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KY THUT X L NUC NGM

1. Tng quan v nuc ngm


Vit Nam l quc gia c ngun nuc ngm kh phong ph v tr l uong v kh tt v cht luong. Nuc ngm
tn tai trong cc l hng v cc khe nt ca dt d, duoc tao thnh trong giai doan trm tch dt d hoc do su thm
thu, thm ca ngun nuc mt nuc mua.nuc ngm c th tn tai cch mt dt v i mt, vi chuc mt, hay hang
trm mt.
i vi cc h thng cp nuc cng dng th ngun nuc ngm lun l ngun nuc duoc ua thch. Bi v, cc
ngun nuc nt thung bi nhim v luu luong khai thc phi phu thuc vo su bin dng theo ma. Ngun nuc
ngm t chiu nh hung bi cc tc dng ca con ngui. Cht luong nuc ngm thung tt hon cht luong nuc mt
nhiu. Trong nuc ngm hu nhu khng c cc hat keo hay cc hat lo lng, v vi sinh, vi trng gy bnh thp.
Mqt s dqc dim khc nhau gi nuc ngm v nuc mqt
Thng s Nuc ngm Nuc b mqt
Nhit d Tuong di n dinh Thay di theo ma
Cht rn lo lng Rt thp, hu nhu khng c Thung cao v thay di theo ma
Cht khong ho tan t thay di, cao hon so vi nuc mt Thay di tuy thuc cht l uong dt, luong
mua.
Hm luong Fe
2+
, Mn
2+
Thung xuyn c trong nuc Rt thp, ch c khi nuc st dui dy h
Kh CO2 ho tan C nng d cao Rt thp hoc bng 0
Kh O2 ho tan Thung khng tn tai Gn nhu bo ho
Kh NH3 Thung c C khi ngun nuc bi nhim bn
Kh H2S Thung c Khng c
SiO2 Thung c nng d cao C nng d trung bnh
NO
3-
C nng d cao, do bi nhim bi phn
bn ho hoc
Thung rt thp
Vi sinh vt Ch yu l cc vi trng do sat gy ra Nhiu loai vi trng, virut gy bnh v to.
Cc ngun nuc ngm hu nhu khng cha rong to, mt trong nhng nguy n nhn gy nhi m ngun
nuc. Thnh phn dng quan tm trong nuc ngm l cc tap cht ho tan do nh hung ca diu kin dia tng, thi
tit, nang mua, cc qu trnh
phong ho v sinh ho trong khu vuc. nhng vng c diu kin phong ho tt, c nhiu cht bn v luong mua ln
th cht luong nuc ngm d bi nhim bi cc cht khong ho tan, cc cht hu co, mn lu ngy theo nuc mua
ngm vo dt.
Ngoi ra, nuc ngm cng c th bi nhim bn do tc dng ca con ng ui. Cc cht thi ca con ngui v
dng vt, cc cht thi sinh hoat, cht thi ho hoc, v vic s dung phn bn ho hoc.tt c nhng loai cht thi d
theo thi gian n s ngm vo ngun nuc, tch tu dn v lm nhim ngun nuc ngm. c khng t ngun nuc
ngm do tc dng ca con ngui d bi nhim bi cc hop cht hu co kh phn hu, cc vi khun gy bnh, nht l
cc ho cht dc hai nhu cc kim loai nng, du luong thuc tr su v khng loai tr c cc cht phng xa.
2. Mqt s qu trnh co bn x l nuc ngm
C rt nhiu phuong php d x l nuc ngm, tuy thuc vo nhiu yu t nhu: nhu cu cp nuc, tiu
chun dng nuc, dc dim ca ngun nuc ngm, cc diu kin tu nhi n, diu kin kinh t x hi.m chng ta s
lua chon cng ngh x l nuc ngm sao cho ph hop. Tuy nhin c mt s qu trnh co bn c th p dung d x l
nuc ngm duoc tm tat nhu bng sau:
Qu trnh x l Mc dch
- Lm thong - Ly oxy t khng kh d oxy ho sat v mangan ho tri II ho tan trong
nuc.
- Kh kh CO2 nng cao pH ca nuc d dy nhanh qu trnh oxy ho v thu
phn sat, mangan trong dy chuyn cng ngh kh sat v mangan.
- Lm giu oxy d tng th oxy ho kh ca nuc, kh cc cht bn dang
kh ho tan trong nuc.
- Clo ho so b - Oxy ho sat v mangan ho tan dang cc phc cht hu co.
- Loai tr rong, ru, to pht trin trn thnh cc b trn, tao bong cn v b
lang, b loc.
- Trung ho luong ammoniac du, dit cc vi khun tit ra cht nhy tr n mt
lp cc loc.
- Qu trnh khuy trn ho cht - Phn tn nhanh, du phn v cc ho cht khc vo nuc cn x l.
- Qu trnh keo tu v phn ng
tao bng cn
- Tao diu kin v thuc hin qu trnh dnh kt cc hat cn keo phn tn
thnh bng cn c kh nng lang v loc vi tc d kinh t cho php.
- Qu trnh lng - Loai tr ra khi nuc cc hat cn v bng cn c kh nng lang vi tc d
kinh t cho php, lm gim luong vi trng v vi khun.
- Qu trnh loc - Loai tr cc hat cn nh khng lang duoc trong b lang, nhung c kh nng
dnh kt ln b mt hat loc.
- Hp thu v hp thu bng than
hoat tnh
- Kh mi, vi, mu ca nuc sau khi dng phuong php x l truyn thng
khng dat yu cu.
- Flo ho nuc - Nng cao hm luong Flo trong nuc dn 0,6 - 0,9 mg/l d bo v men rng
v xuong cho ngui dng nuc.
- Kh trng nuc - Tiu dit vi khun v vi trng con lai trong nuc sau b loc.
- n djnh nuc - Kh tnh m thuc v tao ra mng bo v cch ly khng cho nuc tip xc
truc tip vi vt liu m trong thnh ng dn d bo v ng v phu tng trn
ng.
- Lm mm nuc - Kh ra khi nuc cc ion Ca
2+
v Mg
2+
dn nng d yu cu.
- Kh mui - Kh ra khi nuc cc cation v anion ca cc mui ho tan dn nng d yu
cu.
3. Kh st trong nuc ngm
3.1 Trqng thi tn tqi t nhi n ca st trong cc ngun nuc
Trong nuc ngm sat thung tn tai dang ion, sat c ho tri 2 (Fe
2+
) l thnh phn ca cc mui ho tan
nhu: Fe(HCO3)2; FeSO4.hm luong sat c trong cc ngun nuc ngm thung cao v phn b khng dng du trong
cc lp trm tch dui dt su. Nuc c hm luong sat cao, lm cho nuc co mi tanh v c mu vng, gy nh
hung khng tt dn cht l uong nuc n ung sinh hoat v sn xut. Do d, khi m nuc c hm luong sat cao hon
gii han cho php theo ti u chun th chng ta phi tin hnh kh sat.
Cc hqp cht v co ca ion st ho trj II
Cc hop cht v co ca ion sat ho tri II:
FeS, Fe(OH)2, FeCO3, Fe(HCO3)2, FeSO4, v.v.
Cc hop cht v co ca ion sat ho tri III:
Fe(OH)3, FeCl3 .trong d Fe(OH)3 l cht keo tu, d dng lang dong trong cc b lang v b loc. V th cc
hop cht v co ca sat ho tan trong nuc hon ton c th x l bng phuong php l hoc: lm thong ly
oxy ca khng kh d oxy ho sat ho tri II th nh sat ho tri III v cho qu trnh thu phn, keo tu Fe(OH)3
xy ra hon ton trong cc b lang, b loc tip xc v cc b loc
Cc phc cht v co ca ion st vi silicat, photphat FeSiO(OH)3
+3
)
Cc phc cht hu co ca ion sat vi axit humic, funvic,.
Cc ion sat ho tan Fe(OH)
+
, Fe(OH)3 tn tai tuy thuc vo gi tri th oxy ho kh v pH ca mi trung.
Cc loai phc cht v hn hop cc ion ho tan ca sat khng th kh bng phuong php l hoc thng
thung, m phi kt hop vi phuong php ho hoc. Mun kh sat dang ny phi cho thm vo nuc cc
cht oxy ho nhu: Cl
-,
KMnO4, Ozone, d ph v lin kt v oxy ho ion sat thnhion ho tri III hoc cho vo
nuc cc cht keo tu FeCl 3 , Al(SO4)3 v kim ho d c gi tri pH thch hop cho qu tr nh dng keo tu cc
loai keo sat v phn xy ra trit d trong cc b lang, b loc tip xc v b loc trong.
4. Cc phuong php kh st trong x l nuc
4.1 Phuong php oxy ho st
Nguyn l ca phuong php ny l oxy ho (II) thnh s at (III) v tch chng ra khi nuc dui dang
hydroxyt sat (III). Trong nuc ngm, sat (II) bicacbonat l mt mui khng bn, n d dng thu phn thnh sat (II)
hydroxyt theo phn ng:
Fe(HCO)3)2 + 2H2O Fe(OH)2 + 2H2CO3
Nu trong nuc c oxy ho tan, sat (II) hydroxyt s bi oxy ho thnh sat (III) hydroxyt theo phn ng:
4Fe(OH)2 + 2H2O + O2 4Fe(OH)3
Sat (III) hydroxyt trong nuc kt ta thnh bng cn mu vng v c th tch ra khi nuc mt cch d dng nh
qu trnh lang loc.
Kt hop cc phn ng trn ta c phn ng chung ca qu trnh oxy ho sat nhu sau:
4Fe
2+
+ 8HCO3 + O2 + H2O 4Fe(OH)3 + 8H
+
+ 8HCO3
-
Nuc ngm thung khng cha xy ho tan hoc c hm luong xy ho tan rt thp. tng nng d xy
ho tan trong nuc ngm, bin php don gin nht l lm thong. Hiu qu ca buc lm thong duoc xc dinh theo
nhu cu xy cho qu trnh kh sat.
4.2 Phuong php kh st bng qu trnh xy ho
Lm thong don gin b mt lc
Nuc cn kh sat duoc lm thong bng dn phun mua ngay trn b mt loc. Chiu cao gi n phun thung
ly cao khong 0,7m, l phun c dung knh t 5-7mm, luu luong tui vo khong 10 m
3
/m
2
.h. Luong xy ho tan
trong nuc sau khi lm thong nhit d 25
0
C ly bng 40% luong xy ho tan bo ho ( 25
0
C luong xy bo ho
bng 8,1 mg/l).
Lm thong bng gin mua t nhin
Nuc cn lm thong duoc tui ln gin lm thong mt bc hay nhiu bc vi cc sn ri x hoc tre g.
Luu luong tui v chiu cao thp cng ly nhu trung hop trn. Luong xy ho tan sau lm thong bng 55% luong
xy ho tan bo ho. Hm l uong CO2 sau lm thong gim 50%.
Lm thong cung bc
Cng c th dng thp lm thong cung bc vi luu luong tui t 30 dn 40 m
3
/h. Luong khng kh tip
xc ly t 4 dn 6 m
3
cho 1m
3
nuc. Luong xy ho tan sau lm thong bng 70% hm luong xy ho tan bo ho.
Hm luong CO2 sau lm thong gim 75%.
4.3 Kh st bng ho cht
Khi trong nuc ngun c hm luong tap cht hu co cao, cc cht hu co s tao ra dang keo bo v cc ion
sat, nhu vy mun kh sat phi ph v duoc mng hu cobo v bng tc dung ca cc cht xy ho manh. i vi
nuc ngm, khi lm luong sat qu cao dng thi tn tai c H2S th luong xy thu duoc nh lm thong khng d d
xy ho ht H2S v sat, trong trung hop ny cn phi dng dn ho cht d kh sat.
Bin php kh st bng vi
Khi cho vi vo nuc, d pH ca nuc tng ln. diu kin giu ion OH
-
, cc ion Fe
2+
thu phn nhanh
chng thnh Fe(OH)2 v lang xung mt phn, th xy ho kh tiu chun ca h Fe(OH)2/Fe(OH)3 gim xung, do
d sat (II) d dng chuyn ho thnh sat (III). Sat (III) hydroxyt kt tu thnh bng cn, lang trong b lang v c th
d dng tch ra khi nuc.
Phuong php ny c th p dung cho c nuc mt v nuc ngm. Nhuoc dim ca phuong php ny l phi
dng dn cc thit bi pha ch cng knh, qun l phc tap, cho n n thung kt hop kh sat vi qu tr nh x l khc
nhu x l n dinh nuc bng kim, lm mm nuc bng vi kt hop vi sda.
Bin php kh st bng Clo
Qu trnh kh sat bng clo duoc thuc hin nh phn ng sau:
2Fe(HCO3)2 + Cl2 + Ca(HCO3)2 + 6H2O 2Fe(OH)3CaCl2 + 6H
+
+ 6HCO3
-
Bin php kh sat bng Kali Permanganat (KMnO4)
Khi dng KMnO4 d kh sat, qua trnh xy ra rt nhanh v cn mangan (IV) hydroxyt va duoc tao thnh s
l nhn t xc tc cho qu trnh kh. Phn ng xy ra theo phuong trnh sau:
5Fe
2+
+ MnO4
-
+ 8H
+
5Fe
3+
+ Mn
2+
+ 4H2O
Bin php kh st bng cch lc qua lp vt liu dc bit
Cc vt liu dc bit c kh nng xc tc, dy nhanh qu tr nh xy ho kh Fe
2+
thnh Fe
3+
v gi lai trong
tng loc. Qu trnh din ra rt nhanh chng v c hiu qu cao. Ct den l mt trong nhng cht c dc tnh nhu th.
Bin php kh st bng phuong php trao di ion
Phuong php trao di ion duoc s dung khi kt hop vi qu trnh kh cng. Khi s dung thit bi trao di ion
d kh sat, nuc ngm khng duoc tip xc vi khng kh v Fe
3+
s lm gim kh nng trao di ca cc ionic. Ch c
hiu qu khi kh nuc ngm c hm luong sat thp.
Bin php kh st bng phuong php vi sinh
Mt s loai vi sinh c kh nng xy ho sat trong diu kin m qu trnh xy ho ho hoc xy ra rt kh
khn. Chng ta cy cc mm khun sat trong lp cy loc ca b loc, thng qua hoat dng ca cc vi khun sat d uoc
loai ra khi nuc. Thung s dung thit bi b loc chm d kh sat.
5. Mqt s giai doqn v cng ngh kh st trong n uc cp
Giai don dua cc ho cht vo nuc
Giai doan ny gm c qu trnh lm thong nuc d lm giu xy v kh kh cacbonic cng vi vic pha trn
ho cht vo nuc nhu vi, phn, clo, zn, kali permanganate.
Giai don x l so b
Muc dch ca giai doan ny l nhm tao ra nhng diu kin cho phn ng xy ho kh din ra d uoc hon
ton, nhanh chng. Cc thi t bi cn thit cho giai doan ny l b lang tip xc, b loc so b, b loc tip xc, b lang
ngang hoc lang trong.
Giai don lm sch
Giai doan ny cn dn cc b loc khc nhau. Tuy theo h m luong v thnh phn sat trong nuc ngun cng
vi cht luong noc ngun m quyt dinh quy trnh kh sat cu th, thung duoc xc dinh bng thuc nghim tai ch
kt hop vi cc kt qu tnh ton so b.
Khi hm luong sat cao trn 6mg/l v cn kh trit d kh cacbonic, quy tr nh kh sat s bao gm c ba giai doan
trn.
6. Mqt s thit b| kh st thung duqc s dng
Lm thong don gin trn b mt b lc
Ngui ta dng gin ng khoan l phun mua trn b mt loc, l phun c dung knh 5 dn 7 mm, tia nuc
dng p luc phun ln vi d cao 0,5 dn 0,6m. Luu luong phun vo khong 10m
3
/m
2
.h. Lm thong truc ti trn b
mt b loc ch nn p dung khi nuc ngun c hm luong sat thp v khng phi kh CO2.
Thp lm thong t nhin
S dung thp lm thong tu nhin (gin mua) khi cn lm giu xy kt hop vi kh kh CO2. Do kh nng
trao di ca O2 ln hon CO2 nn thp duoc thit k cho trung hop kh CO2. Gin mua cho kh nng thu duoc luong
xy ho tan bng 55% luong xy bo ho v c kh nng kh duoc 75-80% luong CO2 cn lai sau khi lm thong
khng xung thp hon 5-6mg/l.
Thp lm thong cung bc
Cu tao ca thp lm thong cung bc cng gn ging nhu thp lm thong tu nhin, dy ch khc l
khng kh duoc dua vo thp cung bc bng quat gi. Khng kh di ng uoc chiu vi chiu roi ca cc tia nuc. Luu
luong tui thung ly t 30 dn 40 m
3
/m
2
.h. Luong khng kh cp vo t 4 dn 6m
3
cho 1m
3
nuc cn lm thong.
B lng tip xc
B lang tip xc c chc nng gi nuc lai sau qu trnh lm thong trong mt thi gian d d qu trnh xy
ho v thu phn dat din ra hon ton, dng thi tch mt phn cn nng tr uc khi chuyn sang b loc. Trong thuc
t thung ly thi gian luu ca nuc t 30 dn 45 pht. B lang tip xc c th d uoc thit k nhu b lang dng v
thung dt ngay dui gin lm thong.
B loc tip xc hay b loc so b duoc p dung khi hm luong sat trong nuc ngun cao hoc cn kh dng thi c
mangan. B loc tip xc c cu tao nhu cc b loc thng thung vi lp vt liu loc bng si , than antraxit, snh,
s.c kch thuc hat ln. Tc d loc thung khng ch trong khong 15 dn 20m/h.
B lc cn st
loc sach nuc c cha cn sat, s dung cc b loc nhanh thng thung. Do khc vi b loc can bn bnh
thung ch qu trnh xy ho v thu phn sat con tip tuc xy ra trong lp vt liu loc, n n ngay t du chu ky
loc, cn d bm sn trong lp vt liu loc v d cha cn ca lp vt liu loc s cao hon.
V vy, vt liu loc c th ly cp phi hat ln h on, duong knh trung bnh hat t 0,9 dn 1,3 mm, b dy lp vt liu
loc 1,0 dn 1,2m, tc d loc ly t 5 dn 10m/h. Do cn sat bm chac n n phi ra loc bng nuc v kh kt hop, luu
luong nuc ra thuc t thung dng t 10 dn 12 l/m
2
.s. Nu s dung b loc 2 lp gm antraxit v ct thach anh th
hiu qu x l s cao hon.
7. Cc yu t nh hung dn qu trnh kh st
Tc d phn ng ca qu tr nh xy ho v thu phn Fe
2+
thnh Fe
3+
tuy thuc vo luong oxy ho tan trong
nuc tng ln. oxy ho 1mg sat (II) ti u tn 0,143mg oxy.
Thi gian oxy ho v thu phn sat trn cng trnh phu thuc vo tri s pH ca nuc c th ly nhu sau:
Thi gian ti uu ca qu trnh keo t
pH 6,0 6,5 6,6 6,7 6,8 6,9 7 l7,5
Thi gian tip xc cn thit trong b lang v
b loc (thi gian luu nuc) (pht)
90 60 45 30 25 20 15 10
Thi gian tip xc cn thit (thi gian l uu
nuc) trong b loc tip xc (b loc I) v b
loc trong (b loc dot II) (pht)
60 45 35 25 20 15 12 5
Tc d loc qua b tip xc c th ly 5 -20 m/h tuy thuc vo thi gian luu nuc cn thit v luong cn cn
gi lai sao cho qua b loc dot I hm luong cn cn lai di qua b loc trong (loc dot II) 15mg/l.
Tc d loc qua b loc trong l y 3-9 m/h tuy thuc vo chiu dy v c hat ca lp vt liu loc v thi gian
luu nuc cn thit.
8. p dng qu trnh kh st vo vic x l nuc ngm d cp nuc cho cqng dng dn cu nng thn
Mc dch ca vic x l nuc cp
Cung cp dy d luong nuc cho qu trnh s dung ca ngui dn v dm bo an ton v mt ho hoc, vi
trng hoc.d tho mn cc nhu cu v n ung, sinh hoat dich vu, sn xut.Nuc c cht luong tt, ngon khng
cha cc chy gy duc, gy ra mu, mi, vi ca nuc.
Tm lai, l moi ngun nuc th sau khi qua h thng x l phi dat : "ti u chun v sinh di vi cht l uong
nuc cp cho n ung v sinh hoat - TCVN 5501 - 1991
S liu cn thit d thit k trm x l kh st
Khi thit k tram x l nuc cp c qu trnh kh sat, chng ta cn phi thu thp cc s liu nhu sau: Cng
sut hu ch ca tram, s gi hoat dng trong ngy hay cng sut gi.
Bom nuc lin tuc vi luu luong d ln d loai tr ht nuc tn dong, sau d ly mu ngay tai du b om d
phn tch cc ch tiu:
1. duc
2. mu
3. oxy ha
4. kim
5. cng ton phn v d cng cacbonat
6. pH
7. Tng hm luong sat
8. Hm luong Ion sat ha tri II
9. Hm luong Ion sat ha tri II
10. Hm luong silic, poliphotphat v cc kim loai
nng
11. Hm luong CO2 tu do
12. Hm luong H2S
Kt qu th nghim kh sat tai ch theo phuong php l hoc, ho hoc.
Phn loi nuc ngm theo hm luqng st
Phn loi nuc ngm
Loqi nuc ngm Hm luqng st (mg/l)
Nuc ngm c hm luong sat thp 0,4 - 10
Nuc ngm c hom luong sat trung bnh 10 - 20
Nuc ngm c hm luong sat cao >20
Theo TCVN <0,3
X l nuc ngm c hm luqng st thp (hm luqng st <10 Mg/L)
Cng ngh x l: (Lm thong don gin v loc)
iu kin p dung
1. Tng hm luong sat: 10 mg/l
2. mu ca nuc khi chua tip xc vi khng kh <15
0
3. Hm luong SiO2
2-
< 2 mg/l
4. Hm luong H2S < 0,5 mg/l
5. Hm luong NH4
+
< 1 mg/l
6. Nhu cu oxy = d oxy ha + 0,47 H2S + 0,15Fe
2+
< 7mg/l
7. pH l7
So d cng ngh x l chung
Nuc ngm duoc bom ln t ging khoan hay ging do duoc dua vo lm thong don gi n. C th dng mng trn,
gin mua, ejector thu kh hay bom nn kh d lm thoang nuc. Qu trnh lm thong dy ch yu l cung cp oxy
cho nuc. Nuc sau khi lm thong duoc loc qua mt lp vt liu loc.
Tai b loc Fe
2+
v oxy ha tan s duoc tch ra v bm trn b mt ca cc vt liu loc, tao nn mng xc
tc bao gm cc ion oxy, Fe
2+
, Fe
3+
. Mng xc tc s tng cung qu trnh hp thu v oxy ha Fe do xy ra trong mi
trung di th. Trong phuong php ny khng di hi phi oxy ha hon ton Fe
2+
thnh Fe
3+
v keo tu.
X l nuc ngm c hm luqng st cao (hm luqng st > 10 mg/l
Cng ngh x l: Lm thong - Lang hoc loc tip xc - Loc trong
iu kin p dung
1. oxy ho < (Fe
2+
/28 + 5), mg/l
2. Tng hm luong sat: >10 mg/l
3. Tng hm luong mui khong <1000 mg/l
4. Hm luong SiO2
2-
<2 mg/l
5. Hm luong H2S <1 mg/l
B lang
nuc ra loc
Nuc ngm
Lm thong don
gin Loc
Clorine
Tip xc kh
trng
X cn
Nuc sach
6. Hm luong NH4
+
<1,5 mg/l
7. Nhu cu oxy = d oxy ho + 0,47 H2S + 0,15Fe
2+
<10 mg/l
8. pH < 6,8 th tnh ton thi t bi lm khong theo diu hin kh kh CO2 nhm tng pH.
9. pH > 6,8 th tnh ton thi t bi lm khong theo diu kin ly oxy d kh sat.
Nuc ngm duoc bom ln t ging khoan hay ging do duoc dua vo lm thong bng dn mua, lm
thong cung bc d lm thong nuc. Qu trnh lm thong dy ch yu l cung cp oxy cho nuc. Nuc sau khi
lm thong duoc dn vo b khuy trn v lang cn, truc khi di vo b nuc duoc tip xc vi ho cht c tc dung
dy nhanh qu trnh oxy ho ho tan thnh sat III, nuc t b lang duoc dn qua b loc, b loc co cha nhiu lp vt
liu loc.Nuc sach sau khi qua b loc duoc kh trng bng dung dich clorine truc khi cung cp cho ngui s dung.
trnh hin tuong tac loc b loc, do d dn chu ky chng ta phi tin h nh ra loc bng nuc (nuc +
kh). Cn b lang duoc dua vo b nn cn.