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SOCIOLOGY 3

(Part 2)

Re-orientation of Concepts! Evangelization- proclamation of salvation from sin: a

liberation from everything oppressive to man.! It is not only seen as a seed-sowing or announcing and proclaiming mission but a matter of bringing people to an awareness of what has been planted unto them.! In short, the proclamation of the word of Godthe Good News! Christian liberation- implies freeing from social sin and struggling against sinful structures.! There is no evangelization without liberation.!

Authentic Development!

In the secular sense, development is understood as material progress, centered on technology and economics. ! In the Christian sense, development is the progress in the total human person being in the world, a being for others and for God. Total development includes economic, social, political and spiritual dimensions of man.

Structural and Social Sin- is now slowly understood as

referring to structural realities, produced by human beings, that result in the exploitation and oppression of some sectors of the population.! E.g.: hunger, poverty, unemployment etc.! In a way, social sins have intimate connection with personal sins( pride, selfishness, greed, hatred) because they lead to habitual patterns of human interactions creating sinful social structures! Some terrible effects of sinful structures seen in street children, jobless, homeless, violations of human rights.

Solidarity- it is the firm and persevering

determination to commit oneself to the common good and a commitment to the good of ones neighbor with the readiness to lose oneself.! In short, it is an expression of love of neighbor.

When it looks like I have failed


Lord are you trying to tell me something?! For. . . .! Failure does not mean I am a failure; !

It does mean I have not yet succeeded.! Failure does not mean I hve accomplished nothing.! It does mean I have learned something! Failure does not I have been a fool;! It does mean I have enough faith to experience.! Failure does not mean I have been disgraced;!

Failure does not mean Ill never make it;! It does mean I need more patience,! Failure does not mean I am inferior;! it does mean I am not perfect.! Failure does not mean I have wasted my time;! It does mean I have an excuse to start over;! Failure does not mean I should give up;! it does mean I must try harder.!

Failure does not mean I will never make it;! It does mean I need more patience.!
!

Failure does not mean You have abandoned me;!

It does mean You must have a better idea. Amen !

Christian Justice!

From the Old Testament: justice is the attitude or virtue that makes one conform to the moral norm.! It consists of obedience to the laws of the Covenant.! Gods justice demands:! 1. concern for the poor! 2. protection of widows and orphans! 3. protection of strangers! 4. respect for wage-earners! 5. attending to the condition of servants/slaves! 6. prohibition of lending at high interest! 7. avoiding giving bribes

From the New Testament!

Justice- giving to each person what is his and also giving to him what is also yours (compassionate justice)! In the Church tradition: justice is the habit whereby a person renders to each one, with a constant and perpetual will, his due or right.

Divisions of Justice (Accdg to St Thomas)!

1. Commutative Justice- applies to the relationships of individuals. It commands that the exchange of goods and services take place accdg to strict quality.! 2. Distributive- refers to the obligation of the community t0 the individuals. It demands equitable distribution of the benefits and burdens of community life. (fair share),! 3. Contributive justice(legal)- it obliges the members of the community to comply with the demands of the common good.! E.g.-pay equitable share of taxes, comply with social legislations, render military service.

4. Social justice- requires the authorities to look into real situations of different groups of people in the society and give them their due as members of human community.! It works hand in hand with other divisions of justice.!

Components of justice!

1. sufficient life-goods such as shelter, clothing, health care, skill development and work (economic rights)! 2. dignity of the human person! 3. participation- the power of each person and people to shape their own destinies.! 4. solidarity- corresponds to the duty of each person to promote human rights with and for others.

Christian responsibility towards injustice!

It is not the repression of bad people that hurts, it is the silence of the good.! Silence and indifference are considered unchristian and a sin of omission.! Christian responsibility for justice demands:! 1. awareness of the root causes of injustice! Causes of injustice:! a. super abundance of a few nations and groups of people! b. indifference and passivity of the poor nations ! c. sinful attitudes and deeds that create oppressive structures! 2. condemnation of injustice-! 3. conversion- effective witnessing for justice

Option for the Human Person!

Man is the fundamental norm, center and crown, author and subject of all social institutions. ! He is more precious for what he is than what he has.! Nature and root of human dignity:! 1. created accdg to the image and likeness of God! 2. man is lord of all creations and has the responsibility to develop created things.! 3. he is destined to be with his creator.! 4. man is an embodied spirit.! 5. man has the innate capacity to do what is good and just.! 6. he is endowed with reason and intellect.! 7. man has free will.! 8. he is both individual and social by nature.

Preferential Option for the Poor!

Option- does not mean an alternative, but rather a decision and commitment in favor of the poor! Preferential- choice of the poor as priority of Christian witnessing to justice and solidarity! Option for the poor- is to love the poor which means living for and with them, lending a helping hand, giving service where needed, being just, honest, pure, gentle, truthful and kind to them.

Demands of the option for the poor!

1. true solidarity with the poor- living for the poor, with the poor, and like the poor implies a practice of poverty in spirit, living a simple lifestyle sober and austere.! 2. denunciation and struggle against injustice and oppression! 3. conscientization of the poor- an appeal to the poor to work for a change in their own socio-political situation! 4. organization of the poor! 5. commitment to the integral liberation of the poor

What every leader should know about people


PEOPLE ARE INSECURE, GIVE THEM
CONFIDENCE! PEOPLE LIKE TO FEEL SPECIAL, HONOR THEM!

PEOPLE LOOK FOR A BETTER TOMORROW, GIVE

THEM HOPE.! PEOPLE NEED TO BE UNDERSTOOD, LISTEN TO THEM! PEOPLE LACK DIRECTION, NAVIGATE FOR THEM! PEOPLE ARE NEEDY, SPEAK TO THEIR NEEDS FIRST.! PEOPLE GET EMOTIONALLY LOW, ENCOURAGE THEM !

PEOPLE WANT TO SUCCEED, HELP THEM WIN! PEOPLE SEEK MODELS TO FOLLOW, BE AN EXAMPLE.

Commitment of the Church!

The Church stands for justice and has the duty to fight oppression.! The Church should shower greater love for those who need it most.

The Church and Human Rights!

Promotion of human rights is central to the ministry of the Church. It is part of evangelization.! Respect for human rights is a pre-requisite for peace and linked with the need to transform social, political and economic structures.! Human rights- those fundamental rights of human beings essential for the exercise of human dignity.! The rights are to things, powers or privileges to which individuals have a just claim or are entitled to, under the natural law as a consequence of their being human.

2 Kinds of Rights! 1. Natural rights- rights of the human person or his power to claim something that does not come from society but from human nature itself. They exist prior to any human organization/institution.! 2. Legal rights- rights spelled out by positive national or international laws. They are granted to citizens by the government, which in no case could go against the true spiritual and natural claims of the human person.

Relationship of rights and duties! The fundamental correlation between rights and

duties is manifested in two stages:! 1. first stage- occurs when the possessor is conscious of his rights and equally aware of his duties and the obligation to discharge these duties.! E.g. right to life, duty to preserve it; right to private property, duty to use for the common good.! 2. second stage- comes in the relationship that exists between the right of one person and obligation of others to recognize and respect it.

The Issue of Death Penalty!

The attitude of the Church is based on moral, ethical, religious and social grounds.! Various arguments:! 1. it is not the only solution! 2. justice for the victims???! 3. the deterrence factor! 4. retribution or vindictiveness! 5. possibility of reform and rehabilitation! 6. possibility of error and defects in the justice system! 7.unfair and discriminatory! 8. the barbarity of violence! 9 principle of totality

ATTITUDE APPLICATION
The man who never made a mistake never made ! anything! Failures, repeated failures are fingerprints on the ! road to achievement! It is impossible to succeed without suffering! I dont have to survive! Attitude is the determining factor of whether our

failure make us or break us.

To accept failure as final is to be finally a failure.!


!

Failure is the line of least resistance.

Rights of Women!

The issue of women is a special concern of the Church in the Philippines:! 1. The unique contribution of Filipino women in the evangelizing mission of the Church! 2. The various forms of sexual discrimination and exploitation that women experience.! Discrimination in the Philippine setting! 1. Political participation of women? ! 2. In the field of labor and migration! 3. Trafficking and violence! 4. Reproduction and health

Christian Feminism- calls for union among all persons regardless of age, race, religion, and social status and does not exclude anybody. It aims to create true solidarity in the human community regardless of sex.! Feminism- stands for the struggle for equal rights of women in all levels in the present socio-cultural system, wherein men enjoy dominant role.

Rights of Children!

Child- a person below 18 yrs of age or one over said age and who, upon evaluation of a physician, psychologist or psychiatrist, is found to be incapable of taking care of himself fully because of physical or mental disability or condition of protecting himself from abuse.! Child abuse: physical! moral and verbal! child labor! sexual

The Problem of Migrant Workers!

Migrant workers- are persons who are to be engaged, or have been engaged in a remunerated activity in a country of which they are not nationals.! Reasons for labor migration:! 1. massive poverty and underdevelopment and or unemployment and under-employment.! 2. migration mentality! 3. political choice of the government to consider migration as part of economic development! 4. the demographic factor- population growth versus availability of jobs! Consequence: It separates, splits, detaches, and segregates the member of the family, creating a dysfunctional family life.

The Role of the Church in Economics!

The aim of economy does not lie in mere technology, profitability and material happiness, rather its aim lies in the substantial and assured creation of material conditions to enable individuals and entities develop human dignity.! Economic decisions are moral decisions that affect human beings- they should be carried out humanely and morally.

The Church has the following principles in the face of the

growing poverty and economic difficulties:! 1. The economy exists for the person, not the person for the economy.! 2. All economic life should be shaped by moral principles.! 3. All people have the right to life and secure basic necessities of life. ! 4. All people have the right to economic initiative-! productive work, just wages and benefits, decent working conditions.! 5. Society has a moral obligation to assure opportunity,! meet basic human needs and pursue justice in economic life.

Dignity of Human Work!

Work- any activity of the human person, whether manual or intellectual, through which he produces something new for his perfection.! It is a social activity through which we realize and develop our co-humanity. ! The Churchs Social teaching understands work in two(2) senses: ! 1. objective sense- refers to the products that result from human activity making use of the materials from the earth and seas as well as the technology that man uses.! 2. subjective sense- refers to the human person who works.! Man, the worker is of much value and importance than the object produced.

The Church gives emphasis to the subjective sense, that is man, the worker.! Ethical principles relative to mans life in economics:! 1. Work is for man, not man for work. Man is always the purpose of work.! There are three spheres where man is developed as subject of work:! a. personal sphere- the worker achieves fulfillment as human being in his work, without it, he achieves nothing.! b. family sphere- work makes family, the first school of work, possible. It is where man provides for his family, thereby, parents educate their children making them appreciate the necessity and nobility of work.! c. sphere of society- it is through work that citizens of the nations help in the development of the nation

2. The priority of labor over capital! Labor- the vast majority of people who do not own the means of production but have only their hands to participate in production.! Capital- refers to the few influential groups who own the means and instruments of production. ! The worker must never be treated as mere instrument of production, nor a commodity to be sold and bought in accordance with law of supply and demand.

Christian obligation to work!

Work is a normal way to self-preservation, it is through it that man satisfies his material needs and the needs of those entrusted to him.! Thus, work is not only a human right, but an obligation a duty to work.

Rights of Workers!

1. Right to work or employment- this follows from the nature of human existence, for through it, man realizes his capacities. The obligation to earn ones bread presumes the right to work. ! The right to employment today has become problematic because of the alliance of both the seen and unseen employers( Laborem Exercens): ! a. direct employer- the capitalist with whom the worker personally makes contact! b. indirect employer- all forces that influence or make economic policies and activities of the nation that result in the increase or decrease of employment opportunities.

2. Right to a just wage!

Just wage the barometer of the justness or injustice of given society. It promotes a peaceful relationship between employer and worker.! Determinants of a just wage! In the past, wage contract is the sole determinant of wages.! The Social Teaching advocates consideration of the life-needs of the workers. ! In determining a just wage, a set of criteria was laid down:! a. family wage- salary given to head of the family, sufficient enough for the needs of the family without the other spouse taking a gainful employment outside the home. It covers the decent needs of a family- worthy home, sufficient food, normal education and relaxation.

b. contribution of the worker in the economic effort!

This is based on commutative justice- where a worker receive a wage corresponding to the service he renders and energy spent! c. national common good: state of enterprise and country! d. universal common good! The minimum wage- a duty of the state! Minimum wage- is the least amount of salary an employer is obliged to give, below which he can not go without violating the law.! This is promulgated by the state through legislation.! The purpose of this is to guarantee the worker of, at least the minimum standard of living. !

An employer paying the minimum wage that is immorally too law is definitely following the civil law, but be going against the moral law.! Right to humanizing conditions of work! The working environment must be such that physical health is not endangered and morals are safeguarded.! Children are not to be incorporated into the working process until they have sufficiently matured in body, mind and spirit.! Women have the right to working conditions in accordance with their duties as wives and mothers.! Long hours of work beyond endurance of human strength must be avoided.! Right to rest and recreation must be respected.!
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Social security must be in place in the working environment.! The workers participation in planning the production process is encouraged.! Right to unionism! Man has the natural right to join others and form associations. They are indispensable means to protect the workers rights and dignity and fulfill a vital role in the development of a nation. ! Concomitant with the right of membership in a union, is the right of members to participate in whatever positive activities of the organization without fear of negative repercussions.

Importance of workers associations! 1. It serves as a weapon of self-defense against injustices of employers.! 2. Unions serve as instrument of education for members.! 3. Unions promote workers interest by bringing about better wages and profit-sharing.! 4. Unions help to develop a sense of loyalty to and identity with the enterprise.! 5. It helps in the implementation of labor and social laws.! 6. Workers through unions improve legislation.

Limitations of unionism!

Unionism is not an absolute right, it is limited by the higher and more basic rights of religious, moral, and political freedom.! Unions means of action! 1. Collective bargaining- the process where by representatives from both the union and management come together to negotiate a compromise on issues of wages and benefits.! 2. Strike as a means of protest- it is the refusal to work on the part of the organized workers to pressure the employer to recognize their demands.

Forms of strike! 1. direct strike- is one carried out against an enterprise in which the workers are primarily employed and is the source of grievances of the workers.! 2. sympathy strike- that which is called in support of a direct strike in another enterprise.! 3. work slowdown- is the deliberate lessening of the rate of production below the minimum levels set by the management.! 4. work stoppage- complete cessation of production, but with the presence of workers in the place of work during normal working hours.! 4. picketing- consists of groups of workers marching to and fro before the business establishment, generally with placards, portraying the issues of strike.! 5. boycott- organized refusal to deal with a particular business

Morality of strikes- since they result in inconveniences to

the industry, workers, and sometimes the public, it must follow conditions to be morally justifiable:! 1. Strike must be for a just cause.! 2. The condition necessitates that the good expected from it should be greater than its negative consequence.! 3. All other means must be exhausted before engaging into a strike.! 4. Condition sees to it that there should be a reasonable hope of success.! 5. The means employed must be morally acceptable.

The Church and Ideologies!

Ideologies- are sets of doctrines, assertions and intentions of a social or political movement that promotes their ideas through to a concerted action.! 3 aspects of ideologies:! 1. it offers a view of the various aspects of life.! 2. this view expresses the aspirations, justifications, values and interest and longings of a particular group! or class in society.! 3. the aspirations incite the group to action.! Common ideologies: Capitalism! Communism! Socialism!

Liberal Capitalism- has four main tenets:!

1. profit motive- this is the motivating factor of the economy.! 2. unlimited private ownership! 3. the main principle of free and unrestricted competition! 4. non-interference of the State in economic matters (laissez faire or let alone policy)

Communism or Marxist Socialism!

It adheres to the principle of economic determinism or the materialistic interpretation of history.! It believes that human history is a continuous struggle for wealth and holds that private property and the concentration of wealth in the hands of the few are the driving forces behind the meager social progress and individual development.! Private ownership must be abolished and replaced by collective ownership of land and means of production.

Moderate Socialism- it differs from communism in the

sense that it mitigates, to some extent, class warfare and abolition of private ownership.! It allows private ownership, reserving only to the State certain forms of ownership of properties that are big and vital which if left to individuals would give them power that could threaten the common good.

Catholic Social Doctrine and the Ideologies !

On Capitalism! The concept of profit is irreconcilable with the Gospel.! Material prosperity taken as the be-all in life makes one forget other values and degrades human being.! Making unlimited free competition is like condemning the weak to death.! Unlimited private ownership condemns most of humanity to hunger and poverty by way of the following: economic domination(monopolies), and economic imperialism.! The Church sees it inimical for the interests of the masses if the State does not intervene in matters of the economy!

On Communism!

Christians must be vigilant over the things that this ideology preaches.! Communist socialism adheres to relentless class struggle making it an essential law.! What promotes armed struggle is moral can not be accepted.! Collectivization of property leads to stagnation of the economy.! Communism is also condemned because of its atheistic stance.

On moderate socialism!

There is curtailment of individual freedom and initiative by the socialistic state.! Labor or human factor of production is statecontrolled. ! Power is in the hands of politicians who are not economists.! Atheism, crass materialism and loss of individual freedom are irreconcilable with Christian faith.

Nature of Politics!

The norm of excellence and lifes enjoyment is VIRTUE! Without it, our senses would not be far from the world of instincts.! The grounds for our judgment of excellence are human grounds: capable of direction, mastery and responsibility. Thus, to be virtuous is to be human. Since a persons life involves encounter with other persons in the course of his living, he may either be an influence or being influenced by other persons. No life is purely individual.

Politics is an organized work of human beings that can

not but affect the lives of neighbors but even those in distant shores and those who are yet to come to this world.! Politics- from the word polis- meaning a city.! It is a system of influence, of power, of control.! Scriptural Foundation: All authority and power comes from God. Everyone is invited to share in this power.! The Gospels are not mere stories, teachings of Jesus Christ, they were the communitys experience of Jesus.

The Teachings of the Church! Political life is one that fosters inner sense of justice, benevolence and service for the common good and strengthens basic beliefs about true nature of the political community, about the exercise and limits of public authority.! Scope of Politics! Octogesima Adveniens describes politics as the science and art of directing the affairs of public interest and whose main interest is the exercise of power.

Source and end of politics!

The source of politics is the people. Since the people have human dignity, politics emanate from that dignity. Thus the root of politics is human dignity.! Political community exists for the common good.! Common good is based on the consideration that since human being is part of the family and of the State, that which can be good for him is also good for all. And that good which is common to all is human dignity.! Common good embraces the sum of those conditions of social life by which individuals, families or groups can achieve their own fulfillment in a thorough and ready way.

Pacem in Terris- stressed that the common good considers the good of the whole person, gives attention to the less fortunate and promotes material and spiritual welfare for all.! Mater et magistra- specified the demands of the common good:! 1. provision of employment and wage! 2. proper care of less privileged! 3. provision for the future of individuals and families!

Political Authority and Participation!

Civil authority- in abstract, authority originates from God. Concretely, it emanates from the people, the subject of authority.! The person in authority over the state consequently has been invested with authority by the people.! The common good can not be achieved unless there is stability of authority.

Rights and duties of civil authority!

1. Authority must assist and provide the family, social or cultural groups their own lawful and effective activities and promote rights willingly and in orderly fashion.! 2. The authorities are required to intervene in social and economic affairs to attain human fulfillment.! 3. When rights are temporarily curtailed on behalf of the common good, it should be restored as quickly as possible.! 4.Government ought to allow the rights of all persons, families and associations, along with the exercise of those rights, be recognized, honored and fostered (Principle of Subsidiarity).

5. Authorities must provide material and spiritual services that the common good requires. ! 6. Authority must observe the standard for respect for the differences of perspectives and expressions of the constituents.! Rights and duties of citizens! 1. Citizens should develop generous and loyal devotion for their country! 2. They should give witness to their sense of duty and service towards the advancement of the common good.

3. They should recognize conflicting views in the pursuit of affairs but human dignity is the binding force of those differences.! 4. They should respect fellow citizens when they promote conflicting views.! 5. Political parties should foster the common good. ! Relations between and among States! Every State has the right to existence, self-government, self-development and to be primarily responsible for its development.! Authentic peace and prosperity among nations is founded not on equality of arms but on free and mutual trust.

Church and State Relations!

Is the Church subordinate to the State or vice versa?! Is there really the separation of the Church and State?! The Church is the guardian of the spiritual and moral dimensions of life while the State is in charge of the temporal welfare of all. Both exist because of Gods creative and salvific act. As such, they are meant for harmony in the service of all human beings.! The State is duty-bound to be responsible for the promotion of socio-political order, economic stability, religious freedom and ecological balance.

There are actions of the State which have moral and religious dimensions. The Church being the interpreter of the Divine law therefore has some kind of ascendancy over such actions of the State. The influence of the Church upon the State concerns the following: enactments of human rights! family life! birth control! justice and peace! global solidarity! religious freedom