(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November December (2013), IAEME
145
ELLIPSOIDAL APPROXIMATION FOR TOPOGRAPHICISOSTATIC
MASSES EFFECTS ON AIRBORNE AND SATELLITE GRAVITY
GRADIOMETRY
A.A. MAKHLOOF
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of EngineeringMinia University
ABSTRACT
The topographicisostatic masses represent an important source of gravity field information
especially in the highfrequency band of the gravity field spectrum, even if the detailed density func
tion inside the topographic masses is unknown. If this information is used within a removerestore
procedure, then the instability problems related to the downward continuation of gradiometer from
airplane or satellite altitude can be reduced. In this paper, integral formulae are derived for the de
termination of gravitational effects of topographicisostatic masses of the second order derivatives of
the gravitational potential for various topographicisostatic models. The application of these formu
lae is useful especially for airborne gradiometry and satellite gravity gradiometry. The computation
formulae are presented in ellipsoidal approximation by separating the threedimensional integration
in an analytical integration in ellipsoidal element direction and integration over the unit area. There
fore, in the numerical evaluation procedure the ellipsoidal volume elements can be considered as
being approximated by masslines, located in the centre of the discretization compartments (the mass
of this element is condensated mathematically along its ellipsoidal normal axis). The formulae are
applied to various scenarios of satellite gradiometry measurement campaigns. The gravitational ten
sor in the ellipsoidal normal direction component at a satellite altitude of 230 km for ESAs gravity
satellite mission GOCE (Gravity Field and SteadyState OceanCirculation Explorer) has been com
puted. The numerical computations are based on digital elevation models with five arcminute reso
lutions for gravity gradiometry effects at satellite altitude.
Keywords: TopographicIsostatic Models, Ellipsoidal Approximation, MassLines, Satellite Gravity
Gradiometry, Downward Continuation, Regularization, GOCE.
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1. INTRODUCTION
The determination of the gravity field from observations at aircraft or satellite altitudes is an
improperly posed problem in the sense that small changes in the observations at flight level produce
large effects in the gravity field parameters on the Earths surface or geoid level. This holds espe
cially for the highfrequency constituents of the observation spectrum. To prevent the results from
unrealistic oscillations in the parameters, regularization techniques are usually applied in very poorly
conditioned cases (e.g. Ilk 1993). Most of the regularization methods represent a filtering procedure
and the filtering property can be controlled by a regularization parameter (e.g. Ilk 1998). This is
critical in those cases where the signal shows similar spectral characteristics as the observation noise.
The topographicisostatic masses represent a gravity field information especially in the high fre
quency band of the gravity field spectrum which can be superposed with the measurement noise in
aircraft or satellite altitude. Therefore, it is helpful if those signal parts are reduced before the down
ward continuation and restored afterwards. In this case, it can be assumed that the highfrequency
part in the observations is mainly caused by the observation noise, which can be filtered without
loosing gravity field information. This procedure is only a first step to process airborne or satellite
gravity field information in an integrated computation environment by involving all available Earth
system information as sketched in Ilk (2000).
In global applications as envisaged here, the frequently applied planar approximations of the
topographicisostatic models cannot be used anymore (see Novk el al. 2001). Therefore, the very
efficient fast Fourier transformation (FFT) techniques cannot be applied for the present computations
as demonstrated by Schwarz et al. (1990) in case of airborne gravimetry applications. Also, spherical
approximation can not give the to be applied, especially for global or largescale regional applica
tions. There are two principal possibilities for calculating the effects of the topographicisostatic
masses on gravitational functionals in ellipsoidal approximation: the representation of the topog
raphic masses by any ellipsoidal discretisation in form of ellipsoidal compartments (e.g. defined by
geographical coordinate lines) and a subsequent integration (AbdElmotaal 1995b, Smith et al. 2001;
Tenzer et al. 2003; Heck 2003) or the representation of the Newtons integral by a spherical har
monic expansion (e.g. Snkel 1985; Rummel et al. 1988; Tsoulis 1999, 2001). Sjberg (1998) im
plemented the formulae for the exterior AiryHeiskanen topographic/isostatic gravitational potential
and the corresponding gravity anomalies. Geoid determinations with density hypotheses from
isostatic models based on geological information have been studied by Kuhn (2003).
The investigations performed thus far are limited to the determination of the second deriva
tives of the gravitational potential of the topographicisostatic masses, necessary for Satellite Gravity
Gradiometry (SGG) are not treated for the general case. Only the topographicisostatic effects on the
vertical component of the gravitational tensor have been studied by Wild and Heck (2004a,b) and
Heck and Wild (2005). The effects of topographicisostatic masses on satellitetosatellite tracking
(SST) data and SGG functionals based on spherical harmonic series are investigated by Makhloof
and Ilk (2004). This procedure is very efficient but limited to an upper spherical harmonic degree of
about 2700 which corresponds to a 4 arcminute resolution. Beyond this degree numerical computa
tion problems concerning the stability of the recursive computation of Legendres polynomials occur
(see e.g. Holmes and Featherstone 2002).
In this paper integral formulae in ellipsoidal approximation and based on masslines, ap
proximating the ellipsoidal volume elements of the topographicisostatic masses are presented which
can be evaluated numerically based on global digital elevation/bathymetry models over land and
oceans. The formulae are derived for the gravitational potential of topographicisostatic masses itself,
as well as the first and second derivatives. Different topographicisostatic models have been investi
gated such as the AiryHeiskanen, PrattHayford the formulae for Helmerts first and second conden
sation method are derived as well. The computation formulae are applied to the gravitational ele
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
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ments at satellite altitude envisaged for European Space Agencys (ESAs) gravity satellite mission
GOCE (Gravity Field and SteadyState OceanCirculation Explorer). The effect of the topographic
and isostatic masses
2. THE EFFECT OF THE TOPOGRAPHIC AND COMPENSATING MASSES
In the following, the geoid used as reference surface for the heights given by the DEMs is
approximated by a geocentric reference ellipsoid of major radius (a=6378 km). The geocentric
heights of the computation and the integration points are given from DEM heights, interpreted here
as orthometric heights. Therefore, the Cartesian coordinates of the points can be determined from the
ellipsoidal coordinates as follows (Fig. 1):
[ ]
[ ]
2
( ) ( , ) cos cos
( ) ( , ) cos sin
( )(1 ) ( , ) cos ,
= +
= +
( = +
x N h
y N h
z N E h
(1)
Fig. 1: Geometry of the topographical masses in ellipsoidal approximation
where ( , ) h is the ellipsoidal height, refers the topographical surface to the surface of the
geocentric biaxial ellipsoid used in geodesy as a reference body for geometric and the ellipsoidal
prime vertical radius of curvature
2 2 1 2
( )
(1 sin )
=
a
N
e
(2)
where e is the first eccentricity of the reference ellipsoid.
Reference ellipsoid
h
P`
P`
l
h
Q
h
P
l
1
Surface of the earth
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The potential of the topographical masses can be computed from Newton integral in ellip
soidal coordinates as follows (Novk and Grafarend 2005, Fig. 1):
2 2
0 2 0
( , , ) ( , , )
( ) ( ( ) )( ( ) )
= = =
= = + +
Q
h
T
Q Q
v
V p G dv G N M d d
l l
, (3)
with d =cos
Q Q Q
d d , n is the geoid undulation and the ellipsoidal meridian of curvature is given
by:
2 2 3 2
( )
(1 sin )
=
Q
Q
a
M
E
(4)
and the distance between the computation and the integrated point is
1 2
2 2
1
2 l u l ( = + +
(5)
with
0 0 0
cos cos cos sin sin
= = =
( ( (
= + +
h h h
Q P Q P Q P
u x x y y z z
(6)
and
{ }
1 2
2 2 2
1 0 0 0 P P P
l x x y y z z
= = =
( ( ( = + +
. (7)
Eq. (3) can be written as the sum of spherical effect and ellipsoidal correction to the spherical ap
proximation (in case of constant density):
( )
T Ts Te
V p V V = +
Where
( , )
2
1 2 3
0
2 ( = + +
Q
h
cr
Ts
V G a k ak k d
and (8)
( , )
2 2 2
1 2
0
2 (2sin 1) ( = +
Q
h
cr
Te
V G E a k k d
(9)
with
1
2 1
1 2 2
3 1 1
2
ln ,
,
( 3 ) (3 ) .
= + +
=
( = +
k u l
k l uk
k u l u l k
(10)
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The direct topographical effect on gravity (the first derivatives of the potential of the topog
raphical masses with respect to the ellipsoidal surface normal) can be given by:
( , )
( ( ) )( ( ) )
=
+ +
(
=
(
Q
h
T
Q Q
cr
n
N M
V
G d d
h h l
. (11)
Also, the first derivative of potential can be separated into spherical and ellipsoidal correction
to the spherical term as follow:
= +
T T T
V V V
h h h
s e
(12)
Where
( , )
2
1 2 3
0
2
( = + +
Q
T
h
cr
V
G a P aP P d
h
s
(13)
( , )
2 2
1 2
0
2 (2sin 1)
( = +
Q
T
h
cr
V
G a P P d
h
e
(14)
With
2
1
1 2 2 2 2
1 1
( ) ( )
Ru Sl R Su
P
l u l l u l
= +
, (15)
2 2 2 2
1 1 1
2 1 2 2 2 2
1 1
2
( ) ( )
Rl Sl u Sl Ru Su
P Sk
l u l l u l
+
= +
, (16)
4 2 2 2 2 2 3 2
2 1 1 1 1 1
3 1 2 2 2 2
1 1
2 3 2 5 6
( 3 )
( ) ( )
Sl Rl u Sl u Ru Sl u Su Rl S
P R Su k
l u l l u l l
+ +
= + + +
, (17)
and
0 0 0
cos cos cos sin sin
= = =
( ( ( = + +
h h h
Q P P P Q P P P Q P P
R x x y y z z
, (18)
cos cos cos cos cos sin cos sin sin sin = + +
P P Q Q P P Q Q P Q
S
. (19)
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Then, the effect of the topographic masses at airborne or satellite altitude (the second deriva
tives of the potential of the topographic masses with respect to ellipsoidal height) can be given by:
( , )
2 2
2 2
0
( ( ) )( ( ) ) ( + +
=
(
Q
h
T
cr
V N M
G d d
h h l
(20)
This equation can be transformed to the following equation:
( , )
2 2
2 2
0
( , ) ( , ) ( , )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
0 0 0
( ( ) )( ( ) )
1
( ) ( ) ( ( ) ( )) .
( + +
=
(
(
= + + + (
(
Q
Q Q Q
h
T
cr
h h h
cr
V N M
G d d
h h l
G N M d N M d d d
h l h l h l
(21)
Three integral of Eq. (21) can be estimated separately; the first term
( , ) ( , )
2 2 2 2
2 3 5
0 0
2 2
2 2
1
1
1 1 ( 2 )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 ,
( )
( ) ( ) 3 6 3
( )
: ( ) ( )
( + +
= +
(
( +
= + + +
(
=
Q Q
h h
R RS S
N M d N M d
h l l l
u
N M R A RSB S C
l u
N M w
(22)
Where
( , )
5 2 2 3 2 2
1 1 0
1 ( ) 2( )
3( ) 3(
( + +
= = +
(
Q
h
u u
A d
l l u l l u l
(23)
( , )
5 3
0
1
3
(
= = +
(
Q
h
B d uA
l l
(24)
( , )
2 2
1
5 3
0
.
2 2 2
(
= = +
(
Q
h
l u
C d B A
l l
(25)
The second integral is given by:
[ ] [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
( , ) ( , )
2 2 2 2 3
2 3 5
0 0
2
2 2 1
2 2
1
2
1 ( 2 )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 3 ,
( )
( ) ( ) 3 6 3 ,
( )
: ( ) ( )
( + +
+ = + +
(
  +
= + + + +

\
= +
Q Q
h h
R RS S
N M d N M d
h l l l
l u
N M R B RSC S D
l u l
N M w
(26)
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where
( , )
3 3
2
1 5 3
2 .
(
= = + +
(
Q
h
o
D d uC l B
l l
(27)
The third integral of Eq. ( 21 ) is given by:
( , ) ( , )
2 2 2 2 2 3 2 4
2 3 5
0
2 2
2 2 1
1 2 2
1
3
( 2 )
3
( 2 )
3 6 3 ,
( )
:
( + +
= +
(
(
= + + +
(
=
Q Q
h h
n
R RS S
d d
h l l l
l u
k R C RSD S F
l u l
w
(28)
where
( , )
2 2 4 3
2 1
1 1 5 3 2 2
1 0
( 2 )
2 .
3 ( )
(
= = + +
(
Q
h
l u
F d uD l B k
l l l u
(29)
Using the binomial expansion
1
2
2
1 3
(1 ) 1 ..........
2 8
x x x
= + + + (30)
that can be successfully be truncated for 1 p x , both radii of curvature can be written in the follow
ing form:
2 2
1
( ) 1 sin
2
 
= +

\
N a E (31)
2 2 2
3
( ) 1 sin
2
 
= +

\
M a E E (32)
Then, Eq. (21) can be written in the following formula:
2 2 2 2
2
1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 3 2
(1 ) 2 (1 sin )
(1 sin ) (1 sin )
(
+
= + +
(
T
V E E
a wd a w d w d
h E E
. (33)
The effect of the topographic masses can be written also in two terms: one of the spherical
effect and the other is the correction to spherical term.
Eq. (33) are used to compute the effect of the topographic masses for the case of Bouguer
model, AiryHeiskanen model. For calculating the effect of condensation masses in case of Helmert
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second method of condensation and generalized Helmert method of condensation (Heck 2003), the
effect of the condensation masses can be given as follow:
1 1
2
( ) ( )( ) =
CM
k
V p G N D M D d
l
(34)
where k is he surface layer density and given by (Novak and Grafarend (2005),
1
D is the
Helmert condensation depth and it equals zero in Helmert second method of condensation and 32 km
in case of generalized Helmert of condensation ,
2
l here denotes the distance between the computa
tion point and the integrated point at the condensation surface. In case of constant mass density of the
topographical masses, the surface mass density is given by (Novk and Grafarend 2005)
3
1
( , ) 1
2 *M 3 *
  +
= + +


\
Q Q Q Q
Q Q
Q Q Q Q
h N M h
k h
N N M
(35)
Eq. (34) can be transformed also in two terms: one for the spherical approximation and the
other is the ellipsoidal correction to the spherical approximation. The first and second derivative of
the condensated topography can be determined as follows:
1 1
2
2 2
1 1 2 2
2
( ) 1
( )( )
( ) 1
( )( )
 
=

\
 
=

\
CM
CM
V p
G k N D M D d
h h l
V p
G k N D M D d
h h l
(36)
In case of the AiryHeiskanen model the topographic masses of constant density float on a
mantle of constant but larger density
m
. An elevation column of height h is compensated by a cor
responding root of thickness t. The higher the topographic features are, the deeper they sink. Thus
the thickness of a root column under a mountain column with height h can be determined by the for
mula
( )( ) ( ) ( )
0
= =
+ + = + +
Q
Q
h
T
T t
N M d d N M d d
. (37)
After Performing the numerical integration for finding the root for height larger than 10 km
and comparing the result with results from spherical formula and the error was lesser than 0.01%.
Then the spherical formula for computing the roots is applied in the present investigation. The root is
given by (Khun 2000)
3 3
3
3
( )
( ) 1 1
( )
(
( +
(
=
(
R h R
t R T
R T
, (38)
and the antiroots of thickness t in case of oceanic water columns of height h by,
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3 3
3
3
( )
( )
( ) 1 1
( )
(
(
(
= +
(
w
R R h
t R T
R T
, (39)
with the water density
w
and the mean radius of the Earth R (R=6371 km). The density difference
=
m
in the roots and antiroots produces a buoyancy so that hydrostatic equilibrium is
reached.
The above formulae can be simplified if the heights of the Earths surface are expressed by
the rockequivalent topographic heights
eq
h (Rummel et al. 1988). It can be expressed in planar ap
proximation as follows:
land: h
ocean: h
=
=
`
=
)
eq
eq w
eq
h
h
h
, (40)
The potential of the isostatic masses at the computation point P can be determined analogous
ly as the potential of the topographic masses by Newtons integral,
2 2
0 2
( , , ) ( , , )
( ) ( ( ) )( ( ) )
= = =
= = + +
T
I
Q Q
v T t
V p G dv G N M d d
l l
. (41)
This integration can be written as the sum
( )
I Is Ie
V p V V = + (42)
where
2
1 2 3
2
( = + +
Q
T
cr
T t
Is
V G a k ak k d
(43)
2 2 2
1 2
2 (2sin 1)
( = +
Q
T
cr
T t
Ie
V G E a k k d
(44)
The combined effects of the topographicisostatic masses on the different gravity functionals
are the differences between the effect of the topographic masses and the effect of the isostatic com
pensation masses. It reads e.g.,
= =
=
P
P P
T C
TI
h
h h h h
V V V
(45)
In case of the PrattHayford model a certain adjustment surface is defined, in case of a ellip
soidal approximation an ellipse in a constant depths
2
D (
2
100 = D km ). At this ellipsoidal surface
hydrostatic equilibrium is anticipated, i.e. the pressure of any topography column is identical at this
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
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ellipse which requires constant mass but different density depending on the elevation of the surface
of the Earth. The effect of the topographic masses according to the PrattHayford model is calculated
for two cases: one for the land areas and the other for the ocean areas. The same has to be done for
the effects of the isostatic compensation masses.
Then, the effect of the topographic masses is given by
( )
= +
P T land Ocean
T T
V p V V (46)
where
2 2
0 2 0
( , , )
( ) ( ( ) )( ( ) )
= = =
= = + +
Q
h
land L L
T Q Q
v
V p G dv G N M d d
l l
, (47)
2 2 0
0 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( ( ) )( ( ) )
= = =
= = + +
Ocean w w
T Q Q
v h
V p G dv G N M d d
l l
(48)
The effect of the compensation masses for land areas is given by
2 2
0 2 0
( ) ( )
( ) ( ( ) )( ( ) )
= = =
= = + +
Q
h
land L L
C Q Q
v
V p G dv G N M d d
l l
, (49)
and for ocean areas by:
2 2
0 2
( ) ( )
( ) ( ( ) )( ( ) )
= = =
= = + +
Q
h
Ocean O O
C Q Q
v D
V p G dv G N M d d
l l
(50)
where density
L
in land areas and density under ocean
O
can be determined from Kuhn (2000).
3 3
3 3
( )
( ) ( )
(
=
(
+
L
R R D
R h R D
, (51)
3 3 3 3
3 3
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( (
=
(
w
O
R R D R R h
R h R D
, (52)
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3. TEST REGIONS
The numerical tests are based on the ETOPO5 with five arcminute resolution. One typical
test regions have been selected: This test area is covering the Himalaya region (Fig. 2), shall be used
to visualize the damping of the topographicisostatic effects in the component of the gravity gradi
ometry in the ellipsoidal normal direction at 230km above sea surface. In this case resolution for the
elevation compartments has been used. The accuracy of this DEM is sufficient to demonstrate the
topographicisostatic effects at satellite altitude.
Fig. 2: Topography of the test area (ETOPO5)
The densities of crust and topography are considered to be constant and equal to 2670 kg/m
3
.
As density of sea water a value of 1030 kg/m
3
has been taken and as density of the mantle the fre
quently used value of 3270 kg/cm
3
has been assumed. The AiryHeiskanen depth of compensations
is considered to be 30 km, The depth of the condensation surface of Helmerts first condensation
method is 21 km and 32 km for the generalized Helmerts condensation model.
4. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
To give an impression of the size of the topographicisostatic effects on the gravity
gradiometry at satellite altitude, the topographicisostatic effects on the of the gravitational tensor at
a satellite altitude of 230 km are computed. It can be found that, the structure of the topographic
isostatic effects at a satellite altitude of 230 km shows still steep changes with a gradient of 0.80
Etvs per 100km in northsouth direction and of 0.60 Etvs per 100 km in eastwest direction. If it
is possible to remove this sort of roughness from the observations with a noise level of approximate
ly 5 mE for GOCE the downward continuation can be considerably simplified. The GOCE mission is
designed to derive the static part of the gravity field with an extremely high precision. Therefore, it is
very important to filter the observations by the topographicisostatic gravity field effects to ease the
requirements for the downward continuation. An additional regularization might be avoided in that
case; but this depends on the envisaged resolution of the gravity field model and on the error level of
the observations. Fig. 3 gives an impression of the size of these effects for the hhcomponent of the
gravitational tensor.
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5. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper the formulae for the calculation of the first and second derivatives of the gravita
tional potential of the topographicisostatic masses are derived for various frequently applied topo
graphicisostatic models in ellipsoidal approximation by approximating the ellipsoidal volume ele
ments by masslines located in the middle of the compartments. Only the formula for the determina
tion of the first derivatives in the ellipsoidal approximation has been derived by one author. The situ
ation is different for the second derivatives of the potential; the second derivatives of the potential in
the ellipsoidal normal direction have not been studied till now.
The formulae can be used to determine the topographicisostatic effects at aircraft altitudes
for airborne applications or for satellite altitudes to reduce the observation functionals of airborne or
satellite gravity gradiometry missions. The integral formulae presented here allow to use DEMs with
an  in principle  arbitrary high resolution depending on the numerical integration method. Obvious
ly such a high resolution is necessary for airborne altitudes. In these cases it might not be to apply
formulae which are based on the expansion of Newtons integral in spherical harmonics at least for
global applications (see e.g., Makhloof 2007). As the higher resolution of the DEMs is indispensable
and the computation of the corresponding spherical harmonic coefficients can be critical because of
numerical problems (Holmes and Featherstone 2002). Therefore only a maximum degree of 2700
corresponding to a compartment size of 4 arcminutes resolution can be selected. Due to this limita
tion a spherical harmonic expansion of the topographicisostatic masses cannot be used for exact
determinations of the geoid (see Kuhn and Seitz 2005).
a) Bouguer method (topography) b) Generalized Helmert (D=32km)
b) Helmert first method (D=21 km) b) AiryHeiskanen method
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 6308
(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November December (2013), IAEME
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f) Helmert first method
Fig. 1: Effects of the topographicisostatic masses on the tensor component
zz
V at an altitude of 230
km for different topographicisostatic models (Etvs).
Now the question arises which model should preferably be used for the filtering of satellite
borne observations such as gravity gradients as preparation for the subsequent downward continua
tion procedure? While Helmerts second condensation method might be useful for geoid computa
tions, its usefulness for the processing of satellite insitu observations cannot be answered in such a
simple generally valid way. Indeed, the task of filtering topographicisostatic effects in the satellite
observations is helpful only if these quantities have a significant magnitude larger than the observa
tion noise. Obviously, this fact may depend on the validity of the topographicisostatic hypothesis in
specific geographic regions. This can be decided only after a careful analysis of the specific gravity
field features within the various geographical regions of the Earth to find out which model describes
the reality in these regions in the best possible way. It is wellknown that the Earth is isostatically
compensated by an amount of approximately 90% (Heiskanen and Moritz 1967), but it is difficult to
decide which model fits best. Although seismic measurement results indicate the validity of an Airy
Heiskanen type of topographicisostatic compensation, but in some parts of the Earth the isostatic
compensation seems to follow anther model (Heiskanen and Moritz 1967). The change of the con
densation level by using a sort of a generalized Helmert model (Heck 2003) could be used to fit the
topographicisostatic model to the reality. Very promising seems to be to introduce geophysical
models in coincidence with modern models of plate tectonics.
If the specific topographicisostatic model holds more or less uniformly for a larger region
then this model can be used to filter the satellite observations before the application of the regional
gravity field recovery procedure. The situation is more complicated in case of regionally varying
deviations of the reality from a specific model; further investigations are necessary to consider these
cases. Because of the varying effects of the topographicisostatic models depending on the type of
observables such as gravity vectors or tensor components the frequently expressed argument that a
high resolution gravity field model might be sufficient to reduce observations at aircraft or satellite
altitude is not valid. Therefore, additional investigations are necessary to demonstrate the benefit of a
removerestore procedure taking into account individually selected topographicisostatic models for
the processing of airborne measurements and SGG observables. Finally, the results computed here
are computed with the results computed using spherical approximation and it is found that the ellip
soidal approximation gives exact results.
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(Print), ISSN 0976 6316(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, November December (2013), IAEME
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