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Group Members

Nabi Ahmad Siddiqui Muhammad Awais Tariq Muntazir Mahdi Aamar Hanif Muhammad Naveed Zain-Ul-Abbas Abdul Mannan Ghulam Raza

(2010-TE-06) (2010-TE-16) (2010-TE-30) (2010-TE-42) (2010-TE-60) (2010-TE-65) (2010-TE-66) (2010-TE-80)

Table of Contents
EIA Introduction of Gwadar and Gwadar Port Description of the Project Existing Environment Environment Impact of Ship Operation Mitigation Measurements Conclusions

EIA is systematic process for identifying and evaluating the potential effects of proposed actions on the physical, biological, cultural and socioeconomic components of the environment. It intends as an instrument of preventive environmental management. It provides a framework and an information basis for decision making on activities affecting the environment. EIA is a process for decision-making, not a formula for preparing a document. It applies to the assessment of the environmental effects of those public and private projects which are likely to have significant effects on the environment. Project means, The execution of construction works or of other installations or schemes.

Gwadar is a district along the sea in south of the Makran. The coastline of Gwadar District is about 600 Kilometers long. Geographic coordinates of Gwadar, Pakistan are Latitude: Longitude: 250717 N 621931 E

Elevation above sea level: 1 m = 03 ft. It is bounded on the North by Kech and Awaran District. On the East by Lasbela District, on the south by the Arabia Sea and on the West by Iran. Total area of the district is 12,637 square kilometers and population of 72,000. Fisheries is the main economic activity. Deep seaport is ready to fulfill national requirements. Potential for business due to strategic location and for tourism due to beach, desert, and unique landscape features.

Gwadar Port:
Gwadar Port is located at the apex of the Arabian Sea and at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, approximately 460 km (290 mi) west of Karachi, 75 km (47 mi) east of Pakistan's border with Iran and 380 km (240 mi) km northeast of the nearest point in Oman across the Arabian Sea. It is situated on the eastern bay of a natural hammerhead-shaped peninsula protruding into the Arabian Sea from the coastline.

A view of Gwadar Port,

Purpose and Need of This Action:

Gwadar destined to become a hub of business activity providing a trade corridor to China and Central Asian Estates. Passenger Ferry Ship can provide easy access to the Gwadar from other ports. Passenger Cruise Ships can anchor for tourism trips.

Description of Proposed Project:

Preliminary Works:
Dredging to remove sediment to create ship approach channels. Development of ship docking berths. Port passenger terminal construction activities.

Activities Due to Passenger Ship at Gwadar:

Passengers move in and out from the ship. Ship dock at the port for few days.

Support Services:
Ships may require development of ship docking berths fueling. Breakdown technical services. Supply of goods for onboard passengers.

Secondary Activities Due to Presence of Ship:

Logistics requirement for passengers at Gwadar Port. Business activity at port, Potential for business due to strategic location.

Existing Environment:
Long coastal area but almost entirely deserts owing to little rain fall. Very little vegetation. No or limited facilities of sanitation and waste management. Household garbage dumped at coast line. Gwadar is Hingol National Park which is formed by Govt. to protect endangered species in the area.

Sea water is relatively clean. Many fish are found near Gwadar coast. Sea species like marsh crocodile, green turtle, masher fish, and houbara bustard are found in the waters of Gwadar and protected under the umbrella of Hingol National Park.

No or little elements of air pollution. Occasional dust storms cause particle suspension. Common birds are See Partridge and Waterfowls.

Social Setting:
Fishermen migrate to other areas to earn livelihood in summer due to rough sea. Per capita income of the people of Gwadar is very low. Men and women are generally very social and friendly. Violence activities have recently surged in the area due to misconception in people about ownership of Gwadar port.

Environmental Impacts of Ship Operation:

Water Pollution:
Sewage or Black water (approx. 10 gallons / person / day). Gray water, the largest liquid waste by passengers ships consists of non-sewage wastewater, including drainage from dishwashers, showers, laundry, baths, galleys, and washbasins. Oily bilge water contains fuel, oil, and waste water from engines, rags, metal shavings, paint glass and cleaning agents.

Impacts Due to Water Pollution:

Human sewage carry bacteria, pathogens, diseases, viruses, the eggs of intestinal parasites, and harmful nutrients, they can contaminate the water which can in turn pose health risk to humans. Gray water may contain coliform, food waste, detergents, cleaners, pesticides, heavy metals and medical waste which can deplete the dissolved oxygen in water necessary to support life. Oil effect marine mammals, sea birds, fish, other invertebrates, coral reefs, and mangroves.

Air Pollution:
Diesel engines of ships burn High Sulphur content fuel which produces Sulphur dioxide (S0x), nitrogen oxide (N0x), particulate carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide etc. Onboard incinerators burn large volumes of garbage, plastics etc. producing dioxin, furans and heavy metals. Sulphur and particulate matter may cause respiratory problems, asthma attacks, especially in children of Gwadar and surrounding areas.

Social Impacts:
Ship activity at Gwadar may hinder the local fishing activity in the area which may cause frustration in the fishermen. Passenger ship activity will urge Govt. to develop better civic facilities in the area. Business activity will generated due to a large number of people moving in and out of Gwadar, this will help fishermen to earn their livelihood when they cannot go fishing due to rough sea. Living standards of the people of Gwadar may rise.

Mitigations of Water and Oil Pollution:

Using regulatory measures to establish a no discharge zone within 12 miles from Gwadar coastline. Filtering by 'oil-water separator" to reduce effects of oily bilge discharge. Force the ships to use sanitation devices which can treat and hold sewage for later discharge.

Mitigations of Air Pollution:

Reduction of both Sulphur oxide and nitrous oxide can be easily achieved when ships use low Sulphur fuel when docked at the port. Power can be supplied to the ship from the local grid which will enable ships to turn off their engines and it reduces emissions.

Project is environmentally feasible but with strong mitigation we can ensure a sustainable passenger ship operation at Gwadar without significantly effecting the environment. For the development of country it is very important. There is a chance of violation by the ships due to weak regulatory controls. But the concern authorities can hold it to control. If mitigation measures are not taken then marine life of Gwadar will be under seriously threat. The passenger ship operation will enable betterment of civic facilities in the area. And also generate a significant business activity which will reduce the dependence of people of Gwadar on fisheries only. The JOBS for transportation engineers may be generated as Logistic engineer at the Port.