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MT SNG TO NH TRONG XY DNG TNG HM NH CAO TNG

KTS. L Hoi Vit Trn Th Hng (chp bt) y l gii php ang c p dng ti mt d n Vit Nam. Do d n vn cha hon thnh nn cc thng tin c th s khng c nu trong bi ny. Sng kin ny do tp th nhng ngi lm d n a ra. Bi ny ch cp n gii php nh mt cch ng dng thnh cng PPLSTVM, cc gii php chi tit s khng c m t. I. PHNG PHP THI CNG TOP DOWN 1) Xy dng tng vy: chng bn hng ca tng hm, ngn st l t, chng thm nc. 2) Khoan cc nhi: khoan cc n su thit k, btng ct thp (BTCT) cc n cao y tng hm. 3) Lp t King-post: l thanh thp chu lc tm thi trong qu trnh thi cng tng hm (thanh mu trong hnh Top Down 1). 4) BTCT sn tng trt da trn h King-post chu lc. 5) o t n tng trt tip tc lm tng hm B1, sau l nhng tng hm tip theo v mng nh. Song song l xy t tng trt ln cc tng lu trn cao. Cc thanh King-post c BTCT bc xung quanh tr thnh ct chng cho ta nh (hnh Top Down 2).

Phng php Top-Down c quy trnh xy dng nh sau

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u im ca phng php hin ti: gim thi gian thi cng do xy dng cng lc cc tng hm v cc tng trn. Phm vi p dng: p dng cho nhng cng trnh c thc hin ng tin (ngha l qu trnh xy dng khng b ngng gin on). II. BI TON

Trong tnh hnh kinh t suy thoi, nh u t khng vn cung ng cho vic thi cng nn cng trnh s phi tm dng mt thi gian (khong 1-2 nm). Nh vy cc thanh Kingpost bng thp s b g khi trong lng t lu ngy. Do , mt vn c t ra: Lm th no cc thanh King-post kh nng chu lc sau thi gian 2 nm hoc lu hn na trong khi vn s dng phng php thi cng Top-Down m khng lm pht sinh chi ph. Bng kinh nghim v cch lm thng thng, ta c mt s gii php nh sau: MK1: Nu lm cho King-post khng b g bng cch sn (ph) mt lp chng n mn th ngn nga c tc g st, chi ph khng cao nhng khng m bo s ngn g st cho thanh khi lp t (v thanh King-post c th b try xc lp sn ph khi ng xung lng t). MK2: Nu lm thanh King-post to, dy hn th tng c thi hn chng n mn ca thanh nhng iu ny li tng chi ph. Cha k, nu thanh King-post gp phi v tr c nc ngm v khong cht n mn mnh th gii php ny khng kh thi. MK3: Nu dng vt liu mi (thp khng g, gm, si Carbon) ch to thanh King-post th gii quyt trit kh nng chng n mn ca thanh nhng iu ny lm tng chi ph v c th phi thay i cng ngh thi cng.
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Vi mc ch cn t l thanh c kh nng chng n mn vi thi gian khng hn ch (li gii l tng) th vic chn hng gii quyt s dng vt liu mi l hp l. Tuy nhin, y phi gii quyt vn cn li: vic tng chi ph (do s dng nguyn liu mi) mc chp nhn c v khng phi thay i nguyn l lm vic (phng php thi cng). Thng s c trong bi ton Kh nng chng n mn vi thi gian ca thanh King-post Thng s k thut tng ng bn (14) tin cy (27) Cc nhn t c hi sinh ra bi chnh i tng (31) Lng cht th (26)

Chi ph tng cao do thay i kch thc ca thanh King-post

S dng cng c khc phc mu thun k thut, chng ta c (14, 31) = 15, 35, 22, 2 (27, 26) = 21, 28, 40, 3 T cc nguyn tc sng to thu c trn, nguyn tc sng to 40 v 2 c ch . Theo ngn ng vt liu trong ngnh, b tng ct thp chnh l vt liu hp thnh. Vy, thanh King-post thay bng ct b tng ct thp. III. NH GI Vic s dng ct b tng ct thp l ph bin trong xy dng, hn na, cng ngh ang s dng l khoan cc nhi. Nh vy, King-post s l on cc nhi ko di bng b tng ct thp (BTCT).

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Do c tnh ca BTCT l chng n mn rt tt, tui th gn nh vnh vin nn t yu cu bi ton t ra. Cng ngh khoan cc ang c s dng ti cng trng. Tuy gi thnh cao hn thanh King-post bng thp nhng b li, cc ny tr thnh ct ca tng hm nn s tit kim c chi ph lm ct.

Trnh t thi cng tng t nh thi cng Top-Down, b qua bc lp t King-post

IV. KT LUN S cc theo thit k ban u

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Do chuyn cc thnh ct, nn cn tng kh nng chu lc ca cc, ngha l tng tit din cng nh tng chiu su cc. Kt qu l chng ti gim s lng cc so vi thit k ban u (gim 2/3 s ct) nn tit kim hn 100 t ng v rt ngn thi gian thi cng 45 ngy. S cc sau khi iu chnh

V. NHNG IU CN NI THM Mt s bi ton con ny sinh khi trin khai gii php: 1. V cc BTCT sau ny tr thnh ct, nn sai s thng ng cho php l nh hn so vi sai s lm cc mng thng thng 2. V cc BTCT sau ny tr thnh ct, nn phi to mi lin kt vi dm v sn tng hm s c lm sau theo cng ngh Top-Down. Theo cc bn, gii quyt nhng vn ny nh th no? Cng bt m vi cc bn, nhng vn ny chng ti cng gii quyt xong. Nu cc bn c nhng vn cn trao i, xin lin h theo a ch: hoaiviet90@yahoo.com

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