Soosuz — Cafe of Badem lose at Its their Site fications in at to Officials at Aghadj — Suspicious Company Ravine Leading to the Pass of Termessus Minor Great Number of Cemeteries Cretopolis — — — Village of BeU. Aghlasun at 6. but all defaced by lichen and exposure. They had forty left May 7th. The Cemetery contains some magnificent cedar trees and a few relics of the old city.— — CHAPTER X.M.

Arrived at the top by a rocky and broken path. Within the pass the path began to descend rapidly the sides of the ravine receded and became rock. was quite bare and of a deep rose tint. between these hills. This is a clean and pretty little village in a small plain which is embosomed in great crags of dark red Keeping we saw at the valleys and with splendid pine forests surrounding About a mile beyond the village we entered a it. 9.15 A. At 7. The mountains we had crossed the day before were on the left their lower slopes were covered with pine and cedar the higher chain. As pretty." .M. deep and narrow cleft in the limestone hills. one camel bore the cradle strapped on its back and a number of young goats slung in sacks. " Oughourlar" or ! " Oughourlar ola " literally. a mighty wall of precipices. as almost everywhere. " May there be good auspices " or " May your journey be lucky ! ! — Our route was southwards. the broken range of heights over Assarkeui. usual several of the children were very we Here. . but we turned up the hill southwards. we turned on our right and crossed : the Kestrus near an overshot mill. the travellers met gave us the usual salute..M. 178 ANATOLIC A. which had a very laughable appearance. we proceeded through rounded full hills covered with trees to and of singing birds. . and the youngest and oldest members of the party. A finely wooded mountain gorge was before us on the east.45 A.

!

ANATOLIC A.
extremely precipitous.

179

For a considerable distance on the right side were sheer precipices of bare rock 800 or 1,000 feet high, and almost or quite perpendicular. But the great beauty of this place was the wood. Every projecting ridge, every cleft, had oaks, ilexes, ashes, cornels, &c., growing from it. The whole surface of the cliff, excepting the bare rock precipices, was one mass of verdure, brushwood and grass growing everywhere abundantly. This pass must be exquisitely beautiful in the height of summer, and still more in autumn Numbers of singing birds warbled in the bushes at the bottom of the ravine the most beautiful wild flowers blossomed under the foliage, being thus sheltered from the sun, which is already very powerful and we passed through whole groves of myrtle and red-stemmed arbutus. The Alpine rose and cistus grew abundantly, and a tree with shiny leaves which in shape resembled the leaves of the apple tree, and was
; ; *

loaded with clusters of snow white flowers like the

snowdrop.

The botany
!

of that pass would be

worth studying

A

turn in the path displayed the Taurus due

between us and it rose ranges of steep mountains, one behind another, and all covered with dark woods. As I have before said,
east from us, but

the

shape

of

these

ridges

was

wild,

strange,
N

beautiful.
2

!

i8o

ANATOLIC A.

For two hours and a quarter we went on conThe oak woods upon the tinually descending. heights to the right were succeeded by pine woods, the very finest we had yet seen, for this forest was too remote for man to destroy, and many of its largest trees grew on ledges and points quite
inaccessible
forest
;

still

we

continued to descend, the
;

huge fallen trunks lay across our path, as in some wild Canadian The air was perfumed with the scent from forest. the various kinds of pine, and under their shade grew many flowering shrubs unknown to me the ravine seemed endless Suddenly the faint track we had followed turned to the right, and we began to suspect that we had no pleasant prospect in these wild lost our way
always growing thicker

:

solitudes.

At

1

1.40 A.M.

we passed

a waterfall in the stream

that traverses the pass, and finding a grassy open

spot in the forest

we dismounted and allowed
;

the

tired horses to graze

our muleteer then went on

Mr. S. also passed onwards down the valley to see if it was practicable to advance
to reconnoitre.
in that direction, but

soon returned, and reported
to

go further that way. We afterwards learned that we might have gone on in the lonely forest for many hours towards the
that
it

was not advisable

Kestrus without meeting a single person.
In the meantime that peculiar moaning sound

which

foretells

a storm began to

rise in the forest.

;

ANATOLICA.
The sky had
hitherto been
;

I8l

and the sun's heat very oppressive but now clouds began to gather with extreme rapidity round the mountain tops the roll of distant thunder was heard, and the tempest was approaching from every side. In about three quarters of an hour our muleteer returned he had luckily found a wood-cutter, who agreed to guide us to Girmeh. Accordingly we began to mount the hill to our right but we had
clear
; : ;

scarcely started

when
:

the storm burst upon us

with

its full

fury

the lightning

was blinding and

almost incessant
in these

;

the peals of thunder, re-echoed

heard

;

deep gorges, were such as I never before the rain descended literally in torrents, and
an hour a shower of hail-

for nearly a quarter of

stones as large as peas rattled

Then
scend
;

in the midst of all

down upon us. this we began to
It

de-

was far worse than the descent of the Seiteen yailas. The path, where there was one, was turned into a torrent the noise of the rain in the wood was perfectly bewildering twice my saddle turned, and I was obliged to dismount and arrange all anew. Had we not fortunately found a guide our adventure would have
!

and such a descent

;

been

far

from agreeable.
of the mountain side

was as tedious as the descent had been difficult. At length our tired horses reached the top we emerged from the forest, crossed what seemed a huge landslip in the hill side, and at about 3.20 p.m. reached
;

The ascent

a
;

1

82

ANATOLIC A.

Girmeh, a small village at the foot of a vast plateau of rock, towering high above it, which we had seen at intervals on our ride that morning.

were hospitably received in the newly-built house of Hadji Osman the master was sitting with his friends in the summer apartment outside, a large fire was burning, and it was very acceptable, for we were all wet. The rain had now ceased, and the clouds breaking, displayed a magnificent view of the Kestrus valley, very far below, and of the mountains beyond it, with Boz Boroun above all. Nearly all the wide valley below was in thick only a few scanty patches of green marked forest the cultivated or open spots and the few villages to be seen were all at the foot of the mountains far on the other side. It was into this wilderness we were descending we might have gone on five or six hours more in
;
;

We

;

the forest without finding either a

man

or a shelter

of any kind, and at the end should only have

reached the Kestrus,

now

swollen and unfordable

from the

rain.

The inner room was given up to us, a good supper was sent in, and for a wonder we were
left to

ourselves.

I

heard the master outside chaunt the "asr"
evening prayer) in a
:

(the

fine

deep voice. At about

9 P.M. I looked out

our host and his friends were
fire.

lying asleep round the

Not a

leaf rustled

A'^c.^ e^'

X^

I

!

ANATOLIC A.
lovely starlit night had

183

succeeded to the stormy

day, and complete, profound stillness reigned

May 8th. — Rose

at 5.30 A.M.

;

found Hadji

Osman

busily engaged in examining my revolver, which he pronounced " yawuz yawuz " (excellent !), but
I

hastened to take
accident.

it

out of his hand, fearful of

some

Amongst
second
at
I

company was a fine old man (the had met) who had been in the pay of
the
Silistria,

H.B.M. during the Crimean War; he had served
and Sevastopol. He spoke very highly of the treatment he had received, and said he would gladly serve under British colours
Rustchuk,
again.

My

inquiries for

antique coins brought out a

few, but

none good.

After breakfast
to be our guide.

we proposed

visiting the ruins

of the old city above us, and Hadji " tufenk," a fine old
silver inlaid,

Osman

offered

Accordingly he shouldered his
flint

and

steel

musket, heavy,

and short-stocked, and we began the
of the plateau of

ascent.

The formation

Kremna and

the

position of the city resemble in

some

respects those

of the celebrated fortress of Koenigstein in

Saxon

Switzerland, though

the

height

and extent of
is

Kremna
It
is

are not so great as those of Koenigstein.

a plateau of limestone, which

bounded

on three sides by precipices, some extremely deep and abrupt on the fourth side (north-west and
;

The side . in some parts of rough. many halts. where again tremendous precipices bounded it and it was all down the side . From it the country inclined rapidly in to its general formation the valley of the Kestrus. The southern and south-western . after to rest . It was a precipice sinking sheer down some 800 or 1. under these precipices. ravine. Arrived at the top. We could see the turbid light coloured waters of . which at least 5.000 feet must have been below us.000 feet below were the twenty ! or twenty-five houses of Girmeh. that our yesterday's course lay. even this is cut off from the opposite hill and by a deep we ascended (at the south-east corner) was evidently much more precipitous formerly than now. in which. we sat ! and what a prospect lay before us I despair of being able to give by words even an idea of it Some 1. as if to make down security doubly sure. sides all of the plateau were also of vast depth yet along the edge. and on every accessible ledge. like a wall. the old inhabitants had built strong walls. to a lower and much larger plateau. in others of hewn stones. was the most remarkable. on the north by east. is west) accessible by a long steep slope. at some miles distance. was the village of Davre.1 84 it ANATOLICA. and this lower plateau again sloped gradually upwards towards the entrance of the Assarkeui ravine. for much earth has been washed down but the east and north-east rocky ravine at the bottom.000 feet.

in front of which halted. rushing along in their winding course the view down the valley was closed. its till 185 the river. It we had looked very small from the height on which we were standing. and our guide said that on a clear day the smoke of the passing steamers was visible. The high ranges of Taurus. rounded flat tables. others mounting in successive peaks. some an inverted basin. east.000 feet high. Our yesterday's route was now clear we could trace it all down the rapidly descending ravine to : the abrupt ridge of rock. till the ravine sank out of sight." of course owing to malaria. except at rare intervals. of the most strange and fantastic shape : some like a saw. amidst the confused mass of ridges. . On the opposite side ranges of mountains rose one beyond another. by the mountains ihat of the valley border it. and covered with snow. all. Our guide at told us that "fever never appeared in the forest it Girmeh. which had risen and spread far beyond banks. but that was at times very deadly. The pine forest through which we had come continued unbroken. at least 10. full twenty-five miles away. bounded the view on the Looking due south we could see the line of the sea near Adalia. some with steep and broken sides and over like . with its curious round projecting buttresses.. ANATOLICA. spread the dark pine forest. on the western edge of the Kestrus valley.

so we proceeded to examine the ruins. with names according to Hadji Osman's dictation. We We had ascended at the south-east corner. but . On the north-east and north was an extensive open space cultivated. could see over a vast extent of country.1 86 ANATOLICA. Most of the buildings of the city lay to the north- west of our point of ascent. and fancy itself could not picture a scene wilder or more strange. but time passed and the heat was increasing. • Daiiraz B&ah AdbksuT) Bnph N. The annexed diagram gives the bearings of the more prominent ranges of mountains.E. f^siel Da^ Kdozoo KahkBagh Sarp d<agh S. Th&'Ses might have spent hours gazing upon the wonderful scene below us without becoming weary of it. but We there was not a house or a village in sight for many miles.E. BozBorouitdaph ^ Agherli Bagh S.

which was rain water this —perhaps around here also of vast depth and steep as a wall. and with a scanty supply of water all were confused heaps of ruin. an Isaurian freebooter. but not a trace all in ruin.ANATOLICA. on an elevated portion of the plateau. but this precipice was crowned by the wall were the remains of a round Corinthian building. Zosimus (a. he caused plateau to be sowed with corn. but a little trees. 425) is given spot rela. It Roman besieged running short. with over 187 many oak it. now A little westwards from of inscription could be found. The capitals richly carved. nearly filled up. From this we turned leftwards along the north-east edge of the precipice. trees and much underwood scattered Perhaps the buildings of the city never covered this space.d. but all and cornice were very was thickly overgrown with bushes and young north. much of the At the point where we ascended. the edge of the of the city.tes the history of a blockade of Kremna by a had been occupied by Lydius. amongst them the remains of another round temple. was a shallow well . to About 200 yards to the the right. and the provisions of the army. base of the plateau is The here bordered by a wood of . which may have been a funereal monument.. A few columns proit jected from the heap of materials of which was composed. but even now it is not easy to tell if a covered with ruins or merely the loose limestones of the soil.

. pedestals.the dizzy height a number calm of eagles. Continuing the round of the plateau. which had fallen from the roofs of the buildings near. to a wide area finely paved with large square blocks of crystalline limestone or rough marble beyond this was another area similarly paved. . and the lower part was doubtless hewn in the rock. In each cistern were three rows of uprights. the sides of rough stones built up with mortar. a little inwards. we came .. The village of Davre lay far below on the north by west. . A number of stone gutters for water lay all around. and very surprising were the number and variety of broken columns. Much soil and a vast accumulation of rubbish have fallen into these cisterns. It seems to have had a portico or covered corridor on either side. so that perhaps not more than half their depth can now be seen. &c. These cisterns were formed of huge oblong uprights of stone. fine pine trees half way down.1 88 ANATOLIC A. The latter of the open areas was no doubt the Agora. with which these spaces were cumbered. but inclining air. and we descended into several. but of greater size under both were great vaulted cisterns we could trace them all along. and over them four lines of arch had been built. the crown of the arch and a few feet on either side being of hewn stones well fitted together. . upon which other blocks had been laid horizontally. like so many dark specks in the were wheeling and screaming.

but its capital. (like the twenty- I did not observe [i. which was much the largest. each compartment having in the middle a pedestals there — and — face in relief. They were of great size. On still the east side of the Agora was a triumphal arched gateway. arches . The roof that had once covered the corridor lay broken into huge fragments. Of all that we examined not a single face remained uninjured all had either been purposely defaced or destroyed by time and ex: posure. at the four corners round each face were leaves. There was one large polyothers only in part. has fallen.— ANATOLICA. We searched for an under this archway inscription on it. South and south-west of these paved areas is another mass of ruin. and reminded me of similar niches at Baalbek. : 189 There was every variety of fluted column some had virgated flutings. of which the two side remain the middle arch. but in vain passed a paved street in an easterly direction. some concave.e. the heap of materials all overgrown . gonal pillar of fine workmanship sided pillar at Aghlasun). in others the ridge was acute. Numbers of half columns with flat back) and of square pedestals lay about — perhaps the two inner rows of columns rested on square was a number of concave shell-shaped niches for statues. Its stones which must have been of immense size had been carved in sunk lozenge-shaped compartments. in some the flutings were separated by a flat fillet. some were fluted the entire length. .

well built wall. but we did not examine them. were . I could not trace the gateway in it through which no doubt the street once passed. roughly speaking. well paved with square blocks. about eighteen feet wide. I None of the columns. for there was a large number of red granite columns and square pedestals along it. with underwood and — with the precipice plateau. and also seems to have had a corridor or covered way on either side. As usual in these ancient at the sides of the cities. —to the north-west side of the On is this side only (as before said) the by a long and steeply sloping ascent. Yet further to the south and parallel with the edge of the precipice is another long paved street. by which we descended afterwards.I go ANATOLIC A. of which only detached pieces are standing. but here too it was once defended by a strong. Outside the wall and all over the surface of the steep ascent are a great number of heavy and coarse sarcophagi and . some yet standing. with here and there doorways." " many cradles "). which leads on the east near the to what had been apparently a fort latter was the head of the chief road to the city. trees. rock tombs (our guide said there were " beshik ch5k. This second paved street extended still parallel . The street itself is. the rest having fallen outwards plateau accessible in a vast sloping " talus " of great hewn stones. so far as observed. many sarco phagi stood roadway.

. close to the edge of the precipice a portion of its outer side had been cut away so as to leave the rock projecting above underneath this a long seat had been quarried in . &c. was so great that we probably overlooked much. Our guide gave us his impression of its use by saying that here " the young ladies of the old town used to sit and do needlework. ANATOLIC A. erect : 191 most lay if at regular intervals. It is. only from memory. and I did not observe a theatre. We saw no bas-reliefs. but it may give some slight idea of this interesting place. The difficulty of examining the ruins. one The to principal material employed say if in the city all seemed be the same as at it Sagalassus. the native rock : a stupendous precipice without any parapet wall sank down in front. and it is not easy to assign to each edifice its proper description. and in one direction. I subjoin a rough plan of the city. I observed one large Corinthian capital. posed awhile. place. but of inferior work. although in a city which had evidently been a very considerable almost certainly existed. and the view Here we refrom it was of course magnificent. Returning along the paved street we came to a high projecting mass of rock. as cast down by a single shock of earthquake. unfortunately." . both from the growth of wood that has overspread them and their own confused mass. but so corroded that is hard to any given piece be of marble or limestone.

.." The exact : position of this place has not been discovered it may have been only a strong mountain fortress. Empire was broken up it was in the hands of its Very little known of the history of Pisidian inhabitants. A fortress of such immense natural strength would not have been neglected by Alexander the Great. Amyntas next attacked Homonada. King of Galatia. 6) says that Amyntas. but there When the Macedonian is no record concerning it. descended by the principal ancient road. but he did not even " attempt to capture Sandalion. It probably submitted to him without resistance. was is mausoleum or rock tomb visit it. road. near the side of the also a it. It was so not long before our era. A little way down it is the Great Gateway. for Strabo after (xii. my friend looked at but I did not Kremna. 192 ANATOLICA. and not a town. of which both the outer and inner arch still remained the outer gate had blocks of stone filling erect the space under the arch as at Hierapolis and : Aphrodisias. conquering Derbe in Lycaonia. there Further down. attacked the Cilicians and Pisidians (who his were country continually making incursions from the Taurus). and receiving Isaura from the Roman into Senate.. amongst them Kremna. and captured many strong places which had never before been taken. which lies between Kremna and Sagalassus. We which passed transversely down the face of the cliff. and although the conquest . and no doubt continued in- dependent.

"•-'•'» *t -."-^o^-^. o- .. -7.*^..' ^. r:^^. j. .^: ••i*l^*^'^-"^T^k-*' '^ GATEWAY OK KKEMNA.^.^-. r-.

.

It was a most picturesque and being for nearly the whole way The through great forests of pine of various kinds.M. In the Cemetery of Girmeh were some fine oak and ash 12. and Kremna being so important a post ambuscade. After that the curtain it falls upon its history. he had carried many of their fortresses. was at first under the southern precipices of the city . was occupied by a Roman colony. as the labour of bringing objects from the height above would have been too great. At 2.ANATOLIC A. fragrant and shady.d. of this place iq3 was most difficult.M. then across the hill which lay over against the north-west and west side of the vast rocky height. " Colonia Augusta Kremna/* Ptolemy mentions it (v. Girmeh for Boujak. a long blockade of the place by a Byzantine army. and even destroyed their King.30 P. but no remains of antiquity.. being cut off by the Cilicians in an His dominions were formed into a province. but perfectly solitary. which was extremely rough and rocky. 5). and Zosimus 425) relates Julia (a. we passed through a . beautiful ride. Our route. when he himself perished by a stratagem of the King's wife. left At we trees.30 P. number of crystal springs and rivulets which flowed from the hills across our path was very remarkable. but for a must have been a considerable town long time after that event.

and at 3. country examining mountains and old buildings unless " (inquiringly) " treasures ?" it was to find out hidden Upon find in him that treasure was easier to the large modern towns than in old ruins. who had made several pilgrimages to Mecca. this I told and I tried to explain the object of our journey. after roasting the berries before us but the night we spent in his house was wretched in the extreme the number of fleas was extraordinary. was very hospitable. descended into the large village of Boujak. The old gentleman. ANATOLICA. ^J removed the fragments with the tongs. He told us that the Government officials had . the object of our journey.M. and for several subsequent days we coffee v/ith his . until I reminded him that I was only a stranger and did not know the customs of the carefully whereupon he country. which into the fire . but he did not seem to appreciate After supper I happened to clean my I spoon with then threw a bit of the thin native bread. it. " Geunahder. : suffered from them.194 . as another one mountain was just the same what was the use of going about the . he expressed his opinion very frankly that " we were told When wanting in sense . and prepared our own hands. where we were small cultivated plain.10 P. lodged in the house of Hadji Ali Onbashi. exclaiming. and seemed much discomposed. Geun^h-der!" (It is a sin!).

45 A. ? Were they the result of lake would account for their perNearly all the mountains here fectly level surface. their and had been reduced to utter destitution land had been measured unfairly in order to exact heavier taxes but he had heard that a commission had been issued to examine into their case and relieve them. are evidently volcanic or of limestone pierced and displaced by igneous rock. the servant !) With much difficulty we induced him to take a few piastres for his servant. On our departure next morning Hadji Ali refused to accept any payment whatever for our entertainment. without offence. an dsaid. of that district taxes. and so left thanking him we bade him adieu. all The or plain the others in this hills region a perfect level surrounded by tains. to give some compensation for the expense and trouble of entertaining strangers) he pointed to himself.ANATOLIC A. —We of Boujak is fertile. " Khuzmetkar b^n im !" (I am . being of strong curved wooden ribs fastened to the If so. Boujak and like at 6. in order to pay their had been obliged to sell even their oxen. We met a few families Their carts were strangely made. May 9th.M. this o 2 . and when we asked for the servant (a way often employed in order. . It difficult to account for the formation of these deposit plains. moun- which is rise steep and abrupt without any intermediate slope. some villages. 195 been very severe and exacting with the peasants . removing.

oxen. now about six inches high. cart. AND CART-WHEEL OF SOLID WOOD AND AN IRON TIRE. PLOUGHS. is a great breadth of wheat. The wheels were solid discs of wood with an iron body of the tire.196 ANATOLICA. and the plain itself is very extenone "reach" succeeding another in a very . Two miserable but spokes are not used. drew these vehicles. about as large as donkeys. V which was a single bar of wood. There sive.

on our left. called Soosuz ("the waterless" a common name here). " apparently a church of the earliest ages side of Christianity. 197 The mountains nearly meet and the plain seems to end. . Throughout the whole journey I had never yet seen an "evil-looking" face.45 A. mud. Although this way there is no road. a village right. was on the only a track.ANATOLIC A. not very fertile. On the contrary. and in front of it. but everywhere sowed with wheat. The soil is a chalky clay. was a large building which our people called a khan. but passing through narrow ravines between the high rocks one sees reach after reach stretching on for the routes to Adalia pass many miles.30 A. but visited — we it did not examine it. We reached the cafe of Badem Aghadj at 10. and the plain turning off to the right extends out of sight.30 A. The road now enters a Oorloo Keui. between rocky and sterile hills. there was on the right a lofty and steep rock precipice of a rich deep red colour. and the rains of the last few days had changed the surface into At 8. strange way." At 9.M.M. about 200 yards in width. It was evidently old. who found be a portion of a large edifice. A little beyond were the villages of Koosh Keui and Here the torrent is crossed by a small bridge. narrow ravine. having figures of angels sculptured on either of a large arched gate. It was in by Colonel Leake and General Koehler to 1800.M.

I tried to catch his eye. Here and there were vineyards. but he would never look me in the face. ash. is more to the south-west. at the number of cemeteries along the roadside but the villages to which they had belonged. Beyond this the valley again spread out. The showed heaps of ruins. appeared to be erect. Tchibouk Boghazi. had disappeared. and in front of it a mound like the . . On the right was the village of Badem Aghadj. or these only the graves of the died while traversing may be many passers-by who have this much frequented road. but no building. . and were very reserved and taciturn. His two companions also looked "dangerous.— 198 . pear. perhaps a burial cairn . Somehow it looked an ill-omened place ! — I was surprised . but most of the soil waste and full of brushwood. nor even fragment of a building. Beyond the cafe the road still continues in a narrow ravine overgrown with trees walnut. is The site of the ancient Cretopolis glass on a hill to the right. and oak." All three were armed to the teeth. ANATOLICA. mound at Colossae and passing this we came suddenly to one of the most verdant little spots one could imagine. Here is the entrance to the northern of the two passes which lead into the plain of Adalia the other. but in the same mountain chain. the kindly good nature of* the people was every- where displayed but here was a man with one of the most sullen and villainous expressions I ever beheld.

not far from the foot of the pass related to . .ANATOLIC A. 199 A few huts with the and a few Yourouk tents are dignified of the village of Beli ("the pass"). name The people tried to induce us to remain. but at Boujak we had been told by old Hadji Ali of a village named Yumaltskeui on the plain of Adalia. of this he had us "monts et merveilles " — so we determined to go on.

and Danger of Malarious Fever—We are unable to pass through the South of —The Roman — Steepness Road its in at Cliff like at Lycia. of the Road — Ruins of the —Wheelroarks in the Pavement — Ruins at the Foot of the Pass — The Plain of Adalia — insalubrity—Emigration of Inhabitants in Summer Village of Kovajik— Our Bivouac — Proper Diet for a Traveller in these Warm Regions — Misery of the Villagers — Heat —Fleas Mosquitos — Fever— Want of Water— Fertility of the Soil Superior Condition of the Pastoral Races Anatolia — Value of Sheep sold in Smyrna by a Yourouk Chief— Amount of Government Taxes — Aspect of the Plain of Adalia — Khan of Tchibouk Boghazi — Bridge over the Duden Soo (Catarractes) — Petrified Deposit on Surface of Plain — Ateran Cafe — Heat of Plain Drunken Greek Cafe — Lower Plateau on which Adalia stands — Appearance of —Deposit that Hierapolis — Cause Catarractes has flowed in Different Channels —Nedjib Pasha's Road — Description of Adalia— Old Fortifications — Port — Wreck of an Egyptian Frigate — Marble Gateway in Wall —Various Inscriptions — Gateway near the Port — Exports of Adalia —Notices of Adalia — Attains Philadelphus — Louis VII.50 P. and about two-thirds of . most teresting. because the old it." fine it but is we had in- become rather " passed through Still.M.— CHAPTER Pass of Termessus Minor Ancient City and Fort Its XI. country would be thought very choice. Roman road to Attalia At a very short distance from it the entrance the road becomes so steep that is necessary to dismount. it In any other . We entered the pass at 1. — Magnificent Ranges of Mountains opposite Adalia — Climax — Solyma — Bey Dagh —Takhtalu Dagh (Olympus) — Zenicetus the Cilician Pirate —Alexander's passage under Climax—Heat.

.

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but the material in all these works is coarse and covered with lichen. they consist of a Christian of sarcophagi. ANATOLICA. all broken . the 201 way down the pass are the ruins of the Roman fort that commanded it. There must have been also a considerable town in the pass.. —wheeled vehicles could once In the plain at the bottom of the pass are extensive remains of a town of later Roman a times great . The colossal statue of a lion recumbent was on the right. church. It sides are sarcophagi. admirably fitted together. as usual. but rounded now and polished smooth as glass by the traffic of ages. but is superior to it. with such solidity has it been constructed. the foundations and walls of many houses. for along the road were foundations of many walls and houses. and of the pass occupied us number The descent more than . The Roman road is indeed a fine work it resembles the road between Alexandretta and Antioch. built. and on all and their inscriptions illegible the ornament upon most of them is the Grecian shield. a very little repair needed to make the road nearly as good as ever. the stones are set in a red concrete is . : is made of large boulders of fine crystalline white limestone. of massysquare stones. In places the wheel ruts are still plainly visible showing that even up and down this steep ascent — now for many centuries past only traversed by baggage animals proceed. Where a rivulet or watercourse passes. Lower down was another fort.

Arrived at length on the plain. in consequence of the deadly malaria which prevails plains in and lower and valleys along the coast of Anatolia and Caramania. and cooler air of the mountains and we were told that the emigration had already . it heights above. resembles very it As seen from the much the Roman and without the Campagna. who told us that the villagers had now nearly all gone off into the mountains to their yailas. The people.202 ANATOLICA. so steep and slippery was the road. and it was necessary to dismount and walk nearly all the way. therefore. The plain of Adalia is bounded on the north and west by lofty mountain chains. it is is more level. but to our surprise nothing like a village was the employe of the The reason was explained by Government Telegraph (which passes this way). though habitable during the winter season. who in winter time live in the villages on the plain. Like the Campagna fearfully unhealthy during a large portion of the year. From the end of May it. we began visible. only undulating also. it becomes a very dangerin nearly all the ous residence. to look for the village of Yumaltskeui. two hours. on the south by the sea. while towards the east it stretches in an un- broken level for forty or fifty miles. always pass the in the purer summer . tired and hungry. hills of the latter.

accounts of Yumaltskeui. — but before doing this village on the plain a and close under the mountains. and there being a wedding on foot amongst them in this neighbourhood we could at worst claim their hospitality . Accordingly we made preparations to pass the night. so we determined to sleep It under a thing ash tree that grew near us. made in of sticks covered with matting.— — . &c. and bad native bread . begun. reeds.. Accordingly after riding about two hours we passed some black tents and a number of booths we were advised to go to a long way to the south-west. so that 203 we should find most of the villages to the cafeji at deserted even thus early. A supper was brought to us of eggs. Their head man at first either could or would not do anything for us others were more hospitable . man at length pointed out an empty cottage. trusting to Hadji Ali's magnificent True there were yet plenty of Yourouks about. . but they The head advised us to sleep " out " al fresco. and we lay down yaourt. On inquiry we were told that they were always obliged so to live during the hot season on account of the fleas with which their cottages swarmed. which the people of the village were lodging. but it did not look inviting fine . was a we could scarcely have done with impunity a few weeks later owing to the malaria. ANATOLICA. We had given our native bread Badem Aghadj. they said they could supply us with food. called Kovajik.

He said that when once the summer had begun the fleas and mosquitos and heat were terrible that in about three weeks from the present time the fever Would appear. whether native or imported. \/ The stimulating diet of civilised life is the worst possible food upon a journey in these warm regions. and soon a loud chorus of snores told us that they at least did not regard fleas use. were inexorable. The fleas.") (This of course is only an hyperbole . made the . The condition of these poor people is truly wretched. that our diet at times left somewhat to be desired. The sunrise over the Pamphylian mountains and plain was one of the most lovely sights I ever saw but the heat in this corner under the mountains was soon intense. however.. and that was so bad that " it caught even the birds " (" Kooshleri g^na It tout^r. . air Towards midnight rose I sank into a broken sleep. infliction light to them. thanks to the free and plain food. Total or almost total abstinence from wine and spirits (and even to a great extent from animal food) enables the traveller to resist the sun and endure an amount of fatigue which will surprise even himself. The villagers performed their devotions. but much refreshed. starting I fell into conversation with the head man. but not to sleep. and I felt great pity for "Whilst smoking a cigarette just before them. 204 ANATOLICA. no doubt. must be confessed.

They probably . was told by our interpreter that one Yourouk chief alone sold sheep at Smyrna last year to the value of 3.— ANATOLIC A. though fewer of them died than might have been expected " being accustomed in some degree to the malaria.500 Turkish sovereigns.) They could not leave the had been had no yaila their yaila appropriated by a certain Mustafa for they — Pasha. to 205 declare place. and evidently Their independent and in good circumstances. but they were already appropriated there was nothing for it but to The soil was good stay and suffer. And in effect the poor peasants of Anatolia are Few or none of the cultivators in a bad condition. as they had to pay heavy taxes in proportion. its intensity. . no doubt. that they had suffered horribly from the fever. He said they had " asked and asked but all was useless. while many of the shepherds are even wealthy e. attended by Yourouks mounted on good horses. manly air formed a strong contrast to the downcast expression of so I many of the peasantry. we had met the day before a large five or six drove of oxen. Yes. I asked if they had petitioned the Pasha of Adalia to assign them another yaila.g. and . I said "we had passed so many void places in the mountains that were ." He replied. full of pasturage. but very little benefit resulted to them from this. well armed. are well off.. to form a "tchiftlik" (farm). and the crops splendid.

and. told. quite different from the fine fresh complexion to be seen in the mountain or the Yourouk children. belonged to a large it yet seems scarcely credible. and even those at some distance preter to the mountains above the village containing none. however. and their children have an almost livid look. but was mostly . The soil was evidently favourable to crops. On This is all the direct taxation he has to pay. but not a rivulet descends into the plain for a long distance. —We . though not to men. hand the Yourouk pays some hundreds of piastres to the Government annually for the right of pasturage in a certain district." They somehow manage to slip through the I fingers of the taxgatherers. or to several tribes Still . was amounted to about 65 per cent.5 A. May loth. These poor people show the marks of their sufferings in their withered and yellow faces. In addition to its other miseries the village has no water. four piastres annually for each sheep. they are "well off. profits of the cultivator is but of course much of this absorbed before the other it reaches the Sultan's treasury. The head man begged our interask us if we thought " water could be hills found in the near " . in addition. except two small wells. tribe. We passed through splendid fields of bearded wheat.2o6 ANATOLICA. The cultivation. In most districts the Government taxes. of the net . &c. left Kovajik at 6. did not extend far into the plain.M.

the warbling of reed birds. At The 8.15 A. fine ancient walls.M. At 8.M. its and here first appears one of petrified deposit cliff at peculiar features. here the gravel being apparently of limestone burnt to a dull brown colour. river the plain To the south of the becomes stony. and the plain will be deserted till winter drives the people route to down from the yailas again. The late heavy rains had caused an inundation the pools were full of beautiful white water lilies. through which projected every- where rocks of limestone and white marble . At 10.M. square in form. and with a handsome gateway.55 A. The was and heat was now very we were no The longer in soil the cool climate of the high lands. confined to the strip of land under the mountains the rest of the wide level was covered with low brushwood and scattered trees. we crossed the Duden Soo (Catarractes) by a long bridge of many arches.50 A.ANATOLICA. but in a few weeks they and their owners will be on the mountains. It is a spacious and solid stone edifice. 207 . Numbers of cattle were grazing.10 A. soil we passed two was gravelly. its viz. Continuing our the south-west we reached (6..M. the thick on surface like that upon the Hierapolis. . a dull red earth. and from the thick reed beds came . we reached great. for the Ateran cafe.) the khan at the foot of Tchibouk Boghazi ("Pipe defile").

even the little basins are there. . we first left the cafe. direction were masses of the stony deus with posit already mentioned.M. extends from the foot of till it Mount Climax lost to view.50 A. This lower plateau extends up to the Lycian moun- on the north-west.2o8 in every ANATOLICA. The cliff itself at the point where we descended exactly resembles that at Hierapolis . Its boundary on the land side (the north) is an at one elevated cliff from 200 to 300 feet high . across the plain eastwards It is appears as if some great conthis cliff vulsion of nature lower plain to had caused the w^hole of descend bodily. point this cliff is only about a mile from the walls it is of Adalia. we were annoyed by a drunken maker of lime. and that the marked the line of breakage. and on the east far on towards the mountains above Perge. whom we were at last . though seldom It less than four miles distant from the sea. At 11. cafeji received much atten- He brought some excellent yaourt and very good raki Greek. and is in a few is minutes had our glimpse of Adalia. The Arnaout tion. but obliged to treat with some raki in order to be rid After swallowing in a very few minutes spirit about half a pint of the fiery off. he staggered The cafeji said that was his usual condition. a of him. situated That at part of the plain in which the town a considerably lower level than the plain over which we had been tains all the morning travelling.

This is according to the account given by Ptolemy (v. ? that he calls the river Catarractus . matted together and covered with the stony deposit are there exactly as at Hierapolis. ANATOLICA. point to running water as the agent. 5). owing to the great amount of deposit it makes.. both vertical and all . &c. dications of water slowly flowing or dripping down are there horizontal . which afterwards slowly flowed Is the deposit over the and was so discharged or must we conclude that the Catarractes (Duden Soo) alone. — all That but this is a deposit how account for its made by water is evident The peculiar wide extent r marks in the stone.. thoug-h 209 not of the is exquisitely white substance All the in- which to be seen at Hierapolis. excepting cliff into the sea . These accounts may is on the west of Adalia. the ribs of stone. which lofty cliff with a is large and rapid and from a sound which can be heard afar off. spread so great a places three feet in But what river could mass of deposit thickness — so in some —over wide an extent of ground as may be seen in the plain of Adalia ? matter precipitated by the waters of some great lake. is . moss. the basins. be reconciled on the supposition that the river. &c.. has in the course of ages produced this result The Catarractes now enters the sea by several mouths to the east of Adalia.. sticks. leaves. constantly changing its channel. &c.. but Strabo says falls the river.

The town now reaches far beyond the old walls to . with steep streets extending up to a level on the top of the cliff.M. but is a place of no great commercial activity. its constantly changing course . The Yenijah khan at which we lodged was a clean and spacious building of stone. is indentation in the rocky shore. something even has repair. but picturesque enough.2IO ANATOLIC A. Adalia contains about 10.000 inhabitants. and the walls extend down the cliff on either side to the mouth of the port. It is still in good condition been done to keep it in By this we entered Adalia at 2. thirty -five the This road was made about years ago by Nedjib Pasha.000 to 12.10 P. and is the " scala " it the neighbouring district. a deep dry ditch. Governor of Adalia. which is small and a slight inconvenient. The town is round the port the whole like an amphitheatre. a parapet outside the fosse. is enclosed by a wall about forty feet high. once . From way to the foot of the cliff near the Ateran cafe all a good road extends for about four miles the town. and beyond that a wet ditch. which everywhere terminates in bold and lofty built cliffs. many of them Greek. and even now a small stream which displays the same petrifying qualities falls over the cliff into the harbour of Attalia. Its port. with tall square towers at interv^als. it Its bazaars are well for all supplied.

very solid masses mouth of the port they are the remains of the jetty by which in old times the port was sheltered. were lost . and from one of them hang a number of chains. Two towers (or . and she to pieces. The lower stones . unsafe during southerly or south-westerly 1-2 and sea cliff all an Egyptian frigate her crew of seventy men. part of the wall inferior above that I massy cut Roman work is built of fine is the wretched masonry of the Turks at the top. an outer line of fortification of 211 modern erection.. when trying to beat out to the force of the gale drove her against the a few hundred yards outside the port. of which a large part seems to be embedded in the wall the wall perhaps having of Laodicea. in As we passed filled noticed a number of water pipes the wall with stony deposit as in the Thermae were the remains of a white marble gateway of extremely beautiful work. The port is of masonry. to which vessels in rough weather fasten their cables. went On the east side of the port I observed a fine date palm rising amidst the trees of the gardens above the cliff. p 2 . AXATOT. No obstacle is now the the placed in the inner wall. A short distance beyond these — one portion was quite inside the wall (perhaps a few built it been under and around at a later age . rise in the sea at the very gales. excepting two or In the winter of 187 three persons. rather pier heads).TCA. who wish to see Accordingly we walked round way it of those greater part of on the edge of the dry is ditch.

.. was upon a slab of whitish limestone this had been broken into two pieces. 212 ANATOLIC A. stones have been removed and so this piece has come and having been thus sheltered it appears as fresh and perfect as if sculptured only a stain and the figures sharply guished. Near these fragments One long inscription were several inscriptions. Higher up in the wall is a long course of marble bearing the "fret" ornament (Mseander). however. but in one the writing was reversed. attribute way mentioned. . yesterday. . the material being apparently without But it was at too great a height for the subject to be distin- Two large pieces of a very ornate cornice are built into the wall edgewise. mentioned. to light). which had been replaced. but this must have formed part of some other building. We heard that the authorities of the town had wished to open out this gateway and had commenced removing the stones but on the inside of the wall at the back of the gateway was a private house. having above the doorway a female head defaced. cut. as it is too large to suit the frieze of the edifice already Underneath is another gateway. They have the echinus ornament carved below and above a rich acanthus. much authority to this account. . with acanthus wreaths on either side of it this also is very fine work. the owner of which was unwilling to give his consent. and therefore the stones were replaced this one had been broken and was replaced in the careless I do not.

I." stones of the subjoined were placed i The two No. " Julia Sancta (or Sanecta) constructed the tower at her own expense. and the two stones . copy in haste.|i may belong to |5ni: ^3|m separate portions of I believe the inscription. . . I . In beautifully clear and regular letters. the writing . however.ANATOLIC A. but in No. ^^-'"'^^''^^mm^'' the copy to be correct. seem to be wanting. but cannot make out the sense of the inscription. ^^AAlCyN fCA\ JIAHPOICJTO re^ TAFTOJX'P 11 VAMTQ A^i TQaPTQ 1A£:(7T6X QXY PAN FrJCAG hN'nQAIN . as sunset We were obliged to No.\ A I X A NE K 1" A TONnrproN EKT^NI A inN KATE2TH2EN..^j^^^^^^.. 2 it together. in was in regular order other portions. was reversed. was at hand. 213 copied a few of the inscriptions I : O T . both at the ends and between them.

— 2 14 ANATOLIC A. which seems untouched the wall has simply been built up on either side of it. and much defaced : in rudely cut characters €1T/ THCArrs/(AC Aie TA^ouPCTTec TATOy Ko K fK^ K^ rs Po O A 07 o ro YA A N Poc A/VX£ A£ CJ© HyV (T^O CPTON THCTTAA KlvJCC CJCTHCTTK/^HC Ctt P>r Tat- In the interior wall that skirts the west side of the harbour there . 2. No. AT^A^^^C ^jUAHiv^ To the left of this inscription and near the ground was the following. GJisrir AG cjiv ^ €ri 5^ca N A^CeXB ^NATAPL^AT : OUNTCJ 0(^Ane:TrAKArONrA^. There is a frieze or cornice . is also a large gateway.

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y at Adalia we only stayed leisure to . * Perhaps the refer to this very words work. *' wXaxwcrEWf nrxdxuijis . being full of turpentine and employed in the rough state. for which we did not limited that. "one who overlays with marble. 2 and 3 are inserted. built into the fortifications. which The under i. similar slabs of marble of patterns Nos. even .afov. very remains . Much of the timber used in Egypt and Syria comes from Adalia.ANATOLIC A. exlittle cepting the fortifications. my friend's time was so unfortunately.apfA. 215 is exactly like that of the Great Gateway." . There is a large export of wood of ex- cellent quality.g. Hence TeXaKurms /u. i it is in a sunk compartment. these have been repaired often and modernised but there must be interest many other scattered objects of see. T»)y -jruXTif " in the inscription may means " to cover a flat surface of any kind " not classical Greek. Attalia was founded by Attalus Philadelphus. are of surprising hardness and durability. In all the flower is in relief. but in No. and could only take a rapid sur\^ey of the town and port. surface of the archway is ceiled* with small squares of fine white marble of pattern No. we had no remain long enough in any of these interesting places e. chiefly The exports a of Adalia are wheat. and great quantity of leeches. but irXa^ wXaxow {ecclesiastical Greek) means is with flat pieces or plates. Of Old Adalia. both from the ports on the Black Sea and from the southern ports. timber. and the pine rafters. one afternoon. On the inside of and on the wall outside. the gateway right and left.

for its port is small and inconvenient. and its proximity to Egypt and Syria. in ships furnished Emperor Manuel Comnenus. The view from Adalia of the Lycian mountains Climax and Solyma is most grand and beautiful. whereas the mountains of the interior are. They are far more Alpine in character than the mountains of the interior often : they rise in lofty peaks. named Corycus already existed and Attalus enclosed this and the new city Attalia is with a wall. 25) as the place at which Paul and Barnabas embarked on their return to Antioch after the first It 1 apostolic journey. leave before Adalia the greater portion of the host had accompanied him thus garrison of the town refused were nearly all The Greek admit the to Crusaders. that by the Byzantine He was obliged to far. or perished by sickness or famine only a few saving their life by apostasy. was here that during the second Crusade in 148 the French King. Louis VII. 159 to 138). its water bad. A small town there. in general. after the departure of their King. no doubt determined the monarch's choice. and the district round it barren and unhealthy.. mentioned (Acts xiv. long connected chains. who.2i6 ANATOLIC A. most opposite directions.. of King near Pergamus passes (B. Its position the which lead directly from the interior. cut off : by the Turks. The whole coast inclined in the . embarked also for Antioch.C.

Phaselis (the port under phylia these this mountain). .AXATOLICA. line to the south-west is 217 bordered by them. was the strong- named hold of the Cilician pirate Zenicetus. and Pisidia could be seen. its central part of is thinly clad with its brushwood top. .C.c^ Adalia). 75). Dagh into deep ravines covered with trees . a few patches snow lingered on also A fortress upon it. He was in master of Corycus [i. and it required a regular campaign before Pompeius . Its southern extremity. rising so closely together as scarcely to leave room enough for valleys between their bases. Pamphylia. Takhtalu 9.000 feet high. Olympus.. But piracy flourished long after that time. all under Servilius Isauricus these places were captured. Seen from Kepez cafe they have the appearance of narrow towering ridges. . " The stairs ") rises into isolated pinnacles and fantastic crags one above another beyond and above it is the ridge of Solyma. The great offenders were the Cilicians.900 feet in a bare insulated peak its base is broken up . Especially Mount Climax (lit. but (B. from which all Lycia. . (Olympus). together with the mountain strongand Zenicetus burnt himself with all his hold household. and many places Pam- when the piratical confederacy of regions was broken up by the Romans. with it a few detached islands lying off at intervals. The highest peak of this range to the north is the snow-capped pyramid of Bey Dagh. rises to the height of 7.

and it was most probable we should find the villages along the coast deserted. the danger of malarious fever was every day becoming greater. that Alexander the Great entered Pamphylia. This road cannot be is used except w^hen the wind south wind blows it is northerly ." took a " pass. We therefore ." (xiv. rendered the passage short and easy his Court : an accident which by Alexander and was considered as having happened by Also Strabo the interposition of some deity. but already the heat was intense. which was difficult but not long. sent part of his army the Thracians through the mountain to Perge pointing out the road. succeeding to violent south winds. scarcely leaving room to pass.2i8 ANATOLICA. 25). 3) says that to whole day waist. It was by this way. were of immense strength. The sea seems to wash the very base of these Lycian mountains. having two of its sides absolutely perpendicula-r and 500 or 600 feet high. When Alex- ander arrived there. having the sea up to the Alexander's soldiers We had hoped to go through the south of Lycia to Makri. " Alexander. moving from Phaselis. which is built on a rocky promontory. Those attached to his person were led by : himself along the sea-side. a north w^ind.. vSome of their fortresses the Great could cut up the piratical fleets and destroy their settlements. as Arrian relates (i.. when the impracticable. especially Coracesium (now Alaya).

decided not to take this route. however.ANATOLICA. . 219 The same reasons visit induced us to omit visiting Perge.* but we prudent to traverse the high lands of Lycia. to Makri. them was through the pass * An intention which we were unable to execute from want of time. and the road to of Termessus. We judged still it hoped.

. W. —Heat in the Plain—Ignorance Formation Kepez Caf6 — Bed of Petrified Deposit —Theory of Sarcophagi —Uzumkoyou Cafe — Ancient Well — Ruins of Aarassus — Deep Torrent Bed — Almalu Pass — Gulelik Dagh—Hellenic Wall and Forts in the Pass —Yenijah Khan Cafe — Ascent to the Ruins of Termessus — Arrian's Account of the Old City — Its Position — Dense Vegetation—Ancient Paved Road —Two Ancient Guard-houses — First Wall — Enclosed Ravine leading up to the City — Vast Number of Sarcophagi — Ruins — Spring — Second Wall across the Ravine — Another Spring—Ruins — Third Wall — Site of the City — Difficulty of Examining Ruins — Fourth Wall — Deep Precipices round the Plateau — Paved Street —Agora Cisterns — Ruins of other Buildings — Theatre — View from the City— Desolation of the Place — Thickets of Wild Roses — Water Supply at the Khan —Alexander's Attack on Termessus — It submits to Manlius — Strabo's Notice of — The Almalu Pass Solar Heat —Yaila at Head of Pass — Plain of Almalu — Appearance of Country— Torrent of Stenez — Descent into the Plain of Karditch — Great Extent of these Plains — Bivouac of the Villagers of Soosuz — Misery of the Peasants. no sporting of receiving the revenue. is branch of the Imperial Ottoman established at Adalia. Mr. in short. of the People concerning the Natural Features of their Country its it May Bank nth.— CHAPTER Collection of Antique Medals at Adalia XII. . was society. He said that its climate was unhealthy. the heat in summer great there was no good water. . who did not seem much enamoured of the place. — dull and unpleasant. no everything. chiefly for the sake —A Having occasion for some money I called upon the agent.

strange how in careless the people their seem concountry the cerning the natural features of ten Not one man seems to know names . highest towers the pyramidal snow-capped top of Bey Dagh. in We breeze. — amongst Genoese. Amongst his gold coins were many Polish.50 A. rise one behind another . left Adalia at 10. German. He showed me antique coins 221 a small but choice collection of them are many coins of cities in Phrygia and other provinces whose position is not made out. of all. from 1500 to 1670. more grand the Lycian mountains appear — steep and narrow and abrupt ridges. which extended several miles .M. but outside the town it was tempered by a cliff excepting under the at the end of Nedjib Pasha's road. The weather was fine sea hazy. which he had purchased of a Turkish family Adalia. Venetian. of the boldest and most the The nearer one approaches them romantic forms. and in the town the heat oppressive. &c. nearly the whole of the lower little plain is uncultivated except a of the It is strip along a branch Duden Soo.. and of which no other memorial exists except their coinage. of various dates.! ANATOLICA. consisting of the soil and pebbles brought down by the rain and melted snow in spring. Under the nearest ridge of Climax to our left was a large ash coloured patch.

Here the road begins be bordered . and then the streams which flow from the Taurus. or of the mountains. 1.M. brushwood on the plain but on the mountains and in the plain at their base the pines are numerous and of various kinds. that the extensive them had subsequently become great fresh-water lakes. would seem as if the mountain limestone chains of these had been forced up by some great convulsion. charged with carbonate of lime. We reached Kepez . a few pines begin to Beyond appear amongst the cafe." 2 22 ANATOLIC A.M. On breaking off bottom it was full of fine sparkling dust.7 At P. I often asked the name of mountains from people we this met. had percolated the newly exposed surface. above the usual a piece at the It red loam soil. fully three feet in thickness. We arrived Uzumkoyou to cafe at about 3 P. of which traces remain in the igneous rocks which here and there protrude from them districts to a greater or less extent . In one place I observed a bed of petrified deposit. depositing everywhere in their course a bed of travertine of varying at thickness. until another but less violent disturbance had effected their drainage. apparently cares to know V them. and then through valleys thus formed amidst a long period of tranquillity the fine forms the beds of the yailas which and valleys had soil been gradually deposited. but seldom could obtain any information.

.

COMMON FORM OF SARCOPHAGUS AT ARTASSUS .4 Yl "^^ SARCOrilAC..l S AT AKIASSUS .W^v ^<M /r7 ^m^:.

but evidently a vast and violent torrent in the winter season. however. full of large rounded boulders and . nothing remains but foundations. and of very rough workmanship all have been broken open. and the inscriptions on them are illegible the only ornament they bore was the Greek spear and shield. A little distance beyond the well is a deep torrent bed. by a ^reat number of sarcophagi. must . slabs of made Of the Strabo of large horiold xii. 22T. AXAIOfJCA. massy. have been situated nearer to Lake Caralis perhaps at or near the village of Yalinli. at present quite dry. heaps of rubbish. the descent to which is by a deep flight of steps : the roof zontal is not arched. Gulelik Dagh itself is the mountain on the . Not far from the cafe is a fine covered well. who consider this to be the site of Lagon. wide and well frequented. and crumbling walls of rubble masonry. The site is overgrown with brushwood. so thick that it is impossible to make a way through it and hence the plan of the town cannot now be made out. pebbles ... The latter town. The pass of Gulelik Dagh (or the Almalu It is pass) forms the chief passage between the plains of Pamphylia and the Lycian highlands. but presents nothing of much interest until beyond Yenijah khan. but stone." town of ]) which here. Ariassus stood (or " Aarassus. though it is given by Spratt and Forbes.

. which are now was beginning front cause great annoyance. In the pass we met a large the women were riding (had they tribe of them been Arabs the men would have been riding the women walking.infant in it was fastened on the back of one of the camels. 28) describes thus " These people (the Termessians) are barbarians of the Pisidian race lofty. Everywhere the . one might judge from the respect with which they were treated. Our lodging full w^as extreme and to of fleas. shed open it the air in was assigned to us the outer part was occupied by some " derveeshes " one portion of if — very holy personages. and of several small forts or block-houses of fine masonry. but seemed disposed to be very civil. They inquired very curiously about us. they inhabit a place extremely side. Arrian (i. broken. to It nothing but a rough . yards At it the entrance of the pass the rhododendron . — In about five hours from Adalia we reached wretched Yenijah khan in the cafe. Yourouks have begun their annual emigration. grows luxuriantly a few hundred of down (which are the remains a well-built wall once extended across the valley). precipices. full lefthand side of the pass. May 1 2th. craggy.. and precipitous on every and the way . of and thickly wooded to the summit.) A cradle with an .— 2 24 ANATOLIC A. — After breakfast the khanji acted as our guide to the ruins of the old Greek it city : of Termessus.

.

j^^-> ANCIENT GATEWAY IN THE ViI.5.E OK YALINI.ii^J^' "^M^:)*'.LA(.-^^'^•i'ft-: % si^'f '--. .I.-.*.

on the flat . and large stones. This is a good account of the place : the city is summit of a mountain. and the one part of it termia it nates on the road. About twenty passes minutes higher up another guard-house. we came an ancient guard- house. built of massy square together. seen such rank vegetation. to the city (query the difficult.20 A. the plateau being edged by a natural wall of craggy precipices. are two vaulted rooms of equally fine architecture Q .45 A. very exactly cement. but pre- senting nothing remarkable.ANATOLIC A. most difficult of access. The whole face of the mountain and the ruins are thickly covered with trees and underwood. is road. leads in a slanting direction up the steep mountain side behind the cafe. without is blocks. We The started on foot from the cafe at 6. brushwood. At fitted 7. Inside the gateways . except at Ephesus. which not practicable for horses. and the grass on the site of the city is of extraordinary length and density I have nowhere.M. 225 itself?) is pass of Almalu for down tain to mountain reaches from the city the road." not less precipitous. with two arched gateways. amongst stunted oak to trees.M. and externally almost inaccessible. and by occupying these mountains with a small force the passage may be rendered impracticable. but facing is another moun- and these mountains form as it were gates upon the road. under which an ancient paved road about six paces wide.

the huge lids displaced or overturned and amidst . Here began the ruins of the city but all is a confused heap of huge limestone blocks scarcely anything remains erect. The ancient road. of which there were traces further down. This ruin. after passing the first wall.. Immediately above the first wall was a long flat area. and was enclosed on both sides by precipices. heavy workmanship. we entered a valley on our left. . . . the stone. but on either side the is . between these guard-houses are the ruins of private houses and many sarcophagi. . now in at which extended across the whole space between the side of the mountain on our left and some cliffs on our right. But at 8 A. Sagalassus. valley about 250 to 300 yards in width level and open in the bottom.M. which rose with a very steep ascent. Hitherto the ascent had been up the side of the mountain it was very steep on the left towered the sheer precipice. The number of sarcophagi and tombs of masonry on the lefthand side is very great all. perfectly inaccessible from below. a kind of natural rises in ground stadium. rough and steep ascents to the foot of the precipices. covered with lichen — all broken open. . on the right the ground fell sharply down to a deep ravine full of trees and rocks. except massy walls projecting a few feet above the ground. however. next passes through a wall.2 26 intervals ANATOLIC A. as at Kremna and . of coarse.

curious tomb on which was carved a panther and a lion. entirely legible. meet the eye on ing to a temple Upon an eminence steps. to the right of the path stood a large gateway belong. GREEK SHIELDS CARVED UPON THE SARCOPHAGI AT SAGALASSUS. fallen buildings of great size.ANATOLICA. as 227 a prodigious number of inscriptions none. so far I could see. all sides. and but many other forms of shields also occur. Heaps of ruins. holding up between them in their paws a vase or urn — the last resting place perhaps of some mighty hunter of the olden There was one time. it was approached by and Q 2 . The usual ornashield ment they bore was the round Greek lance .

all The wall is built of massy stones equal in size . About halfway up the valley on the and peaks about it. with square doorways and windows it is about fifty paces long. Still further. and cliffs this enclosed valley are full of many sarcophagi are placed on the some apparently in positions not accessible except by means of ropes and ladders. . is another spring of excellent water. This also is within three capacious recesses. and still on the left. but on the left. our guide said. — — . contracts. it behind were the remains of several large buildings. righthand side is with trees and underwood. being formed of blocks projecting one beyond another. higher than extends quite across the ravine from crag to crag. feet. is a building of which much yet remains. never failed. which pours its water down The ground is here thickly covered the ravine. a proof that the architecture Yet further. which. The rocks around tombs. following the inequalities of the ground. the recesses are pointed. Beyond this the valley and a second wall. is of an early age.228 ANATOLIC A. is still as the wall above the recesses erect to the height of twelve or fourteen small sunken court of fine and there is a masonry in front of it. much stronger and the first. at the It was apparently base of some public building. an abundant spring issuing from pointed stone recesses. and the walls of uncemented blocks are still in great part erect.

^*J <u. .•V. ^ \K.0' ^ # i II: t .

.

so thickly is the site of the city overgrown with brushit wood and rank vegetation. Beyond this wall lay the old city on a spacious plateau or terrace. Along the face of a steep ridge. and even through these it was difficult to force a way. which commanded a view of the lowlands in two directions. our yaila had not yet ascended to it time wa5 short. but is itself commanded by yet loftier crags. it extends from lofty crags on one on the other. a third massy wall of beautiful construction is built . we reached the highest plateau. through which the only paths are the tracks made by the Yourouk cattle.ANATOLICA. 229 At length about 9 A. for the place had been abandoned to nature since the preceding autumn. and we much fatigued by the ascent. Most of the public buildings stood to the southwest and west of the steps already mentioned. occupied more than two hours. A large unoccupied space on north is the northcity west and separated from the by . We found almost impossible to trace out the buildings. the private houses of the town to the north-east and east end. a high and solid square building. the only approach being by a long flight of steps towards the left. which had . the sun extremely powerful. which terminates the head of the valley by which we had ascended. and even these steps are side to similar crags commanded by probably a fort.M. and completely prevents all access from the enclosed valley to the city. and the tenants of this besides.

The few points in the circuit of the plateau at which an enemy might possibly have surmounted the natural defences of the place were carefully strengthened by strong walls of rough blocks. circuit of the plateau is Nearly the whole bordered by precipices in most part utterly inaccessible from . north-west end of this are several large buildings. although the winter might be rainy and inclement. If its old inhabitants desired security they cer- Nothing but famine could reduce a place so strongly fortified by nature and in the heat of summer the air in the shade and at night would be deliciously cool. this Beyond place. could through tangled thickets to a street bordered by pedestals which must have been fully 150 paces At the in length. paved with square blocks of stone and surrounded with many public . From the flight of steps already mentioned we turned to the right and made our way as best we tainly found it here. sink down for an immense depth into ravines which communicate with the plain below. . the east. is another wall. lying north-west and south-east. and surprising studded all over with a number of sarcophagi and rock tombs. still more to the is the wide area of the Agora. and the south-west sides especially. : but contains no buildings that portion of it lying to the north is considerably higher than the city area. overgrown with wood.230 ANATOLICA. below the north. but pletely foundation walls is of all in ruin and comleft.

ANATOLICA. The most remarkable remains round the Agora THEATRE AT TERMESSUS. six counted domed entrances in the to these cisterns. One is ex- tremely fine perfect . are those of two large Doric buildings. and these cisterns. 208 FEET IN DIAMETER. our guide said. series 231 Under the pavement is a connected of large cisterns built upon arches. and I having the interior lined with cement. buildings. The rainfall here is great. each with a pavement above them. only contains one round aperture small spring. both in winter and early summer. which are of great capacity. From Agora a street with prostrate . as the upper city. almost it needs but a roof and doors to be again habitable. square and the lofty. room. would be needful for the water supply.

The construction of very simple steps. The lonesomeness and remoteness of this strange old place were more impressive and solemn than in . which is built in a hollow in the side of the rock. is and access to the orchestra afforded The Theatre It is is in tolerably by a flight of good preserva- constructed of large limestone blocks is and neither in so fine a position nor with the splendid view the Greek theatres usually command. and on the southeast by east it is faced by a side of the neighbouring mountain scarped like a vast wall. but small. columns on either side (?) led to the Theatre. and towering 300 to 400 feet above the level of the city.) It is not far from the edge of the cliff. tion. . and the only entrance seems to be from the direction of the Agora.2 ANATOLICA. by a flight of steps which leads down to the diazoma. we could see a corner of the Pamphylian plain and the mountains that form its northern boundary.27. Looking to the south-east there is a view far below as at Sagalassus. On down the ravine by which we had ascended. but thing" to it is too distant for any- be distinguished except the line of the the north-east. — of the sea near Adalia. (Probably the limited area of the city was the cause of this. and has its upper row of seats but a few feet above the level of the street. from which it is separated by a profound gulf. looking coast. the scena and proscenium is in the latter are five doorways. There are twenty-eight rows of seats.

who was somewhat weakened by his fever.080 feet.M. Termessus . After a short rest at the spring descent at 11. He did not hear the reports. and deer abound in these mountains. still there are bad characeasier amongst them. we feared he had lost his way in the ruins and underwood of the ravine accordingly we fired . and the fatigue of the ascent and descent on such a hot day was very great. the mountain has name.m. who are almost the only people frequenting these places. The Yourouks. are in general well disposed ters . He said that panthers. but had a. four or five shots as a signal to him. and nothing would be or than for evil-disposed persons to rob even murder a stranger in a place so wild and solitary. It would never be advisable for the traveller to attempt to explore such places alone or without an armed guide. 10.30 A. not time properly to explore this strange old place.3 any of the other ruined Greek cities we had visited. Gulelik From these Dagh (" Rose Mountain "). Our interpreter.. The level of Yenijah khan above the sea is about 1. bears. but as fortunately perceived him.15 we continued the and reached the cafe at much interested and pleased. having fallen behind during the ascent.ANATOLICA. 21.. A man might be put out of the way there and no one ever be any the wiser. we were descending we On the way down its our guide pointed out to us large thickets of roses growing wild.

not less precipitous. all Macedonians marched into Phrygia. ordered his Macedonians to encamp on the spot as they were. On the way "they had to pass near the city of Telmissus. for and the road up to the a mountain extends from the (^". The tory it. knowing that the whole force of the Telmissians would not remain there when they saw them making their bivouac. and the highest point in the plateau must exceed this We did not visit the khan. by 400 I feet. of Pisidian descent. But facing it is another mountain. leaving only a pass). Aspendus. a modern building. the supply of water at the cafe was most abundant. on every difficult. is nearly 4. first notice of Termessus in surviving his- is the account of Alexander's attack upon After the conquest of Side. city is city as far as the road the road through the Almalu and one portion of it terminates on the road. which is. As usual in these favoured districts. believe. thereupon. Alexander. and ice cold. And then the Telmissians had occupied these mountains with their whole force.2 34 ANATOLIC A. These people are Pamphylia.^. They inhabit a place very lofty and precipitous side.000 feet high. of exquisite quality. which was not far off. Perge. so that by occupying them with a small force one may render the passage impracticable. but most of them w^ould retire to the city. the and barbarians (non-Hellenic). and these mountains are like gates upon the road. ..

march through &c. wishing to open the defiles. a Pisidian city. and themselves besieged in their acropolis and reduced to the utmost straits.— ANATOLICA. and Alexander. after he had left received Cibyra Isionda.^ 12. guard.200)." . encamped close the When greater part to the city. its and a considerable time elapsed before surrender." 2y^ had retired. envoys from the people of whose town had been captured by the Termessians. and from the pass which leads through them towards the north of Taurus to Isinda — as far as Sagalassus. passing the defiles. through which for this reason is the passage into Milyas. 4).. and the district of Apamaia. (already mentioned). Arrian calls the city Telhis missus. The Consul Manlius. to capture by storm.. however. " Milyas is the mountain country which extends from the defiles at Termessus. it He was unable. and forced the Termessians to buy off hostilities by the payment of fifty talents (nearly . and Alexander captured it." Also (xiii. . 3) : "Above it (Phaselis) is Mount wSolyma and Teroverhanging the defiles messus. Strabo's notice of the place is brief (xiv. during Caria. Alexander at once attacked the guard with his archers and spearmen and th(? most active of the heavy infantry. The Consul gladly embraced the opportunity of interfering he relieved Isionda. The Termessians then fled.

testify to of limestone in channel. in This must be a vast and violent stream springtime when the snows begin its to melt. yet there was not a heavy enervating heat as in dark red rock . But it is evident that the city has been for many centuries deserted. There was but little wood. The road. rounded. employed a very unusual thing in this country. as the torrent which traverses the pass sometimes washes away portions of the roadway.d. 325). The huge boulders the water. tended the Council of Nicaea (a. The solar heat as we ascended was great. . winds under and between lofty precipices of and the strange wall-like mountains (vSolymi Montes) which rose behind us in great ridges. Termessus was the seat of a Christian bishopric A bishop of Termessus atto a late period. Yenijah khan cafe . a little cafe the real ascent of the Almalu Though extremely long.236 ANATOLICA. difficult. by the action of its force. Certainly such repairs are indispensable here. it is not and there was even a party of men in repairing the road. excepting a few fine pine groves on the heights above us. were the chief features of the pass. but and recrossing its b«d. left At midday we beyond the pass begins. so that perhaps the diocese merely retained the title of the old see. these. and almost polished. following in its general direction the continually crossing course of the torrent.

elevation. treeless all bordered the plain. After a ride of an hour and a half the bridge over the shallow we reached and muddy torrent we learnt that of Stenez. Although at so great an 2. At 1. crop.17 P. covered with grass and young wheat it seemed as if we had suddenly removed from summer to spring. far district away hills to the north-west. to descend. hills that rose abruptly from and passing a small lake. On inquiring from a passer by we .ANATOLICA. at was a beautiful little plain. Egypt.M. entered the plain of Almalu. perceptible. but low. This is part of the elevated district which extends all across the interior of Anatolia. the temperature in the shade fierce 237 and was cool and it and pleasant.20 P. At we began of temperature soil was a was here very whitish marl and . this The first was the . rocky. and the change 4. as the great plains it was per- and surrounded by it.M. and this was the only unbroken These wheat fields extend for miles together. On sides were ex- tensive fields of wheat a few inches high. on our journey in which we were not in the immediate neighbourhood of mountains here only one long and lofty range was in view.4 P. but while the sun's rays were scorching. Just below . this little plain presented exactly the : same fectly features level.M. we reached Injirjik cafe. the top of the pass.

;

238

ANATOLICA.

were only an hour and a half from the village of Stenez, instead of being on the road towards Almalu. We were advised to cross some rocky hills on the left and we should find a village called Soosuz, where we might lodge for the night. Accordingly, recrossing the stream, we ascended the hill. But the sun had set, and night was fast approaching
there

was bright moonlight, but we
it

lost

our way,

for the cattle paths in these hills

are so like the

ordinary roads that
light
to

is

very easy in the uncertain

After long wandering we go astray. descended into the plain again, but could find no

village.

On

all sides,

but at a great distance,

we

could see

large fires burning brightly.

We

turned to what

and went on till 8.30 P.M. without appearing to draw much nearer to it. The cold was piercing, and both men and horses were At length we heard voices and tired and hungry. our muleteer rode towards the barking of dogs the quarter whence the sounds came, and we found

seemed the

nearest,

;

that the people of Soosuz, like all the other villagers

of the neighbourhood, were of matting and goats' hair,

encamped out in huts and that the fires we

saw were the fires of similar camps. They received us well, especially as our muleteer impressed on them that we should pay for all we needed. One old man, who had served in the Turkish army in the Crimea, gave up to us his hut.

;

ANATOiJCA.

239

and after a while they brought us a pilaff made of "bulgoor" (very bad indeed), and some yaourt. We ate enough of it to stay our hunger, and then
lay

down

in the

hut to

rest,

with a

fire

of "fiente

"

cakes at our

feet.

The smoke

in part

escaped through the rents and

holes in the tent, which were

many and
!

large

but the remainder was extremely pungent both to

nose and eyes

— and

the fleas

whether we had
I

brought them from Yenijah khan cafe
but they were most annoying.
It

cannot say,
for

was

cold, too,

even with the

fire,

we were

I rose several times an altitude of 4,500 feet. and went out, for sleep was out of the question. It

at

was a
no
shone

lovely, tranquil night

;

fortunately there

was
stars

rain,

and not a breath of wind, and the

brilliantly.

Even had

the fleas been wanting, the barking

of dogs, the lowing of the cattle, the braying of

donkeys, and loud snores from the huts around
us would have prevented any one from sleeping
w^ho like ourselves

was not accustomed

to such

a rough style of living.

How

people can endure

such a wretched

life,

I

cannot think

— (even

the

water they had was turbid and bad!) They said they had left their village because of the heat, and
I really
life.

think they enjoyed this miserable al fresco

All along our route
in this

we saw

villagers

encamped

way.

Daylight showed us the great extent

;

240
of the plain.
the air
is

ANATOLICA.
Distances here are very deceptive
the time required

so clear that an object seems to be near,
it

but

when one advances towards
it is

to reach

often very long.

The mountain opposite
i.e..,

the spot where

we

rested

to the south of the plain

—was called by the
it is

Dagh. I think of Baraket or Bey Dagh. It is
villagers Inejik

only an offset
streaked with

still

snow.


;

CHAPTER

XIII.

Heat of the Day— Cold of the Night on this Plateau Yaila Desolate Country Plain of Almalu Its Sterility The Overshot Mill Horses break down Town of Almalu Position Mountains round it Description of Almalu Khan Account of Riot at Smyrna Prejudices of Greeks against Jews— Our Supper Osmanlis do not make good Cheese Cheapness of Living at Almalu Petmez Koshaff Tahunn Yaourt Pilaff A Native Dinner Temperate Diet of the People The Bazaars of Almalu Costume Fine Physique of the People English and Turkish Crimean Medals Dress— Descent Trade of the Place A Retail Tradesman Mosque of Omar Pasha Fine Spring Change of our Route Fortunate Escape in Consequence Brigands attack Leveesi, Makri, and Kalamaki This Band afterwards broken up Horse Dealing— Cold and Rain— Mount Massicytus (Ak Dagh) Deserted Village of Tchobansa Alarm of our Muleteer Description of the Country — Yaila on the Mountains Kiziljah Dagh Rabat Dagh Douroular Yalinli, Deserted Village Curious Ancient Gateway and Polygonal Masonry Heavy Thunderstorm Lake Caralis Souood Gol Village of Souood

— — —

— — —

— — —

— —

— —

— — Severity of the Climate in Winter — Keep for the Cattle in Winter— Drainage of the Lake — Fever.

The
Stranger's

— —

Room — Heavy

Rainfall

May
it

13th.

—At 8.0 a.m. we

left

Soosuz.

Although

is

cold at night, yet the heat in this elevated
is

plain

very great in the daytime.
villagers told us that in about fifteen
for

The Soosuz

days they should be obliged to leave higher yaila in consequence.

a yet

The cause

of this

is

that

the

high mountain
K

ranges which border the plain stop the breezes

242

ANATOLICA.

same thing is observed in all valleys near high The winter climate of these high mountains. plains is most severe. Our course was over some low hills skirting the
the
plain.

Opposite the village of Inejik

we

turned

into

the mountains on our right and began to

ascend them.

around us barren 'rocky heights covered with low brushwood and scanty herbage. The ascent was long and tedious,
forest,

There was no

but

all

one eminence

after

another rising before us
to feel the breeze,

;

as

we

mounted we began
escaped from the

and gladly

stifling

heat of Soosnz plain.
for

We continued
of an hour
till

to

ascend

about three-quarters

we reached

another yaila.

Here

the air

was
it

quite chill

—frequent
;

showers at times
a few

rendered

even cold.

This morning's journey was

dreary and uninteresting

we saw only
herbage
is

shepherds, and even they would soon be obliged
to quit this district, as the sparse

nearly
;

There were few or no springs here the only water was of melted snow, and that muddy and tasteless, for by this time we had become connoisseurs in water. The hills around had neither grass nor brushwood they were more sterile (if for hunpossible) than the hills about Jerusalem
withered up.

;

dreds of yards together nothing could be seen but

patches of bare limestone rock.

Our course was due west. There was a fine view of Bey Dagh, and of the greatest of the Lycian

ANATOLICA.
mountains,
its

243

Ak Dagh (Mons
;

Massicytus).
in

Upon

long and level ridge the snow lay

an unbroken
furrowed by
sides,

sheet of white

nearer to us another part of the
like a great cone, but

mountain rose
profound

ravines

with

precipitous

upon

whose edges only the snow rested. The great mountains above the Xanthus at Orahn could only be faintly distinguished through the mist and falling rain. On this long morning's ride we saw only two distant villages, and six or
eight people.

There was no

cafe,

but at one o'clock
;

we reached
asleep on

a solitary overshot mill with fatigue that
the turf near the
all

lay

we were down and
brook

so overcome
fell

little

that

turned

the

wheel
said

;

but at

2

P.M. the muleteer roused us,

and

we must

start without delay, as

heavy rain

was coming
to Almalu.

on,

and

it

was yet

five hours' ride

The rest of our route lay through much the same kind of country, low rocky hills, with patches
of half-cultivated whitish soil at intervals.

Below,

on the

right,

was a

tract

better cultivated,

and

with a few villages.

One

of these, Samar}% on the

opposite side of the plain, just before

we reached

Almalu, seemed a considerable place.

Our horses were nearly beaten, and for the first time since leaving Smyrna I felt utterly tired.
Mr.
vSeifTs

horse at last could go no further, so
R

he dismounted, and drove him slowly on before.
2

;

244

ANATOLICA.
length,
at

At
last
us.

about 6.30 P.M.,

we passed

the

eminence, and saw the town of Almalu below
Externally
it

is

much
is

like a

European town,
it

but the resemblance

only

when

is

seen from

a distance.
It
hills
is

built in

a hollow like an amphitheatre
it

rise

closely round

on every side except

the south-west, on which are

many

orchards and
in the plain

gardens, opening into a wide plain, the nearer
part of
is
it

marshy.

At some distance

a large lake (Avelan Gol).

an elevation of about 3,500 feet above sea level, but the hills at the back of the town on the north communicate with the chain of

The town

itself is at

Almalu Dagh, which extends northwards about twelve geographical miles, and terminates in Kiziljah Dagh, about 9,800 feet in height. Very beautiful was the effect of the setting sun, shining on the Orahn mountains, as seen through
the distant showers of falling rain.

A

steep descent brought us into the town.
little

It

seems a busy should judge it

place.

From

its

extent I

to contain about 12,000 inhabitants,

many

them Greek and Armenian. The houses of Almalu are built of mud bricks set in timber
of

frames, or of
streets,

wood

;

the roofs are of shingle

;

the

as in all these towns, are roughly

paved

with boulders of limestone, and copious streams
of water run through the principal ways.

We lodged

at a large

khan

built of

wood.

The

;

AXATOLICA.
(ireek

245

proprietor

received

us

very

hospitably

while our room was preparing" they brought us
to the

reception

room,

and

offered

mastic and

Here we first heard of the disgraceful riot that had broken out at Smyrna in the beginning of May. The most exaggerated accounts of it were current. " A grand combined attack had been made by the Greeks on the Jewish quarter the Turkish troops had been obliged to fire on the mob a hundred Jews, some sixty Greeks, and twenty to thirty soldiers, had been
cigarettes.
; ;

killed,"

&c., &c.

;

the truth being that, although

many

of the rioters had been wounded, only two

poor Jews had been murdered, and that the troops

had not

upon the people. The cause of this riot was the old charge, that the Jews had kidnapped and killed a Christian child at their Passover. It was true that on this occasion the dead body of a child had been found, who had no doubt been cruelly murdered but there was nothing whatever to connect the Jews with the deed. Our host and his friends (all Greeks) seemed to give the most devout credence
fired
;

to the disgraceful charge against the

poor Jews
their

;

and they were not
although

at all

shaken

in

belief,

we

assured them that in Europe some

centuries back this

was the charge usually made against the Jews when the mob felt inclined to
pillage the Jewish quarter.

When

our room was ready and a large

fire

had

. .

246

ANATOLICA.
retired,
It

been lighted we was brought in.
of fried eggs,
cellent dish),

and soon

after our

supper

consisted of rice soup, a dish
of mutton
(an ex-

"kavourma"
so tough that

a dish of stewed meat, and some

roast mutton
bite
it
!

we

could not even

Cheese of the usual bad kind finished
the

the meal.

The Osmanlis do not understand

manu

^

good and pure milk in abundance, they might have excellent cheese if they had sufficient skill and would take the pains necessary. But they mix all kinds of milk together, and the cheese they make is a salt, indigestible, tasteless compound. The only good cheese I tasted on our journey was some given to us by Hadji Ali of Boujak. I subjoin a list of the charges for all we had during our stay at Almalu. It will be seen how cheap living is here, owing to the scarcity of
facture

of

cheese.

Possessing

money
Turkish
Piastres.

Dinner

for three persons, four courses

and cheese
.

.

15

Eggs

for breakfast

and lunch (about

15)

.

.

4
3
2

Butter

Yaourt, a large quantity Bread (European make),
. .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

and for two days' consumption also Room in the khan, attendance, firing, bucksheesh, &c. ...
. .
.
.

.

.

.

5

15

(about 8s. 6d. English)

44 T.P.

I

take

the

opportunity

of

describing

here

—After the first is juice has been extracted from grapes the residue boiled up with a kind of sand called "petmez ochtima. is not eaten alone. Koshaff. Yaoiirt. lees. usually made by pouring becomes boiling milk over a tablespoonful or two of old yaourt slightly acid. —This thoroughly Turkish dish . when It is if cool it curdles and an excellent dish and very wholesome. some of the times : 247 tasted at various peculiar viands we Petmez or Pekmez. or But no old yaourt can be juice.— . of with snow and — Raisins A few boiled the mixture cooled it with snow. The Syrian In and Egyptian name for yaourt is "leban. and the fluid It is The sand drawn off and It is resembles fluid honey." this is I could not discover.) (What sinks to strained. Tahiinn. When formed into a curd and become sour take of it a tablespoonful and a half to serve as ferment to a fresh quart of milk. the bottom. Poached Eggs. has — Served up with tomatas and with is yaourt in which a clove of garlic has been beaten." . obtained for curdling the milk a spoonful of wine even lemon may be used it is pour over it a quart of boiling milk. made . it A good summer drink lemon juice. as before directed. to give it myrtle leaves are boiled with a flavour. ANATOLICA. or yeast. —A kind of sweetmeat made of petmez oil mixed with sesame seed from which the been extracted.

gently till the rice has absorbed the water .248 these countries ANATOLICA. When Someto give brown and boiling pour over the rice. it is made thus —Place about the three pints fire. but do not wash it. other kind is so good) clean and pick well. bring in the viands in copper dishes and them down by the of fireside. of milk in a boil." If no " leban " can be had. or a bit of sour and fermented dough. Then in the master the house (generally) brings and throws down on the floor a small carpet or a woollen cloth containing a quantity of thin cakes of unleavened wheaten bread —very like brown . a flavour. The slaves or servants. copper pot upon Let it and when cool enough to bear the finger in it. Take of Damietta rice as required (no Pilaff. and let all simmer very — . stir into it about a tablespoonful of old "leban" that has become a little sour and "turned. cover the vessel up. cold water with it. a little yeast of beer. will serve the same purpose. mix a little Stir it gradually in the milk. Into another casserole place butter according to taste. as the may set be. and allow its contents to cool. If the yeast is thick. Pour the same measure of water as of rice into a casserole. Stir well with a fork (not a spoon). and yaourt always accompanies fear But I none but an Oriental can make is pilaff properly. place at side of fire and cover with a it cloth. times a few pine kernels are served with it it. The usual here case style of a dinner in a native house as follows. and serve up.

paper it 249 in appearance and taste. — some- good then various] preparations of eggs. &c. Such is the sober diet of these people. I seldom saw cheese brought. . with which another dish of yaourt is usually served. We were everywhere treated with courtesy. though sometimes stool or is really good. though perhaps without the thews and sinews of the better fed European. of that portion of the dish which The meal times usually begins with rice soup . The drink is invariably and a cup of coffee without sugar finishes the meal. in which yaourt plays a great part stewed Meat is very seldom eaten. The bread round the the guests the tray. After breakfast we walked through the bazaars. Then a small wooden an iron stand is placed. Whatever remains over is eaten by the attendants. and sit or squat round the tray and eat from It is etiquette for is same dish. each to eat only near himself. The last dish is invariably a pilaff (made either of rice or of an insipid preparation of wheat called "bulgoor"). some wooden spoons the dishes are set one after another in the midst. and certainly they are a fine race of men withal. and never fruit or vegetables (except a few green onions) but fruit was not yet in season. — . A great very .ANATOLIC A. peas or beans. There was no rude staring or remarks. with On is this is laid a large then folded and placed . May 14th. copper tray. such as I fear a foreigner would hear only too often water . quantity of bread is eaten.

and one w4th the English medal . curious leathern girdle (" sillahhlik in the south-west of Anatolia. They would seem be of a race different from the Osmanlis —perhaps one of the original races of the land. We At evidently these decorations are highly prized. of these people consists almost exclusively of fari- naceous food and various preparations of milk they seem wonderfully robust and strong.. green. their features being extremely to handsome and expressive. . . or red imitation Cashmere or the Syrian turban of silk and flax. ") so common A large proportion had very dark complexions but there was not the slightest trace of negro blood in them. The variety of colour and pattern is great. The diet . The girdle is of imitation Cashmere Many wore the or of Syrian or Broussa silk. and a great The concourse of country people had come in. . . 250 nearer home. yet saw many wearing the Turkish Crimean and medal. variety of costume is greater here than in any other city of Anatolia we have yet seen and the number of fine handsome men is very remarkable. The jacket is usually more or less embroidered the turban white. It ANATOLICA. The people seem busy dyeing skins is one . this season their dress is either of cotton or of linen —only a few of the poorest wear home- spun garments of goats' hair. was market day. which in this remote mountain district has retained for the most part its purity of descent.

from In the middle of the courtyard stood a large round fountain. its made inquiries. At the door of the khan was a tradesman on His stock consisted of coffee. Inside. upon sat the seats. great branch of industry. matches. Some magnificent trees two overespecially. a poplar and a plane tree shadowed all. Near the khan was a I fine stone-built mosque. ANATOLICA. round part of which runs a (lancet) arches cloister with pointed and plain columns. which he said came from the islands (probably from Crete). and I noticed some fine grey and brown furs brought from the vast forests in the neighbourhood. and over these and the fountain was a wooden cupola roofed with lead. All round it were seats railed off on the outside. clear as crystal. and cigarette paper. which gushed a very abundant stream of water. but could learn nothing of by a certain Omar Pasha at his own expense. Sophia in form history.. very coarse salt. 251 is There the usual medley of articles to be found in an Eastern bazaar. It somewhat resembles the Church of St. pipeclay. beeswax. stands on one side of a large courtyard. a small scale. a smoking and enjoying the pleasant coolness and murmur of the falling water. soap. except that it was built perhaps It is copied from it. number of well dressed men — — .

for a while the whole district was in their power. and then the brigands had crossed the Sena (?) and tried to plunder the Government Treasury and Custom-house at Kalamaki. had been our intention to proceed from Almalu to Makri either by the Giuubeli pass and Orahn. In short. As events proved. of Makri. or by Arsa and the valley of the Xanthus. this accidental change of route was most fortunate. that troops had been sent from Mooghla. then. had been to extract captured. Instead. and carried off their captains into the mountains in order ransom from them. as this would have occupied more time than we could spare. we determined to go . and this band had been broken up by the Turkish authorities. But we were obliged to change our plan. Had we gone on to Makri our journey might well have had a very unpleasant termination . and so back to Aidin by way of Mooghla. for just about the time we should have reached the neighbourhood of Makri (May i8thj a band of about a hundred men had come down from the mountains and completely blockaded Makri and Leveesi. The few Government troops in the district had been beaten in a regular fight and some of them killed." with three of his followers. read afterwards in the London Times of I July 24th. " Moustat Oglou.252 It ANATOLICA. and its leader. 1872. They had boarded some Greek ships in the port of Leveesi.

but found that the village pilaff was quite &c. over which is eastern side. 253 by way of Horzoom (Cibyra). minds here was the . morning had been heavy. Visions of considerable and a good fire. deserted. and surrounded by snowy mountain ranges. for all this district is very elevated. We were delayed P. to the evident satisfaction of our man. and then turning to north-west. part of our course of yesterday. but in the most good humour. gravity and seriousness with which the all parties negotiated perfect the exchange. At about 6 P. which form deep ravines. had : floated before our after reality . plain above Almalu is perfectly flat on it uneven and cut by torrents from the mountains on the north-west. We The its intended to stop that night at the village retracing of Tchobansa.M. Ak Dagh (Massicytus) is more than 10.ANATOLICA.000 feet high. and now the sun was obscured and the air cold and raw. we reached Tchobansa. two fine young horses were sold to him at a very cheap rate..M. and we started. and the mountains at the source of the Xanthus are The rain in the nearly as high. At length. by bad weather and our muleteers till 3 bargaining for fresh horses to replace the two It was amusing to see the exhausted animals. but on the north-west we slowly advanced. and still one vast sheet of snow covers it.

.M. were encampments. In the ravines the heat was intense. through which ran a clear There were patches of fine grass. we found a man near the village. intersected by deep ravines in the first of these a left to right. Our course. and kept night. May 15th. are used as fuel.M. and he pointed out the " strangers' house.. in Our muleteer was watch great anxiety. In some of the ravines. and in a few places men were ploughing. an emerald. at first. —Left Tchobansa at 6. was over rocky and . green as rivulet. and some of the fiente cakes. which had been incautiously hung up near the door. Then he retired. as best we all could. stole our bag of yaourt.15 A. and lay down in our blankets to sleep upon the ground. by way of recompense for his trouble. and one willow tree. the house was new and clean made a large fire. we However. under which we rested the rocks were of the usual . drew out some of our stores. 7." and showed us where we could find some thorns. . which here.45 A. solitary place but he was not disturbed.254 search. and. as in Egypt. fearing lest thieves should come down from the hills and steal his horses in this . especially at our first halt. sterile heights. but the air was cool and pleasant on the heights. ANATOLICA. and full of clover. considerable stream flowed from intervals At we passed smaller streams and springs of excellent water. where grass and water could be found. a pretty little yaila.

&c. We left the yaila at 8. 2 P. : : and alighted .M. the edges bevelled. and the stones exactly fitted.26 A.M. seemed pasture. and the wheat only a few inches All this district is in general very barren is . Dagh. a small village marked by a few poplar trees. the pasturage on the mountains scanty. descending to the level ground. at the village. wild sage. high.30 we passed the village of Douroular. At 9. the middle part of each stone projecting. we reached the top of the ascent. &c. 255 dark red colour.ANATOLICA. the country seems almost deserted. Skirting the edge of a small we crossed the river by a wooden which we found deserted.M. directed our course to Yalinli. and a large cultivated plain below us was in sight before us was Rabat . The air and temperature were truly delicious the ground was covered with an abundant growth of aromatic plants. to be a fertile spot both for tillage and About quarters. intervening marsh.40 A. this bridge. We found no inscription. on our left Kiziljah Dagh. and.. At 9. and situated at the point of a low projecting spit of white limestone. A high ancient gateway of large stones was standing in the village round this were heaps of square and unhewn stones. clouds began to gather from all and a heavy thunderstorm was approach- . and in the wall of one of the houses was a very fine piece of polygonal masonry. thyme.

for it is] built on the rich marsh land. and morning it could not be found. rose above it on the side opposite to us. almost on a level w4th the lake. The storm lasted nearly and an immense quantity the surface of the soil was changed We we mud. After margin we retraced our steps. Its position is not so good as that of most Turkish villages. half covered by a thick growth of reeds and cane the high range of Rabat Dagh village before . We had now reached the Lake of Souood It is an extensive and gloomy (Caralis* Palus). too. two hours and a of rain fell half. Soon it burst upon us. I in the left out my soap box. but the bad weather had detained other travellers besides ourselves. we saw below us the village of Souood. so that the house was vainly attempting to pass along its crowded. We were received into the house of another Ali Onbashi. or Bey Sheher. .256 ing. the Lake of Kcrcli. defaced. and overgrown with lichen. it No now doubt some one thought * would make a good tobacco Co'-alis Not to be confounded with Strabo's Lacus. and on crossing a hill. sheet of water. and in consequence we did not pass a very pleasant evening. accompanied with violent showers of hail. which projected into the lake. ANATOLIC A. all —indeed. Inadvertently. but I noticed in the cemetery of the last Souood a column with a long Greek inscription. could not stop to examine the few villages into tenacious passed.

and said " Ishta ! What talk. The master of the house showed genuine regret at the occurrence.drain this marshy lake.. . they manage to keep their during winter. no theft to help themselves to your A man who would touch nothing take of your food without scruple. streams enter issue from s it we were . —sometimes deep covers the ground for three months I and a asked how selves all that time. As a rule the people are honest it . but the box could not be recovered. and even tender brushwood this they dry and store up for winter forage. had heard that the Government Certainly it intended to . ANATOLICA. He very high above sea level malarious fevers prevail extensively in autumn. The master snow of the house told . would make a fertile district of that which is now an unhealthy marsh for although this village is also said he . But the expense of re- claiming would be heavy. Many told. me that the climxate in winter is very severe snow —then half. though they else will consider stores. and could not resist the temptation of approit. the lake. little With this. but none. He they occupied themsmiled." can we do ? We sit round the fire and During summer they cut a large quantity of the marsh vegetation. Sometimes when they cannot obtain enough on the spot they bring it from a considerable distance. and with a cattle alive straw. priating 257 box.

V . 258 and. specially for the purpose of drawing and it is unlikely that the Turkish Government would incur the heavy expense this would entail especially as there is a wide extent of reclaimable land nearer the coast. the rainfall to is at times exces- It would be necessary make a large canal off the water. ANATOLICA. as sive.. we could see. and likely to be more productive.

but rich grass in general district s 2 brushwood and This country is even to their summits. Beyond the heights at the north-west end of the lake extends a tract of broken rocky plentifully covered with without trees. Inscribed finding Stones —A Statue it Money inside — — Strabo's — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — May 1 6th.40 a. much more fertile and picturesque than the . —Left for Horzoom hills.m. Caralis Rock to West of Lake Baindir —The " Strangers' Room " — Our Host —The Mudir of Horzoom — Opinion of our Host about our Journey — His Domestic Arrangements — Polygamy —We Sup our Host "alia Turca " —Visit to the Ruins of Cibyra — Poor Salary of the Mudir Position of Cibyra — Stadium — Theatre— Odeum — Ancient Sculptures and Money found there — The Villagers had used up the vi'ith — The Caularis Amnis of Livy— Pastoral Beauty of this District — Heavy Rain — Plain in Front of Horzoom — Immense Expanse of Wheat — The River Dollomon — Position of Horzoom —Rich Pasturage broken up by them in hope of Notice of Cibyra The Tetrapolis Military Strength of Cibyra Its Kings The Language of its People Its Chief Industry Polybius' Account of the King Moagetes and the Roman Consul Manlius Trade of Cibyra Ancient Coin Igneous District to North of Cibyra Yussuftcha Plain of Karajuk Violent Storm Difficulty of Advancing Halt at Bedrebey Miserable Condition of Villagers Beautiful Evening Seasonable Rains Heavy Taxation of VilTobacco Regie at Constantinople Women Unveiled lagers Bad Accommodation Hadji Payam Evgarrah The Domou Pass over Boz Dagh Armed Zeybeks Grace and Agility of our Guide His Sandals Village of Kilidja Sebastopolis Descent Varieties of Marble and Lava to Uzoumbounar Reception by the Villagers Difficulties of Travel in Anatolia Its Advantages.— CHAPTER District of Igneous XIV. 8.

lately traversed. we reached Baindir. and yellow. looser texture allowing vegetation to spring the hills up more freely. It would . The wood and arable land belonging to it extend in long narrow valleys up into the hills in every direction. 15). was the of At is 1 1 . 1 5 A. This village on a large and rapid brook (the " Caularis Amnis " of Livy xxxviii. Through openings in the distance in we could see many well-tilled left mountain basins. 26o ANATOLICA. Sometimes small patches of bare limestone projected from the soil. Lava hills are more fertile than limestone their : we had . and w^e could hear the notes of the herdboy's pipe lam pastor umbras. softer.M. and many veins of white and of white and red marble there was also much lava and mica schist exhibiting shades of green. red. cum grege languido Rivumque fessus quaerit. et horridi Dumeta Silvani caret que Ripa vagis taciturna ventis. village In one of them on our Yazeer..— . brown. in endless variety but everywhere there was abundance of pasture. By along the side of the stream and under the trees its gated to margin the sheep and cattle had congreavoid the sun. — In this pretty pastoral country the scenes of the old mythology and passages from the classic poets are constantly present to one's thoughts.

we passed on our right the village of Tchandir. . Eine Dryas lebt' in jenem Baum. but not of any interest.M. as yes- and the deep violet colour of the hills as seen through the showers which were falling in all directions was very fine. — — we allowed our guide to return. From this spot we could see Horzoom it was at the foot of the hills on the opposite side of a wide plain part of the plain of Karajuk and at So that thinking we about two hours' distance. and rested awhile under a fine poplar tree. could now find our way to it without any difficulty . But now. after midday heavy rain came on. wo bist du ? . Aus den Urnen lieblicher Najaden Sprang der Strome Silberschaum. . But in the broad expanse of wheat which covered the whole surface of the plain we could find no path. near which are a few inscribed stones.35 P. . At 1. . at the foot of a mountain of the same name. or the huntress goddess with her maiden troop bounding in the chase through the woodland glades Diese Hohen fullten Oreaden. ! Soon terday. Arcadia/' with his retinue of 261 have seemed quite natural here had the "god of nymphs and fauns. alas Schone Wesen aus dem Fabelland Schone Welt.— — ANATOLIC A. suddenly appeared.

some of them exhibiting large patches of pure white chalk. together with Syloeum. The village is prettily situated at the edge of the great plain. one of the chief people of the the place. Horzoom is full of orchards and fruit trees. now as far as the eye can reach one wide sheet of green. the plain to the south-east of the village Far is in the lake of Gule Hissar. As we rode up we were invited to enter the house of Hadji Osman. It was the " strangers' house " proprietor had lately bought it. was a roomy and comfortable wooden building . detached chains. crossed one rapid but shallow stream . and was about to .262 ANATOLICA. who led us by a ford across a second stream. among which are some magnificent walnut trees. belonged to Cibyra as a subject town. the This is the site of Alimne. we engaged another guide at the little hamlet of Osman Kalfeler. Behind it are uneven chalk hills. and heavy rain having again come on. connected with the is a high rocky mainland by an ancient to causeway. Yet further behind these hills rises a chain of mountains. We To the north are other rain. in which island. rebuild It it. which. half visible through the and far to the south the great mass of the Lycian mountains. deep and swift. and so brought us to Horzoom. north of it. which border the plain on the west and south. But we passed considerably and so did not visit it.

" Suleiman Aga. Conversation languished. and on very good terms with himself. of rather . The Turks never repair it . on the contrary. were common. He was a stout. and although wood is so had never occurred to the village authorities to lay down a few new planks. for we had few is subjects of interest in more unpleasant than to be stared at for hours together by a number of people with whom you find it hard to converse. In about an hour the " Mudir. Our books.ANATOLICA. of 263 two stories — its lower floor served for The upper was reached by a long and rickety wooden stables. as at frequent intervals there were holes and broken planks. heavy looking man.. glasses. &c. This led to a very wide corridor or covered gallery. was handsome. &c. to was necessary be careful in walking. " one mountain was just the . magazines. maps. came. and so perhaps prevent a broken leg. through which the foot could easily pass. Time passed slowly enough. and nothing examined. but Hadji Osman declared he could see no use in a map. sullen appearance our host. abundant and cheap. .. It from which the chambers opened. about thirty-five years of age. to drop in. &c. stout. to those who might be lodged here. and of dark complexion. pencils. or some other severe injury. floor stair- case. A good fire of pine was soon kindled coffee was brought and the people of the village began .

— 2 64 ANATOLIC A. At last supper came. He was obliged to give them each a separate establishment. much amused. But he was a very wealthy man and could afford it." (It was exactly the remark we had heard from old Hadji All at Boujak. we were alone. the expense . and in Egypt divorce is disgracefully common and easy. of separate I households polygamy but of course do not here speak of I the wealthy or high class Turks. had a wife already. He replied. mention this as a specimen of the ideas on this point of the better class of Turks. if no other reason. We sat down with our host and his friends. " asked yes ! if he Oh two but I wish I had ten to \" I told him that we he Europeans had I be content with one —but thought ^ka^ a very poor allowance indeed. very comfortable. and our explanations seemed to be as little appreciated as in that instance !) On learning that we came from Smyrna he I told the interpreter in joke that he wanted a Greek wife (" bir coc5na ") from Smyrna." as he called it) but I presume we did not succeed very well. for they seemed . native broker in Cairo once knew a who had three wives. although very After a while we were left polite. and the room being clean and the divans well carpeted. and began to eat in the native style (" alia Turca. same as another. . The people prevents as a rule have only one wife .

for the sun w^as hot. and he. One of these. a horse. . which is itself 3.500 Smaller ridges branch off in feet above sea level. being stout. early to escort us to the ruins of Cibyra. above the level of the plain. and was bordered by many sarcophagi and monuments indeed. We started at last. The chalky ruins of the old city. there are groups of sarcophagi and tombs on all the ridges and hill sides. came While waiting for us to start he said he had been sent to this place from Koniah but he disliked his post. hills are upon the uneven about 500 feet above the village. perspired ! excessively.'' he said. the people of the country were of a bad and turbulent disposition. "and I have children. a day as we made them walk on that occasion no doubt it did them good As for the Mudir." Hereupon our interpreter rather maliciously whispered that "no doubt he made up a good income in one way or other''. with some difficulty we persuaded the good man to mount his horse. and I think our friends had not walked so far for many .ANATOLIC A. various directions from the main to the north-east.£3o per annum only!). "and must keep up a house. and his pay was only 275 Turkish piastres per month (about . . showed traces of a paved road. but the poor Mudir looked as if this was not the case with him. &c.. &c. May 17th. hill. 265 —The Mudir and his attendants . which are neither extensive nor interesting.

as also throughout the city. but some of the upper rows seem to have been added at a time subsequent to the building. in very good preser- vation. which is not higher part of the hill. appa- Odeum or a small Theatre. . The Theatre. A few broken columns are scattered about. now much broken down. and the very mass of ruin is much less than would be expected from the former size and importance of the city. a rently an little nearer Horzoom.2 66 ANATOLIC A. . 650 feet long and 80 broad. and the blocks displaced and covered with earth indeed. and contains thirty-six rows of seats. To the north-east of the Stadium are foundations of many large buildings on a wide levelled space but all are even with the ground. foundations of private houses are spread over the whole surface of the hill. . this is in worse preservation than any Stadium we had yet seen. The material employed in stone. side is partly excavated in the and most of the rows of seats were on that side the opposite side is only a low wall. is the best preserved building of the old city. it. The approach to the hill top is by a ravine from Horzoom at the head of the ascent on the left . lies north-west of the Stadium. and the slope of the . One hill. The whole is much overgrown with bushes. are the remains of the Stadium. The south end of the Stadium is circular. is lime- South of the Theatre. It is and on a 266 feet in diameter.

near what seemed to have been a gateway . The Mudir told us that statues and antique money had been found in some vaulted rooms below this. would have been very difficult to obtain admittance to the houses. They inquired if it was really the case that sometimes money was found inside the antique statues. interesting and valuable. over one of the fountains in the south part of the village. now scarcely legible. nothing of much value would ever be found in . and vegetation. for it seems that the people of the village had specially chosen the inscribed stones for adorning their mosque and houses. and within are but nearly covered by soil . as they were It . We copied part of an inscription at the top of the ascent. buried in the earth. excepting we found no inscription of any interest in the city itself. I assured them that.ANATOLICA. remains almost entire. and. the five smaller half ob- by earth and rubbish rows of seats. in all probability. 267 a lofty and solid wall of hewn lime- stone blocks. but the lower part of the stone was this. Its front. There are seven doorways in structed circular it. and perhaps impossible to but we urged the Mudir to enter the mosque take care of the inscribed stones. and fountains. at a considerable depth below the ground. is to place over the village One long inscription.

to Lycia and Persea of the Rhodians and 100 stadia in circuit. This despotic government came . Balbura.000 infantry and 2. The city . yet withal discreetly.000 cavalry. after three neighbouring citieshad joined them. viz. and its villages extended from Pisidia. But it was always governed by absolute monarchs. in the old statues they found nothing. but Cibyra two for it used to furnish 30. Bubon. They said that a statue had been found by some of the villagers. ANATOLICA. might have been very valuable. and the neighbouring Milyas. 4) : The Cibyratans are said to be descendants of the Lydians who possessed Cabalis" (the north-east division of Lycia). the confederation was called a Tetrapolis. each of these cities possessing one vote. and (Enoanda. but it broken up. " and of some neighbouring Pisidians. if left I said that " the statue itself. whole. but when they had broken it to pieces. but the idea that money would be found was quite absurd. nothing will convince these ignorant all barbarians of the truth of this . . who thought it would be filled with coin. After was only a bit of worthless stone " ! all. very well defended. and about " became great through its orderly government. they cannot conceive any other motive for the researches of Europeans except the hope of discovering hidden treasure.. who afterwards removed with them to another settlement. Strabo's account of Cibyra is as follows (xiii.268 these old cities..

to try inclined to was not submit. he sent C. His envoys were sent to the Consul. Or perhaps " Moagetes " was but the official title of the ruler. The Cibyratans used is four languages —the A Pisidian. is special industry of Cibyra the skilful working of iron in relief.. viz. and the Lydian of the last there not even a trace in Lydia. Muraena having put an end to it. Helvius. and offers a present of fifteen talents. to 269 an end under Moagetes.C." — '• to chase" .. Consul Manlius. if with some troops. Moagetes. upon which the King — * ** The word TopiviaQai to inlay with other metals" probably includes also the sense of *' to damascene."* This family pf Moagetes seems to have ruled Cibyra for a long period of years. who gave them a very angry reception. for one of the name was "tyrannus" on this city the first occasion that appears in history. but Polybius (xxii. and having annexed Balbura and Bubon to Lycia. 7) says that the Moagetes in question deserved special mention for his craft and cruelty. But still the provincial division of Cibyra is reckoned amongst the most important of Asia. on the approach of the Roman army. Strabo speaks of the moderation of these rulers. during the war against the Gauls of Asia (B. When the Roman his " squeezing" expedition Pisidia. the Solymian. begs that his land may be ravaged. ANATOLIC A. 189). on through Caria and the *^tyrannus" approached Cibyra.. the Greek.

and.£24. he persuaded Manlius and 10. begged a personal interview. and to storm and plunder his city.. and about The last of the family was an deposed by Mursena (about Cibyra (a. where wood is abundant. imitation of iron work.375. 13). B.d. . besides Cibyra. work on the other hand. iv. wood. in Cibyra {vide Spratt and Forbes) many fragments are found carved in . The rock tombs of Lycia. 23). and after much en- treaty. and (Horace speaks of " Cibyiron was considerable. 84). often show stone wrought in imitation of woodiron ores. With great difficulty. and threatened in case he failed to pay this vast sum to ravage his lands.2 70 ANATOLIC A. he also ruled Syllaeum and Temenopolis (probably Alimne). the Consul bade him pay 500 talents.000 bushels). Consul's pity. but as. and begged Manlius to accept the fifteen talents .C. He complained of the poverty of his city. to move the came in the dress and with the humble demeanour of a suppliant.") and the French traveller Corancez (1809) mentions that he saw many forges for working iron. suffered severely from earthquake and obtained from the Emperor years Tiberius a remission of tribute for in three consequence (Tacitus Ann. The trade of the city in wheat. The following inscription is carved on a marble . to accept 100 talents (.000 medimni of wheat 15. The district round it is rich in ratica negotia.

and only wealthy persons could discharge the the office.Z2<AN0nN &c.TIBEPION. 31 Asia.. (A)HM0 2iaNEPTnN. All the other legible inscriptions that we saw were funereal. aN. the Asiarch was also obliged to expend large sums. In Strabo's time most of the citizens of Asiarchs were chosen from . There are also many other fragments lying about in the brushwood near it.ANATOLIC A. — by the provinces. Much of the inscription is covered with earth.KAATAION nOAEMX2NAA2IAPXEINin niKONTIBEPIOYKAATAIOT rEPnN02A2IAPXOTAI2KAIAP XIEPEaSAISYON'TIBEPIOY KAATAIOTAHIOTHPIANOY A2IAPXOTAAEA(DON'MAPKI OTAHIOTHPIANOT-ATKIAP XOTKAI0AABIOTKPATEPOT A2IAPXOTAI2KA1APXIEPE nSEKTONON ." They were elected annually to preside over the sacred games which were celebrated all over Asia Minor in honour of the emperors or the Although part of the expense was borne deities. which leads up from Horzoom 271 block on the lefthand side at the top of the ravine to the site of Cibyra. The Asiarchs are the officers men"Certain of the chief of tioned in Acts xix.

CIBYRA. (For the Lysiarchs see Appendix D.272 Tralles ANATOLICA. J 1= = THEATRE OF CIBYRA— DIAMETER 266 FEET.) ^ 17s feet ODEUM. . —at that time one of the wealthiest cities in Asia.

set in tufa. The Mudir pressed us to &c. like which Cibyra stands. a district that in 80 •f' hills.m. glomerate of these substances the sides of the path.— ANATOLICA. or volcanic sand. In many places great beds of mica schist occur of many varieties of colour. if pebbles appear as The rounded by C=3 ^ the long continued action of water. 10 Our route was through of uneven whitish a. or hard lava. promised have a sheep killed but . On (M. returning to our lodg- 273 ing a copper coin of Cibyra Antoninus) was offered for sale. we could not spare the time so after giving the servants a good the only bucksheesh — that being ac- way of making an knowledgment for the hospitality received in such a case as this ^ we left Horzoom at 11. basalt. full of rounded pebbles of granite. &c. Much serpentine also .. for us. The soil is barren. Us _.. so that I did not purchase. and at in the valleys banks of conrise the stadium of cibyra. but the price deman- ded was ("bir Louis") a Napoleon. and which extends all along the west side of the plain. to stay.

M.2 74 ANATOLIC A. We In a few minutes this path became a muddy torrent. in sight of the great plain of Karajuk. and the igneous rocks of in iron ores. At 1. But scarcely had we resumed our journey when one of the thunderstorms which had been traversing the plain and mountains in all directions burst upon us. all occurs. After descending the pine-clad heights which here border we rested a short time foot. intending to cross the Boz Dagh or some of its offsets. and so enter the plain of Dawas. but I never experienced so violent and long continued a storm of rain and hail as this. near a deep and rapid stream at their is This the principal tributary of the Dollomon (Calbis). we emerged from the district of broken hills. were now passing along the west side of the plain towards its north-west corner. The Zeybek costume may be seen here in great or field perfection. In about an hour we passed in the village of Yusof the place The whole male population The whole seemed busily engaged doing nothing. and as for was difficult the horses to make their way . 20 P. and again came it. it The very fields were completely swamped. work seemed delegated to the women. Since we had entered the mountain country there had been many heavy storms. as in care of household many other places. Our path was a slight hollow through the expanse of wheat which covered the plain. this district abound suftcha.

and we were obliged to stop and turn our backs to the driving hail It and rain. and we should have found no village.— ANATOLIC A. for The needed us could . Not west from this village denly changes .45 P. At length the torrent turned aside from our pathway into a lower part of the plain. Sunset was near. for the whole way would have been of this character. had now become unfordable. course from north-west to south- we crossed the swollen river it by a good stone bridge. our intended destination. horses would not face the storm. dark . and we were able to advance a little quicker but the rain did not cease. at times sinking up to the horses' bellies in water and mud. villagers supplied us with what and. We did not know the road it was certain that it would be a bad road . We pushed on thus for several miles though often the . to stop is built we were village reluctantly obliged at the little of Bedrebey.M. we they our but request. did not trouble with a visit the only lodging T 2 find for us was a wretched room. through the stiff 275 tenacious clay at the sides we were obliged to follow the path. — therefore at 5. at . which the Dollomon sud- on a small far its hill in the plain. and it was evident we could not reach Hadji Payam. was fortunate we had not taken the direct route to Karajuk through the plain. as it would have required another two hours' march through the flooded plain.

and disagreeable.! 276 ANATOLICA. mornings were fine. the distant landscape became indescribably beautiful —some of the mountains were in faint sun. the sound of distant thunder would be heard. in our . wretched lodging. to mid-day. so we were fain to accept it. which they allowed to be very but they could give us no bad accommodation other. the some in tints of the deepest violet plain and the nearer hills formed one wide it was another of the sheet of emerald green strange and beautiful atmospheric effects so light. when the a faint glow from the setting sun rain ceased the colours of tinged the hills with pale gold settled down . Scarcely had we unloaded the horses. — common It in this wonderful land in disappeared a the a few minutes. not this its contrasting the extreme beauty in ! country with wretched state which poor possessors are condemned to live We were told that these heavy showers of were very beneficial they might be expected rain to to the crops . or one o'clock. I and was could of succeeded by help placid evening. . and soon heavy showers would descend over the whole the . Almost and up face of the country. not a cloud could be but about mid-day clouds would begin seen to gather round the mountain tops. and . that continue for yet in- another variably fifteen or eighteen days.

was only thus After we had in left the highlands of the the plain of Kara- juk. to be debarred from using tobacco. although we the could see and hear the storm hills. almost the only solace within their reach. The Armenian or Jewish capitalist at Stamboul . But it 277 interior.! . The head man time in of the village had lived some and could speak a little Arabic. It is hard on these poor people. were very op- and he showed me a small patch of tobacco. They may not even grow a few plants free. who have so very very few pleasures. He said the village only consisted of fifteen or twenty families. which was of wood and of two stories. them is truly a necessary of life The new Tobacco Regie (the monopoly having been sold to a company by the Government) is the to and which cause of this. for their own consumption. Alexandria. They had very bad water the neighbouring hills but the expense of a conduit to bring the water of a spring from would be too heavy for so small a community. was extremely neat and clean. sum (I forget the amount). Evidently his travels had enlarged his views. till behind us in no far rain fell where we and it is not that any considerable were . for which they would have to pay a large pressive. as usual. ANATOLIC A. on in the autumn rainfall occurs in the low- lands along the sea-coast. The Government taxes. His house.

the poor patient villager must submit to yet another squeeze of the financial screw Such is government in Turkey I was surprised to see that the women of the village wore no veil. We could see Karajuk Bazaar at a distance of about four hours in the plain.! . and in two hours reached the village of Hadji Pay am. embowered in wood above it are two large wooden houses. We spent a very wretched night at Bedrebey : the close damp air of the room. we but There is wood. I saw no poppies. now five rode for hours together little or six inches high it. villagers we The food.M. too. opposite the ravine through which we had passed on our 2nd). and hausted. an . but a number of wild pear trees side of the plain district grow sparsely over it.. route eastwards (on May Almost through all the plain . Next we passed the village of Evgarrah. 278 will ANATOLICA. doubtless 1 May —We left Bedrebey the houses of the landowners. but On it this this is is of Anatolia in which the best opium produced. 8th. is sown with wheat. which were tethered close to the door. a pretty spot on the hill side. morning exsupplied by the poor at 8 A. but I was told that in a few villages it was customary for the women to go ! unveiled. amass a colossal fortune. was almost uneatable. and the noise of rose next the horses. prevented sleep.

saw no remains of antiquity. I On rough ground or amidst rocks he could easily outnoticed also his sandals . and the road to the plain of Dawas led from it over an offset of Boz Dagh through the We Domou it pass. they were of un- dressed hide.. and we' engaged one of them to act as our guide to Uzoumbounar. all that Sebastopolis. ANATOLIC A. is (as On the highest point there usual) a guard-house or cafe. fitting closely to the shape of the foot. had now reached the north-west corner of the plain. strip the horses. A long and easy descent through the . itself The pass is presents nothing of any interest not high nor steep. all this juniper seems to flourish. They exactly resembled those &cc. is left of the ancient The Cemetery It is of Kilidja seems well cared I for. but a number of grand old juniper trees . seen on the antique vases. two well-armed Zeybeks came up. 279 is above In it a wood of fine district the pines and juniper trees. and bound on by thongs over the instep and above the ankles. I could not help admiring the grace and ease with which he strode on ahead of our party. enclosed with a wall. and the cemeteries are planted with it. While we were resting here. extremely pretty spot . forest led to the village of Kilidja near it are a few scat- tered heaps of stone.

yaourt. Arrived at the village. before us.. when they brought .28o ANATOLIC A. stand in Their huge trunks and boughs : all covered with lichen testify to their great age they must be many centuries with underwood. bread. and water. firewood. stable. white. . Nor were we annoyed by the villagers crowding in. stance. as in so many other places. For in. we had some difficulty in the first place they showed us for it was so bad that we loudly expostulated. Far down below us was the village of Uzoumbounar. finding a lodging . it. hills The road wound over and among the plain of covered Dawas opened for This is another rich district as large as the plain of Karajuk. the varieties of lava are extremely beautiful. was a dilapidated wooden room. was It no better than a ruined At last one of the villagers offered to let us a house for the night. Our interpreter cooked us some eggs and a pilaff we always preferred his style of cooking to the ordinary native cookery. till old. where we were to lodge that night. and famous abundant crops of excellent wheat. for which they charged a high price next morning (/>. us fried eggs. so that after it had been well swept a few mats made it tolerable. and. and white and red. the floor and staircase in very bad repair but it was dry and airy. often we could not eat them they resembled bits of leather . high for Anatolia). The mountains here are full of marble. They brought us eggs.

and nearly all their dishes are equally bad. travel. and but little way one can gain with all its acquaintance with the people. unless — one travels *' en Milordos. plenty of attendants. 281 in butter. Even the very danger and privation add zest to one's enjoyment. . the skin of a rhinoceros. and at times even deadly and in case of sickness or a serious accident the chances of recovery would be small . of civilised life comfort is simply unattainable even to a moderate extent." with tents. After Smyrna adieu to the conveniences. For in Anatolia there is danger. the noble scenery. the mid-day rest by some pellucid fountain. and the strength of a horse to travel in Anatolia. and ample supplies. still oftener from the climate beautiful although the latter be. often even to the decencies.ANATOLIC A. swimming But little. Even then there are in that many unavoidable privations. there is an abiding charm about Eastern One which no other kind of travel possesses. Still. in the Orient one must be contented with a A man needs the digestion of an ostrich. it is treacherous. inconveniences and privations. often from man. or near some picturesque relic of a long past age. indeed to the helpless stranger! . forgets the grand hotel and the first class railway carriage —but never the brilliant sunshine.

M. deep. CHAPTER Plain of XV. near a beautiful little river. bed us through the Forest a French Merchant this — Attack by Brigands on the Servants of — Sheikh's Tomb foot of the Pass —Extreme Beauty of Spot — Continued Descent from the Highlands Change in the Season and in the appearance of the Country Harvest — Aphrodisias — Descent into the Mosynus Valley— Long at Dawas — Head-waters of the Harpasus — Springs in the River— Return to the Tcham Beli Pass — The armed Cafejis escort Ascent to Kara Soo Cafe to at — Heat Ali Aga Tchiftlik in the Valley of the Mosynus — The — Exhausted appearance of the People in the Springs Site of Antiocheia ad Mseandrum— Change owing — — Mocha Coffee—Use of Coffee among the Turks — Carelessness of Peasants as to their way of Living — Their wretched Dwellings — Reason — Lack of Gardens and Vegetables in the Interior— Neglect of Domestic Matters Decadence of these Countries — Their Flourishing State in former Ages — Population — Art — Luxury — Testimony of Livy on point — A Change for the better may be expected —Unpleasant Ride from Nazli to Aidin — Heat — Camels — Arum Dracuncvdus Fertility of Maeander Valley — Might be much increased — Torrent Aidin Beds — Kiouschk — Heat of Aidin — Khan — Antiquities Departure for Smyrna — Illness of our Interpreter— Brigandage in District — Greek and Zeybek— Malaria in the Plain of Ephesus — Tourbali (Metropolis) — Heat of Smyrna— Garden of Cafe Pergamus.m. the only People who importuned us for *' Bucksheesh " Turks superior to Arabs respect — — — — —Cafe at Nazli this at this at May 19th. clear as crystal (the head-waters of the Harpasus) .10 A.30 a.— . Italian Theatre — Hotel Miiller— Excavations in this advance of Summer Ancient Wells Vultures Wooden Bridge over the Maeander Tchingannis (Gipsies). plain of Dawas we halted at and 10. —^We left After crossing the Uzoumbounar at 7.

as in but although in other similar cases. 283 a number of powerful springs were bursting up in its bed. on which the cattle were greedily feeding. we ascended to the Tcham Beli pass. . We could not help laughing at his serious air this. information. which I had so much admired when I first saw them. They told our French merchant who is a buyer of walnut-wood in that district had been attacked in the pass because it was supposed they had money with them and one of them had received a sabre wound. as in several other places in the highlands. Boz Dagh and the plain of Dawas. and left it at 3 p..m. At 5 P." interpreter . Just beyond it we re-entered the road by which we had come April 26th). The two cafejis loaded their guns and accompanied us for about a mile and a half through the wood.M. we reached the cafe at the top of the pass. only told us it reached Nazli he styled " le when w^e drame de Tcham this it and said he had not mentioned before for fear of alarming us. ANATOLIC A. I we could not obtain precise that the affair really believe happened as described. In descending on foot a steep and rocky portion . Here. 1 grander scenery of the interior. beginning of our journey (on and leaving the village of Kara Hissar at the on our right. I observed large beds of watercress. interpreter that a few days before the servants of a Our Beli. are far inferior to the 1. of which he had died.

our was a . we had . " Ah. was the only accident of any kind that befell us during the whole journey. I cutting his hand severely.e." he said " but what a fine place it would be to kill a sheep in!" [i. fell. and while I of this lonely spot was was admiring it in silence the muleteer coming up said. — . of the road Mr. is it not pretty?" "Yes. crowned by some fine oaks and a number of venerable plane trees one of immense size and hollow the turf. and This.. thick and soft as velvet." I replied. Seiff entangled his spur in his riding gaiter. am thankful to say. 284 ANATOLIC A. The Turks always show great respect to burial places. was exquisitely green . "why did you not bring us here instead of stopping at that nasty cafe ?" "I forgot it.. Tchelebi (sir !). There were five or six small knolls. At the bottom of the pass we halted a few I minutes at the sheikh's tomb which mentioned. and this moss-covered tomb has no doubt remained untouched for centuries. to stop and feast). . have before The extreme beauty remarkable. We left the place with regret. from beneath one of the knolls a plentiful spring of water softly issued with a gentle murmur flowers and singing birds were not wanting . wild and if one could choose one's last resting place it would not be easy to find a spot more tranquil or more lovely than this. Hitherto the interior traversed the highlands course of henceforward.

as it shone full in our face. the women were the chief workers they were . . The highest peak of Cadmus. although extremely hot in summer. . busily harvesting. with which nearly silenced. w^here the Mosynus enters the plain of the Mseander. through . descending sun. constant descent sea-coast. ascended the valley. doubtless. ANATOLICA. The grass was fast withering in another three weeks hardly any verdure will be left in the lowlands. the grass full of gay flowers. and everywhere harvest was proceeding. smote valley disias) like burning arrows. The position of the town is good and. 285 towards the Mseander valley and the The seasons. and the rays of the was now nearly bare but I . Geera without halting. seemed changed come down from spring to summer ! we had The trill every of the nightingale. was now When we before. too. thicket had been vocal. We passed it was healthy. in troops of fifteen or twenty saw very few men indeed at work. about three weeks everything was beautifully green the . . foot From the of the Tcham past Beli the wide gradually to Ali descends Geera (Aphro- Aga Tchiftlik. As usual. .. But three weeks had wrought a great change and now the whole face of the country was covered with ripe yellow crops. which was covered with snow when we first passed it. wheat was yet in bloom.

.— 2 86 ANATOLIC A. at intervals. Our object of reaching the steamer of May 25th Smyrna in time for was now within our reach. destination. when we reached quite the khan.m. was past p. both men and horses exhausted by the heat and the ride of above ten hours. this Though terrupted is general inclination very regular. . Darkness had come on when we reached the we crossed it by a bridge thrown over stream nally. of its The beauty fine ruins. before we reached our The valley sides. and one very long and steep ascent on the other side. high but there on the other side of the valley were several long ascents and descents to make on this side of the river. testify to the wealth of this place in old times. both laterally and longitudi- from above Geera to the river's junction with the Mseander. still re- mained. but it would be on level ground. Kara Soo was clearly visible. the deep ravine through which to it flows. long ride of two hours. A up. Two long and hot days' journey still remained to Aidin. or more. not including stoppages. of the Mosynus slopes very in- steeply from the mountains to the river on both but especially on the west. and then It we began 9 mount the opposite ascent. white marble — so and their material to different that of the all older Greek cities of the interior. .

the cafe was full. Accordingly. The heat — — . tired as 287 we felt. of rubbish and the foundations us at of Our which Nazli.M. course. — It was past g A. in was to prepared of we ourselves. Exclamations of " Mashallah Ma-ashallah I" in this Kara Soo. May 2oth. began to abate. reflected from the white soil and from the chalk cliffs often eighty to a hundred feet high was intense and we gladly sheltered ourselves once more in the garden at Ali Aga Tchiftlik. which is the site of Antiocheia ad Maeandrum. we were in hurry to start next morning. and that without our splendid sea-breeze. rode up. Accordingly he parations. was not until nearly 6 P. was for starting very early. and we recognised several faces we had seen there on our previous visit.M. when we left narrow valley. As usual.ANATOLICA. heat is as oppressive Egypt. There are no antiquities in the valley. ! greeted us as utterly we . house remaining to at the khan. and the hill. appears covered only by great mounds walls. indeed. It rode forward make pre- and we followed at our leisure. muleteer had be invited to his a dinner. with his usual energy. The people seemed the exhausted as in and. The fountain that the heat of west the . although my no com- panion.

The rickety old bridge over the Mseander ap- pears not likely to remain serviceable much longer If without extensive repairs joists are quite . at all. We found the more advanced here than about crops Geera being . the land more fertile. and some are broken. itself.. and yailas on the Harpasa mountains still perhaps the frequent looked fresh and green thunder-showers had kept up their verdure but was evident that burning summer was at it — . At certain parts of to-day's ride still we in observed ancient " wells of great depth The water is raised by means shadoof a high pole working upon a of the — pivot is to the upper end of not this a long brass chain fastened and a harvest wooden bucket. The current it is and where the river is not deep a deep bed of tenacious mud. he would escape with rapid. hand. was now Soo valley. use. many of the transverse worn. Not far from the river a flock of vultures was so busily feeding on the carcase of a camel within that forty the or birds fifty allowed paces us to approach they took before their lazy flight. entrance to the deliciously we found so on our journey up. into the stream if a man or horse fell now. but far the were richer. 288 ANATOLIC A. that absolutely and the springs on the low The woods ground are beginning to drv^ up. Ak cool tepid. has . difficulty.

they brought us really good coffee. (gipsies of the country). sents a is a fund of native dignity in the Turkish character. and resembles bitter water more than anything else.20 P. which generally prevents evidently they the them from be ex- although . but well shaped circumstances.ANATOLIC A. and here. is very inferior. even though the berries be roasted before you and prepared in your presence.M. But the khanji coffee. creaming. the coffee given in the interior of Anatolia.. . or more probably Tchingannis Their cattle were small. it is even u . for the first and only time on our journey." There begging. and aro- laughable to witness the fuss the Turks of Anatolia make about their " kahve " . and they seemed in comfortable These were the only people we met during our whole journey who importuned us for ** bucksheesh. at Nazli brought it is the true Arabian such as when served in a native gentle- man's house matic. especially to the Arab of the Nile villages. It is at Cairo — rich. We reached the khan at Nazli at 8. As a rule. the children and girls were often very good looking. after passing through a quarter of the town in which are to many really elegant houses mostly belonging Greek and Armenian merchants. may tremely poor in this respect Osmanli pre- marked contrast to the Arab. The marshes full 289 to the north of the bridge were of Yourouks.

he has no comfortable store of sovereigns or napoleons carefully stowed the floor or wall of his hut. even in the matters. many a severe blow have raising it I given my head. The windows.2go ANATOLICA." least true a deeper reason —the appearance of in this respect wealth or comfort would but expose the unlucky peasant to extortion and injustice . is very strange. but the custom to present the stuff always. Certainly in most cases a glass is of good fresh water would be preferable. simply small apertures is in the wall. but the only reason they can give for keeping there is up is " custom. he is no better off than his Arab congener. through too soon. they still build and live in the same kind of hovels that their ancestors The doorways seem expressly coninhabited. most ordinary Although it would be to very little more expensive make their houses roomy and comfortable. so that the ill-ventilated. They do . ridiculous than the fuss more we Britons make it about our beer. but. again when there are any —are —that is. structed to break the head of the unwary. and the walls being thick. I have seen doorways not more than four feet eight inches high. room always dark and The people it see and acknowledge It is the inconvenience. I away in looked in vain for a garden round most of their villages. when passing. The carelessness of the Turkish peasants about their personal comforts. unlike the fellah. and on every possible occasion.

I have before spoken of their cookery —had lived. Whether be from natural apathy. common but course the larger towns and villages are a little more civilised. or the effects of their most miserable government. which grows wild and thrives everywhere. and. can it be otherwise with a nation whose Government does absolutely nothing for it. the richest in the whole country. as a rule. it not been for the excellent yaourt.ANATOLIC A. indeed. but. but the same aspect of decay prevails almost everywhere out of the ^laeander valley. not 291 know the potato . and many of the mountain villages have no fruit trees ex- cepting the walnut. it. on the contrary. these poor people appear utterly careless about their personal well-being. without of in what a wretched and barbarous people of this country live refer to the . and in the large village of Horzoom the Mudir told us that he had been obliged to import seeds for his village producing none. is difiicult to conceive. it is only just coming into districts. eggs. witnessing style the do not know how we should have it In short. and a few of the larger villages. How. I it lower classes in general. drains it of u all 2 its . cultivation along the coast We saw scarcely any vegetables. own garden. I and water. sunk in the deepest poverty. perhaps naturally. The portion of Anatolia which we visited is. they do not seem even to take the least care of their fruit trees. the Except in the valley of the Maeander.

which in Pliny's days had diminished to provinces were still and the richer better peopled. i . also.292 resources. — "It * Pliny. who expressly derives from their cities — — them the first introduction of foreign luxury into Rome. which his predecessor had strictly maintained. 27. Art was yet more advanced in Asiatic Greece than in Greece proper. tions to ANATOLICA. 6) . The refinement and luxurious style in which they lived are testified by the historian Livy. and other woven fabrics and. tapestry. the culture and wealth of the Asiatics are evident from the noble remains of and public works grand even in ruin and from the immense sums wrung from them by their Roman conquerors. expensive carpets. t Livy (xxxix. and c^tharists. It was not so in ancient times all those desolate and lonely districts through which we had passed : were once population. filled with thriving cities and a teeming of Lycia The mountainous province thirty-six. v. the provinces are sacrificed to keep up the capital. For it was the army of Asia which first introduced foreign luxury into the city.C. Then. tables with a single stand. and inlaid sideboards. and pantomimists began to be customary during banquets.* alone once contained sixty towns. Manlius Vulso.t and this at a time when the Romans were was reported that he (C. 187) had corrupted by every kind of indulgence the discipline of the army. They were the first to import into Rome couches with' bronze feet.. what was then considered luxurious furniture. and mortgages the industry of genera? come In short. the Consul. The cook too. and the feasts themselves began to be prepared with greater taste and expense. B. entertainments of female lute players. And the tidings of what was done in the province far away did not injure his reputation so much as that which could every day be seen amongst the troops.

began to be held in high esteem and that which had been only a menial service was now considered an art. and luxuriant vineyards and fig plantations cover the face of the country. little 293 better than barbarians in all else but the arts of war. so highly favoured may hope arts. all hedge and was now combined to render this a very disagreeable day's ride. the day is at St.M. the arms. The old con- dition of things cannot continue much longer . humanising influences of the Christian nations are daily breaking down the barriers which shut out the Ottoman Empire from the western world." which grew in every in full flower. the dust. " The night is far spent. This day's passes thickly journey was most unpleasant. hand ! May terday out 2 1 —Warned by our experience of yes- we started earlier — at 8 A. through several cemeteries planted with trees hedges of cane border its sides. Yet what was then seen was hardly even the seed of the luxury to . the civilising. the disgustingly fetid odour of the " Arum dracunculus." ANATOLIC A. at almost every half mile there is a But the burning heat. Cafes and places for rest are numerous. these countries. corrie !" . is The road throughit level and with much shade. and the supply of water is most tall abundant fountain. who by the Romans of an earlier age was both considered and employed as the meanest slave. . the that a change at by nature but we hand. the long trains of laden camels. as extensive . Sad indeed has been is the destiny of .

. white of egg. very much more might be done with it the inundations of the river cause the surface or a very . The soil is a whitish clayey earth. becomes quite tepid by the time hills lie The at it reaches the road . the sun renders the water quite warm had they been laid at a depth of five or six feet this would have secured a cool and refreshing draught. The Mount Messogis cause much damage. at this season are but scanty rivulets flow in a shallow gravelly bed often a hundred yards At Kiouschk. and the water. at every cafe. station. — — But it is useless to expect in an Oriental the energy and improving spirit of a European race. we reached Aidin. so exhausted At about 7 p. deliciously cold where it issues from the hill side. Mehmet stopped find an excuse for wherever he could stopping. some distance back from the road. for the little water pipes being on below the ground. our last difliculty in we had some were they. and quenched not our thirst. making our people start. which has a peculiar lustre when smoothed. and we drank at almost every fountain we passed . Rich and well cultivated (comparatively) as is this valley of the Maeander. torrents from It is of tertiary formation. but we obtained no comfort.m. as if smeared with &c.294 ANATOLIC A. great damage these should be restrained by dykes and much land is lost in great hedge-rows. Their inundations bring down vast quantities of gravel and pebbles. Streams which in width. .

Bradech (who was himself absent from Aidin). Aidin possesses some very : interesting relics of antiquity we heard). 295 tried to find a but the only hotel had just been closed owing prietor. The modern town seems a well built and thriving place. and having had enough of khans lodging at an hotel . Whatever may once have been the whatever danger. by rail for Our interpreter could not the railway station. —After bidding Smyrna. May we left 22nd. may be the case hereafter. so to the bankruptcy of its pro- we were reluctantly obliged to lodge once more at a khan. . case. so that to visit them would have necessitated another day's ride. but these Levantines are very timorous.ANATOLICA. on a flat terrace projecting from the mountain. but its position is far inferior to the site of the ancient city. amongst others (as one of the best preserved and most beautiful of sarcophagi lies in the courtyard of the Government house. at present in this part of little Anatolia there appears to be but . for attack of fever. adieu to the family of Mr. But we were so utterly exhausted by the intense and stifling heat that I do not think anything would have induced us to stay another day there and the ruins of the ancient Tralles are high above the town. come to bid us adieu at he was again laid up by an His Greek friends seemed to think that we had been very fortunate in escaping all perils of robbers. and make mountains out of molehills.

peared to be an space site ancient fortification —a large is enclosed with lofty walls. and were better than their reputation . no certainty that the present continue. companion officer the train was a stout fel- —a me very jovial and pleasant He . &c. half-way between Smyrna and Ephesus. the railway has greatly discouraged brigandage. now called Tourbali. besides. Malaria already appearing plain visit of Ephesus site soon old it will be dangerous to the Near Baindir I saw on the slope of the mountain to the west of the railway. who came from the islands. August. the Zeybeks were maligned.. This the of Metropolis. &c. too.296 ANATOLIC A. ^'^ f^^^ districts of accounts of brigandage committed in these very — especially near Adalia. what apof the city. and about ten miles distant. might be much . the vigilance of the authorities. told that the Zeybeks used to rob at times but that at present the only real bri- gands were Greeks. . and sometimes from Greece proper. and September. the English keeper of all both he and looked the others at railway is . In short. * The Constantinople journals for July. station thin in and the sallow. The people.* in Our Turkish low. for it depends upon the is Unfortunately there tranquillity will goodness of the harvest. At Aiasolouk we saw the restaurant the . 1873. in that district. better off. if they would be industrious but they were idle.

Europeans to obtain antiquarian It is no longer easy for is it for permission making be re- researches. for a it is planned mostly in such at way that to the streets are right and Smyrna has no public promenade. Though destruction of the works of ancient art in these . The sea-breeze worst . who had lately been employed in making extensive excavations at Pergamus. At the hotel was a German engineer (Mr. The the stifling 297 of heat of Smyrna reminded me autumnal weather in Alexandria. prevented us from making excursions in the neighbourhood. there was but one place where we could obtain even a breath angles the breeze. and had been very successful. and to gretted that the Sultan's tinople is museum at Constanthe not better arranged. The fatigue we had undergone. Unless we took the railway.ANATOLICA. in the service of the Ottoman Government. and went out into the country. which is not saying very much. air. and the heat. The Smyrniots say that when the Imbat (seabreeze) blows the weather is agreeable. of fresh hotel. cannot enter the town. Humann). which was really very well managed. a small beer-garden near our usually resorted. This may be so but only those who have houses on the sea-beach can enjoy it. Our hotel (the Hotel Miiller) was one of the best in Smyrna. to eat ices Thither we and hear the Italian comedy.. viz.

no doubt. has been immense early in past ages times — commencing with the yet intelligent still Christian research would. much But for this then be accomplished.— 298 countries ANATOLICA. and the Egyptian museum at Cairo is a fine example of what may remaining. . On May 25th I left for Constantinople. find European learning and taste are required.

. in others doubtful. the Brigand of Bithynia — Feeling of People towards Europeans — Sentiments of Turks of higher Rank — Change since Crimean War — Resources of Empire can only be developed by European Help Turkish Distrust of Europeans — Anecdote of Abbas Pasha. it will be In evident that travel in Asia Minor is attended with considerable privation and exposure. Vice- mans tricts tries roy of Egypt — Treatment of Orientals by Europeans often Unjust of European Employes — Corruption of the Administrations — Publicity stifled — No Public Opinion —Want of Education among the Turks — Education among other Races of the Canal of Suez— Jealousy Empire — Ottoman Patriotism Populations of the Empire Christian Populations Comparison of Osmanli with European His good Qualities Often deteriorated by contact with Europeans Disadvantages of Agricultural Population Heavy Military ExpenProvinces sacrificed to Constantinople Want of Labour and diture Capital —European Improvements a doubtful Benefit to People without a Reform of Government Apparently Defenceless State of Constantinople Fleet Comparison of Turkey with Russia Conquest of Turkey by Russia dangerous to Europe Concessions made to Russia What is the greatest danger to Ottoman Empire Population of Turkey Polygamy Plague Cholera Causes of Decline in Population Decline in some Districts undoubted but — — — Rayah Patriotism — Discordant —The Ruling Race — Gradual Rise of the — — — — — — — — — — — — — — . of Travel in Anatolia as compared with Syria — Drago— Supplies —Tent Life — Climate — Malaria— Malarious Dis— Lycaonia— Beauty of the Country— Mountains —Antiquities — Sporting— Game—The Tiger— Lion —Panther — Anecdote of a Panther— Forest —The Woodless District — Destruction of Forests Causes — Carelessness of Government and People — Brigandage Present State of Country— Government to maintain Order Diary of Mr. From the incidents of our journey. Colnaghi in Lycia in 1854 — Excesses caused by Want and Desperation of Peasantry — Our own Experience — Lefteri.— CHAPTER Difficulties XVI.

In consequence. too. or entail upon him months of wasting sickness. fine weather he would find it much scanty agreeable . known. and nothing more exposes the traveller to its attacks than becoming chilled after a single fatigue and exposure to the sun Malarious : night's " camping and such places tinguish an unhealthy spot are not always easy to disin out " — may cost a man his life. the interior is for a large part of the year rainy and inclement. Palestine and Southern Syria the traveller finds little The Syrian and Egyp- dragomans are well acquainted with the The stations for encamping are well country. men and of horses must be taken. or no difficulty. so often it is not advisable. to encamp.— 300 ANATOLICA. a almost impossible the find . different to in But It is it altogether Asia Minor. tent life there is possible —even is agreeable in fine weather. Of course a is more independent if he uses a tent. The that climate. It is easy to procure what the European stranger tian requires. The people readily bring supplies. often not possi- ble. dragoman acquainted with of provisions traveller is country and the supply and more in and bad. . than extra lodging in the native houses but a tent adds greatly to the expense as and trouble. fever is always to be dreaded in Asia Minor.

The whole district is a succession of barren downs. and de- but now and without cultivation. such an utter life absence of the con- veniences of civilised amongst the natives of Anatolia that few men would care to undergo the inevitable privations of travel in such a country. vast marshes are formed. perhaps. was were once here). which plateau. In 301 several in- Alexandria of such I have known stances sickness.) This Lystra serted. The most malarious the parts of the country are narrow river valleys and the low plains under the mountains along the southern coast but worst. well (Derbe almost treeless. during winter. (In a part of the high central interior is general. parched and almost waterless in summer (except in wells of immense depth) . the case of travellers and even death. some of which are very There is large.. But brave if the traveller has resolution discomforts. ANATOLICA. however. the peopled is not unhealthy. Almost the whole district is volcanic and full of salt lakes. these he will enough to be amply . but inundated There being few or no outlets through the Taurus for the streams to reach the sea. which gradually dry up in summer. is of all is the ancient Lycaonia. in coming from the Holy Land. and during the process exhale an intense malaria.

moreover. is found everywhere. . not likely to prove successful. and. and in the marshes wild fowl and snipe wild boar. too. a gun on such a journey as It is true that in a useless incumbrance. in the winter the mountains there are bears and panthers (kap- abundance of woodcock. But the country offers no other The antiquities attraction. plains.. and a few elevated considerable extent. with an almost tropical heat in summer. but even the remains are very fine. lose their snow as summer advances. and amply reward the explorer. and . some of very have unfortunately suffered much from time. I rewarded. on the other . Indeed the whole province of Lycia is composed of immense mountain chains intersected by narrow valleys. hand. 302 ANATOLICA. Then the mountain : scenery grand and beautiful many of the mountain ranges of Lycia rise above the limits of perpetual snow the ranges of Caria and Phrygia. perhaps once in years is by a both European. and in the plains a few hares and Syrian partridges. But the former is a troublesome and dangerous chase. less elevated. and human destroyers. never beheld so lovely a country. There ours is is no " sport" . it is In picturesque beauty far before Italy in general its even the charms of Naples and equalled environs are by many a not visited district we passed fifty through. earthquakes. which exhibit the most luxuriant vegetation. and the latter is not lan).

There exist letters from one Coelius. I heard of no loss of human life by them. worth the trouble. and Cicero seems is have satisfied his friend's wish. begging him to procure panthers for Coelius to exhibit to the Roman populace. a candidate for the sedileship at Rome. But it is probable that he was once not uncommon. which had infested the period of seven years. and begun to play round Much any hurt was done the creature was frightened away by its her as a cat round prey. to Cicero. though I inquired.* not known Asia Minor. but before * Atkinson. for the lion is not now found in Asia Minor. very- common The large further east.ANATOLICA. This no doubt was a stray specimen from the country far to the south-east.1 680) mentions having seen the skin of a in lion the town of Kara Hissar. great Turkish traveller Evliya Eifendi 161 1. . district near for a Erzeroum. The people of Cibyra and Pamphylia are to be asked to furnish to some of these animals. though at one of the villages (I think Aghlasun) I was told of a panther that had come up to a little girl a short mischief distance from the village." speaks of the tiger as very common and very destructive in that country. Panthers seem to have been at all times plentiful.d. but. in his "Siberia. who was then at Laodicea. in The is tiger though (a. on which the effigy of this animal frequently occurs. no doubt done to the flocks by these animals. to judge at least from the Lycian monuments. 303 (pelenk).

. the destructive wars of which it has been the scene. the incursions and Cappadocia. I Foxes. &c. * Livy (xxxviii. up. but the forests of the south are far inferior to those of the Black Sea coast. part of Phrygia and have been without wood from time immemorial. . it would appear to have been richer still at an earlier period. but the scantiness of the population and the want of saved those that roads. for from not only is it without wood. seems to final settlement there of the pastoral tribes. to either Government or people. wolves. skins at Almalu. and their saw a number of There is an immense extent of forest throughout Asia Minor.* Rich as the country yet is in forests.e. containing the ancient provinces ofLycaonia. the woodless'). these are not to be expected. but the neglect of the Governments and people. some men who hurried bears are numerous. pasturage nothing. has in still many districts exist. but Asia.. is so called does not produce even thorns or any other fuel. Galatia. The very numerous mountain chains are nearly all well wooded. — all have helped indeed. ' i8) — "Then ' the ' army began to march through It it the district called Axylon [i. make the least sacrifice for future generations and as to replant- ing and restrictions.304 ANATOLICA. The inhabitants use the dung of cattle instead of firewood.. and even in Egypt and Syria.. It is not in the nature of an Oriental. every year destroy by to destroy the forests fire a great extent of who wood in order to obtain fresh . Much of the interior." This practice is common all over Central its real state.

on the gulf of Pamphylia. brigands can easily maintain themselves. The greater part of the country is in the hands of Xebecques. too. as amongst the Greeks and the authorities in general do their best to maintain public security. But sometimes the governor of a province is remiss. In the diary of Mr. * Newton's Travels and Researches in Asia Minor. or poverty and desperation drive men to brigandage. : authorities have left their posts. son of the (Koudjezr). some of these robbers have killed a Moreote merchant. is and the people seem well disposed. Next. . consequently in rebellion. headed by Ali Bey. On the mountains near Almalu a band of eighty Xebecques are out near Adalia. Aga of Chorgies who has and quarrelled with the other is Agas of the district. Daliani. and then of course there is great danger from the nature of the country.— . . and in many cases the local . or mountain robbers. ANATOLICA. as regards brigandage. the state of the country is it 305 At present (1872) tranquil. Colnaghi's journey through Lycia (April iith-i8th. but long this state of things always uncertain continue. 1854) occurs the following passage* " The district of Asia Minor which we visited is at present in a very bad state. the country is At in the hands of a band of four hundred Xebecques. nearly opposite Rhodes. how may There are no professional robbers amongst the Turks of south-west Anatolia.

with no molestation * . and murdered the crew. and the money taken. Had we taken the route originally intended taineers we should have reached the neighbourhood band of moun- of Makri on the very day that a had come down and pillaged all that district. There is great scarcity of food in the country." Personally contrary. but threatened to kill him if he persisted. seventeen in number. tality we met . on the we were everjrwhere treated with hospi- and respect but on one occasion we might well have met with a very unpleasant adventure. &c. . but at Almalu we changed our plan and returned by way of Lake Caralis and Cibyra. A boat sent from Rhodes to Phineka by a merchant to pay for some corn. We had intended returning to Aidin by way of Makri and Moolla. with ^400 on board. become very the Constantinople journals arr full of accounts of brigandage and robbery from every quarter. the have taken place the authorities have in most instances been worsted. captured and held to heavy ransom the captains of some Greek coasting vessels they even attacked — — — * Since writing the above the state of Anatolia has disturbed . At Daliani the people would not let a Sardinian merIn skirmishes that chant load a cargo of corn. The same band. the day before yesterday attacked and sunk a small boat from the island of Syme. was attacked by pirates near Myra.3o6 ANATOLICA. This band said to be seventy or eighty strong regularly blockaded Makri and Leveesi.

was rather a chivalrous thief. for their discipline was scandalous. and Moustat Oglou. their leader. till after troops had been sent from MooUa that the band was dispersed. and so confident did they become. The Turkish where they spent money freely. notice the traveller has of their presence not at is a summons to surrender. a Greek brigand. managed to have a petition . This band numbered some four hundred members. some of their number being slain. rate of the charge was regulated according to the social standing of the applicant. Lefteri. that a regular ofiice was opened at Broussa for the sale of The safe-conducts to travellers and merchants. with others. which if once obeyed will be inevitably enforced by a shot. troops on the contrary were dreaded and detested. being taken prisoner.ANATOLICA the 307 at Government troops and douaniers and fought a regular battle with them. nor except whelming numbers. but take up a position behind The first trees or rocks in some forest or defile. Kalamaki Nor was it Should the traveller unfortunately brigands it is fall amongst useless attempting resistance. A few years ago the whole province of Bithynia was infested by the band of Lefteri. and wherever they came they plundered and ill-treated the Lefteri villagers. tired at last of his brigand X 2 life and hard pressed. in They over- never attack in the open. and he and his men were welcome visitors in the villages.

in which he offered to Ottoman and retire to Greece on condition that his guaranteed. but Lefteri was obliged to dismiss him on account of his atrocious cruelty. Next as regards the feeling of the people towards Europeans. — — — * The common Arabic literally " a pedlar. and ill-gotten gains were But the Turkish authorities refused his overtures. but from being the case with the Turks of higher rank. this is far The people generally are friendly." title of the European —" hawajah " — means I . As Muslemin they looked down upon " Giaours. in Trade is left metaphysics." and even now. Formerly their ruling sentiment was contempt.3o8 ANATOLICA. Manouli. to the Frank. and there is still a large amount of contempt remaining. Europeans are mere buyers and sellers (" alish verish " men)* the European is but a " base mechanical "—they are his superiors in religion. who is the greatest monarch upon earth. and soon afterwards he was killed. who was afterwards killed near Smyrna. was one of his lieutenants. Armenian. in all true knowledge. Jew agriculture to the villager the only or most worthy occupation for a Turkish gentleman is Government employ in the service of. Greek. science. the Padshah. in all material improvements. although they cannot help perceiving the superiority of the Europeans in art. they resolutely close their eyes to the fact. war. to the conveyed leave the Sultan while on his territory life way to the Friday's public prayers.

Some wish but I of the more enlightened Osmanlis may their absolute necessity is for them — may see think the general wish of the Osmanlis left to simply to be themselves. or rather have mingled with it a large amount of jealousy. and the old condition of exclusiveness is every day disappearing more and more under the force of circumstances. for instance. 309 But the events of the last twenty-five years have much shaken this feeling. they prefer to leave them undeveloped and unused^ Does any one suppose.. But this result is very much against the will of it. and hatred of the European. the higher classes. fear. although they cannot prevent The resources of the empire are vast. Since the Crimean war the state of affairs in the Government and in the capital has been influenced by Europe to an extent unknown before. and in the same degree tends to . that if the Turks as a nation could prevent it they would Far suffer railroads to pass through their country from it. The Ottoman Empire. is now a part of the European family.— ANATOLICA. Every similar improvement brings them more and more into contact and relation with Christian Europe. for good or evil. . and only Europeans have the means and knowledge to employ or to develop them but rather than allow the " Giaours " to do this. ? shorten the time of their exclusive rule in the empire..

as it would appear." and no great lover of Europeans unlike his successors. Abbas Pasha is said to have been " somewhat farouche. &c.. and that we never saw their faces here!" I do not know if the remark was translated to the members of the deputation. And. and a deputation came out from England to urge upon His Highness the necessity and advantages of the railway. in Persia also. have heard an anecdote in point of the late Abbas Pasha (Viceroy of Egypt about 1848-55). to the The deputation was introduced its Viceroy by the then British Consul. and Egypt would be forsaken. But this is still the predominant feeling in Turkey. &c. " Would to God the Europeans would all go round the Cape of Grood Hope. The Egyptian Railway was projected. but if so they were doubtless a little surprised. however much it may have changed in Egypt. and in the course of the interview one of members wished the Viceroy to be told that " unless the means of transit were improved commerce would take the route round the Cape of Good Hope.3IO I ANATOLIC A. The treatment of Orientals by Euro- peans has not always been such as would bear ." explained to the Viceroy When this was —for he spoke no Euro- pean language remarked somewhat to this effect. alas we must admit that this feeling of —he — ! distrust is in many instances only too well grounded. and. The Osmanli only asks to be let alone.

enormous sums of money. examination . the supineness of the national character. enlightened. hinder.* 311 and no doubt the Turks have often felt that their only safety lay in opposing a dogged unreasoning resistance to all change and all suggestions. public service is a thing* almost unknown. and all sorts of concessions. Only a few months since (in 1872) one of the * Witness the treatment of the Egyptian Government and people by the late Imperial Government of France in the matter of the Suez Canal. the whole power is of the authorities exerted to stifle publicity. For an enterprise which entails absolute injury upon Egypt. them from benefiting the Govern- ment which they obstacles is serve. &c. But one of the greatest Disinterestedness in the It is the deep. were wrung from an unwilling Government. animadvert on And should any one dare to this common evil.ANATOLICA.. right to forced Indeed labour. More than half its cost was defrayed by Egypt. &c. scarcely possible to transact business with any of the Government departments without " smoothing the way." The all perfect truth of this will be admitted by who have lived in the Levant. . but they can effect nothing. and the strangest stories are extant of the corruption thence resulting. and the sufferings it caused the it is fellahs were extreme. There are able. religious fatalism. not too much ro say that without the enforced assistance of the Egyptians the Canal of Suez would not have been made. and honourable Europeans in the service of the Turkish Government.. Jealousy of race and religion. if they cannot quite prevent. incurable corruption of the Turkish administrations.

312 ANATOLIC A. The populations of the empire are so many divided and discordant nationalities. and the governing class has made no effort to conciliate any of them till quite recently. not a And dition of the empire exposes to the constant danger of being unfairly influenced by foreign Powers.* If there is it what we call anything in him at all to possess is resembling that feeling devotion to El Islam. there be when the great mass of the population ? which most Turks possess is limited to reading and writing. The Turk does not seem patriotism. and repeating portions of the Koran. made by the other villagers who were . quite uneducated The every effort to selves. a village in Caele Syria. I once heard a peasant openly declare that they " could not be worse off under the Europeans" and * . its and above sentative. must be allowed in There is no public indeed. and in advance education amongst themthe large towns are founding and supporting excellent schools for the purpose. Armenians. An immense percentage of the population cannot even do thus much and this while the Greeks. or next to none. in all to the Sultan as outward repre- And what citizen interest can the is Rayah feel an empire of which he ? simply a tolerated this peculiar conit member. At Nebha. on this subject leading journals of Constantinople was suspended for writing — it somewhat indecorous terms. and Slavonians in the empire are making instruction . should is How. only a faint objection was present. opinion.

and their and oprespective characters have been always subservient all this modified in consequence. even morally. the only salvation for the empire con- placing all the populations on a just and this result equal level. indeed. for this would inevitably bring about a reform in the Government. slowly and gradually obtaining a small share in the government of the country some of the provinces even have Christian governors and doubtless if the Turks had confidence in them and felt that they could trust them they would be admitted to a wider share. they are physically. but sooner or later they points of be obliged to yield. they have not the governing faculty. The Christian populations are. it is true. over the other populations of the empire and . their number is insufftcient. the Ottoman Empire would have little to fear from foreign enemies. Taken always as a whole .ANATOLIC A. and. it If is once true — could —well nigh im- be brought about. But there is a deep gulf betw^een them yet. Perhaps before long sists in may be changed . the imperial character. And 313 yet not one of these nationalities would be able to take the place of the Osmanlis supposing the latter to be deprived of their supremacy . and the Osmanlis dread the conse- — — quences of giving will way . possible. The Osmanli has many superiority . inferior generally the others for one race has ruled — the have been pressed.

say that will latter. truthful. Crimes of violence are extremely rare of course. of the that. — ? . but let I do not say that he is industrious those who would call him idle first try the Besides. but brave. very little smuggling. there less crime in most European villages of the same size. hospitable. and religious. alas a thing apart most no prostitution. am for as a rule. is Europeans. if venture to it he he I compared with convinced. not so with the Osmanli. the . who is exposed to extortion if he has the appearance of wealth. not more so than many an ordinary Englishman and formerly most fanatical. 314 I ANATOLIC A. not be altogether to the ad- vantage instance. I reckon brigandage there is no drunkenness. effect of the climate upon themselves. people in general are honest and tranquil they trust one another business transactions. During our whole journey I never heard a brawl or a quarrel amongst the people The Arabs are but it is continually bickering and quarrelling ! . what inducement is there for a man to work whose property is never secure. The tolia old-fashioned in Turk of the estimable interior of Ana- is short an man—uneducated and prejudiced certainly yet. robbery with implicitly in violence . no a Turkish village than in — . and who is contented with a very moderate amount of comfort . on the latter point..

That part of Anatolia which we visited is perhaps one of the most fertile portions of the Otto- man Empire. pect held out to him. national character cies to indicate.sva v^' olvtuv acla'^pov sari xaii Xsysiv. But these remarks only apply to those Osmanlis who have had little contact with Europeans.ANATOLIC A. 7ivo/u. tion. yet the people are miserably is Their land for its productive. most of the loans raised squandered in extravagance. but are Europe. yet almost nothing is done by Governin ment benefit them. When once a thin varnish of European civilisation has been laid upon the Turk he becomes a changed man. 315 Let but the Turkish peasant have some pros- some inducement for exer- and we may well believe that the motives which influence other men would not be without effect on him. The estimable qualities he once had are impaired he gains the vices far more easily than the virtues of the European. their heavy. roc yocp ytpu<P'ih — a hideous which it suffi- and then pass by in silence. There is much that is admirable in the Osmanli pure and uncorrupted but it is mostly : — ! found only in the lower classes And the truth must be told —there is a very dark side to the blot. but they have taxation is no market to produce . . Not only the ordinary or revenues. and poor. The condition of the people may be guessed from our experience in the course of our journey.

silk. which is unhappily rendered necessary by the The ambition of an unscrupulous neighbour. wool. and Nature rich bountiful fail . And after all. climate. contrary. the villages to a great the extent are heavily indebted. as ever. all and oil interior produces wheat timber. cheese. this region is in a manner lost to the world. provinces are is sacrificed to the capital. In short. .3i6 ANATOLIC A. the taxation . all sorts of restrictions would be imposed which do not now exist. In sea-coast. is and kinds sheep. cattle. The cost of living would become much higher. of grain. country either country the mass of the people without a reform of the Governinto More wealth would be poured it the is true. but labour and capital both alike and for want of these. afford tobacco. sugar. on the people have no accumulated capital . both in amount The plains and valleys of the and in value. expended in keeping up a great military force. with the a semi-tropical cotton. rice. but it would be enjoyed by the governing classes or by the Europeans. good hands the exports of the country would be enormously increased. the improvements which Eurothe to pean civilisation could make in would bring but slight advantage ment. fruits. opium. at and while there an air of prosperity is Constantinople. wine. the country in a state of miserable decay.

unusual energy has been displayed by the Turkish Government in preparing for war. fortifications are strong being constructed (1873) both on the Bosphorus and on the Hellespont. Trebisond. &c. in winter they are laid up in the Golden Horn. and other fortresses vast stores of war materiel. but that is the extent of their cruising In all probability. The forts and entrenched camps along the Danube are being reconstructed and heavily armed. Evidently the Osmanlis . . crushing already. except a few miserable forts near the entrance of the Black Sea which could not repel an iron-clad. and the revenues would be employed in the same unwise manner as at present the national debt.. formidable additions are being made (1874) ^^ the defences of Erzeroum. the appears and arsenals of Russia are within a few hours' sail. and more almost defenceless. would be raised to an The process is amount absolutely intolerable. are being provided. Levant. familiar to all those who have lived in the . And with all the heavy expenditure on the capital Ottoman army and navy.* The seven or eight iron-clads which compose the Ottoman fleet is . torpedoes. weapon against Turkey fleet. in summer they are anchored in the Bosphorus. are thoroughly alarmed at the signs of the times. there will soon be the deadliest open to be no defence. breech -loading rifles. in front of the Sultan's palaces of Tcheragan and Dolma Baghtche ! .. forts The than these. But the Bosphorus —a strong Sea there seems Black never go to sea .ANATOLIC A. &c. 317 would be proportionally so much the heavier. Krupp guns. * But since the above lines were written.

are intensely fanatical. and might be fatal before Europe could interfere to prevent it. little a sudden emergency arose. personal liberty in Turkey greater than in Russia . The desire of the Russian Government to become master of Constantinople and the Bosphorus is natural. but of It is not to the interest of any class in Turkey now that : Russia should take the place of the is Osmanlis deep as as great. A coup-de-niain seems perfectly possible. perhaps the Turkish peasant to the superior in almost every respect . as a nation. while the old religious bigotry of the Muslim is diminishing.. for the position of the capital .3i8 if ANATOLIC A. is abso- lutely unrivalled there is no city in the world which possesses so many natural advantages. Russian peasant there are as many ele- ments of trouble and disturbance in the social state of Russia as in Turkey the Russians. And if it is not to the advantage of any class in Turkey that Russia should possess the immense resources of that rich country.they would prove service. and in the hands of Europeans vast improvements in it . and if an enemy should occupy the heights above Scutari. and geneprevails throughout the rally religious toleration Ottoman Empire. . it is still less to the interest of European liberty. the capital would be at his mercy. the corruption in Russia quite as is in Turkey is . with its warlike and hardy inhabitants.

ANATOLIC A. but long use has consecrated their possession. is the danger of a financial collapse. at Constantinople. worse than domestic treason. It is true the Osmanlis gained that country by the sword. Unless either the process of accumulating debt upon debt be interrupted. all the advantages they can justly expect. and unfortunately foreigners have but little encourage. this will bring about the ruin of the empire. worse than foreign arms. . — ? ment to undertake industrial enterprises in Turkey. or the resources of the country be developed. indeed. But to develop the immense natural resources of Turkey. and the Russians have. but either from covert oppo- sition in the province. 319 might be expected but those improvements must come by the very force of circumstances the old condition of things is fast passing away. they have the same facilities of commerce as any other European nation what concession. . It will never be brought about by the Osmanlis themselves. They have free navigation of the Bosphorus. European skill and capital are needed. All and concessions have been granted ignorance of management. now at least. but almost sorts of facilities invariably the result has been failure and loss of money. Many mining or agricultural enterprises have been commenced by Europeans. which Turkey has not now granted to Russia But perhaps the greatest danger of all which threaten the Osmanlis. is there that one nation may fairly claim of another.

but a temporary epidemic. heavy taxation. such schemes have almost invariably no such thing as a census. Polygamy Its the exception it rather than the rule. Ignorance how the conscription. and does If indeed the not penetrate far into the interior. and the ties of family life appear as strong there as anywhere else. has not appeared for now nearly Cholera is thirty-five years. Yet from the great number of children we saw in most of the districts through which we passed. The plague.320 ANATOLIC A. but in . gracefully easy. the causes are continuous. Muslim population of Turkey be diminishing. know how it may be Turkey. poverty. failed. at least in that part of Anatolia. " perish for lack of knowledge. the country people have only one wife. divorce is But so far as we could learn. or other causes. expense prevents from dis- being general. and it is In Turkey there Muslim population is diminishing. of whose awful ravages old travellers in the East once had so much to tell. so that the number of the population cannot be known with any approach to accuracy. and under a better conThe people dition of things may cease to act. said that the it may be doubted if this be really is so. is want of labour. want of medical assistance." to rear their children. On the other hand. their life wretched I way not of in consequence in — such are the causes which prevent increase of population.

But such unfortunate conditions are not in a day. Egypt the so that it 321 loss of infant life is enormous." than the people at Almalu. An English gentleman. and only the strong survive. and indeed in Anatolia generally.ANATOLICA. and indeed in the islands . once took the trouble to compare the statistics of births in a The Greeks number of villages in his neighbourhood. He told me that almost invariably the Turkish villagers . but to Asiatic. Rather than sell his land. Yet whatever may be the real state of the case the Turkish race in Anatolia has a noble " phyI have seen few finer or handsomer men sique. Crete estimates that Greeks now in the island form two-thirds of the entire people. Instances of these were of common occurrence during the famines in Cyprus caused by deficient harvests. the Greek peasant will undergo the very extremity of distress. so much has attracted the serious attention of the Khedive. whereas the Osmanli easily parts with his property. generally the Christians vastly preponderate I but think that on the mainland matters are different. One of my friends. it In is the same. quite true that in some parts of the empire the ing. long resident in Turkey. Perhaps the sickly and weakly die out. long resident in the Cyprus. remedied It is. I Muslim population is fast diminishdo not refer to European Turkey. I believe. in Cyprus cling to their land with great tenacity. and emigrates to the mainland.

had but one wife each. and even if a Government census could be carried out — a thing extremely difficult — it is very doubtful whether its reports would be reliable. and that the amount of births amongst them was slightly higher than amongst the Christians (about i per cent. and he remarked especially the higher number of male births amongst them than in the Christian families nor were their children weakly.. but quite up to the average in any country. But from the disorganisation in the provinces it is not probable that any attempt to number the people will be made. His position gave him peculiar opportunities for observation.). . ^2 2 ANATOLIC A. nor if it were tried would the people furnish the requisite information. but any general appreciation is impossible.

They paid highly for their and had uncontrolled power in their posts. it is true. Old System of Provincial Government Its Abuses and Advantages The Vilayet System Provincial Medjlis Representation Provincial Government good in Theory Purchase of Offices Reason why Public Works are so Expensive in Turkey Instance Degrees of Offices in Provinces The Kadis Their Authority Declining Taxation of the Empire Taxes on Land The Dime Farmers of this Tax The Vergui Mortgages on Land in Turkey The Kharaj The Bedeliyeh Conscription Exemption — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — of Christians lenders from Serving in the Army Professional MoneyTheir Dishonesty Government Agricultural Banks — — — Their Failure — — Difficulties of Agriculture in Turkey of the Government in Matters of Religion generally Diminishing — Impartiality —Religious Bigotry — Conversion of — in contact with a pure form of Christianity — Morals of Europeans — Growing Tolerance of Muslemin — Education of their Children— American Schools in Egypt — Prospects of the Conver— less Mohammedans not to be Lightly Expected — Difficulties in the way of it Different Religious Ideas of Muslim and Christian Simplicity of El Islam— Its Inferiority to Christianity Superstitions Engrafted on Mohammedanism Muslim has generally come — Syria and Ibrahim Pasha — sion of Mohammedans to Christianity. and Y 2 . left unmolested. were in general . tempered. tically independent. by fear of the Pashaliks But in many cases they were pracbowstring. and if strong. The old system of government in the Ottoman Empire was by means of Pashas appointed to the different provinces. provided they regularly remitted the tribute due from the province to the Porte.— CHAPTER — — XVII.

took care to maintain friends at Court by a judicious application of " bucksheesh. The Pasha had the power of and there was small chance of appeal or redress. &c. especially was this the case under the rule of the Dere Beys. in the old system by Sultan things Mahmoud was altered . For the connection between the Pasha and his province was more intimate and prosperous than it is lasting. It was far more to the Governor's interest that his people should be now .. of State but in local matters. under such a system much individual oppression occurred. Its main object was to obtain a sufficient representation of the people. than under the searching centralisation of more modern days. local expenditure. . but the whole condition of by the introduction a few years ago of the Vilayet system. who in many points resembled the great feudal nobles of Europe in the twelfth A and thirteenth vast change was made centuries. this To end the empire was divided into a certain number of districts called Vilayets. and powers are granted life to them. they are independent. to the Council In matters of imperial taxation and questions of and death they are accountable . The Governors (Valis) of these are appointed by the central authovery considerable rity at Constantinople.324 ANATOLICA. And yet it is doubtful if the provinces were not in a better material position under the old condition of things." Naturally. life and death. left public works.

their complaints eluded— politely. and listening to the everlasting "Bacaloum!" "Inshallah!" they . the population is partly Muslim. roads. for All expenditure local purposes. which signifies to each village or township what proportion of the money required has to be raised by it. Constantinople to make to complaints. the latter consisting of the " ayans " or notables of the villages and small towns. bring the special interests of their Vilayet under the notice of the Council of State at tinople. their suggestions heard —patiently. return to their and when they are tired of waiting on the great men in Stamboul. And there usually the matter ends. partly is a separate Medjlis sometimes ap- pointed for either body. bridges. or a certain number of Christians sit in the Medjlis. leaving to the village authorities the care of apportioning this amongst the people. trol of the &c. irrigation works.. Constan- Their expenses are by the Vilayet. Their reports are read —sometimes . the members of which are elected by the Village Councils. suggestions —in paid short. so that in case of default by individuals the entire village is liable.ANATOLIC A. is under the con- Medjlis of the Vilayet. the principle of " solidarite " being applied. Every year two members of the great Medjlis are sent as deputies to reports. They are assisted 325 by the Council (Medjlis) of the Vilayet. Where Christian.

and the local expenditure this. and it is to the interest of the Vali to be on good terms with the members of his Medjlis . the expense has to be recovered. so that cases of individual extortion are not which will known. the provincial . . for homes. the little sucexecuting public works in Turkey. perhaps. A carriage road of about twenty-five miles in length was proNicosia and jected between the towns of Lar- naka. to But as is in Turkey the nomination offers any costly. To take an instance. ment engineer estimated the expense at about and The work was commenced . Often the result is a large expenditure inconsi- derable. as the latter.000. although still much office of the old feeling on this point remains. renewing the farce government and it of the Ottoman Empire is very good might become really so.326 ANATOLICA. the most obvious source for cess in after Hence. until the season comes round again. and want of education and ambition. The amount of taxation fall upon each man is tolerably well so that the people are not so much afraid as formerly to show their wealth. were it not for the fatalism and apathetic temper of the people. Theoretically. who have succeeded the Pashas of former days. common. The Govern. have no such arbitrary power then.^ 4. The Valis. their passive obedience. in the Island of Cyprus.

was granted and this time the road to its full extent was remade at a cost of . . too.. But still it was unskilfully made in many parts merely the surface was smoothed.000.ooo.^ 10. &c. It never could be used by carriages or diligences. was raised by extortions and vexations).! ANATOLIC A. but only about a quarter of the road was completed. dismissing employes. after occurred the terrible sess a Cyprus at that time happened to posgood and intelligent Governor (Said Pasha). and the new Vali proceeded to examine the road accounts.000 was expended on what natives. . and the examination was abandoned in despair. grant who applied to Constantinople for a of money to give work to the destitute His petition . the road (which it need not be said was very badly made) was washed away by the famine in the winter rains Soon island. between cash 327 and contributions the amount of . But while the authorities w^ere thus occupied in examining accounts. They proved to be an utter and incomprehensible jumble but the result was not made known.^ 3. After a time came a change of Governors.000 was expended upon it (much more. .^ 7. : should have been well done for .^4. " Ex . and the muleteers preferred to drive their mules and camels along the old tracks it was practically useless and thus the amount of .

Of course the consideration .! ! — 32 8 ANATOLIC A. alarmed at the increasing diversion of trade from Trebisond to Poti and other Russian ports. is and I have heard some very laughable anecdotes on this point general indirectly given " sed taedet hsec opprobria nostra referre !" The Vali is frequent change of Governors It is is another misfortune for the country. which was really excellent as far as it went only it went in the wrong direction. and endeavour to do something for its benefit. somewhat similar report appeared the other day in the Levant Herald about a road which is being made between Mersina and Adana. in Cilicia. Not many years uno disce omnes!" ago the Turkish Government. a distance of about hours). alas : ! work was entrusted a high official about a mile of road on the cost. Probity is a very rare virtue in Turkey I have said that in Turkey it costs money to — obtain in office. in seldom that a the same post more than one or two years often his tenure of his post is only for a few months. A 150 miles (or the fifty to sixty to But. than he . frightened at the expense. decided to make a carriageable road between Trebisond and Erzeroum. or even weeks Thus no sooner does a Governor begin to become acquainted with his province. left . abandoned the continuation of this road. Trebisond side was constructed at a fabulous and the Government.

He in former days be judge* civil and criminal that the As may be position supposed. — . it was found and authority of the Kadi. and is. i. ANATOLIC A. and expounded by the innumerable works on jurisprudence which exist in Turkish and Arabic. except the decision in cases of marriage.e.. Owing to the peculiar system of law. divorce. to Kadi is the Medjlis. and yet lower the Mudir.. &c. was quite incompatible with the new order of things contemplated by the reformers of the Ottoman State. the Sheriyah. defrayed in the end by the unfortunate provincials. illustrated * The Kadi judges from — . as it existed under the old system. the law of the Koran. is 329 removed to a distant part of the empire and then the heavy expense of removal. First police cases were removed from their conthen commercial matters of contract and trol sale. Now. has to be incurred. the GoAbove the Vali is the Mutesarrif below vernor of a large division of the empire him the Kaimakam. of course.. and in all Mohammedan anomalous. But it was impossible to break summarily through the old procedure and therefore a gradual encroachment was commenced on the authority of the Kadis by the establishment of courts which should relieve them of much of the judicial business they had hitherto transacted. . See Appendix. scarcely anything is left to them . the position of the has a seat at used cases.

Orientals being any examination into their priIndeed they consider that to ascervate affairs. The taxation of the Ottoman Empire is . tain accurately the amount of their income. There are other less important taxes. and they will utterly opposed to never do it even for their own satisfaction. all that can be known is the usage of par- ticular provinces.. But great changes are contemplated by the Porte. and i per cent. and would pro- bably be impracticable to levy. or of any kind of property they may possess.— 330 ANATOLICA. and the registration and transfer of real property. such as the sheep and cattle tax for right of pasturage. it is almost impossible for a foreigner to entire become acquainted with the taxation of the empire . the . no one general and unibut the usage differs ac- cording to the circumstances of the respective proTherefore. would inevitably bring them ill-fortune. with the exception of a few general taxes. the chief revenues of the Ottoman Empire arise Such a tax as the income unknown. and inheritance. is a very difficult subject. so that a few months may witness something quite different from the system —or non-system which at present exists. tax (strictly so called) is 8 per cent. There in force form principle vinces. Independently of the import and export duties. which are respectively from the taxes on land.

1873. had this effect in the district round Latakia where some of the finest tobacco used to be grown. in . who collect it themselves or sublet thus the loss of possible revenue to the Government Sometimes the villagers farm this tax themselves. will end by discouraging or stopping the cultivation of tobacco . and at times in the poorer provinces the Government is unable to find bidders. we are quite willing to his tenth.* to the now extended the octroi duties. tobacco duty. will it is doubtful whether the Government be able to carry it out. The heavy and impolitic internal transit amounting to 8 per cent. and so heavy that it greatly encourages smuggling. Of all their taxes the " Ushr" is the least objec- tionable to the Osmanlis. — — usually levied in kind. at present is to make this a general rule. where smuggling is difficult. which seldom enter the imperial treasury. and is obliged itself to levy the tax. The great tax which bears on land is the " Ushr" or "Ushoori" the tithe of the crops which is due. on everything except grain. This is almost always let out to farmers of the it revenue. and. was abolished in October. It is a common expression among them. and although the intention is very great. But this presents many difficulties. 331 whole empire.: ANATOLIC A. " If only Allah gives us a good harvest." pay the Padshah But sometimes the " Ushr" amounts * It has already North Syria.

&c. and in this the peasant is generally quite a match for .. the tax farmer uses his own weights and measures. again. the peasant bears this tax well. at and does not murmur as at the irregular taxes —road flicted levies. manded Then. and the delay often causes great loss and inconvenience to the cultivator. need not be said that unbounded rascality is reciprocally practised. sometimes the collection : much hardship instalment is in- in an de- This is. and even 15 per cent. in general. and in every way tries to endless is the chicanery and defraud his man . in order to obtain a before the crops are ripe. but often the peasant is able to bribe them. respite. and either taken his portion. sharp practice mutually brought into play. &c. There however. more than a tenth Still. only for the sake of extorting " bucksheesh" from the cultivator. the crop may not be removed from the field or from the threshing floor until the farmer of the revenue has inspected it. — 12^ it per cent. &c. and so to subtract a part of his crop. or agreed as to its amount. is. The tax farmer is obliged It to place watchmen round the peasant's crops when him the harvest approaches in order to prevent from removing any of the crop before the tithe has been either paid or agreed upon.332 to ANATOLIC A. On the other hand. as a rule. have occasionally been exacted.

and yet more to the English land tax as originally imposed an impost levied on the estimated property of the individual. The Vali each village . whether moveable or fixed. on the presumed annual assisted value of his property in general. really has some points of resemblance to an income tax. (Council) of the Vilayet. fixes by the Medjlis the amount due by it the village authorities apportion amongst individuals. while often the reverse is . It is fined as a percentage (Governor). revenue farmer or Government and fully able to hold his own. Perhaps it would be most accurately dein 1692-7. the case with the poorer proprietors but. Of course this. there is some scope for unfairness in and it is found in practice that the richer landowners escape with lighter estimates than their land ought is to bear. The Government is register furnishes the base on which calculated what this amount each Vilayet has tax. on the estimated annual value of the land. on the whole. to pay on account of In some provinces the Vergui on land has be- come a regular land tax of 3 per cent. The " Vergui. The estimate is made by Government assessors. the tax levied with much justice. and is in general considerably below the real value. but in conjunction with the owners. the 333 ofificial." or tax upon property.ANATOLICA. One very essential point contemplated by the .

So that a man may have the title deeds of . desire on the part of the I it. as it was in the old .334 ANATOLICA. Government may mention that at the valuation of the lands in Cyprus no such agreement had been arrived at between the assessors and proprietors. should give his written assent to Vilayet acts as umpire. and according to the law. In cases of disputed valuation the Medjlis of the As an instance of the to act justly. Thus the valuation was made justly. ment of this tax no sale of land can take place without an inscription on the back of the title deed that all Government dues have been title liquidated. and it is not easy now. I may mention en passant that deeds have by no means the high value under Ottoman law which they possess in the jurisprudence of the Western nations. the proprietor knows what he will have to pay. that the Government valuation should be accepted by the landowner. and a " Mazbata " (petition) was sent to Constantinople complaining of this much time and money had been expended. When once the amount payable is inserted on the Government register. and that he Government was. days. to defraud him or force him to contribute To ensure paymore than the just amount. yet the Government ordered the whole work to be recommenced. or Tribunal of the Kadi. and it had always been so intended. The real title is inscription on the register of the Mehkameh.

" thereupon gives the creditor a document called " Vekyliyat devriyah. tion which the mortgagor makes before the Kadi (and which is also indispensable for all transfer of real property) is called "Takryr" meaning "a The Kadi formal declaration. and a third party agreed upon by A and B is appointed as " vekyl " (agent) to sell the mortgaged land if The verbal declaranecessary and pay the debt.ANATOLICA. " vekyl " to do this. but unless at the effect its 335 registry Mehkameh be unimpeachable he cannot ." an "affidavit. and A declares that he owes the sum and will pay it at a given date. which are extremely exact and particular. upon the and can imprison him upon calls is The Kadi After a notice of sixty days the land sold to the highest bidder. This renders it hazardous to lend money on mortgage. Both parties go before the Kadi. The particulars of the mortgage are then inscribed on the register. a sale nor will the Government look upon him as the rightful owner. being guided entirely by their own registers. and for security offers his land to which of course he must first prove his title. and that he gives such lands as — guarantee for the debt." and if the money is not paid — the creditor produces this document and requests that a sale be made. unsaleable commodity in . a property quite in order. But as land is an and the creditor paid. In order to effect a secure mortgage a very roundabout process is necessary. refusal. A has borrowed money from B.

336 Anatolia. Later the kharaj became rather a substitute for military service. for a small sum money thus secures them from military service. very often happens that no bidder can and thus the debtor often " buys in " his be found own land it is at a price lower than the debt for which on sale. of the " Khatti army is expressly Humayoon. Before the Crimean poll tax. yielding to the representations of the Western Powers." the obnoxious tax. was the who would institution of not become Muslim might still continue to profess their own For wherever the religion on payment of tribute. yet there are others which seem to approve of toleration." stated in After the Crimean War the Porte. Muslim became master the conquered race had to choose between El Islam —tribute — or the sword. War all the Rayahs (Chris- tian subjects) in the empire paid the " kharaj " or Originally this that all Mohammed. although their liability to serve in the Art. This practice " traditional itself. as the Osmanlis have always for obvious reasons jealously avoided training their Christian fellow subjects to arms. And of they pay very willingly. In the Koran though passages may be found which make for the practice. ANATOLICA. it . gave up in name established tax. . was founded on the Sunneh or law " of Mohammed. xxiv. but in its stead the " Bedeliyeh " or " substitution native Christians it which all now pay.

ANATOLICA. population also. then a ticket is put into . The very the population is withdrawn from a country already underpeopled. When is thrown open fail to Christians. raised. possible consequences is has hitherto prevented once the army but it a just measure. to send them in. to the prinBefore his arrival cipal town of the Vilayet. and of the recruits few in comparison return again to their For some time past the Divan (Council of State) has deliberated upon the expehomes. and would avoid by every pos- The conscription is a heavy burden. rejects the weakly.e. The comes. sible expedient. and orders are issued to the village authorities The doctor examines them. diency of extending the conscription to the Christian Dread of the it . their " status " cannot to be now . thus managed : —At the appointed time a Government conscription officer accompanied by a doctor.^ men between eighteen and twenty-five years of age) are taken from the books of the Mudiriyeh. The names of all eligible to be drawn [i. has been arranged how many conscripts it are to be taken from that district. and must one day be carried out. 337 which they abhor. They dread and hate but when it is inevitable conscription is military service the feeling will disappear. and presses flower of most unfairly on the Muslim population of the empire.

and is much higher high now. The it legal rate of interest is 12 per cent. and has made several abortive attempts to remedy it. and was not on account of money borrowed. and draw their the excitement is immense. The only support of a family is excused. friend .400 which he comprehends piastres. . each of the remainder. owners. nothing. but the price is it was formerly £80. his Often the peasant papers of of induced to 1. Amongst other ideas was the plan of forming agricultural banks. and it is advisable to make the doctor your . an amount very tales far beyond their affix The seal to I strangest are is told of roguery. but under the skilful manipulation of rises to the usurer this. for strictly agricultural purposes. but in general the drawing is conducted and impartial manner. go up in turn Of course. . A conscript can buy himself off afterwards. great sinners on this point. which should lend money at a low rate of interest to the land. and they lot. I have spoken of the exactions of the proThe Armenians are the fessional money-lender. and the misery caused by this cancer of debt amongst the poor peasants in a very fair is extreme. but arose from the debtor having burnt an olive tree belonging to the creditor The Government perceives the mischief of all this.! 338 the vessel for ANATOLIC A. heard a debt of which was originally only 80 piastres.

. for he could lend it out again at a very much higher rate of interest. The kylah is equivalent to the English bushel. The capital of these banks was thus raised One kylah* of wheat and two kylahs of barley per annum were charged on each pair of bul: locks used of for agriculture. of it. land. need or not of borrowing money for his land. The capital of the banks was formed needed obliged share . that of affording help to a class who could not help themselves and were every year going from bad to worse.! — ANATOLICA. . and as a whether he had . was not attained. . This was far on the security of their below even the legal of interest and recognised course rate matter of every one. so as to form at in process time per a fund from which money the should be advanced to the rate agriculturists of 8 cent. Thus the object in view. money taken from men who most for in general the others cultivators to were their to borrow from it pay was taking the money of the poor to lend to the poor^ and at last the idea was abandoned but of course the money that had been amassed disappeared in most cases in effect. yet rushed in to obtain as large a share as possible of the capital thus kindly provided for him by the Government bank. 339 This was a part of the Vilayet system already spoken of.

small holdings —they are A large have no accuthere are no mulated land is capital. its decisions in the case of the Bulgarian Church and of the Catholic Armenian Church are proofs. the climate and the seasons render the harvest most precarious. proportion of the arable fallow . poorer class of peasants . A short delay of rain ruins the crop . The peasants have very unskilled. so that the cost of transport is enormous labour is scarce and bad the burden of taxation presses unfairly on the . obliged to be left in good means of communication.. as a rule. may then be easily imagined that agriculture is in Turkey far from being the sure and modeit rately lucrative pursuit is in other countries. Although the land is in general fertile. at the critical period entirely this is the chief danger. toleration It is certain that. and usury keeps them next door to starvation Little wonder The if the condition of the empire be so bad terrible famine which is now (1874) devastating the interior of Anatolia supplies a melancholy commentary on all this Upon the question of religion I must speak with away the very life blood of the people ! ! ! reserve. 340 It ANATOLICA. and In some parts of the empire the ravages of locusts do incalculable damage. religious now prevails throughout the empire and of the equity with which the Government various Christian between the bears itself sects. the conscription takes . .

in in low. The old law of the empire under which conversion to Christianity. so great the hatred between Christian and Muslim. stern and equal. And why Because justice. and the Egyptian Conqueror was able to make his will obeyed by Muslim and . ? Christian alike. is no longer in but the public mind has not yet been full toleration. The social sacrifices a convert would have to make are enormous. that without a strong repressing power civil war might break out at any moment but this is entirely caused by the political weakness of the Government. Maronite and Druse.— ANATOLIC A. and in Syria especially. was meted out to all. religion as such 341 Gradually the animosity against the Christian and those who profess disappear still still it is dis- appearing. to high station rather than of a " jihad " (" a holy is whom the idea ") is war against the Christians acceptable. . nated it would more Certainly there are fanatics to be found. was punished with death. or a relapse to it after professing Islam. If political questions could be elimirapidly. It is not to be expected that any great number of will is Mohammedans be converted to Christianity quite hopeless in the case of a indeed this result Muslim of mature years. educated to Instances of conversion doubtless have occurred. Never was the public tranquillity so perfect as during the time of Ibrahim Pasha's occupation of Damascus and all Syria. force .

little too. The Muslim different idea of the Deity is so essentially from our idea that he must almost change before he can his nature become Christian. Personally I but they are few. know of none. because the grand bond and link between God and man is to him — — . the claim upon the faith of is followers it pre-eminently a religion easy for heathen to em- brace. who have married the contrary. though of course in a degree infinitely higher. but must not forget that the Muslim already acknowledges much of what we believe. wanting. The only observances prescribed by its founder are the stated prayers and ablutions and . I have instances of known Englishwomen mained. arians. To him God is a Being to be feared to be propitiated by the most abject submission. But the grand distinctive doctrine of Christianity the Incarnation of the Deity is an " offence " to We — — him. He is merciful and terrible like one of their own Sultans. not say attended Christian worship may who have reMohammedans. But the idea of the Almighty as a Father is to him incomprehensible and naturally so. the its Mohammedan .342 ANATOLICA. religion asks so of professor it is easier. Then. less its profound is less . have even. . who know our language and customs perfectly. on men who have lived many years in England. in some instances. if I —nay. yet Unit.

every No is order of priesthood his is established man own priest. then the immeasurable inferiority of the former is apparent and. rather its founder and his followers have no conception that those difiiculties even — exist. Lastly the dogmas of the Mohammedan faith are plain and simple. Every place is pure and fit for the worship of the one the ceremonial slaying of a God. moreover. and has been There practised from the most remote antiquity. ANATOLICA. as is natural. As to many of the superstitions which overlie Mohammedanism. although. are no sacrifices. idolatrous people. they are quite extraneous. unless we consider as a sacrifice lamb at the Courban Bairam. for the rite of circumcision is not peculiar to Mohammedanism.. although the Ulema have usurped an authority which is quite alien to the original spirit of El Islam. yet with all their simplicity there is something very sublime in them. the 343 Ramadan fast. But when we compare the morality of Mohammedanism with that of our own religion. . the Prophet's birthplace and his tomb have become objects of pilgrimage. and no religion is so readily embraced by a barbarous. the second of the Muslim festivals. the better . it has no explanation of those difiiculties which the religion of the Saviour alone can solve nay. Whatever may be the opinions of the lower classes as to their Prophet and his claims.

: educated are more enlightened Unitarians. for the most part. which plainly declares. &c. And many arise Mohammedanism prejudices and from compliance with the errors of the people to whom the religion has been introduced. What you may say or think is all one to morals of the Europeans are often above all they detest the cynicism me. " I shall do what I choose. but not the educated. the .344 ANATOLICA. too. with a less Neither should it pure form of Christianity. Time and changed conditions may — If it was possible to educate the children apart . and I care not about you. Then. they are simply still The vulgar may of the abuses of adjure the Prophet. that feeling of contempt for them which is so prevalent. but at prereligious development sent appearances are against such a result." do something to bring the Osmanlis as a nation to the higher Christianity.. What we suppose will be produced on the Muslim when he enters a church full of pictures can and images which he can only look upon as idols ? In most of the Christian churches which are open to their observation they see only what they abominate. To take effect a simple and obvious instance. be forgotten that the Muslim has come in contact. hateful to them of the European character.

children The Scriptures are studied. examine too closely tion. result obtained if It is a great of you. we are . learn to regard it from a different point of view. Christian. even though no other result be attained. and the few who attend are insensibly accus- tomed to hear of another religion. meet on the same footing Muslim.ANATOLICA. but he hates and dreads him none the less in his heart of hearts ! The American missions in the most effectual course. Egypt appear to take They do not expect sudden or striking results they do not look for converts they do not shock the prejudices of those whom they are trying to conciliate. fore- God in His own good time will one day. Jew. but this is 345 from home influence. for we should most own weakness was the cause of In proportion as he finds himself the weaker he becomes tolerant and complaisant towards the unbeliever. They open . not possible . Muslim there. grander. and thus. . but not controversially. as he is you can make him even tolerant now becoming. their schools to all alike . Neither must we into the motives for his toleralikely find that only his it. something might be done. insensibly im- bibe an acquaintance with another faith. nobler. purer than their own. and it is useless to close our eyes to the fact that from the Muslim of mature years nothing can be expected. they cannot have the same envenomed prejudices as their fathers.

. everything. 346 ANATOLICA. will be brought about but God's ways are not as ours. bring back these peoples are descended from Christian fold of Christ Jesus. the Great — many of whom ancestors — into the Time with us is As yet we see not how God it Redeemer. convinced. but with a thousand years are as one day —one day as a thousand years..

and. one of the Roman generals. in ironical allusion to his avarice. and forced him to tell the spectators that he was Manius. Pamphylia in — short. He occupied. . but carried him about to show the populace an unusual spectacle a Roman general as prisoner of war.C. had retreated to Laodicea. his In the year B. But soon afterwards he captured Manius Aquilius. Magnesia on the Marauder. but they permitted his mercenaries to escape. under a promise that they should be themselves spared. King of Bithynia. almost without resistance. on his return from Ionia. captured Stratonicsea. and Mitylene revolted from the Romans. named Monima. Mithridates. began famous war against the Romans. a native of that city. all the dominions of Nicomedes. Lycia. his lictors were sent in front of him. At last he put him to death at Pergamus by pouring molten gold — down his throat. as also Phrygia. Finally. and heavily fined the city and here he married a beautiful Greek girl. Mithridates did him no harm. Oppius. so that they were obliged to give him up to Mithridates. King of Pontus. Soon Ephesus. and the Ephesians threw down all the Roman statues in their city. in mockery of his helpless state. Mysia.APPENDIX. whose extortion and corruption had been the principal causes of the war. on the Lycus. and him he carried about mounted upon an ass. Oppius was sent to Mithridates. but the Roman general had only a few mercenaries and a small force of cavalry. all Asia Minor up to the limits of Ionia. . The citizens would have resisted the enemy. he gave orders that all Roman after this. Q. 88 Mithridates.

with their wives. women. who after the conquest of Antiochus had been assigned to Rhodes. should be put to death and be left unburied. The people of Pergamus slew with arrows the Romans as they clung to the images in the Temple of Esculapius. and afterwards drowned their children. and he promised rewards to all who should slay them or denounce them to a slave his liberty. This was done not less from fear of Mithridates than from hatred of the Romans. All of Roman or Italian blood. xxi. to a debtor half the amount of the debt he owed. The Trallians. first to their independence by the authority took out the suppliants from the Temple of Vesta. but the people of the city pursued and killed them.. Of the history of Aphrodisias only a very few incidents are known. Strabo reckons it amongst the towns of Phrygia.) B. Pliny more correctly assigns it to Caria. cap. The Ephesians tore the suppliants from the very Temple of Diana. slew the children in the sight of their parents. and all their free-born Italian servants. He threatened to fine those who should conceal the living or bury the dead. The Caunians. But they suffered a double punishment. from the very statues of the goddess. Mithrid. for first they were treated with perfidy and oppression by Mithridates. children. but only a short time before — this had been restored of the Roman Senate. (Appian Bell. then the wives and mothers. hired a Paphlagonian named TheoThis monster performed his horrid philus for the purpose.348 and APPENDIX. and says it was a free city under the Roman government. . men. not willing themselves to stain their hands with the blood of foreign guests. last of all the men. children. task with such ferocity that he even cut off the hands of the poor suppliants as they clung to the statues in the Temple of Concord. and killed them. the Roman Dictator. even freedmen and slaves.. xx. were thus destroyed throughout Asia. At Adramyttium the Romans tried to escape by swimming to the ships off the port. Italian foreigners. These were his secret instructions. And on the appointed day the slaughter began. and afterwards were punished by Sylla.

Their next station was Antiocheia.. in consequence of which many cities lost this privilege. giving freedom to the Demos of Aphrodisias and of Plarasa. and in another day's march to the river Harpasus {i. and making the " Temenos" an asylum. ratifying all that had been before decreed.. March of the Roman 189 B. and afterwards Augustus. The Triumvirs. and their cavalry attacked the Romans. Here Attalus (brother of Eumenes. the great ally of the Romans) joined him with his troops.C. but not being able to ford the river. its inhabitants were very warlike. its junction with the Maeander). in the campaign against the Gauls Consul Cn. they encamped till boats could be collected to carry the army across the stream. C. (From Livy. The privilege of asylum in their temples was at length much abused by the Greek cities of Asia. "The on the borders of Pisidia. The united armies marched to the Maeander. on the side towards (But Taboe is far away from the Pamphylian Sea.APPENDIX.e. and runaway slaves found shelter in them. and an inscription was discovered there bv Sherard. King of Pergamus. and after a few days advanced with the army to Magnesia ad Maeandrum. It 349 seems to have received this privilege from the Dictator JuHus Caesar. The worst of criminals. and at the first city is situated the Pamphylian Sea. on the Maeander. From this place the army advanced to Gordion-teichos. granting the same rights to the "Temenos" (sacred precinct) of the Temple of Aphrodite in those cities as were possessed by the Temple of the Ephesian Artemis.) As the strength of that country was unimpaired. From the Maeander they came to Hiera Come. Manlius." . in the year of Asia Minor. debtors. and thence in three marches to Taboe (Dawas).. 12-15. xxxviii. and so scandalous was the state of things that the Emperor Tiberius ordered a public inquiry to be made before the Senate. which was a copy of a decree made by the Roman Senate. confirmed the right.) At the commencement of the spring the Consul came to Ephesus. on the west limit of Pisidia. and it was abridged in the case of others.

" The envoys. could only beg him to receive their offering. Besides Cibyra. to see what his intentions were. A . contribution of twenty. he scarcely could undertake to make up a contribution of twenty-five talents. His address was submissive and humble. The Consul allowed the King to come next day to the camp. At this the Consul was indignant. disparaging his resources.five talents of silver (about . pretences of poverty. and declared that he would obey the orders of the Consul they begged him to abstain from ravaging their lands. Helvius with a division of 4. at another with entreaties and feigned tears. and threatened to ravage his lands and besiege his city unless he paid 500 talents in Moagetes. He came in a dress and with a retinue such as was scarcely suited to the station of a person of moderate wealth. Thence they came to Thabusion. persisted in his three days.000 men. and brought fifteen talents ** for a golden crown. a fort upon the river Indus." The Consul sent forward C. and by making gradually paltry additions to the sum he had at first offered. onset caused them considerable confusion. They were now near Cibyra. who was a man utterly faithless and subtle. and complaining of the poverty of his dominions.000 bushels) was exacted from them.^6." Helvius promised to spare their lands. troubled at this harsh reception. and had received no embassy from its " King Moagetes. and general consent declared him to be a man of such a character that they had rather to think of punishing him than of making an alliance with him. he reached the sum . they were driven into their city and forced to surrender.350 APPENDIX. In three days from Tabce they came to the river Chaus (a stream which flows from Mount Cadmus southwards into the Calbis) leaving this. and permit their King to have a conference with him in order to excuse himself. and ordered the envoys to go to the Consul. .000 medimni of wheat (15. he was master of Syleum and Alimne. but being inferior both in number and valour. they captured at the first attack the town of Eriza. When they made him the same proposals.ioo) and 10. When the Romans entered his territory an embassy from the King met them. he replied that the Romans " had no proof of the King^s good disposition towards them. and he said that even supposing he despoiled himself and his subjects. although terrified. at one time with excuses.

was plundered. most strongly fortified. . Darsa was the nearest town to this. and its inhabitants deserted it in terror he found it full of all kinds of store. On the next day they marched past the Lake Caralis (Souood Gol). He treated in like manner and the other people of Pamphylia. and the besieged in despair sent envoys to implore the help of the Roman Consul they told him that they were blockaded in the citadel with their wives and children. From Lagon they came to the sources of the river Lysis. and tne same quantity Then the army advanced to the sources of the of barley.187) . . its people were terrified and fled.APPENDIX. and halted at Mandropolis. the nearest city. every kind of grain. 20.375). From Cibyra the army marched through the lands of the people of Sinda. and forced the Termes. and the town. They had captured the city itself. which was thus deserted. by far the most warlike people in that region this and the fertility of their soil. a fertile district. Then the army advanced into the territory of Sagalassus. As the troops advanced towards Lagon (probably Yalinli). and was an opulent place. is . and rich in sians to pay fifty talents (^^12. Its inhabitants are Pisidians. the Aspendians. the Consul sent troops At length when they saw their property to ravage their lands.000 medimni of wheat. he came to the town of Cormasa. Thence marching river Taurus without interruption. their obstinacy gave way they sent envoys. He relieved the Isiondians. (These are the head-waters of the Duden Soo.) At that time the people of Termessus were besieging the citadel of Isionda. of 100 talents 0^24. which . and the position of their city. 351 within six The whole was paid days. and encamped on the eastern bank of the river Caulares (the brook near Baindir). he encamped on the first day at the next day at Xyline Come. Returning from Pamphylia. and expected death every day either by the sword or starvation. their number. As no embassy had come to meet him on the border. encouraged them. and the next day to the river Cobulatus. and obtained peace on condition of paying fifty talents in money. As the army was marching past the marshes (Lake Kestel ?) envoys came from Lysinoe to surrender their city. The Consul gladly embraced this opportunity of turning aside into Pamphylia. being plundered.

camped several days. Artemidorus said that the . and such baggage as was not needed. For instance. They choose a city.352 Rhotrinus. marched on the same day to the Campus Metropolitanus. the third to Abbassus. in Side. and the army was so encumbered with the plunder of these places that they made in a whole day a march of scarcely five miles to Beudos Vetus. . . a city of Pamphylia. The coast of Lycia ** is difficult and mountainous. the next to the sources Here the army enof the Alandrus. D. and APPENDIX. they (the Lycians) were never excited by any dishonourable gain. dockyards were constructed for the Cilicians. and then the Consul sent away to Apamea the sick. and inhabited by men of prudence and For the nature of the country is like that of the Pamphylians and Cilicians of the mountain (Aspera Cilicia). although those nations had become masters of the sea. From that place he came to Synnada. Another day's march brought them to Anabura. The inhabitants of the towns along his line of march had deserted their houses in terror. and taking some guides from Seleucus. upon whom they were about to make war. but with very good harbours. born. whichever they approve. . and to it envoys from each city come to the General Council. But those nations used to employ their places as bases of operation for pirates. two and they contribute the taxes and the rest a single vote each other public charges in proportion. " There are twenty-three cities which take part in voting. through their successes. but always continued under their ancestral government of the Lycian Confederacy. being either pirates themselves or providing the pirates with harbours and markets for their plunder. and there they used publicly to sell their captives. and next day to Diniae in Phrygia. although they admitted them to be freemoderation. even as far as Italy. encamped at Acaridos Come. because they had reached the frontiers there the next day from of the Tolistoboii (one of the Gaulish tribes). Seleucus came Apamea. The largest cities possess three votes each those of the second rank. " But the Lycians continued to live in such a moderate and constitutional manner that.

Olympus. Myra. but of necessity it must depend upon the Romans. which at that time was short of inhabitants.. or it be to their own interest. and cut up their settlements. Him. the Cilicians But the commencement was due to this Tryphon. Antiochus.." (Strabo XIV.APPENDIX. Diodotus. which could A A . who burnt more than thirteen hundred vessels. and of piracy among to the worthless- ness of the kings who in succession ruled over Syria and Cilicia. and which a Roman colony now inhabits. and there was a mart at no great distance. Formerly they used to consult about war and peace and alliance. For others joined with him in his revolutionary attempts. they continued to be free under the Romans.e. " The first fortress of the Cilicians is Korakesion. surnamed Tryphon. which was extremely profitable. and which lies towards Cibyra. Delos (the island). they witnessed their utter destrucby Servilius Isauricus.. This is not now allowed.. But as for the pirates. indeed. viz. when he reduced Isaura. first lished some of the men who survived the battles. in the royal family). at Soli. and carried on war against them with varying success. cap. and he estab** tion. and forced to commit suicide. wereXanthus. Pinara. the export of slaves. Patara. and others at Dyme. above all things. then the other officers of the Confederacy and courts of justice are appointed by common consent. for they were both easily captured. unless these grant them permission. In the General Council a Lysiarch is first chosen.) E. quarrelling with each other. maintaining their ancestral laws. exposed the country to assailants. invited men to these evil doings. blockaded in a certain fort. situated on a precipitous rock. the Seleucidae). extremely great and rich. the son of Demetrius. and brothers also {i.e. And in like manner judges and magistrates are chosen from each city in proportion to the votes. used this place as his base of operations when he caused Syria to revolt against the kings {i. six largest 353 Tlos. But. Observing this good constitution. which he named Pompeiopolis. iii. and afterwards by Pompey the Great.

however. give so much attention to matters beyond the Taurus they sent. . friendly to same time. the pirates. beyond the Taurus as far as Phoenicia. Ostia. having become wealthy. was plundered. and again certain others they were aware that this happened by the fault of the rulers. And the Kings of Cyprus and of Egypt. them no aid. professing to be slave dealers. used to employ many houseBut the pirates. and dispose of a vast number of slaves in a day.) These few words of Strabo give an idea of the fearful state mto which piracy had reduced the Mediterranean. of disorder . And at the so that they gave them. who had annexed the country — ! ' ' : . both Scipio ^milianus to make an inspecand tion of the nations and cities.. . masters of the country." (Strabo XIV. Many Roman citizens and officials were taken prisoners. by war and force of arms. but being occupied with other things nearer and more at hand. contributed to this result. at the mouth of the Tiber. whose and increase they had not prevented. and the import of provisions into Italy (already necessary) was checked. v. and at last the Armenians. It is hard to charge them (the Romans) with negligence. and all has been sold the Romans. these Romans v. broke out all at once into piracy and slave dealing. part. they were unable to give attention to matters more remote. who were enemies of the Nor were the Rhodians Syrians. as they had themselves But this occurrence rendered the Parthians. who ratified it. out cargo. Even the Romans at last began to suffer all the coasts of the empire were open to the ravages of these men. after the destruction of Carthage and this Corinth. held the regions beyond the Euphrates. but yet they were reluctant to do away with the lineal succession from Seleucus Nicator. so account the proverb arose O merchant.354 receive APPENDIX. and were made to pay heavy ransom. cap. or imprisoned and put to death. sail to that on this But the cause was land. seeing this facility on their hold slaves.ere forced men after they had become powerful. and these as far as* they were able destroyed the kings and all their race. comNeither did the Romans as yet mitted incessant villainy. but handed over the sea to the Cilicians. to Then rise the crush.

He parleyed and haggled about the terms.^i 2. could not make up his mind to part with his money. 10. the great enemy of Cicero. and afterwards by Cicero and the elder Antonius. The Emperor Probus removed many of the inhabitants and settled others in their place. and even of his treasures. and dismissed Clodius without ransom. He finished the war One hundred and twenty A A 2 . seventy-two war galleys were sunk. and King of Cyprus) to pay his ransom. poisoned himself.APPENDIX. procured which were immense. was captured. The estimate is probably exaggerated. He was taken near Rhodes. who was a very parsimonious man. Clodius afterwards. the mountaineers of Isauria and Pisidia could never be thoroughly tamed.000). 302 taken. The power of the pirates was checked by Servilius. and Pompeius the Great received the supreme comabout months. and crucifying them. father of the Triumvir. and even to the latest days of the empire were formidable pirates and bandits. but so intolerable did their ravages at length be- come that the Romans were obliged to put forth all their power. . But Ptolemy. to revenge himself on the King an order from the Senate to Cato. but the new colonists soon became as bad as the former possessors of the country. He had and appHcation was made to Ptolemy (brother of the King of Egypt. 355 Amongst other men of note whom the pirates captured was C. and forced to pay a ransom of fifty talents (more than afterwards the satisfaction of capturing the pirates in their turn.000 men in his various campaigns against the Isaurians. to deprive Ptolemy of his kingdom. of Cyprus. Yet although piracy on the coast was thus put down. being the accumulation of twenty-four This arbitrary act was carried out years' rigid economy. piratical harbours or strongholds were destroyed. and the unfortunate king. Pubhus Clodius. in despair. in five mand for their destruction.000 pirates were slain in action. The Emperor Heraclius (contemporary of Mahomet) is said to have lost 200. 20. and finally sent such a miserable sum that the pirates would not receive it. JuUus Caesar (afterwards the Dictator). without even the formality of a declaration of war.000 taken prisoners.

ist. which abolished the frightful abuses of the old system of government. But the great foundations of present Ottoman Law are the "Khatti Sherif" ("The Illustrious Autograph") of Gulkhaneh. The " Sunneh. The text of the Koran. and accordingly Muslim jurists borrowed largely from the Old Roman Law. a Code of Commercial Procedure It is evident that the suffice for * * ' . and notably that by Abou Hanifah (a. 2nd. The "Tanzimat" were followed by a Penal Code (1840). The " Fetvas. 4th. 1856. at least theoretically. and continued to be the exclusive property of the " Ulema. first two sources could not possibly deciding the intricate questions of law which were certain to arise as wealth and civilisation advanced amongst the Arabs. ' . 1839 (and which was followed by the publication of the laws called the Tanzimat " or " Regulations ") and the Khatti Humayoun " ("The August Autograph"). 3rd." on supposed cases laid all before them.356 APPENDIX. But it was never codified. and." From this body are drawn the Kadis or magistrates. for it was this which first brought the Osmanlis into some correspondence with European civilisation. The extremely numerous and voluminous treatises on jurisprudence. and by the first four Khaleefehs. The Ottoman Law is derived partly from sources common to the Muslim peoples. which solemnly ratified and enlarged the provisions of the former imperial edict.. The " Khatti Sherif" maybe called the Magna Charta of the Ottoman Empire. a Commercial Code (1850)." or chiefs of the " Ulema." or Traditions handed down by the Companions of the Prophet. 702-72). placed Christian and Muslim on an equal footing before the law. From these various sources the system of Muslim law was gradually formed. proclaimed by Sultan Mahmoud on November 3rd. judicial opinions of the " Sheikhs ul Islam. a Code relating to the administration of the Empire (1846). F. existing in those countries which the Khaleefehs soon acquired by force of arms from the Byzantine Empire.d.e." or " Doctors of Law and Theology. proclaimed by Sultan Abd-elMedjid on February i8th." i. whose office it is to administer the law.

have been secularised and rendered subject to taxation. 3. however. and." they are considered as the guardians and interpreters of it. will perhaps only tend to the dissolution of the empire. the Sheikh ul Islam for religious and spiritual matters." and thus rendered resistance impossible. I refer to the attempt so per- — — change the order of succession to the throne. in 1865. it succeed.APPENDIX. It is true that before the destruction of the Janissaries Sultan Mahmoud incurred extreme danger in introducing his reforms. the chief measure of precaution necessary was to obtain a favourable " Fetva" from the Sheikh ul Islam. and now (1873) even their property." or " Successors of the Prophet. in pursuit of an object desirable certainly in theory but which. and no more plausible excuse for revolt could be afforded to the half independent Christian States. which will be of considerable advantage to the empire and the revenue. upon the Code Napoleon. So far as can be seen. and the powerful tributaries attached to the Ottoman Empire. This was necessary to render any change valid. means of the Grand Vizier for civil and military affairs. It is a prerogative that has been unsparingly exercised by the present Sultan.57 a Code of Maritime Commerce. finally. nor is it doubtful that a few years . than a disputed sistently to made This. especially for the interpretation of the law in the . (i860)." and the Sultans had no power All these are founded alter or violate it but in their assumed position of " Khaleefehs. If. and this has in practice enabled them to change and modify it. In theory the whole Muslim law is comprised under the Shenyah or "religious law. the Sultan had the power of dismissing the refractory " Sheikh ul Islam. The rest of the Muslim law has not yet been codified in Turkey. if attained. and if and and a change law was expedient. provided they did not shock the prejudices of the masses. The Sultans exercised their supreme legislative and executive authority by to . the "Vakouf" lands (lands in mortmain). the Ottoman Government is now perfectly unfettered in its progress. would probably excite a civil war amongst the Osmanlis themselves. even should succession to the throne. which seems very doubtful. the " Fetva" was refused. but since that event the power of the " Ulema" has been steadily on the decline.

" Yourouk" is the general title of the nomads of West and South-West Asia Minor. ! peans Rayah's right. What the Yourouks are in that district. before G. or returning from their pilgrimage. who are exposed to extreme variations of temperature. no Christian evidence is admissible. and in proportion as the heat increases with the advance of summer they mount higher and higher. About the month of May the flocks are driven from the and from the lowlands along the sea coast to the lower slopes of the mountains.35 S will witness APPENDIX. Sometimes in the Egyptian cities one may see groups of these sturdy mountaineers on their way to Mecca. and in the provinces this is still the case wherever there are no Euro. Theoretically. and must remain with their flocks day and night. the Kadi. to press the Naturally. till towards the end of August the highest yailas and plains . a remarkable advance in the civil and legal posi- tion of the Osmanlis. hardy-looking fellows. especially in provinces remote from European observation Formerly the oath of a Christian was never received against a Muslim. The great difficulty will be to apply in practice the liberal concessions of the Sultans Mahmoud and Abd-el Medjid. At present this is far from being done. They ramble about the and Alexandria life. curiously staring at the wonders of civilised clad in dresses of coarse woollen or goats' hair. an air of bluff They are stout. and without sleeves or collar. The great pastoral race of the East and South-East are the Kurds. the Turkmans (who are probably the same race under a different name) are in Northern and Central Asia Minor. they are on a very different level." a covering of thick felt. It is a special manufacture of Kaisariyeh. square across the and in shape like a sack. and during all weathers. each his man wearing "kepenek. open in front. who administers only the Sheriyah (religious law). with honest barbarism about them most strange to streets of Cairo behold. and is indispensable to the shepherds. shoulders. Muslim and Christian are equal in the eye of the law practically.

locusts are until they Syria and In the latter. as to management. of Caramania. replanting. The dry grass in the lowlands supplies sufficient winter forage. H. at the same time. but have villages and cultivated lands in the lowlands or in the yailas many.. 359 ridges of the mountains have been reached. only half way between the life of the hunter and the agriculturist. as the extreme severity of the climate in winter prevents any settled occupation of these districts.APPKXUIX. Lycia. and enforced. they threatened the utter and it was not had almost . Indeed. stringent regulations be made. and with all its poetical associations. except for the vast extent of these pastoral districts and their scanty population. unless. It would be a great advantage could this nomad life be checked. finding fresh pasturage in the districts already traversed in the spring and early summer. . the pastoral life is but a lower form of civilisation. especially. however. are most destructive. and limited to those districts of the empire which are fitted for this only. the southern mountains of Asia Minor would long since have been reduced to the bare and treeless condition of the Lebanon and its contiguous mountain ranges. The provinces Cyprus. Much land that could be cultivated is occupied by it. and their flocks of goats. &c. Many of the tribes are not exclusively pastoral. Every year immense tracts of forest are burnt by them. preventing the growth of brushwood and young of the interior . indeed. of the Ottoman Empire which have of suffered most severely from the ravages desolation of the country. Much trees. and. The intention of the Ottoman Government to farm out the forests will bring about the most disastrous consequences. can never be available for anything else but sheep farming. Phrygia. Their life seems happy and healthy enough. are entirely nomad. and some are in very good circumstances but the mischief done by these wanderers is great. especially. and Lycaonia is only thus accessible in summer. At the approach of winter they gradually descend. &c.

At first the efforts of the authorities in the island were somewhat desultory. that they were destroyed. so poisonous does the bite of the insect appear to be. and the period at which the insect commits most ravages is while it is in the wingless state. The eggs of the locust are deposited in small balls of a glutinous shining substance. The passage in the prophecy of Joel (ii. and such immense numbers spring into the streams that the brooks and rivers are choked with their putrefying carcases. although it is destructive. For depositing these balls the insects choose the rough ground on the tops of low hills. unless they meet an obstacle which they are unable to surmount. do not suifer so much damage from The locusts move about the face of the country in immense masses. Even water does not stop them.. Its voracity is then astonishing it devours every vegetable thing before it. but without much success. and after immense exertions. 3 9) is a most vivid and exact description of them. and never diverging from it. Then a reward was offered for the eggs. but the remissness of others caused the headway thus painfully gained to be again lost. and a fresh deposit of eggs may be detected by the glitter of the glutinous envelope this. always advancing in a straight line. even to the bark of the fruit trees. . however. Some of the Governors displayed much energy and perseverance. often three miles wide. and later. just after the eggs are hatched. which require years to . and half to three-quarters of a mile deep. &c. each proprietor was obliged to deliver one oke of the eggs per annum. When still the locust has passed into the winged state. soon becomes coated with dust. then resembles a small ball of earth. each ball containing on an average forty sound eggs. recover. and so to destroy — them. downs. not so mischievous. The eggs are laid about the month of May. representing one million of locusts. and the later crops it. and .360 APPENDIX. ruined the crops for several years in succession. and drinking water can only be preserved by carefully covering the wells and cisterns. Attempts were made to plough up the surface of the ground where the eggs were laid.

when full. At the ends of the cloths pits were dug the cloths were brought at either end close to the edge of the pit. was able to stop the plague. but slipped back continually from the oilcloth band at the top. in order to make up the quota they had to furnish. the insects were at length destroyed. were obliged to . and by diligently collecting the eggs. until at last a simple but ingenious method for the destruction of the insects was invented by Mr. so that none of the insects should pass beyond the cloth. off very considerably. and at length were obliged to take a course either to right or left along the cloth." The interior of Lycia consists of a series of elevated plains bounded by mountain ranges. and contain within their folds a great number of . and by a persevering application of it the island was at last freed from this terrible scourge. the habit of the insects to go forward in a direct line. By perseverance in this method.APPENDIX. Richard Mattei. were quickly filled in with earth. however. about three inches in breadth. about three feet broad. each of very great length. I. These cloths were pitched by means of stakes in the course the swarm of locusts was about to follow. and the cloths moved forward to another position prepared in advance. Unable to advance further. The eggs became at last so scarce that proprietors. till they find means to go It is if and beyond it.) per oke (2f lb. course the revenue from the island fell Nothing-. The insects could easily mount the cotton cloth. Accordingly a great number of strips of cotton cloth were ordered in Glasgow. The most stringent orders 361 for of came from Constantinople.). which rise almost to Alpine height. pay men to collect them at the rate of 140 piastres (25s. they meet with any insuperable obstacle in their course they will travel along it for miles. and having a strip of smooth oilcloth. attached to their upper edge. they leaped in great numbers into the pits. which. "The Mountain System of Lycia. and a small screen of tin placed round the pit.

the gorge of Dembra near the and the plain of Phineka. 10. hollows of very varying extent- The northern boundary of the province is tl an a Makri on the west to near Adalia on the ea. The east side of the Xanthian valley is boun and wide-spreading mass of Ak Dagh (Ma and its subordinate ranges. its eastern ] Kestel Dagh. which in many places rise s sea beach. which flowing nearly north to by perennial snows..000 feet. extends in a north tion far into the interior. The western sea coast is bordered by the rai and Anticragus (the " viridis Cragus " of t — — — 1 a height of about 6. its highest ridge reaches an ele Fronting TxrViii^Vi Ak Dagh. In the whole circuit of the L} there are only four such breaks.362 basin-like yailas. main mountain system of the province by th river Xanthus. Opposite the towi the south-west. the valk the Xanthus. APPENDIX.000 feet high. e^nt^o^c on the south-east. each about 9. often of and fertility. and the only breaks in this stony g a river descends from the loftier ranges of forms in its course an alluvial plain. which communicate of Taurus.000 feet. descends in a very full anc to into the sea. and Allagheer. Air T^QrrVi is r\e>cir}'\T in VlP>10•l^^ o . A in the chain valleys occur. They are sep. points are Almalu Dagh above the town o Kiziljah Dagh. stretching like the chord of — central plateau of Anatolia . Limyrus. into which desi Arycandus. viz. and is traversed by s ravines forming so many difficult mountain pas lofty Kemer and Nearly the whole coast line of Lycia is al mountains.

ar season for emigration to these grassy basins is antic with the utmost pleasure by the people. Soosuz Dagh on the and Bey Dagh on the east extend the elevated plains form the yailas of northern Lycia. producing fine most of them are inhabited all the year of cereals Their climate during half the year is severe. These upland Soosuz Dagh. Its southern peak. — — 1 i — — . and one of the larger plains 1\ districts form healthy retreats for the ir ants of the sea coast villages from the stifling hea malarious air of the coast valleys. while Bey Dagh exceeds even more than 1. and the only communication b the different districts is over high mountain passes. Dagh. Their northern boundary to speak in a gener and through the plain of Stene is the Lycian Taurus is communication with the great central plateau of An These great plains are under cultivation. and borderi is another range the " Solymi monte antiquity now called Baraket Dagh. Karditch. They are the ph Almalu. Tahtalu Dagh (Olymp nearly 8. does not belong to thi group. During summer every village has its yaila in the mountains. which extends northwards and eastwards. Kara Dagh.— APPENDIX. The appearance of these mountains from Adalia grand.000 feet. Pisidia. and Stenez. Samary. . . the plain of ( though within the limits of Lycia. whole east coast. and is the loftiest mountain on the east Lycia. It forms the transition to the mountain chc Between Bey Dagh and the sea.000 feet high. smaller yailas. Kassaba. on the chain of its north-east portion. and their forms and colouring are exquisitely be^ Between Ak Dagh on the west. is connecte j Bey Dagh. &c. though hi but many of the yailas can only be visited in sumn account of the snow.

under the pressure of a frightful famine. and {Levant Herald. The country in question may be defined by imaginary lines. up on the terraces which project from the mountain sides. with a very a subsistence industrious. and even far of ancient cities in almost every valley. but during the hot season the river valleys and sea coast plains are full of deadly malaria. or about two-thirds the area of England and Wales. These resources. The climate is in general healthy. and consist chiefly " The Famine of 1874 in Asia Minor.000 square miles. It consists of fertile plains and valleys. a population sober. insignificant.364 APPENDIX. The geological formation of Lycia is almost entirely of mountain limestone. and in a few spots on the south-east coast." or hair of the to Angora goat. comprising an extent of 40. sheep. hea\y taxaand many other burdens the Turkish peasant has to relatively scanty and — in spite of the bear. tion rich supply of fruit. of timber The exports are and cereals. alternating with very extensive pasture grounds (the high mountain ranges are few and far apart). from Koniah to Nigdeh on the south. but igneous rocks occur in the districts round Makri and Cibyra. and from Tokat to Angora on the north. One great source of livelihood for its inhabitants suflBcient is the " teftik. from Nigdeh to Tokat on the east. August 19th) the deaths from actual starvation and the diseases resulting from it are stated all this district is But now . which support vast numbers of cattle. The population of the interior exclu- Osmanli or descended from the original races of the land the few Greek traders and boatmen being for the most part only found on sively pastoral and agricultural — — is either — the coast." The awful famine now raging in part of the interior of Anatolia and Caramania is a sad proof how precarious are the conditions of existence under which the Turkish peasantry lives. and goats. used to yield peaceful. drawn from Angora to Koniah on the west.

1874) — not less than During the spring and summer of 1873 little or no rain fell over the whole interior. and Syria was unprecedented snow even lay upon some of the mountains on the upper portion of the Red Sea. though a few desultory efforts are being made. Had Persia been provided with roads. but The calamity of a failure in the harvest was terrible enough. . it was followed by a winter (1873-4) of such exceptional severity that nothing like it has been known in the Levant for over fifty years. I state this on the best . Political economy may disapprove the last measure. as being 150. Yet almost nothing was done by the Ottoman Government in view of the coming visitation no stores were formed no food imported no means of transport organised no restriction laid upon the export of grain from the doomed districts. therefore this appalling calamity did not come upon the country without warning. the Archipelago. the late famine there and its horrors would have been greatly mitigated and it is not too much to say that had there been a good railway traversing Anatolia the present terrible suffering and loss of life might even have been almost prevented. The snow-fall over all southern Europe. but the same rule will not apply to Turkey under its present Government and India under British rule Of course when the imminence of famine was plain it was too late to think of road making but it is exactly in points like this that these Oriental Governments sin. . Alas the reality has far surpassed all anticipations.000 365 — up to the present time (August. . — authority from Constantinople. over the mountain ranges of northern Africa. bourhood of this suffering district where the harvest is far beyond the needs of their people. ! . . for there are provinces in the neigh! : . . But so it is the very plainest duties of a Government are neglected. throughout Asia Minor. . only there are no means of bringing the food to the starving multitudes. and we see the consequences and even now. and the crops almost entirely failed from the drought. nothing worthy of the emergency nothing statesmanlike is being done by those in whose hands are the destinies of the empire.! — APPENDIX. It was evident that before the harvest of 1874 t:ould be gathered in there would be great suffering.

The woodwork of their houses had been used up as fuel in the winter. This gentleman travelled over a large portion of the famine area while engaged in distributing some of the relief fund from British subscribers. the . . reached Egypt of the suffering of the mountain Lebanon. Then followed the rapid and utter destitution of the people. important What aid must be most question is ing and by far the — — given. . 1874.366 Sad tales APPENDIX. and Crete communication the by snow. after an abeyance of many . The last of his letters is subjoined one of its closing sentences is very ominous. In previous letters I have spoken of the fearful famine that has so suddenly blighted a large portion of Asia Minor. years ! From the Levant Herald. at a time when the plague is showing itself once more in the Levant. Thus their one great means of subsistence was cut off. . where some little is being done by the authorities to mitigate this awful national calamity. ! . and whole families perished cut off was utterly this was far exceeded by what was But of cold and hunger. and his report of the future prospects of the people is most gloomy. where there might still be a chance of life The country is Such is the present state of matters. and when the villages in Syria. excepting in the large towns. July 29. depopulated an eye-witness (one of whose letters is given below) states that of six large villages he passed in one parwithin a distance of twenty-one miles five ticular district inhabitant the sixth had only three families an without were remaining and wherever he went he found matters as bad. and for how long a time must that aid be continued. It is calculated that about a million and a half of sheep and gouts and an enormous number of cattle had perished. and nothing was left but wholesale emigration from the villages into the larger towns. going on amongst the poor Turkish peasants. Sir. tardy spring at last came the extent of their losses began to appear. also of the The most interestefforts that are being made to relieve the sufferers. — — . their poor household furnior sold to buy bread afterwards the price of food rose continually the deaths ture followed from starvation became awfully numerous. in order to . .

but these are almost totally destroyed. In the little village of Saru Hamzalu. The autumn was unfavourable and the early snows prevented late sowing. In many instances they have been destroyed by others. the same number. They have. as I was assured wlien there. there are reported list. and of 100 cows two remain. I supposed that the great thing would be to tide over the next two months. just one sheep and one goat remain. that the trouble is not to end. When I started on my recent tour.000 on the great . is reported. The error of the tax list comes in this way . numbering 800. and were prices to fall to the lowest figures reached in many years. Many March. do not show the fullness of Multitudes of these people have no houses to live in. out of more than 1.000 or 20. Were tality has been much greater in the districts that I have passed through than in the Angora and Koniah and other districts reported in your columns. In the village of Arslan district. but unfortunately they are true. long before the end of sheep and goals died after that list was early in made.APPENDIX. scarcely to be ameliorated. it is It is and yet this does not and herds left they might recover themselves. in some cases. and that for almost nothing.200 sheep and goats. In ail the regions that I have passed through. and the winter must find them without any shelter. the new list was made the fearful winter. Can they not work and thus secure a living ? Yes.600 sheep and goats. The mora terrible fact their flocks . so that the spring found the people helpless and destitute. . June 6th. 8. Before the fearful winter ended the seed was eaten and the oxen had died. homes — have sold the — last copper-dish. the last blanket so that. were there to be an abundant harvest. But these three items. and the harvest can bring them nothing. from a flock of 1. but I see very clearly what is far worse. In other cases they have sold them. These figures are more alarming than are those of the tax Hadjili. I still see that this is a difficult task. the last bed. viz. since they were left. torn them down with their own hands. The question may arise. nearly : all those who have left their . true that they are so. and from another flock. the destitution. fearful as they are. in the same village. of which 700 were mohair goats. in the Salman 8. It will be remembered that very many of these people that is.. when the next harvest comes in. But these people are not only destitute of food and of flocks they have no growing grain. Hence the mass of them saved nothing. very little has been sown. if anybody can be found but who will or who can do that ? It was hoped to employ them that the Government might employ some 15. still they would find it impossible to buy. and nearly cover the case. 367 ? save these people and restore them again to their position as producers Most naturally we think of them simply as destitute of bread.

but nearer inspection shows that a man must thrust in his sickle several times to fill his hand. as would naturally be expected. In a very large proportion of this region fruit. the next twelve months.368 railroad that APPENDIX. and the crop must be almost a perfect failure. . In nearly all this region the grain is very thin. as at Nigdeh. and especially grapes. though we do not say that there is "no fruit in the vine. and not one in twenty of the starving men can hope to find any employment by which they may secure a piece of bread in to Cesarea. The weather is favourable and it is confidently hoped that it will fill well. is not yet told. In other regions the grain suffered much from the severity of the winter. In the Salman I am sorry to present so dark a picture. We up to June 15th there had been no rains. But still woxse. the yield in all this section of the country must be far below the immediate demands of the population. In the whole distance from Nigdeh to Cesarea we saw scarcely a dozen fields that would be called ordmarily good. hunger. and the average of the whole region passed over in this journey. at best. 384 miles. the people. In some places the vines were greatly injured by the severity of the winter. famine so wide in extent and of such severity as No one who has evil. forms an important element in the income of the people. and the yield must be very imperfect. Their brethren who have managed to keep a foothold in their villages are scarcely better off. In other cases. have left their vines unpruned and entirely uncultivated. that which is sown will not give a good yield." we fear there will be little.000 souls or even more but this work is not begun. and the number of the sufferers. but the is whole The prospect for the coming harvest not good. In others. as at Everak. In very few of the villages now suffering from the famine has one-half of the usual amount been sown. but. not seen this region can fully appreciate the the end. driven from their homes by the severity of the famine. • It is evident that a to be a great national calamity has visited this land. to hail. the crop has been partially destroyed by last year. employed at a reasonable remuneration. as there was district supply the deficit. When seen at a distance it looks well. while in others. and there is no old grain. must be less than one-fourth as much as is usually sown. . but rather that the very worst is "to Facts that are stated in this and preceding letters demonstrate the truth that be feared. the grapes have been seriously injured by late frosts. would have furnished a living to 50. was to be constructed through this region from Angora Such a number. we are not near Many thousands Thousands moie are suffering the extremes of have already perished. have said that the people who have been driven from their homes have no growing grain. This year.

000 annually. This help has caused many a — Cesarea. famine is increasing. W. work begun by one mutesarrif. A. is The extent of this calamity so vast that means which any as nothing benevolent individuals may be able to command seem when Nothing but an efficient. collecting the vagrants and sending them to their homes. The area covered by the have said that. Cesarea and the surrounding towns can I am sorr}' to say that hardly be said to be touched by the famine. and other necessary things. they must be Even this would avail little unless seed fed till the harvest of 1875. If the loss is so much from that little dis- what must be the amount by the famine } This population may be saved and all these districts may again become productive. protest against such a result. FARNSWORTH. They are now fit to become a prey to any epidemic. feeding them on the way. and other places.I50 to aid these sufferers.. increases rapidly. 369 arc destitute now who had a httlc flour or the bread a week ago. when compared with Yozgat. beds. 1 learn that in one of our finest Greek all villages a woman (resident) has perished from hunger within a few days. July 7. but nothing but a tremendous and well sustained The effort on the part of the Government can secure such results. who have furnished relieve this suffering. us with . it still becomes all truly benevolent people to do what they can to 1 gladly improve this opportunity to express my most hearty thanks and the thanks of my associates to our English and American friends in Constantinople and elsewhere. Keskin has furnished the national treasury. they must be helped to clothing. starving soul to rejoice. Once at their homes.26. Many little means of buying a We since writing that. but political economy is alarmed at the mere pecuniary evil. Soongoorloo.with some j^T. in all the 40.cxx) square miles covered coming autumn. I am. Besides all these. While private beneficence stands appalled before so vast a necessity.^T. them so that they can sow in the furnished working oxen be and corn trict (it really ought to pay nothing this year). viz. B B .APPENDIX. steady.. compared with the relief actually needed. or many will die from exposure. can secure the speedy repeopling of the country. or prevent a large disNot only does humanity trict of the empire being nearly depopulated. &c. and long-continued beneficence on the part of the Government can preserve the lives of very many thousands. I have learned of very severe suffering in our very midst.

ROUTE FROM ADALIA TO MAKRI. t to us by the Kadi of Khonas — Direct Route— CameVs Pace. .) I 370 APPENDIX.

) . 371 TIME-TABLE ON OUR JOURNEY. rest at intervals. (Easy pacCy and allowing time for 1872.APPENDIX.

M...25 Left it . . .9 P. — Buldour Singur Guschla .30 of .— Cafe on Lake Buldour .— Girmeh Boujak. 12. 372 APPENDIX.. Yarakeui Left it May 9.. Buldour 3-12 5-0 A.40 .. 6. . Lawuz Sparta 2.M.5 8-5 May 8. 929 H-S^ P.M.. May 3. A. ... . May 4. .55 9-35 Eski Yerrah 9. Teh art chin Yaila in the 9-54 hills 11.M.20 3-H . 8. •• 8.25 8..—Karaatlu Naulo Yarishli ^ . ..

Mill in the plain .M. P.0 May P. .o . A. May 14.M.M.M. 6. — Uzoumbounj Halt at Harpasus ] Souood 5-30 Tchali Keui A.15 745 9-30 P. APPENDIX. r>r\TTn-«T7 /-mvt r\TTrt t/^ttd MTTxr T70MA/T APPTT . — Soosuz Almalu ...0 8. . Uzoumbounj 6.0 May 1 7 —Foot of Pass Bedrebey . . 8. 2. May 16.36 10. . —Nazli Aidin .36 .30 May 21. —Tchobansa Yaila . . -Almalu Tchobansa 6. — Horzoom Yussuftcha .48 6. —Kara Soo Nazli . i. May 19.M. 11. 3-30 4.M. A.M. . Horzoom .M.12 May 20.35 Kara Soo Baindir P.0 of D( Pass Koziltchaor! A. May 13. . P. 12.M. May 15... 18. Tchandir OsmanKalfeler. — Bedrebey Top . May 17.0 Douroular Yalinli . 8. . — Souood Top of Pass Tcham Beli .

374 Apri! APPENDIX. .

.

University of British Columbia Library DUE DATE .

APR J/\rJ Z ~ 1904.S 7- 1930 / mi}' university of british - Columbia r .UNIVERSITY OF B C I IBRARY f 3 9424 976 9667 ><.

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