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- Testing of Sand Quality at Construction Site
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Buoyancy of Pipelines

COMMON DESIGN GUIDELINES

4. Buoyancy of Pipelines.

a. General. 1) The possibility of pipe flotation exists when the pipeline is constructed in areas which will be inundated, such as stream crossings, flood plains and high ground water areas. When such conditions exist, evaluate the possibility of pipe flotation. 2) The buoyancy of a pipeline depends upon the weight of the pipe, the weight of the volume of water displaced by the pipe, the weight of the liquid load carried by the pipe and the weight of the backfill. As a conservative analytical practice, consider the pipeline empty for two reasons; so the weight of the liquid will be considered as an additional safety factor and the possibility of the pipeline not being in use during a period of time. b. Design Procedures. 1) The first step. Determine if the pipeline will float with no backfill material. The sum of the pipe weight and weight of displaced water will determine if the pipeline will float. This can be calculated by: a) Pipe weight. Weight of pipe to be determined by selecting the pipe material to be used and finding the weight per linear foot. (Include the weight of the bell joint and appurtenances). Obtain this information from the approved manufacturer's published product data giving the actual dimensions, weights per linear foot, etc. If the manufacturer's data is not available, the information provided in this section can be used. Wp = weight of pipe per linear foot (downward force ↓ , positive)

(1) ASTM C76, Reinforced Concrete Pipe (RCP). The Specifications do not give the requirements for wall thickness, but references ASTM C76 standards. ASTM C76 specifies three wall thickness (A, B and C), with the thinnest wall being Wall "A". Unless otherwise specified in the Specifications or on the drawings, calculate the pipe weight using the weight of RCP Wall "A" pipe. To obtain the pipe weight for RCP, contact the approved manufacturers for RCP. The approximate weight of RCP can be calculated, using the following equation. This calculation will provide the average density of concrete without reinforcing steel. If the pipe requires additional weight, specify wall thickness Wall "B" or "C". Wp = (π ÷ 4) (Bc2 − D2 ) 150 lb/ft3 Where: Unit weight of plain concrete = 150 lb/ft3. Wp = weight of pipe per linear foot, (downward force ↓ , positive) D = inside pipe diameter (feet) Bc = outside pipe diameter (feet) (2) Ductile Iron Pipe (DIP). Determine the thickness of DIP, see Part One, Section 4 (Selection of Pipe Material), and for weight of DIP, see AWWA C151. If the pipe requires additional weight, a higher class of DIP can be specified.

2008

C-4.1

pounds per linear foot.4 )) × 62. using the density of fresh water (62. assume sandy soil. When water is displaced. degree of compaction.4 ] Where: wI = average unit weight of inundated backfill. w = 110 and SG = 2. contact the approved manufacturers of PVC. the computations for the average unit weight of inundated backfill. For computations. The density of fresh water is 62. The weight of the backfill directly over the pipe assists in resisting buoyant forces. If pipe flotation occurs using PVC. pounds per linear foot 2) The second step.2 . a) The average unit of weight of inundated backfill is equal to the dry density of the backfill minus the weight of the water displaced by the solid particles and can be calculated as follows: wI = w – [( w ÷ ( SG × 62. Buoyancy of Pipelines COMMON DESIGN GUIDELINES (3) Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe (PVC). This can be calculated by: Wt = Wp + Ww Where: Ww = weight of displaced water. negative) Wp = weight of pipe. the pipe will not float. computed as follows: 2008 C-4. Assuming sandy soil. pounds per linear foot (upward force ↑ . pounds per cubic foot SG = specific gravity of backfill material For computations. If the resultant force is negative.4 pounds per cubic foot and the average density of seawater is 64. The weight of fresh water per linear foot of circular pipe can be calculated by using the following equation: (Ww is always negative. a buoyant or upward force exists. the average values for specific gravity and unit weight of backfill material provide sufficient accuracy. add the sum of Wp and Ww and the resultant of the forces will determine if the weight of pipe will be adequate to prevent flotation. If the resultant force is positive. Investigate local conditions for the specific project. negative) c) Summation of forces. etc. positive) Wt = resultant buoyant force of the submerged pipe. b) Displaced water weight. this will provide sufficient accuracy.4 lb/ft3 Ww = weight of displaced water. After determining the pipe weight and weight of displaced water. flotation will occur. Section 4. upward force ↑ ) Ww = (π ÷ 4) (Bc2) 62.65. Determine the weight of backfill directly over the pipe necessary to prevent flotation as outlined in Step 2 below. pounds per linear foot (upward force ↑. The unit weight of compacted backfill material varies with the material. pounds per cubic foot w = average unit weight of dry backfill.4 Where: Bc = outside pipe diameter (feet) Unit weight of fresh water = 62. change the pipe material. PVC is a light weight pipe material. Certain conditions may require soil investigations to determine the actual soil conditions. grain size.4 lb/ft3).0 pounds per cubic foot. If the buoyant force is greater than the weight of the object displacing the water (which is the pipe). will provide sufficient accuracy. the pipe by itself will float. (downward force ↓ .Three Part. The density of brackish water will be between that of fresh and seawater depending upon the degree of salinity. for the weight of pipe. For computations.

pounds per linear foot wI = average unit weight of inundated backfill. if any. feet B c /2 = the radius of the outside diameter of the pipe. Buoyancy of Pipelines COMMON DESIGN GUIDELINES wI wI = = = = w – [( w ÷ (SG × 62.4)) × 62.67 × 62. assume H = HI .4] 68 pounds per cubic foot b) The different volumes of backfill over the pipe to be considered are illustrated in Figure "B". feet _ Level of Inundation _ v (water level) H H Top of Pipe (OD) Bc /2 D Centerline of Pipe Bc FIGURE "B" Backfill Volumes Over Pipe c) Weight of inundated backfill. feet HI = depth of inundated backfill above top of pipe. feet HI = depth of inundated backfill above top of pipe. feet D = nominal pipe diameter.4)) × 62.4] 110 – [0.1073 Bc2 + HIBc) Where: WI = weight of inundated backfill directly over the pipe. acting downward per linear foot of pipe can be calculated by the equation: WD = w (H − HI) Bc Where: WD = weight of the backfill above the water level. This means that the ground water is at the bottom of the stream invert.3 . pounds per cubic foot Bc = outside pipe diameter. acting downward per linear foot of pipe can be calculated by: WI = wI (0. feet = depth of inundated backfill H above top of pipe. pounds per cubic foot H = depth from top of pipe to surface of backfill.Three Part.65 × 62. 2008 C-4. feet Bc = outside pipe diameter. feet Bc = outside pipe diameter. Section 4.4] 110 – [(110 ÷ (2. Finished or Existing Ground Where: H = depth from top of pipe to surface of backfill. feet (1) For pipelines crossing streams. pounds per linear foot w = average unit weight of dry backfill. feet d) Weight of backfill above the water level.

(downward force ↓. The weight of the material directly over the pipe is to be considered as inundated backfill. determine the ground water conditions. positive) Wf = total weight of backfill directly over the pipe with the factor of safety. Section 4.4 . 4) To determine the minimum height of inundated backfill necessary to prevent flotation during construction. (2) In all other cases. use 1. pounds per linear foot (1) For pipelines crossing streams. the total weight of backfill acting downward on the pipe is determined from the sums of WD and WI. WB = WI . Buoyancy of Pipelines COMMON DESIGN GUIDELINES WD = w (H − HI) Bc = w (0) Bc WD = 0 (2) In all other cases. select and analyze the procedures required to prevent flotation. determine the ground water conditions. b) If the resultant force is negative (upward ↑).1073Bc HIm = 2008 C-4. f) Apply the factor of safety based on the extent of knowledge of the backfill material and site conditions. pounds per linear foot of pipe. pounds per linear foot WD = weight of the backfill above the water level. (downward force ↓. the pipe will not float. determine the resultant upward force Wt (from Wp + Ww) and the downward force Wf (from WB ÷ FS). pounds per linear foot WI = weight of inundated backfill directly over the pipe.5 3) After determining both the upward force due to the displacement of water and the downward force from the backfill material directly over the pipe. a) If the resultant is positive (downward ↓). pounds per linear foot of pipe. W B = WD + W I Where: WB = total weight of backfill directly over the pipe.Three Part. the force exerted by the inundated backfill must equal the buoyant force of the pipe and can be calculated by: Wt = [wI ( 0. This factor of safety is applied to decrease the calculated downward force of the backfill acting on the pipe. e) Therefore. positive) FS = factor of safety.1073 Bc2 + HIBc )] ÷ FS (FS Wt ÷ wI Bc) − 0. Factor of safety can be calculated by: Wf = WB ÷ FS Where: WB = total weight of backfill directly over the pipe.

4 −1144. feet factor of safety c.833. Example.4 Bc = 58" or 4. Section 4. feet depth of inundated backfill above top of pipe. 1) Procedures to prevent flotation when the weight of the pipe and backfill is not adequate include the following: a) Increase wall thickness of pipe or change the pipe to a heavier pipe material. Preventive Procedures. pounds per linear foot average unit weight of inundated backfill. pounds per cubic foot outside pipe diameter.506 + 9.5 . Wt Wt = = = Wp + Ww +963 ↓ + (−1145) ↑ −182 lb/lf.6 pounds per cubic foot submerged. d. pipe will float with no backfill directly over the pipe 4) Determine weight of inundated backfill.7844 (4. 48" RCP.70 pounds per linear foot of pipe ↓ . Determine: Will the empty pipe float in the fully backfilled condition ? 1) Select pipe material and determine Wp. HI = 2 2 68 (0. Ww = = Ww = (π ÷4) (Bc2) 62. Bc = 4. say 828 ↓ WI 2008 C-4.1073 × 4.833 + 2 × 4.172 827. say −1145 ↑ 3) Summation of forces. Wall B weight per linear foot = +963 ↓ 2) Determine Ww. When computing the volume of concrete per linear foot pipe anchorage. WI = = = = = wI (0. feet minimum depth of inundated backfill required above top of pipe. b) Design concrete collars on the pipe. displaced water weight.93 pounds per linear foot of pipe.1073 Bc2 + HIBc) wI = 68. use the submerged weight of concrete.833' 0.833) 68 (2. 48" diameter sewer crosses a stream with only two (2) feet of cover. weight of pipe. Concrete weighs 150 pounds per cubic foot in the air and 87. Buoyancy of Pipelines COMMON DESIGN GUIDELINES Where: Wt = wI = Bc = HI = HIm = FS = resultant buoyant force of the submerged pipe. upward force.Three Part.8332) 62.666) 68 × 12.

Three Part. WI = 828 0 + 828 +828 pounds per linear foot of pipe ↓ 7) Factor of safety. 1) Concrete Pipe Handbook.5 +552 pounds per linear foot of pipe ↓ 8) Summation of forces.1967 0. WD = = = WD = w (H − HI) Bc 110 (2 − 2) 4. 9) Determine the minimum height of inundated backfill necessary to prevent flotation during construction.833) ( 273 ÷ 328. Him = [( FS × Wt ) ÷ (wI × Bc )]− 0. by the American Concrete Pipe Association.833 ) − (0. Wt = 182 (change Wt to positive in this equation). Buoyancy of Pipelines COMMON DESIGN GUIDELINES 5) Determine weight of backfill above water level. WB WB = = = WD + WI WD = 0. 1988. = −182 Wt (from Wp + Ww) = +552 Wf (from WB ÷ FS) Wf is greater. therefore the pipe will not float.833 6) Determine the total weight of the backfill. In this case we assume the water level equals the total depth of cover.1073 x 4. Section 4.6 . e. Bc = 4.644 ) − 0. Reference.1073Bc FS = 1.833 0 w = 110. wI = 68 = = = ( 1.833 110 (0) 4.5 × 182 ) ÷ ( 68 × 4. H = 2. Wf Wf = = = WB ÷ FS 828 ÷ 1. for a stream crossing. 2008 C-4.63 feet HIm Therefore a minimum depth of slightly more than 8-inches of inundated backfill above the pipe is required to prevent flotation. Bc = 4.833.5.

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