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go to DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "A"

A Abbreviation or symbol for Absorption coefficient, Acceleration, Ampere, Attenuation coefficient, Fine-structure constant, Helmhotz free energy, Magnetic vector potential. A-2 tire A term used for tire sizes 16.00 and larger in nominal cross section. Also called earthmover, off-road, or off-the-road tire. A4R70 Acronym for Automatic Overdrive Electronic

Wide Ratio Transmission

AA

Acronym for Automobile Association a term used in Great Britain.

AAA

Acronym for American Automobile Association AA!M Acronym for Association of American Battery Manufacturers, Inc. AA" Acronym for Au#iliary Air "ontrol $alve AA%& Acronym for Annual Average aily Traffic -- a measure of traffic flow. AA' Acronym for Association of Automotive Em!loyers ( oland!. AA(A

Acronym for Automotive Aftermar)et (n*ustry AA,A Acronym for American Automobile ,abeling Act AAM Acronym for Alliance of Automobile

Association+

Manufacturers+

AA-

Acronym for Au#iliary acceleration pump A arm .ee A-arm A-arm

A-arm A .uspension lin"age formed in t#e s#a$e of an A or " found commonly on t#e Front suspension. %#e sides of t#e two legs of t#e A-arm are connected to t#e

"hassis by rubber !ushings and t#e $ea" of t#e Aarm is attac#ed to t#e w#eel assembly. &n t#is way, t#e w#eel can freely move u$ and down. 'ometimes t#ere is an u$$er A-arm, a lower A-arm, or bot# u$$er and lower A-arms. %#e Britis# call it a #ishbone. Also .ee

%ouble %ouble a-arm


AA.

/ishbone

Acronym for Air aspirator system+ AA.H&0 Acronym for American Association AA$ AA

%igh#ay and Trans!ortation Officials

of

$tate

AA

Acronym for Anti-Afterburning "alve ((azda! F Acronym for Annual Average Wee&day 'lo#s -- a measure of traffic flow. & Acronym for Annual Average Wee&day Traffic -a measure of traffic flow.
1. 'ymbol for susce$tance in an A" circuit (unit is

b t#e siemens) measured by t#e negative of t#e reactive com$onent of t#e admittance 2. 'ymbol for magnetic flu( density in a magnetic circuit (unit is t#e tesla) 1%*1 +bm -,*1 -sm-,!. !1 An acronym for !attery positive voltage used to designate $ositive voltage at aor near t#e battery level.

!A

An abbreviation for British Association w#ic# is a term used to describe a series of fine, small diameter t#reads for electrical and $recision e.ui$ment. !abbitt An Alloy of tin, co$$er, and antimony #aving good antifriction $ro$erties. /sed as a facing for bearings. Also .ee !abbitt2s metal !abbitt metal .ee !abbitt !abbitt2s metal !abbitt2s metal A bearing alloy originally $atented by &saac Babbitt, com$osed of 00 $arts tin, five antimony, and one co$$er. Addition of lead greatly e1tends range of service. 2om$osition varies widely, wit# tin 0-304, co$$er 1.0-64, antimony 5-104, lead 0-67.04. !abysitter 2ollo.uial term for a co-signer or co-buyer on an automobile $urc#ase contract. !abcoc) an* ilco# boiler A water-tube boiler consisting in its sim$lest form of a #orizontal drum from w#ic# is sus$ended a $air of #eaders carrying between t#em an inclined ban" of straig#t tubes. !abo2s la/ %#e va$or $ressure of a li.uid is lowered w#en a nonvolatile substance is dissolved in it, by an amount $ro$ortional to t#e concentration of t#e solution. !aby A small incandescent s$otlig#t used in film and television $roduction. !aby seat

!aby .eat A s$ecially designed seating device (w#ic# is not generally standard e.ui$ment! to #old safely very young c#ildren (usually under t#e weig#t of 30 )ilograms!. !A"
1. Acronym for !loo* Alcohol "ontent 2. Acronym for by!ass air control system

3. Acronym for By!ass air control valve

!ac) A large vat used in various industries, suc# as dyeing, soa$-ma"ing, and brewing. Also s$elled bec& Also .ee !ac)bone chassis !ac)bone frame !e !ac) blo/bac) Fee*bac) Frost !ac) 4amm bac) -opping bac) .pine-bac) Roll !ac) !ac) ampere-turns

%#at $art of t#e armature am$ere-turns w#ic# $roduces a direct demagnetizing effect on t#e main $oles. Also called demagneti)ing am!ere-turns !ac) annealing 2ontrolling t#e softening of a fully wor" #ardened metal so as to $roduce t#e desired degree of tem$er by $artial recrystallization. Also .ee Annealing &emper !ac) a#le %#e rear a1le. !ac) a#le ratio .ee Final *rive ratio !ac) ban* %#e outside member of a door or window casing. !ac)bone %#e ma8or long-distance, multi-c#annel lin" in a telecommunication networ", from w#ic# smaller lin"s branc# off Also .ee !ac)bone frame !ac)bone chassis .ee !ac)bone frame !ac)bone frame

!ac)bone Frame A ve#icle Frame, #aving t#e cross-section of a rectangular bo1, t#at runs along t#e center of t#e ve#icle and occu$ies t#e s$ace between t#e seats. %#is

bo1 generally divides at t#e front, running along eac# side of t#e 5earbo# and engine u$ to a crossmember to w#ic# t#e Front suspension $ieces are attac#ed. At t#e rear a similar triangular frame encloses t#e finaldrive #ousing and $rovides attac#ing $oints for t#e Rear suspension. 9ig#tness combined wit# #ig# &orsional rigi*ity are features of t#is frame design, made famous by 2olin 2#a$man wit# t#e 9otus :lan. Also .ee

&ubular bac)bone frame

!ac)bone net/or) A #ig#-ca$acity com$uter networ" t#at lin"s toget#er ot#er networ"s of lower ca$acity. ;iber o$tic cables are often used to form t#ese lin"s. !ac) coupling Any form of cou$ling w#ic# $ermits t#e transfer of energy from t#e out$ut circuit of an am$lifier to its in$ut circuit. Also .ee Fee*bac) !ac) *io*e .ee !ac)/ar* *io*e !ac) e*ging A met#od of cutting a tile or bric" by c#i$$ing away t#e biscuit below t#e glazed face, t#e front itself being scribed. !ac) 'MF %#e 'MF w#ic# arises in an inductance (because of rate of c#ange of current!, in an electric motor (because of flu1 cutting! or in a $rimary cell (because of $olarization!, or in a secondary cell (w#en being c#arged!. Also called counter EM' !ac)-emf cells

2ells connected into an electric circuit in suc# a way t#at t#eir emf o$$oses t#e flow of current in t#e circuit. !ac) emission :mission of electrons from t#e anode. !ac) en* +#en t#e dealer sends a ve#icle $urc#ase contract to t#e ban" for financing, t#e dealer is given an e1tra bonus (t#e bac" end! from t#e ban" for c#oosing t#is ban". !ac)fill (aterials used to re$lace $reviously e1cavated material. !ac)fire 1. assage of unburned fuel mi1ture into t#e '#haust system w#ere it is ignited and causes an '#plosion (bac"fire! $rematurely. 2. 'ometimes (gnition ta"es $lace in t#e (nta)e manifol* by a flame from a "ylin*er because t#e (nta)e valve lea"s. Burning of t#e fuel mi1ture in t#e (nta)e manifol* may be caused by faulty &iming, crossed $lug wires, lea"y (nta)e valve, etc. 3. A welding term referring to a s#ort !o! of t#e torc# flame followed by e1tinguis#ing of t#e flame or continued burning of t#e gasses. !ac)firing <e$eated bac"fires in t#e e1#aust or t#e cylinders. !ac)fitting (a"ing c#anges to nuclear (and ot#er! $lants already designed or built, e.g., to cater to c#anges in safety criteria. !ac)-flap hinge A #inge in two s.uare leaves, screwed to t#e face of a door w#ic# is too t#in to $ermit t#e use of a butt #inge. !ac)flo/ scavenging .ee ,oop scavenging

!ac)flushing us#ing fluid in a direction o$$osite of normal flow. %#is is done for cleaning t#e engine=s cooling system. .ee Flushing the cooling system !ac) focus %#e distance between t#e rear surface of a lens and t#e image of an ob8ect at infinity. !ac) gear A s$eed-reducing gear fitted to t#e #eadstoc" of a beltdriven metal-turning lat#e. &t consists of a sim$le lays#aft, w#ic# may be broug#t into gear wit# t#e coned $ulley and mandrel w#en re.uired. !ac)groun* :1traneous signals arising from any cause w#ic# mig#t be confused wit# t#e re.uired measurements, e.g., in electrical measurements of nuclear $#enomena and of radioactivity, it would include counts emanating from am$lifier noise, cosmic rays and insulator lea"age. !ac)groun* 6ob A tas" #aving a low $riority wit#in a multi$rogramming system. Also .ee 7ob 8ueue !ac)groun* noise :1traneous noise contaminating sound measurements and w#ic# cannot be se$arated from wanted signals. ;or e1am$le residual out$ut from micro$#ones, $ic"u$s, lines giving a signal-to-noise ratio. Also called

ground noise

!ac)groun* ra*iation <adiation coming from sources ot#er t#an t#at being observed. !ac)groun* vi*eo (BG-! A tec#ni.ue for overlaying video on $reviously recorded de$t# multi$le1 audio. Also called video on sound *"O$+.

!ac)han* /el*ing +elding in t#e direction o$$osite to t#e direction t#at t#e gas flame is $ointing. Also called bac&#ard #elding. Also .ee Forehan* /el*ing !ac)heating :1cess #eating of a cat#ode due to bombardment by #ig#-energy electrons returning to t#e cat#ode. &n magnetrons, it may be sufficient to "ee$ t#e cat#ode at o$erating tem$erature wit#out e1ternal #eating. !ac)ing 1. 'ome material $laced on t#e root side of a weld to aid control of $enetration. ,. 9ig#t-absorbent layer on t#e rear surface of $#otogra$#ic film or $late to reduce unwanted e1$osure >. A meterological term describing t#e c#anging of a wind in a counter-cloc"wise direction. Also $eering .ee

Also .ee .teel bac)ing !ac)ing boar*s +edge-s#a$ed wooden boards between w#ic# an unbound boo" is #eld in t#e lying$ress, w#ile t#e 8oints are being formed for attac#ing t#e case. !ac)ing pa* A rubber disc w#ic# is secured to a s$indle w#ic# in turn is attac#ed to a drill or ot#er tool w#ic# rotates t#e s$indle. An abrasive disc or $olis#ing disc is secured to t#e bac"ing $ad. !ac)ing plate

!ac)ing plate 1. %#e $art of a drum bra"e to w#ic# t#e w#eel cylinder(s! and t#e bra"e s#oes are attac#ed. ,. A $ressed steel $late u$on w#ic# t#e bra"e s#oes, w#eel cylinder, and anc#or $in are mounted. Also

!ra)e bac)ing plate

.ee

!ac)ing-up 1. rinting on t#e second side of a s#eet. ,. Bac"ing a letter$ress $rinting $late to re.uired #eig#t. !ac)-)ic) %#e violent reversal of an internal-combustion engine during starting due to a !ac)fire !ac)lash 1. %#e amount of !lay or "learance between two $arts. &n t#e case of gears, it refers to #ow muc# one gear can be moved bac" and fort# wit#out moving t#e gear into w#ic# it is mes#ed.

,. (ec#anical deficiency in a tuning control, wit# a difference in dial reading between cloc"wise and countercloc"wise rotation. >. ro$erty of most regenerative and oscillator circuits, by w#ic# oscillation is maintained wit# a smaller $ositive feedbac" t#an is re.uired for ince$tion. !ac)light 1. %#e rear window of a ve#icle. (ost $eo$le call it a rear #indo# and erroneously t#in" of bac&light as t#e taillig#t. 2. %#e lig#t source (often a cold cat#ode disc#arge in a flat fluorescent envelo$e! used in some lig#tmodulating flat $anel dis$lays suc# as t#ose based on ,"% !ac)light compensation (B92! %#e o$ening of t#e iris to correctly e1$ose a bac"lit sub8ect w#ic# would ot#erwise be a sil#ouette !ac)light *efogging system ?eated rear window !ac)light heater ?eated rear window !ac) lighting 9ig#ting illuminating t#e sub8ect from be#ind, o$$osite t#e camera, often to $rovide rim lig#t or #alo effects. !ac) lobe 9obe of $olar diagram for antenna, micro$#one, etc. w#ic# $oints in t#e reverse direction to t#at re.uired. !ac)loc)ing ?olding a signal lever $artially restored until com$letion of a $redetermined se.uence of o$eration. !ac)matter %#e items w#ic# follow t#e main te1t of a boo", i.e., a$$endices, notes, glossary, bibliogra$#y, inde1. %#e /@ term is end matter !ac) observation

An observation made wit# instrument on station 8ust left. Also called bac& sight !ac) panel %#e $anel of t#e body s#ell set underneat# t#e trun" lid. &t is sometimes referred to as t#e rear valance if t#e area below t#e trun" lid consists of only a single $anel t#at e1tends down to t#e bottom of t#e body) in many designs, #owever, t#e rear valance is a se$arate #orizontal $anel t#at e1tends from t#e rear bum$er area downward. %#e Britis# term is rear !anel Also see ,o/er !ac) -anel !ac)plate Britis# term for !ra)e bac)ing plate !ac)-porch effect %#e $rolonging of t#e collector current in a transistor for a brief time after t#e in$ut signal ($articularly if large! #as decreased to zero. !ac) pressure 1. %#e Resistance to t#e flow of '#haust gases t#roug# t#e '#haust system. By rerouting t#e e1#aust gases for noise su$$ression, a Muffler causes bac" $ressure, but a straig#t $i$e alone causes only minimal bac" $ressure. 'ome engines re.uire bac" $ressure, so t#at removing t#e '#haust system will cause internal damage. 2. ressure in low side of refrigerating systems) also called suction !ressure or lo#-side !ressure. >. %#e $ressure o$$osing t#e motion of t#e $iston of an engine on its e1#aust stro"e. 6. %#e e1#aust $ressure of a turbine. &ncreased by clogged or defective e1#aust system. 0. ressure against w#ic# a fluid or gas is flowing, resulting from friction in lines, restrictions in $i$es, valves, $ressure in vessel to w#ic# fluid is flowing, #ydrostatic #ead, or ot#er im$ediment t#at causes resistance to fluid flow.

Also .ee '#haust bac) pressure 9egative bac) pressure valve 9egative bac) pressure mo*ulate* valve !ac) pressure mo*ulate* .ee 9egative bac) pressure mo*ulate* valve !ac) pressure mo*ulate* valve .ee 9egative bac) pressure mo*ulate* valve !ac)pressure &rans*ucer '5R $alve .ee (ntegral !ac)pressure &rans*ucer '5R $alve !ac) -ressure &rans*ucer $alve .ee '#haust !ac) -ressure &rans*ucer $alve !ac)-pressure turbine A steam turbine from w#ic# t#e w#ole of t#e e1#aust steam, at a suitable $ressure, is ta"en for #eating $ur$oses. !ac) pressure valve .ee 9egative bac) pressure valve !ac)pressure variable trans*ucer (B-%! a system combining a $orted '5R valve and a bac"$ressure variable &rans*ucer to control emissions of AB1 !ac) pro6ection 1. ro8ection of a $icture, from film, trans$arency, or video, on to a translucent screen to be viewed from t#e o$$osite side, ,. A form of motion $icture com$osite $#otogra$#y in w#ic# t#e $ro8ected $icture forms t#e bac"ground to action ta"ing $lace in front of it, bot# being $#otogra$#ed toget#er. !ac) ra)e

&n a lat#e tool, t#e inclination of t#e to$ surface or face to a $lane $arallel to t#e base of t#e tool. !ac)rest %#e bac" (u$rig#t! $art of t#e seat against w#ic# your bac" reclines. !ac) scatter %#e deflection of radiation or $articles by scattering t#roug# angles greater t#an 30C wit# reference to t#e original direction of travel. !ac)-seat 1. An air conditioning term w#ic# means to rotate a service valve countercloc"wise all t#e way down until t#e valve is bac"-seated. +#en referring to a stem ty$e service valve, t#e term #as a more s$ecific meaning-in t#e bac"-seated $osition, t#e valve outlet to t#e system is o$en and t#e service $ort in t#e valve is closed (its normal o$erating $osition!. ,. %#e seating be#ind t#e front $assenger andDor driver !ac)-seat *river A $erson w#o is not $#ysically in control of t#e ve#icle, but w#o gives driving instruction to t#e driver, usually in an obno1ious manner. !ac) seating ;luid o$ening or closing suc# as a gauge o$ening to seat t#e 8oint w#ere t#e valve stem goes t#roug# t#e valve body. !ac) sight .ee !ac) observation !ac)spacing rocess w#ic# maintains sync#ronization w#en video recording is sto$$ed and started. %#e ta$e being rolled bac" for roug#ly one second at t#e end of a recorded segment t#en switc#ed into $lay to com$are and sync#ronize t#e control trac& $ulses wit# t#e

incoming sync#ronization $ulses before recording begins again. !ac)-step /el*ing +elding small sections of a 8oint in a direction o$$osite t#e direction t#at t#e weld as a w#ole is $rogressing. !ac)stop %#e structure of a relay w#ic# limits t#e travel of t#e armature away from t#e $ole-$iece or core. !ac)-to-bac) arallel connection of valves, wit# t#e anode of one connected to t#e cat#ode of t#e ot#er, or transistors in $arallel in o$$osite directions, to allow control of A2 current wit#out rectification. !ac) up %o go in reverse. !ac) up alarm An annoying loud bee$ing w#ic# is re$eatedly sounded w#en a ve#icle (usually a large truc"! is $laced in reverse. &t is designed to warn $edestrians be#ind t#e ve#icle. %#e Britis# term is reversing #arning !ac) up light A w#ite lig#t w#ic# is located at t#e rear of t#e ve#icle and is illuminated w#en t#e transmission is $laced in reverse. %#e Britis# term is reversing light !ac)-voltage -oltage w#ic# o$$oses t#e current w#en t#e current in an inductive circuit c#anges and t#e magnetic field cuts t#e conductors. Also .ee .elf-in*uction bac)-voltage !ac)/ar* busying A$$lying busy condition at t#e incoming end of a trun" or 8unction (usually during testing or fault-clearance! to indicate at outgoing end t#at circuit must not be used. !ac)/ar* *io*e

signal

Bne wit# c#aracteristic of reverse s#a$e to normal. Also called A, diode or bac& diode !ac)/ar* hol* A met#od of interloc"ing t#e lin"s of a switc#ing c#ain by originating a loc"ing condition in t#e final lin" and e1tending it successively bac"wards to eac# of t#e $receding lin"s !ac)/ar* lea* .ee !ac)/ar* shift !ac)/ar* shift (ovement of t#e brus#es of a commutating mac#ine around t#e commutator, from t#e neutral $osition, and in a direction o$$osite to t#at of t#e rotation of t#e commutator, so t#at t#e brus#es s#ort-circuit zero emf conductors w#en t#e load current, t#roug# armature reaction, results in a rotation of t#e neutral a1is of t#e air-ga$ flu1. '#ifting t#e brus#es in t#is way reduces s$ar"ing on t#e commutator. Also called bac&#ard

lead

!ac)/ar* signaling 'ignaling from t#e called to t#e calling end of a circuit. !ac)/ar*-/ave tube General term for a family of microwave traveling#ave tubes in w#ic# energy on a slow-wave circuit or structure, lin"ed closely to t#e electron beam, flows in t#e o$$osite direction to t#e electrons. %#ey can be used as stable, low-noise am$lifiers or as oscillators, as t#e latter, t#ey can be easily tuned over a wide fre.uency range by altering #e beam voltage. !ac)/ar* /el*ing .ee !ac)han* /el*ing !ac)/ater +ater, containing fine fibers, loading and ot#er additives, removed in t#e forming section of a $a$er or board-ma"ing mac#ine. &t is generally re-used wit#in

t#e system or clarified in a saveall to recover sus$ended matter. !ac)yar* mechanic A $erson, w#et#er .ualified or not, w#o re$airs #is own ve#icle or t#ose of ot#ers and wor"s in #is own $ro$erty. !A" level Acronym for Blood Alcohol -ontent level !a*ge An emblem wit# a manufacturer=s name andDor logo on a $late to identify a model or com$onent. Also .ee !onnet ba*ge Hoo* ba*ge !a*ge engineering +#en a manufacturer sells two identical ve#icles but t#e model names are different, #e is badge engineering. ;or e1am$le, General (otors may sell a ve#icle as a 2#evrolet or a ontiac w#ere t#e only difference is t#e model name, logo, and more or less c#rome or ot#er minor alterations. !a*ging %#e act of a manufacturer in !a*ge engineering !affle

!affle
1. An obstruction (e.g., $late or vane! used to slow

down or divert t#e flow of gases, li.uids, sound, etc. %#ey are found in t#e Fuel tan), "ran)case, Muffler, and Ra*iator.

,. :1tended surface surrounding a dia$#ragm of a sound source (louds$ea"er! so t#at an acoustic s#ort-circuit is $revented. >. Any device to im$ede or divide a fluid flow in a tan" to reduce slos#ing of li.uid. 6. lates fitted between cylinders of air-cooled engines to assist cooling. 0. &nternal structure or electrode, wit# no e1ternal connection, used in gas-filled tubes to control t#e disc#arge or its decay. 6. An ob8ect $laced in an Appliance to c#ange t#e direction of or retard t#e flow of gas, air, gas-air mi1tures, or flue (e1#aust! gases. 5. A wall or $artition inside a li.uid tan" t#at in#ibits t#e flow of fluids reducing t#e slos# effect t#at li.uid tan"ers e1$erience. Also

Air Horn !o# Flue gas ,oa*-!earing Flue 5as 9on-,oa*-!earing Flue 5as !affle

!affle baffle baffle !affle

.ee

!affle lou*spea)er An o$en-dia$#ragm louds$ea"er, in w#ic# t#e radiation of sound $ower is en#anced by surrounding it wit# a large $lane baffle, generally of wood. !affle plate 1. A metal $late t#at acts as a !affle. ,. A $late used to $revent t#e movement of a fluid in t#e direction w#ic# it would normally follow, and to direct it into t#e desired $at#. >. late inserted into waveguide to $roduce c#ange in mode of transmission.

.ee %irectional !affle -late !ag .ee Air bag "ourier bag "ruiser bag %river air bag Han*lebar !ag -assenger-si*e air bag .hot bag .i*e impact air bag &an) bag !ag *rop A location w#ere your su$$lies #ave been cac#ed. &n randonneuring events of 1,00 "m, you can $re-arrange to #ave a bag of e1tra clot#es and ot#er su$$lies waiting for you at a $rescribed control (i.e., c#ec"$oint!. Also called a dro!. !agger A motorcycle e.ui$$ed wit# saddlebags and ot#er touring amenities. !ag mol*ing /se of a fle1ible membrane ( t#e bag! to e1ert $ressure, usually about one atmos$#ere, on a t#ermosetting com$osite ,aminate or sandwic# com$onent w#ile it is curing at ambient tem$erature in an o$en mold. ressure can be generated eit#er by evacuating t#e inside of t#e bag (vacuum bag molding! or by $ressurizing its outer surface ($ressure bag molding!. !ag pump A form of bellows $um$, in w#ic# t#e valved dis" ta"ing t#e $lace of t#e buc"et is connected to t#e base of t#e barrel by an elastic bag, distended at intervals by rings. !ail

%#e s$ring-wire loo$ used to secure t#e cover on most Master cylin*er reservoirs. !ailey bri*ge A tem$orary bridge made by assembling $ortable $refabricated $anels. A nose is $ro8ected over rollers across t#e stream, being followed by t#e bridge $ro$er, wit# roadway. Also used over $ontoons. !aily furnace An electric-resistance furnace in w#ic# t#e resistance material is crus#ed co"e $laced between carbon electrodes) used for #eating ingots and bars in rolling mills, for annealing, etc. !ainite A microstructural $roduct formed in steels w#en cooled from t#e austenite state at rates or transformation tem$eratures intermediate between t#ose w#ic# form !earlite martensite, i.e., between about 700 and 000C @. &t is an acicular structure of su$ersaturated ferrite containing $articles of carbide, t#e dis$ersions of t#e latter de$ending on t#e formation tem$erature. &ts #ardness is intermediate between t#at of $earlite and martensite and e1#ibits mec#anical $ro$erties similar to t#ose of tem$ered martensite in a steel of t#e same carbon content. !ait .ee !ear bait !aize A lig#tweig#t woollen felt used to cover $ool tables and bulletin boards. !a)e A $rocess of drying or curing $aint by using #eat. !a)e* core A dry sand core ba"ed in t#e oven to render it #ard and to fi1 its s#a$e. Also see "ore san*

!a)e* images %#e tec#ni.ue of #eating a $rinting $late (mainly lit#ogra$#ic! to #arden t#e $rinting image and t#us increase t#e image=s resistance to wear, #ence lengt#ening t#e run e1$ectancy on t#e $ress. !a)elite %#e trademar" for a synt#etic t#ermosetting $lastic Resin used in electrical $arts because it is a good insulator. %#e name comes from its inventor, 9. ?. Bae"eland, 176>-1366. !a)e-out reliminary #eating of com$onents of a vacuum device to release absorbed gases. !a)ing finish aint t#at re.uires ba"ing in order to dry. !a)ing temperature %#e tem$erature at w#ic# a varnis# or $aint must be ba"ed to develo$ desired final $ro$erties of strengt# and #ardness. !alance 1. %#e state in w#ic# weig#t is evenly distributed. ,. %#e action of a$$lying weig#ts or drilling #oles in somet#ing to establis# even weig#t distribution so t#at vibration is reduced. >. Ad8ustment of sources of sound in studios so t#at t#e final transmission ad#eres to an artistic standard. 6. 'aid to be obtained in bridge measurements w#en t#e various im$edances forming t#e arms of t#e bridge #ave been ad8usted, so t#at no current flows t#roug# t#e detector. Aero*ynamic Automatic !alance !ra)e "ounter balance !alance shaft balance balance

hite

"ran)shaft counter-balance %ynamic balance 'lectrical !alance Harmonic balancer Heat balance 4inetic balance 0ff-car balance 0n-car balance :uartz-fiber !alance .pool balance valve .pring !alance .tatic balance .teering /heel balance &ire balance heel balancer !alance bar %#e #eavy beam by w#ic# a canal-loc" gate may be swung on its -intle, and w#ic# $artially balances t#e outer end of t#e gate. !alance bo# A bo1, filled wit# #eavy material, used to counterbalance t#e weig#t of t#e 8ib and load of a crane of t#e cantilever ty$e. !alance control A switc#ing device on a stereo radio w#ic# ad8usts t#e amount of sound coming from t#e left and rig#t s$ea"ers or from t#e front and rear s$ea"ers. !alance-crane A crane wit# two arms, one #aving counter$oise arrangements to balance t#e load ta"en by t#e ot#er. !alance* amplifier Bne in w#ic# t#ere are two identical signal-#andling branc#es o$erating in $#ase o$$osition, wit# in$ut and out$ut connections balanced to ground. !alance*-armature pic)-up A $ic"-u$ in w#ic# t#e re$roducing needle is #eld by a screw in a magnetic arm, w#ic# is $ivoted so t#at its motion diverts magnetic flu1 from one arm of a

magnetic circuit to anot#er, t#ereby inducing emf in coils on t#ese arms. !alance* circuit ;or A2 and %", a circuit w#ic# is balanced to ground $otential, i.e., t#e two conductors are at e.ual and o$$osite $otentials wit# reference to ground at every instant. !alance* cran)shaft A cran"s#aft wit# e1tended reinforcements to form counterbalancing or act as a vibration dam$er. !alance* current A term used, in connection wit# $oly$#ase circuits, to denote currents w#ic# are e.ual to all t#e $#ases. Also a$$lied to %" t#ree-wire systems. !alance* *raft A system of air-su$$ly to a boiler furnace, in w#ic# one fan forces air t#roug# t#e grate, w#ile a second, situated in t#e u$ta"e, e1#austs t#e flue gases. %#e $ressure in t#e furnace is t#us "e$t atmos$#eric, i.e., is balanced. !alance* *raught A system of air-su$$ly to a boiler furnace, in w#ic# one fan forces air t#roug# t#e grate, w#ile a second, situated in t#e u$ta"e, e1#austs t#e flue gases. %#e $ressure in t#e furnace is t#us "e$t atmos$#eric, i.e., is balanced. !alance* engine An engine in w#ic# all t#e reci$rocating $arts suc# as $istons and connecting rods are ad8usted to e1actly t#e same weig#t. !alance *isc A disc-s#a$ed device in a centrifugal $um$ w#ic# is attac#ed to t#e $um$ s#aft. %#e disc lifts w#en a force is a$$lied to t#e underside of t#e disc allowing $ressure to lea" $ast until t#e a1ial forces are balanced. !alance* laminate

'ymmetrical laminated material in w#ic# t#e se.uence of laminae above t#e center $lane is t#e mirror image of t#at below it. !alance* line A line in w#ic# t#e im$edances to ground of t#e two conductors are, or are made to be, e.ual. Also called

balanced system

!alance* loa* A load connected to a $oly$#ase system, or to a single$#ase or %" t#ree-wire system, in suc# a way t#at t#e currents ta"en from eac# $#ase, or from eac# side of t#e system, are e.ual and at e.ual $ower factors. !alance* mi#er A mi1er, w#ic# may be made of discrete com$onents or formed in stri$line or waveguide, in w#ic# t#e local oscillator brea"t#roug# in t#e out$ut is minimized and certain #armonics su$$ressed. %#e contribution of local oscillator noise to t#e receiver=s overall $erformance is also reduced by suc# a mi1er. !alance* mo*ulator A modulator in w#ic# t#e carrier and modulating signal are combined in suc# a way t#at t#e out$ut contains t#e two sidebands but not t#e carrier. /sed in color television to modulate subcarriers, and in su$$ressedcarrier communication systems. !alance* net/or) A networ" arranged for insertion into a !alance* circuit and t#erefore symmetrical electrically about t#e mid-$oints of its in$ut and out$ut $airs of terminals. !alance*-pair cable A cable wit# two conductors forming a loo$ circuit, t#e wires being electrically balanced to eac# ot#er and ground (s#ield!, e.g., an o$en-wire antenna feeder. !alance* pe*al &n an organ console, t#e foot-o$erated $late, $ivoted so t#at it stays in any $osition, for remote control of

t#e s#utter of t#e c#ambers in w#ic# ran"s of organ $i$es are situated) it also serves for bringing in all t#e sto$s in a graded series. !alance* protective system A form of $rotective system for electric transmission lines and now widely used domestically in w#ic# t#e current entering t#e line or a$$aratus is balanced against t#at leaving it. Any fault, suc# as a s#ort circuit to ground, u$sets t#is balance and energizes a relay w#ic# tri$s t#e faulty circuit. Also called differential !rotective system or collo.uially, ground lea& relay or ground tri!. !alance* system .ee !alance* line !alance* terminator A two-terminal load in w#ic# bot# terminals $resent t#e same im$edance to ground. !alance* voltage A term used, in connection wit# $oly$#ase circuits, to denote voltage w#ic# are e.ual to all t#e $#ases. Also a$$lied to %" t#ree-wire systems. !alance* /eave A weave in w#ic# t#e lengt# of free yarn between t#e intersections is t#e same as t#e war$ and weft directions and on bot# sides of t#e fabric. !alance gate A flood gate w#ic# revolves about a vertical s#aft near its center, and w#ic# may be made eit#er self-o$ening or self-closing as t#e current sets in or out by giving a $re$onderating area to one leaf of t#e gate. !alance patch A factory installed $atc# used to bring a new tire wit#in .uality control balance tolerances before distribution and sale. &t is $laced inside t#e &ire casing and loo"s muc# li"e a nail #ole re$air $atc#. !alance pipe

A tube w#ic# 8oins two or more carburetors to even out t#e flow difference. !alance piston .ee %ummy piston !alancer A device used on $oly$#ase or t#ree-wire systems to e.ualize t#e voltages between t#e $#ases or t#e sides of t#e system, w#en unbalanced loads are being delivered. Also .ee A" balancer "ran)shaft !alancer Harmonic balancer heel balancer !alancer transformer An autotransformer connected across t#e outer conductors of an ac t#ree-wire system, t#e neutral wire being connected to an intermediate ta$$ing. !alance shaft An engine will normally vibrate because of t#e u$-anddown motion of t#e -istons w#ic# turn a "ran)shaft in one direction. A balance s#aft rotates (often in t#e o$$osite direction! so t#at its vibration cancels some of t#e vibration of t#e engine. 'ometimes an engine will #ave two balance s#afts turning in o$$osite directions located on eit#er side of t#e "ran)shaft. !alance valve .ee .pool balance valve !alance /eight 1. A lead weig#t attac#ed to t#e rim of a w#eel. ,. 'mall weig#ts t#readed on radial arms on t#e movement of an indicating instrument, so ad8usted t#at t#e $ointer gives t#e same indication w#atever t#e orientation of t#e instrument.

>. A weig#t used to counterbalance some $art of a mac#ine, e.g., weig#ts a$$lied to a cran"s#aft to minimize or neutralize t#e inertia forces due to reci$rocating and rotating masses of t#e engine. Also heel /eight .ee

!alancing 1. Eismantling engine and reassembling it to e1act .pecifications and &olerances. %#is $rocess may #el$ to im$rove engine $erformance, smoot#ness, and reliability. 'ometimes called !lueprinting. Also

!alance* engine

.ee

,. @ee$ing w#eels in balance. >. &n color re$roduction, control of t#e levels of t#e t#ree color com$onents to ac#ieve a satisfactory $icture wit#out obvious color bias, es$. in t#e re$resentation of neutral grey tones. 6. %#e $rocess of ad8usting a traverse, i.e., a$$lying corrections to t#e different survey lines and bearings so as to eliminate t#e closing error. Also .ee 0ff-car !alancing 0ff-the-car balancing 0n-the-car balancing 0n-car !alancing heel !alancing !alancing antenna Au1iliary rece$tion antenna w#ic# res$onds to interfering but not to t#e wanted signals. %#e interfering signals t#us $ic"ed u$ are balanced against

t#ose $ic"ed u$ by t#e main antenna, leaving signals more free from interference. !alancing machine A mac#ine for testing t#e e1tent to w#ic# a revolving $art is out of balance, and to determine t#e weig#t and $osition of t#e masses to be added, or removed, to obtain balance. Also .ee heel balancer !alancing spee* .ee Free-running spee* !alancing /eight .ee heel /eight !al* tire A tire on w#ic# t#e tread is all worn away. A .lic) also #as no tread, but t#is is done deliberately for racing $ur$oses. !al) %#e material between two e1cavations. Also called baul&. !al)ing .ee "ra/ling !al) ring

"lic) image to supersize !al) Ring A friction-regulated -a/l or $lunger used to ma"e t#e engagement of gears easier. Britis# s$elling is baul&

ring
!all

A s$#ere usually made of metal w#en used in automotive a$$lications. Also see !all an* spring !all bearing !all 6oint !all 6oint roc)er arm "hec) ball %etent ball an* spring %ischarge "hec) !all Hitch ball (mpact s/ivel ball universal 6oint -ump (nlet "hec) !all Recirculating-ball-an*-nut steering Recirculating ball steering Recirculating ball /orm an* nut &o/ing ball !all an* nut .ee Recirculating ball an* nut steering !all-an*-nut steering .ee Recirculating ball steering !all an* soc)et .ee !all 6oint !all-an*-soc)et hea*

2amera mounting allowing universal movement in rotation and tilt before fi1ing by clam$ing usually fitted to t#e to$ of tri$od. !all-an*-soc)et 6oint A 8oint between two rods, $ermitting considerable relative angular movement in any $lane. A ball formed on t#e end of one rod is embraced by a s$#erical cu$ on t#e ot#er. /sed in lig#t control systems (e.g., in connecting a $air of bell-cran"s w#ic# o$erate in $lanes at rig#t angles! and in t#e steering mec#anism of motor ve#icles, in w#ic# bot# ball and cu$s are of case#ardened metals. ?eavier e1am$les allow a large base $late to be $laced under a su$$orting column in a 8ac"u$ $ontoon or modified as bridge bearings to allow some articulation. Also .ee !all 6oint !all an* spring Also .ee %etent ball an* spring !allast 1. Any li.uid or solid weig#t (gravel or stone! $laced in a s#i$ to c#ange t#e trim, increase t#e draft, or to regulate t#e stability. ,. A layer of bro"en stone, gravel, or ot#er material de$osited above t#e formation level of road or railway) it serves as foundation for road-metal or $ermanent-way res$ectively. >. 'andy gravel used as a coarse aggregate in ma"ing concrete. Also .ee %ry ballast ,ea* ballast ,i8ui* ballast !allast ignition system An ignition system w#ic# uses a !allast resistor connected in series wit# t#e coil $rimary winding and

w#ic# is by$assed w#en t#e starter is engaged so t#at t#e s$ar" is more efficient under cold weat#er starting. !allasting %#e addition of ,i8ui* or %ry weig#t inside t#e tire to act as a counterbalance, to increase traction, reduce w#eel s$in, and dam$en out bounce. !allast lamp Aormal incandescent lam$ used as a ballast resistor, current limiter, alarm, or to stabilize a disc#arge lam$. !allast resistance A term used in railway signaling to denote t#e resistance between t#e two trac" rails across t#e !allast on w#ic# t#e trac" is laid. &f allowed to fall too low, it will #ave t#e effect of s#unting t#e signal from a trains=s w#eels. !allast resistor (BA9 <:'! 1. A resistor inserted into a circuit to swam$ or com$ensate c#anges, e.g., t#ose arising t#roug# tem$erature fluctuations. Bne similarly used to swam$ t#e negative resistance of an arc or gas disc#arge. Also called ballast tube. 2. A Resistor constructed of a s$ecial ty$e wire, t#e $ro$erties of w#ic# tend to increase or decrease t#e $oltage in direct $ro$ortion to t#e #eat of t#e wire. Also .ee !arretter !allast tan) %an"s at t#e bottom or sides of a s#i$ w#ic# are filled wit# seawater for ballasting $ur$ose. !allast tube .ee !allast resistor !all bearing

An antifriction bearing consisting of an inner and outer Har*ene* steel Race (or "age! se$arated by a series of #ardened steel balls. Also .ee Annular ball bearing ,inear ball bearing ,oose !all !earings !all bearing puller A tool for removing a ball bearing from a s#aft or from a #ousing. !all cage A circular frame w#ic# #olds t#e balls in $lace in a ball bearing. !all chec) valve -alve assembly w#ic# $ermits flow of fluid in one direction only. !all-en*e* magnet A $ermanent magnet, consisting of a steel wire wit# a steel ball attac#ed to eac# end) t#is gives a close a$$ro1imation to a unit $ole. !all en* he#agon scre/*river A tool t#at loo"s li"e an Allen /rench e1ce$t it #as a small ball at t#e very end. %#is arrangement allows it to wor" at various angles. !alling 1. A $rocess t#at occurs in t#e cementite constituent of steels on $rolonged annealing at ;<0=" 700=". ,. %#e o$eration of forming balls in a $uddling furnace. !allistic circuit brea)er A very #ig#-s$eed circuit brea"er, in w#ic# t#e $ressure $roduced by t#e fusing of an enclosed wire causes interru$tion of t#e circuit. !allistic galvanometer

A galvanometer wit# a long swing $eriod) t#e deflection measures t#e electric c#arge in a current $ulse or t#e time integral of a voltage $ulse. !allistic metho* A met#od of #ig#-grade testing used in electrical engineering, a !allistic galvanometer being used. !allistic pen*ulum A #eavy bloc" sus$ended by strings so t#at its swings are restricted to one $lane. &f a bullet is fired into t#e bloc", t#e velocity of t#e bullet may be calculated from a measurement of t#e angle of swing of t#e $endulum. !allistics %#e study of t#e dynamics of t#e $at# ta"en by an ob8ect moving under t#e influence of a gravitational field. !all 6oint

!all 7oint A fle1ible 7oint using a ball and .oc)et ty$e of construction, used in .teering lin)age setu$s, .teering )nuc)le $ivot su$$orts, etc. %#eir fle1ibility #el$s to com$ensate for t#e c#anges in t#e w#eel and steering w#en turning or #itting a bum$ on t#e road. %#ere are usually u$$er and lower ball 8oints attac#ed to t#e u$$er and lower A-arms. 'ome #ave a grease ni$$le to allow $eriodic lubrication.

.ee

>pper !all 7oint


!all 6oint roc)er arm

!all 7oint Roc)er Arm A Roc)er arm used by G( t#at is mounted u$on a ball-s#a$ed device on t#e end of a .tu* instead of being mounted around a s#aft. !all 6oint separator A tool for forcing out ball or ta$ered 8oints. Bne style is s#a$ed li"e a two-$rong for" wit# a wedge-s#a$ed 8aw w#ic# is struc" wit# a #ammer to se$arate t#e 8oint. Anot#er style uses direct $ressure from a screw or screw-activated lever action to s$lit t#e 8oint. !all 6oint steering )nuc)le

.teering 4nuc)le A .teering )nuc)le t#at $ivots on !all 6oints instead of on a 4ingpin. !allonet An air com$artment in t#e envelo$e of an aerostat, used to ad8ust c#anges of volume in t#e filler gas. !alloon A general term for aircraft su$$orted by buoyancy and not driven mec#anically. Also .ee !arrage balloon "aptive !alloon !alloon barrage An anti-aircraft device consisting of suitably dis$osed tet#ered balloons !alloon former Bn rotary $resses, an additional former mounted above t#e ot#ers, from w#ic# folded webs are gat#ered to ma"e u$ t#e sections of multi-sectioned news$a$ers or magazines. !allooning of yarn %#e s#a$e ta"en u$ by yarns on t#e s$inning or doubling mac#ines. !alloon tire A ty$e of low $ressure tire w#ic# was first introduced in t#e 13,0s. &ts widt# and #eig#t were t#e same w#ic# gave it a rounded s#a$e. %#is style was used on bicycles as well as automobiles. !allot A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 model automobiles wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. !allotini 'mall, solid glass s$#eres or beads used as a filler for $lastics and to increase reflectivity in $aints and $rinting in"s.

!all-pane hammer A fitter=s #ammer, t#e #ead of w#ic# #as a flat face at one end, and a smaller #emi-s$#erical face or $ane at t#e ot#er) used c#iefly in riveting. Also called !all !all pien hammer

pien hammer

!all -ein Hammer A #ammer wit# two ends on t#e #ead. Bne is round and t#e ot#er is flat. %#ey are best used for #ammering and s#a$ing metal. Also s$elled ball !een !all peen hammer A #ammer wit# two ends on t#e #ead. Bne is round and t#e ot#er is flat. %#ey are best used for #ammering and s#a$ing metal. Also s$elled ball !ien !all race 1. %#e inner or outer steel ring forming one of t#e ball trac"s of a ball bearing. ,. 2ommonly, t#e com$lete ball bearing !all sizing ;orcing a suitable ball t#roug# a #ole to finis# size it, usually $art of a !roach wit# a series of s$#erical lands of increasing size arranged along it. !all soc)et A recessed s$#erical well for receiving t#e ball in a !all

6oint

!all steering .ee Recirculating ball steering !all trac) .ee !all bearing !all universal .ee (mpact s/ivel ball universal 6oint !all universal 6oint .ee (mpact s/ivel ball universal 6oint !all valve A c#ec" valve in w#ic# a ball in a tube is used to control t#e flow of li.uid. !all /orm .ee Recirculating ball /orm an* nut !all /orm an* nut .ee Recirculating ball /orm an* nut !A,-A Acronym for British Airline .ilots Association !A, R'. Abbreviation for !allast resistor !ambi %ruc"er slang for a deer (dead or alive! as in F%#ere=s a Bambi on t#e side at t#e 6> yardstic".F !anana plug A single conductor $lug w#ic# #as a s$ring metal ti$, in t#e s#a$e of a banana. %#e corres$onding soc"et or 8ac" is termed a banana /ac& !anbury mi#er %y$e of mac#ine used for com$ounding rubber wit# vulcanizing ingredients and carbon blac". !an*

Bands are li"e a metal belt w#ic# is in t#e s#a$e of a circle w#ere t#e two ends are close, but do not meet. %#ey wra$ around $arts inside t#e &ransmission called drums. %#e drums #ouse t#e gears and "lutches and Free/heel until a certain gear needs to be a$$lied. +#en first gear needs to be a$$lied, t#e drum for first gear is loc"ed u$ by t#e a$$lication of t#e band. By loc"ing u$ t#e drum, t#e gears now drive t#e w#eels rat#er t#an Free/heel inside t#e drum. Also .ee !ac) ban* !ra)e ban* Fre8uency ban* -o/er ban* .8uish ban* !an* bra)e A fle1ible band wra$$ed $artially around t#e $eri$#ery of a w#eel or drum. Bne end is anc#ored, and t#e bra"ing force is a$$lied to t#e ot#er. Also .ee !ra)e ban* !an* chain 'teel ta$e. (ore accurate t#an ordinary c#ain. !an* clutch A Friction clutch in w#ic# a fabric-lined steel band is contracted on to t#e $eri$#ery of t#e driving member by engaging gear. !an* conveyor An endless band $assing over, and driven by, #orizontal $ulleys, t#us forming a moving trac" w#ic# is used to convey loose material or small articles. Also called belt conveyor or conveyor belt !an* e*ge energy %#e energy of t#e edge of t#e conduction band or valence band in a solid, measured wit# res$ect to some convenient reference or else used as t#e reference level for ot#er energy states.

Also .ee !an* theory of soli*s !an* gap %#e range of energies w#ic# corres$ond wit# t#ose values w#ic# are forbidden for delocalized states, according to t#e !an* theory of soli*s. 9ocalized states suc# as t#ose associated wit# ionized do$ants, im$urity atoms, or crystal im$erfections e1ist in t#e ga$. %#e generation of $airs of electrons and #oles re.uires .uanta of at least t#e energy of t#e band ga$. Eirect recombination li"ewise furnis#es .uanta wit# energies at least e.ual to t#e band ga$. !an* ignitor tube A valve of mercury $ool ty$e in w#ic# t#e control electrode is a metal band outside t#e glass envelo$e. Also called ca!acitron !an*ing 1. A structural feature of wroug#t metallic materials revealed by etc#ing, resulting from microstructural segregates and constitutional differences wit#in t#e grain structure becoming drawn out in t#e direction of wor"ing. ,. Eefect in videota$e recording #eads causing visible #orizontal bands in t#e $icture. !an*-pass filter ;ilter w#ic# freely $asses currents #aving fre.uencies wit#in s$ecified nominal limits, and #ig#ly attenuates currents wit# fre.uencies outside t#ese limits. !an* ra*io .ee "itizens ban* ra*io !an*-re6ection filter .ee !an*-stop filter !an*s .ee !an*

!an*sa/ A narrow endless stri$ of saw-blading running over and driven by $ulleys, as a belt) t#e stri$ $asses a wor" table $laced normal to t#e straig#t $art of t#e blade. %#e wor"$iece is forced against t#e blade and intricate s#a$es can be cut. Also used for cutting animal carcases in butc#ery. !an* spectrum (olecular o$tical s$ectrum consisting of numerous very closely s$aced lines w#ic# are s$read t#roug# a limited band of fre.uencies. !an*-sprea*ing 1. /se of a relatively small tuning ca$acitor in $arallel wit# t#e main tuning ca$acitor of a radio receiver, so t#at fine tuning control can be done wit# t#e smaller) useful w#en t#e fre.uency band is crowded. ,. (ec#anical means, li"e reduction gearing, to ac#ieve t#e same result. !an*-stop filter ;ilter w#ic# attenuates signals #aving fre.uencies wit#in a certain range or band, w#ile freely $assing t#ose outside t#is range. Also called band-re/ection !an* theory of soli*s ;or atoms broug#t toget#er to form a crystalline solid, t#eir outermost electrons are influenced by a $eriodic $otential function, so t#at t#eir $ossible energies form bands of allowed values se$arated by bands of forbidden values (in contrast to t#e discrete energy states of an isolated atom!. %#ese electrons are not localized or associated wit# any $articular atom in t#e solid. %#is band structure is of fundamental im$ortance in e1$laining t#e $ro$erties of metals, semiconductors, and insulators. !an*/i*th

filter

1. %#e range of audio fre.uencies t#at an audio com$onent (radio! can #andle. ,. %#e widt#, or s$read, of t#e range of fre.uencies used for a given $ur$ose, e.g., t#e widt# of individual c#annels allotted to s$eec# or to television transmissions. >. %#e s$ace occu$ied in t#e fre.uency domain by signals of a s$ecified nature, e.g., tele$#one .uality s$eec#, broadcast-.uality stereo$#onic music, television, radar transmission, etc. !?. Abbreviation for !ore and .tro)e w#ic# describes t#e widt# of a cylinder #ole and t#e distance t#at t#e $iston moves eac# time. ! ? . gage Abbreviation for Bro#n and $har!e. A standard measure of wire diameter. ! ? . gauge Abbreviation for Bro#n and $har!e. A standard measure of wire diameter. !anger 1. A collo.uial term used to e1$ress t#e "ylin*ers in an engine. Bften used wit# a number suc# as .i# banger. Also

Four banger .i# !anger


c#ea$er, well-worn car w#ic# is still usable!. >. Bne w#o fa"es an accident. Also "ar banger !anger racing

.ee

2. A Britis# collo.uial term for !eater (an older,

.ee

A com$etition of s$eed on small racing trac"s w#ere older cars are driven as fast as t#ey can go and w#ere bum$ing ot#er racing cars is $ermitted (encouragedGG!. !anging .ee "ar banging !an6o 1. Besides being a musical instrument, t#is is a Fitting w#ic# is s#a$ed li"e a ban8o. &t #as round end t#at is doug#nut s#a$ed wit# a tube coming out from one side. &t is usually used to transfer fluid from t#e center #ole of t#e round end and out t#e lateral tube. ,. A drum-s#a$ed central $art of an a1le casing containing t#e differential. !an6o a#le %#e commonest form of rear-a1le casing in w#ic# t#e $rovision of t#e differential casing in t#e center $roduces a resemblance to a ban8o wit# two nec"s. !an6o fitting A ty$e of #ydraulic fitting, s#a$ed li"e a ban8o, t#roug# w#ic# a #ollow bolt $asses, allowing fluid transfer from a #ydraulic line to a #ydraulic com$onent. !an6o rear a#le housing A rear a1le #ousing from w#ic# t#e %ifferential unit may be removed w#ile t#e #ousing remains in $lace on t#e ve#icle. %#e #ousing is solid from side to side. 2om$are .plit rear a#le housing !an) A number of similar $ieces of e.ui$ment grou$ed in line and connected, e.g., a ban" of engine cylinders, co"e ovens, or transformers. Also .ee "ylin*er ban) !an)e* boiler A boiler furnace in w#ic# t#e rate of combustion is $ur$osely reduced to a very low rate for a $eriod

during w#ic# t#e demand for steam #as ceased by e.g., covering t#e fire wit# slac" or fine coal or ban"ing u$. Also called ban&ed fire. !an)e* fire .ee !an)e* boiler !an)ing 1. %#e slo$e of a trac" from t#e wall to t#e Apron, generally measured in t#e corners. ,. Angular dis$lacement of t#e wings of an aircraft about t#e longitudinal a1is, to assist turning. &n ot#er words, ti$$ing t#e $lane so t#at one wing dro$s w#ile t#e ot#er rises. >. rocess of sus$ending o$eration in a smelter by feeding fuel into t#e furnace only until as muc# metal and slag as $ossible #ave been removed, after w#ic# all air inlets are closed. !an8uette 1. A raised footway inside a bridge $ara$et. ,. A ledge on t#e face of a cutting. Also !erm !ar
1. A unit of $ressure. Bne bar e.uals 100 "ilo$ascals

.ee

(10 0 a! or 500.05mm of mercury at 0=" and latitude 60C or about 16.0 $si. ,. A rod. >. A $ivoted bar, $arallel to a running rail, w#ic# being de$ressed by t#e w#eels of a train, is ca$able of #olding $oints or giving information about a train=s $osition 6. (aterial of uniform cross-section, w#ic# may be cast, rolled, or e1truded. Also Angle see bar

Anti-roll Anti-s/ay Antisag !alance !oring !ulb !ull !umper !us-bar "ompensating "ompensator '#tension Free/ay 5un/ale Hea*er Hi-/ay High/ay Hoo* (mpact ,a**er ,an*au ,evering ,oc)ing Main 9erf 9u*ge -ort -ush :uarter-/ave Roo .i*e .issy .pring .tabilizer .tringer .trut ./ay &-bar

bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar !ar bars bars bar clamp bar bar bar bar bar !ar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bar

bar

impact

&arga &est &ommy &orsion &rac) &raction &rea* ear heelie heelie obble e#tension bar !arach %#e aut#or and com$iler

bar bar bar bar bar bar bar bars bar bars of t#is dictionary at

Motorera+com

!ar-an*-yo)e (et#od of magnetic testing in w#ic# t#e sam$le is in t#e form of a bar, clam$ed into a yo"e of relatively large cross-section, w#ic# forms a low reluctance return $at# for t#e flu1. !arathea +oven fabric used for coats and suits and made from sil", worsted, or man-made fibers. 2#aracteristic surface a$$earance arising from t#e twill or bro"en-rib weave used in its manufacture. !arba2s la/ 9aw concerned wit# t#e $lastic deformation of metal test $ieces w#en strained to fracture in a tensile test) it states t#at test $ieces of identical size deform in a similar manner. !arbershop %ruc"er slang for a low over$ass w#ere a large truc" mig#t cli$ its to$ if t#e truc"=s clearance is #ig#er t#an t#e #eig#t of t#e over$ass. !ar clamp

!ar "lamp A tool wit# a stationary #ead and a sliding foot for clam$ing $ur$oses. Also .ee

,oc)ing bar clamp


!are

1. 'omet#ing slig#tly smaller t#an t#e s$ecified dimension. ,. A unit wit#out t#e attac#ing #ardware !are con*uctor A conductor not continuously covered wit# insulation, but su$$orted intermittently by insulators, e.g., busbars and over#ead lines. !are electro*es :lectrodes used in welding t#at are not coated wit# a basic slag-forming substance. !ar en*s

!ar 'n*s '#ort #andlebar A**-on e1tensions w#ic# are attac#ed to t#e ends of a Mountain bi)e #andlebar to add anot#er riding $osition.

!ar en* shifter

!ar 'n* .hifter A bicycle gear s#ifter t#at is inserted into eac# of t#e ends of a #andlebar. !are pavement A road condition w#ere t#e $avement is visible and substantially free of snow and ice following $lowing, scra$ing, or ot#er means !are shell %#e s#ell of a car body in w#ic# all $arts #ave been removed including doors, #ood, and trun" lid. !arge A flat-bottomed boat for carrying cargo or bun"er oil, usually $ulled by tugs. Also .ee &an)-barge !arge carriers '#i$s designed to carry barges. !ar generator 'ource of $ulse signals, giving a bar $attern for testing %- cat#ode-ray tubes. !ar )eel

.ee 4eelson !ar)hausen effect %#e $#enomenon of discontinuous c#anges in t#e magnetization of a magnetic material w#ile t#e magnetizing field is smoot#ly varied. &t is t#e conse.uence of sudden c#anges in t#e domain structure as domain walls overcome various $inning defects and to a lesser e1tent as domain orientations discontinuously rotate away from $referred crystal areas ?. G. Bar"#ausen (in 1313! detected voltage $ulses induced in coils surrounding a magnetic sam$le as it was magnetized. Analogous ultrasonic emissions are also associated wit# t#e magnetization of magnetostrictive materials. %#e c#aracter of Bar"#ausen emissions is strongly de$endent on microstructure and stress. !ar)hause-4urz oscillator Bscillator wit# a triode valve #aving its grid more $ositive t#an t#e anode. :lectrons oscillate about t#e grid before reac#ing t#e anode. But$ut fre.uency de$ends on t#e transit time of electrons t#roug# t#e tube. !ar lathe A small lat#e of w#ic# t#e bed consists of a single bar of circular, triangular, or rectangular section. !arlo/ lens A $lano-conve1 lens between t#e ob8ective and eye$iece of a telesco$e to increase t#e magnification by increasing t#e effective focal lengt#. !ar magnet A straig#t bar-s#a$ed $ermanent magnet, wit# a -ole at eac# end. !ar mill A rolling mill wit# grooved rolls, for $roducing round, s.uare, or ot#er forms of bar iron of small section. !arn

/nit of effective cross-sectional area of nucleus e.ual to 10 -,7 mH. 'o called because it was $ointed out t#at alt#oug# one barn is a very small unit of area, to an elementary $article t#e size of an atom w#ic# could ca$ture it is Fas big as a barn door.F Also .ee "ross-section !arn *oor air of ad8ustable fla$s on a studio lam$ for controlling t#e lig#t. !arney A soft cover to reduce noise from a film camera. !AR0 1. Acronym for Barometric .ressure 2. Acronym for !arometric pressure sensor. 3. Acronym for !arometric absolute pressure

sensor
!arograph A recording !arometer, usually of t#e aneroid ty$e, in w#ic# variations of atmos$#eric $ressure cause movement of a $en w#ic# traces a line on a cloc"wor" driven revolving drum. !arometer An instrument used for t#e measurement of atmos$#eric $ressure. %#e Mercury barometer is $referable if t#e #ig#est accuracy of readings is im$ortant, but w#ere com$actness #as to be considered, t#e Aneroi* barometer is often used. Also .ee Altimeter !arometric absolute pressure sensor (BA<B or B ! 1. A sensor t#at $rovides ambient atmos$#eric $ressure information. 2. 'ends a variable voltage signal to t#e com$uter w#ic# varies in accord wit# atmos$#eric $ressure,

allowing ad8ustment of t#e s$ar" advance, '5R flow, and airDfuel ratio as a function of altitude. Also called a !arometric pressure sensor !arometric an* manifol* absolute pressure sensor (B(A ! A #ousing containing bot# B and (A sensors. !arometric corrections Aecessary corrections to t#e readings of a mercury barometer for inde1 error, tem$erature, latitude, and #eig#t. !arometric error %#e error in t#e time of swing of a $endulum due to c#ange of air $ressure. %#oug# small, it is sometimes avoided in cloc"s by causing t#e $endulum to swing in an atmos$#ere of constant (low! $ressure. !arometric pressure (B ! %#e $ressure of t#e atmos$#ere as read by a barometer. :1$ressed in millibars ('ee !ar!, t#e #eig#t of a column of mercury, or ('&! in #ecto$ascals (.( units!. !arometric pressure sensor (BA<B or B ! A sensor found in t#e engine management system w#ic# detects t#e ambient barometric $ressure so t#at $recise fuel mi1ture can be maintained at different altitudes. !arometric ten*ency %#e rate of c#ange of atmos$#eric $ressure wit# time. %#e c#ange of $ressure during t#e $revious t#ree #ours. !arostat A device w#ic# maintains constant atmos$#eric $ressure in a closed volume, e.g., t#e in$ut and out$ut $ressure of fuel metering device of a gas turbine to com$ensate for atmos$#eric $ressure variation wit# altitude. !arrage .ee !alloon barrage

!arrage balloon A small ca$tive "ite balloon, t#e cable of w#ic# is intended to destroy low-flying aircraft. !arre* co*e Any dialed code t#at automatic e1c#ange a$$aratus is $rinted to re8ect by connecting t#e caller no furt#er t#an number unobtainable tone. !arrel 1. A #ollow, usually cylindrical, mac#ine $art, often revolving, sometimes wit# wall a$ertures 2. %#e Air horn in t#e "arburetor. &n $articular, it is t#at $art w#ere t#e &hrottle valve is located. &f a "arburetor #as four o$enings wit# a t#rottle valve in eac#, it is called a four-barrel carburetor. Also

"arburetor Four barrel carburetor


3. Anot#er

barrel

.ee

name for t#e "arburetor barrel, "ylin*er, "ylin*er barrel, Four barrel, -olishing barrel, and .ingle barrel. 4. %o travel fast as in We barreled do#n the high#ay #ell above the s!eed limit. 0. %#e main cylinder in w#ic# molten $olymer is $re$ared for e1trusion or in8ection into molds. Also

(n6ection mol*ing

.ee

6. (bbl! A ca$acity of 6, /' gallons (>0 im$erial gallons or 103.1 liters! fre.uently used as a unit in t#e oil industry. !arrel cam A cylindrical cam wit# circumferential or end trac". !arrel carburetor

.ee Four barrel carburetor .ingle barrel carburetor &/in barrel carburetor !arrel *istortion 2urvilinear distortion of an o$tical or electronic image in w#ic# #orizontal and vertical straig#t lines a$$ear barrel-s#a$ed, bowed outwards. Also called !ositive distortion. !arrel etcher A device usually used to o1idize and t#ereby stri$ away #ardened $#otoresist materials during semiconductor $rocessing. &n it a batc# of wafers is e1$osed to a low$ressure o1ygen $lasma. !arrel hopper A mac#ine for unscrambling, orienting and feeding small com$onents during a manufacturing $rocess, in w#ic# a revolving barrel tumbles t#e com$onents on to a slo$ing, vibrating feeding blade. !arrel 9ut An internally t#readed screw wit# a slotted #ead. !arrel plating :lectro$lating of many small items by $lacing t#em in a $erforated barrel revolving in a vat filled wit# an a$$ro$riate $lating solution. %#e barrel is made t#e "atho*e in t#e cell and t#e articles tumble against eac# ot#er during rotation, continually touc#ing at different $laces, and so become uniformly coated wit# t#e electrode$osit. !arrel shape A drum defect caused by e1cessive wear at t#e center of t#e friction surface. !arrel tappet A #ollow roc"er arm s#a$ed li"e a barrel. !arrel temperatures %em$eratures at w#ic# an e1trusion or in8ection molding barrel is "e$t, usually rising to a $ea" at t#e

nozzle. %#e range is determined by t#e $olymer ty$e and its melt viscosity. Also see (n6ection mol*ing !arrel-type cran)case A gasoline-engine cran"case so constructed t#at t#e cran"s#aft must be removed from one end) in more normal construction t#e cran"case is s$lit. Also see .plit cran)case !arrel /ear A ty$e of bra"e drum wear in w#ic# t#e center of t#e friction surface is worn more t#an t#e edges !arretter &ron-wire resistor mounted in a glass bulb containing #ydrogen, and #aving a tem$erature variation so arranged t#at t#e c#ange of resistance ensures t#at t#e current in t#e circuit in w#ic# it is connected remains substantially constant over a wide range of voltage. Also called ballast tube !arrica*e A tem$orary structure designed to warn ve#icles t#at t#e road or a $ortion of t#e road is no longer usable. .ee A-frame barrica*e !rea)a/ay barrica*e !arrier 1. &n transformers, t#e solid insulating material w#ic# $rovides t#e main insulation, a$art from t#e oil. ,. %#e refractory material intended to localize or direct any arc w#ic# may arise on t#e o$eration of a circuit brea"er. Also !rush "rash 7ersey see barrier barrier barriers

Ra*iant !arrier $apor !arrier !arrier cream A s$ecial cream w#ic# is a$$lied to your #ands before wor"ing on a greasy engine. +#en t#e 8ob is over, you can was# your #ands and easily remove t#e grease stains. Also called invisible glove or silicon glove !arrier effect %#e effect $roduced by coating metal to s#ield it from corrosion. !arrier layer 1. &n semiconductor 8unctions, t#e de!letion layer ,. &n an o$tical fiber cable, an intermediate layer of glass between t#e low refractive inde1 core and t#e #ig# refractive inde1 cladding. >. &n general a layer $laced so as to in#ibit interdiffusion of #eat, matter, etc. !arrier paint A $rimer w#ic# is used on bare metal to $revent corrosion. !arring gear An arrangement for moving #eavy electrical $lant, using man$ower. <otating mac#ines and transformers are e.ui$$ed wit# w#eels and movement is $ossible by inserting crowbars at suitable $oints and levering t#e e.ui$ment. !arring motor A small motor w#ic# can be tem$orarily connected, by a gear or clutc#, to a large mac#ine to turn it slowly for ad8ustment or ins$ection. !ar roof .ee & bar roof !ars .ee !ar ,a**er bars

,an*au bars Riser !ars ear bars heelie bars !ar suspension A met#od of mounting t#e motor on an electrically $ro$elled ve#icle. Bne side of t#e motor is su$$orted on t#e driving a1le and t#e ot#er side by a s$ringsus$ended bar lying transversely across t#e truc". Also called yo&e sus!ension. Also see &orsion bar suspension !ar-type current transformer A "urrent transformer in w#ic# t#e $rimary consists of a single conductor t#at $asses centrally t#roug# t#e iron core u$on w#ic# t#e secondary is wound. !ar /in*ing An armature winding for an electric mac#ine w#ose conductors are formed of co$$er bars. !ar-/oun* armature An armature wit# large sectioned conductors w#ic# are insulated and fi1ed in $osition and connected, in contrast wit# former-wound conductors w#ic# are sufficiently t#in to be inserted, after s#a$ing in a suitable 8ig. !arye .ee Microbar !A. Acronym for Belt Alternator $tarter -- a Hybri* vehicle system from G( !ase 1. %#e lowest su$$orting $art of an u$rig#t member. ,. %#e bottom layer or coating in a series of $aint coats.

>. %#e ma8or ingredient, ot#er t#an $igments and filler, t#at ma"e u$ t#e non-volatile $ortion of an ad#esive, coating, or sealing com$ound. 6. %#e region between t#e emitter and collector of a transistor, into w#ic# minority carriers are in8ected. &t is essentially t#e control electrode of t#e transistor. 0. %#e $art of an electron tube w#ic# #as $ins, leads, or terminals t#roug# w#ic# connections are made to t#e internal electrodes. 6. %#e t#in fle1ible su$$ort on w#ic# a $#otogra$#ic emulsion or magnetic coating is carried. 5. A layer of s$ecified material of s$ecified t#ic"ness $laced below t#e road surface. Also .ee !ea* base "arburetor !ase '*ison base Flat base rim taper Flat base rim ,ithium base grease ,oa* base 9egative loa* base :uaternary Ammonium !ases Rim /ell base !ase an* clear system aint finis# w#ic# is made u$ of a colored base coat (usually a metallic finis#! and clear lac.uer coat. !ase circle As a$$lied to t#e "amshaft t#e lowest s$ot on t#e cam, t#e area of t#e cam directly o$$osite t#e lobe or nose. Ao lift is $roduced by t#e base circle. Also called !ase coat %#e first coat in a $aint system. &t is eit#er t#e undercoat or $rimer or a colored coat w#ic# is covered by clear lac.uer.

"am heel

!ase gas)et %#e 5as)et directly below t#e "ylin*er and between t#e "ylin*er and "ran)case. Also called cylinder gas&et. !ase grease .ee ,ithium base grease !ase i*le %#e idle s$eed determined by t#e t#rottle lever setting on t#e carburetor or t#rottle body w#ile t#e idle s$eed control (&'2! motor, or any ot#er com$uter-controlled idle s$eed control device, is fully retracted and disconnected. !ase interest rate %#e interest $aid on t#e usage of t#e ve#icle during a lease. &t is t#e cost of a lease before factoring in discounts, fees, and $enalties and is not directly com$arable to t#e A-R for a loan. 9owering t#e base interest rate is one of t#e met#ods manufacturers use to subsidize leases. %#e $#rase money factor measures t#e same cost and can be converted into a base interest rate. ;or e1am$le, to convert a money factor of 0.00,56 into an a$$ro1imate base interest rate would multi$ly t#e money factor by ,6. %#e result would be 0.066, or 6.64. !aseline A fore-and-aft reference line at t#e u$$er surface of t#e flat $late "eel at t#e centerline for flus# s#ell $lated vessels. -ertical dimensions are measured from a #orizontal $lane t#roug# t#e baseline, often called t#e molded baseline. !ase material Any material (metal or $lastic! w#ic# needs to be coated. !ase metal 1. (etal t#at is under a coating or t#at needs to be coated.

,. (etal to be welded, cut, or brazed. !ase mo*el %#e least e1$ensive ve#icle wit# t#e least amount of features as standard e.ui$ment. &t #as t#e smallest engine and often Manual transmission as well as few $ower e.ui$ment. Base models constitute only a small $ercentage of t#e cars sold. 'ometimes called a stri!!er or stri!!ed do#n unit. !aseplate A strong metal $late w#ic# is t#e main su$$ort for somet#ing. Also see %istributor baseplate !ase rim .ee Flat base rim Flat base rim taper !ase rim taper .ee Flat base rim taper !ase @ear .ee Auto -act !ase @ear !asher A small studio lam$ $laced close to or on t#e camera mounting. !asic ignition setting %#e ignition setting on a non-running engine according to t#e s$ecifications. After t#e engine is running, t#e timing can be set more accurately. !asic ignition timing %#e ignition timing on a non-running engine according to t#e s$ecifications. After t#e engine is running, t#e timing can be set more accurately. !asic loa*ing %#e limiting mec#anical load, $er unit lengt#, on an over#ead line conductor.

!asic price %#e $rice of a ve#icle wit#out including any o$tional accessories, ta1es, delivery c#arges, etc. !asic process A steel-ma"ing $rocess, eit#er Bessemer, o$en-#eart#, or electric, in w#ic# t#e furnace is lined wit# a basic refractory, a slag ric# in lime being formed, enabling $#os$#orus to be removed. Also see Aci* process !asic si# %#e grou$ of instruments essential for t#e flig#t #andling of an aircraft and consisting of t#e airs$eed indicator, vertical s$eed indicator, altimeter, #eading indicator, gyro #orizon, and turn and ban" indicator. !asic slag ;urnace slag ric# in $#os$#orus (as calcium $#os$#ate! w#ic#, wit# silicate and lime, is $roduced in steel ma"ing, and ground and sold for agricultural fertilizer. !asic spee* %#e s$eed w#ic# an electric motor develo$s at rated voltage wit# rated load a$$lied !asic steel 'teel w#ic# #as reacted wit# a basic lining or additive to $roduce a $#os$#orus-ric# slag and a low$#os$#orus steel. !asic & A layout of flig#t instruments standardized for aircraft instrument $anels in w#ic# four of t#e essential instrument $anels in w#ic# four of t#e essential instruments are arranged in t#e form of a %. %#e $itc# and roll attitude dis$lay is located at t#e 8unction of t#e % flan"ed by airs$eed on t#e left and attitude on t#e rig#t. %#e vertical bar $ortion of t#e % is ta"en u$ by directional information. !asic timing

%#e ignition timing on a non-running engine according to t#e s$ecifications. After t#e engine is running, t#e timing can be set more accurately. !asic /eight %#e weig#t of t#e structure (wing, body, tail unit, and landing gear! of an aircraft, $lus t#e $ro$ulsion system and t#e airframe services and e.ui$ment (mec#anical systems, avionics, fuel tan"s, and $i$es!. &ncludes residual oil and undrainable fuel but no o$erational e.ui$ment or $ayload. !asin .ee !uil*ing basin "atch basin "atch -it "atchment !asin !as)et case An old car w#ic# $robably does not run. Bften many engine and transmission $arts #ave been removed and are eit#er missing or stored in t#e trun" or a bas&et !as)et coil 2oil wit# criss-cross layers, so designed to minimize self-ca$acitance. !ass boost Am$lifier circuit ad8ustment w#ic# regulates t#e attenuation of t#e lowest fre.uencies in t#e audio scale, usually to offset t#e $rogressive loss toward low fre.uencies. !ass compensation Eifferential attenuation introduced into a soundre$roducing system w#en t#e loudness of t#e re$roduction is reduced below normal, to com$ensate for t#e diminis#ing sensitivity of t#e ear toward t#e lowest fre.uencies re$roduced. !ass fre8uency A fre.uency close to t#e lower limit in an audiofre.uency signal or a c#annel for suc#, e.g., below ,00 ?z.

!astar* 'omet#ing t#at is irregular, in between, or unusual. !astar* file

!astar* File A file (a tool! w#ic# #as a coarse cut (as o$$osed to a finishing file!. &t is one cut finer t#an a coarse file. ;iles are classed as coarse, second cut, and smooth, from coarsest to finest. %#us, a bastard file is a cut in between a coarse and a second cut. %#e word bastard functions #ere in its meaning as irregular or neit#er coarse nor second cut. !astar* threa* A screw-t#read w#ic# does not conform to any recognized standard dimensions. !astar* title %#e fly $age before t#e full title $age of a boo". Bften wrongly called a #alf-title !at 1. A lum$ or collection of somet#ing. 2. Acronym for Battery Also .ee Fiberglass !atch 1. A number of t#ings w#ic# are $roduced as a grou$. ,. A mi1ture of natural and synt#etic rubber wit# ot#er material suc# as fillers, c#emicals, and vulcanizing agents in t#e $roduction of tires.

3. %#e mi1ture of raw materials from w#ic# glass is $roduced in t#e furnace. A $ro$ortion of cullet is eit#er added to t#e mi1ture, or $laced in t#e furnace $revious to t#e c#arge. Also called charge. !atch bo# .ee 5auge bo# !atch furnace A furnace in w#ic# t#e c#arge is $laced and #eated to t#e re.uisite tem$erature. %#e furnace may be maintained at t#e o$erating tem$erature, or #eated and cooled wit# t#e c#arge. Eistinguis#ed from !atch mill 2ylindrical grinding mill into w#ic# a .uantity of material for $recise grinding treatment is c#arged and wor"ed until finis#ed. !atch number A number w#ic# may be added to a serial number to identify w#en t#e $roduct was manufactured. &n t#is way, w#en a $roblem occurs to some $roducts of t#e same batc#, action can be ta"en to correct or re$lace ot#ers from t#e same batc#. !atch process Any $rocess or manufacture in w#ic# o$erations are com$letely carried out on s$ecific .uantities or a limited number of articles, as contrasted to continuous or mass-$roduction. &n semiconductor manufacture, one in w#ic# several wafers are treated simultaneously as distinct from stages in w#ic# wafers are $rocessed singly. !ath 1. A tub into w#ic# somet#ing is immersed. ,. A li.uid solution used for cleaning, $lating, or maintaining a s$ecified tem$erature.

"ontinuous furnace

Also .ee Ano*izing bath 5alvanizing bath 0il bath air cleaner 0pen !ath -rimer bath .ealing bath Ainc bath !ath air .ee 0il bath air cleaner !ath air cleaner .ee 0il bath air cleaner !ath lubrication A met#od of lubrication in w#ic# t#e $art to be lubricated, suc# as a c#ain or gearw#eel, di$s into an oil-bat#. !A threa* .ee !ritish Association scre/-threa* !ath .uspension .ee 0il !ath .uspension !athtub Bodywor" resembling an u$side-down bat#tub used on t#e rear of some %rium$# motorcycles. &t was introduced in 1305 and dro$$ed in t#e early 1360s. &t was also used on Aas# cars of t#e 00=s. !athtub combustion chamber

%#e volume in t#e cylinder above t#e $iston t#at is s#a$ed li"e an inverted bat#tub wit# t#e valves in t#e bottom of t#e tub. 'ince all t#e valves can be arranged in a single row, t#e valve-o$erating cams#aft andDor roc"er gear are sim$le to design and o$erate. %#e long, oval s#a$e of t#e bat#tub controls e1cessive turbulence, and t#e flat areas w#ere t#e $iston comes rig#t u$ to t#e #ead surface su$$ly t#e s.uis# needed to swirl t#e mi1ture. %#e wide cylinders and s#ort $iston stro"es in modern engines ma"e it $ossible to use large valves wit# bat#tub #eads for efficient gas flow. Also .ee

Hemispherical combustion e*ge combustion .8uish combustion -iston-cro/n combustion chamber


!attens .ee "argo Hatch battens !atter level

chamber chamber chamber

battens

A form of clinometer for finding t#e slo$e of cuttings and emban"ments !attery

"lic) image to supersize !attery An 'lectrochemical device for $roducing electricity by converting c#emical energy. %#e ty$ical automotive lead-acid battery su$$lies t#e source of $ower for "ran)ing t#e engine and also $rovides t#e necessary electrical energy for t#e (gnition system. &n addition, it can (for a limited time! furnis# "urrent w#en t#e electrical demands of t#e ve#icle e1ceed t#e Alternator or 5enerator out$ut. Also called t#e storage battery. Also see

Accumulator Al)aline !-battery !ooster !uffer "ell "harge* "hec) %ea* %ischarge* %isconnect %ry %ry

battery battery

the the "ell

battery battery !attery battery battery battery battery battery battery !attery

%ry charge* 'nergy Flat 5el cell High energy (solate the ,ea*-aci* ,ea* Aci* Rechargeable ,o/-maintenance ,o/ Maintenance-free 9i-ca* Rechargeable -rimary Rechargeable .econ*ary .o*ium-.ulfur .torage &op up the battery et "ell !attery

battery !attery battery battery battery battery battery !attery battery battery battery !attery battery battery battery battery battery

!attery aci* :lectrolyte (usually sulfuric acid! in eac# of t#e battery cells. !attery aci* tester

!attery &ester A #ydrometer for c#ec"ing t#e strengt# of t#e acid mi1ture in eac# cell of a battery. ;luid is suc"ed into t#e instrument by s.ueezing and releasing t#e bulb. %#e scale measures t#e acid. !attery booster A motor-generator set used for giving an e1tra voltage, to enable a battery to be c#arged from a circuit of a voltage e.ual to t#e normal voltage of t#e battery. !attery brush

!attery !rush A s$ecially designed brus# set w#ic# cleans t#e outside terminals of t#e battery $ost as well as t#e inside of t#e battery cable so t#at good contact is made. !attery cap 'mall ca$s w#ic# seal eac# battery cell. !attery capacity %#e am$-#our ca$acity. !attery cell

&ndividual com$artments in a battery w#ic# is filled wit# electrolyte. 'i1-volt batteries #ave t#ree cells, 1,volt batteries #ave si1 cells. !attery case %#e bo1 made of $oly$ro$ylene #olding several c#ambers (cells! w#ic# #ave lead $lates and filled wit# electrolyte. !attery charge %#e condition or state of t#e amount of electricity in a battery. !attery charge in*icator An instrument w#ic# s#ows t#e state of c#arge in a battery. !attery charger

"lic) image to supersize !attery "harger An electric device w#ic# is $lugged into an electrical outlet (e.g., 110 volt A"! and connected to t#e two terminals of t#e battery to restore t#e state of c#arge in t#e battery. Bne of leads coming from t#e c#arger is red and t#e ot#er is blac". %#e red lead is clam$ed on t#e $ositive $ost of t#e battery w#ile t#e ot#er is clam$ed on t#e frame of t#e ve#icle. !attery charging

%#e $rocess of renewing t#e !attery by $assing an electric "urrent t#roug# t#e battery in a reverse direction. !attery charging station +it# t#e advent of electric cars, t#ere needs to be $laces w#ere t#eir batteries can be rec#arged $eriodically -- t#us is born t#e battery c#arging station. Also called a charging !oint. !attery clamp A #old down device w#ic# secures t#e battery from moving around. !attery coil ignition ?ig#-tension su$$ly for s$ar" $lugs in automobiles, in w#ic# t#e interru$tion of a $rimary current from a battery induces a #ig# secondary emf in anot#er winding on t#e same magnetic circuit, t#e #ig# tension being distributed in sync#ronism wit# t#e contactbrea"er in t#e $rimary circuit. !attery compartment A $lace in t#e ve#icle w#ere t#e battery is located. &n cars and truc"s it may be found under t#e #ood (usually toward t#e front!, under one of t#e seats, or in t#e trun". &n motorcycles it is found in t#e middle of t#e bi"e, under t#e seat. !attery con*ition .ee !attery charge !attery connector A $lug on battery-$owered ve#icles to connect t#e batteries to t#e "harging station !attery "ouncil (nternational A grou$ w#ic# ma"es decisions related to battery com$osition and dis$osal. !attery cover %#e to$ of t#e !attery case. &t #as several #oles (covered wit# ca$s! for access to t#e battery cells. !attery cut-out

An automatic switc# for disconnecting a battery during its c#arge, if t#e voltage of t#e c#arging circuit falls below t#at of t#e battery. !attery *ischarge controller A device on a ve#icle w#ic# is driven by an electrical motor. &t triggers a warning indicator w#en t#e battery $ower dro$s below a certain level. !attery *ischarge in*icator An instrument on a ve#icle w#ic# is driven by an electrical motor w#ic# indicates t#e $ercentage of t#e ma1imum c#arge of t#e battery. !attery earth Britis# term for !attery strap or 5roun* strap !attery filler A device wit# a long #ollow tube wit# a rubber bulb at one end. &t is used for inserting into a container of !attery aci* and suc"ing u$ t#e acid, t#en inserting into t#e battery cell to fill it. ?owever, motorcycle batteries arrive from t#e manufacturer wit# no electrolyte (battery acid!. Battery acid comes in a large $lastic container wit# a rubber #ose to w#ic# a metering clam$ is attac#ed. %#e container is usually $laced on a #ig#er s#elf so t#at it is fed into t#e battery by gravity and regulated by t#e metering clam$. !attery fill line A #orizontal line on t#e side of a translucent battery case w#ic# indicates t#e level to w#ic# you fill it wit# electrolyte. /sually t#ere are two lines indicating a minimum level and ma1imum level. !attery flui* .ee !attery aci* !attery hol* *o/n clamp .ee !attery clamp !attery ignition

Any system w#ere t#e battery su$$lies t#e initial voltage to $ower t#e starter motor and fire t#e s$ar" $lugs. !attery ignition system .ee !attery ignition !attery is *ea* %#e battery does not #ave enoug# electrical $ower to start t#e car. !attery is flat %#e battery does not #ave enoug# electrical $ower to start t#e car. !attery loa* tester

!attery ,oa* &ester An instrument w#ic# is a$$lied to t#e terminals of a !attery. +#en first installed, t#e battery voltage a$$ears on t#e dial. By $ressing a switc#, t#e voltage is c#anneled t#roug# a series of resistors. +#ile a battery may indicates 1, volts or more wit#out a load, it may not meet t#e am$erage for w#ic# it is rated w#en under load. !attery Manufacturers .ee Association 0f American !attery Manufacturers

!attery master s/itch A control w#ic# cuts $ower from t#e battery to t#e ot#er com$onents of t#e ve#icle. /sed to disable a ve#icle so t#at t#ieves #ave a #arder time stealing t#e ve#icle. !attery positive voltage (BI! A term used to designate $ositive voltage at or near t#e battery level. !attery post %#e terminal on a battery to w#ic# t#e cable is attac#ed. Blder automobile batteries used a round $ost w#ic# stood u$ from t#e to$ of t#e battery. %o avoid confusion, t#e $ositive $ost #as a larger diameter t#an t#e negative. Bn newer batteries t#e $ost may or may not be abandoned in favor of a terminal on t#e side of t#e battery. Bn motorcycle batteries, t#e $osts are usually flat wit# a #ole for bolting t#e cables to t#em. !attery regulating s/itch A switc# to regulate t#e number of cells connected in a series in a battery. !attery spear A s$ecial form of s$i"e used to connect a voltmeter to t#e $lates of t#e accumulator cells for battery-testing under load. %#e voltmeter incor$orates a low resistance in s#unt w#ic# simulates a #eavy load on t#e battery, t#us testing its wor" ca$ability. %#e #eavy current $assed for t#is $ur$ose necessitates s$ecial #eavy duty battery connectors. !attery state in*icator .ee !attery charge in*icator !attery strap 1. A wire cable or braided wire stra$ to transfer electricity. &t can be found between t#e engine bloc" and t#e "hassis because t#e engine is isolated from t#e "hassis by rubber mounts. Also called ground stra!.

,. A rubber stra$ wit# metal #oo"s at eac# end and is used to secure a battery in $lace, es$ecially on motorcycles. Also see 5roun* /ire !attery terminal 1. A !attery post on t#e to$ of t#e battery or a lug wit# a #ole on t#e side of t#e battery. ,. %#e clam$ at t#e end of a battery cable. !attery tester

!attery &ester 1. A voltage meter or #ydrometer for c#ec"ing t#e state of c#arge of a battery. ,. An instrument for c#ec"ing t#e condition of t#e battery cells Also

!attery aci* tester

see

!attery traction An electric-traction system in w#ic# t#e current is obtained from batteries (accumulators! on t#e ve#icles.

!attery tray A metal or $lastic on w#ic# t#e battery sits. !attery vehicle .ee !attery traction !au*elot cooler ?eat e1c#anger in w#ic# water flows by gravity over t#e outside of t#e tubes or $lates. !au*ot co*e 2ode in w#ic# five e.ual-lengt# bits re$resent one c#aracter) sometimes used for tele$rinters w#ere one start and one sto$ element are added to eac# grou$ of five bits. !aul) .ee !al) !aul) ring Britis# s$elling for !al) ring !ay 1. /nit of rac"s designed to accommodate numbers of standard-sized $anels, e.g., re$eaters or logical units. ,. /nit of #orizontally e1tended antenna, e.g., between masts. Also 'ngine bay !ayonet bulb .ee !ayonet cap !ayonet cap see

!ayonet "ap (B2! A cylindrical base of an electric bulb, usually wit# two $ins $ro8ecting on eit#er side, w#ic# engage in Js#a$ed slots to loc" t#e bulb securely in its soc"et. Also see

"enter-contact .mall bayonet cap

cap

!ayonet fitting An engineering fastening similar to a !ayonet cap Also see !ayonet soc)et !ayonet hol*er .ee !ayonet cap !ayonet soc)et A soc"et for receiving a !ayonet cap. &t #as two slots on eit#er side (usually J-s#a$ed! to accommodate t#e bulb=s $ins.

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ca"


"a "b

"c "* "e "f "g "h "i "6 ") "l "m "n "o "p
"r " Abbreviation for "elsius or "entigra*e. Abbreviation for "oulomb. Abbreviation for "omfort. Abbreviation for "arbon 0. 'ymbol for t#e s$eed of lig#t in a vacuum.
1. 2. 3. 4.

"-B "B( "4H

Acronym for "omputer comman* control system Acronym for "omputer controlle* coil ignition

A mi1ture of lig#t #ydrocarbons t#at #ave t#e general formula 26?n, w#ere n is t#e number of #ydrogen atoms $er molecule. :1am$les include !utane (26?10! and !utylene (26?7!. "-4 system Acronym for computer-controlle* catalytic "?"

converter
Acronym for -ab and chassis

"A
1. An A-( classification for %iesel engine oil widely

used in t#e late 1360s and =00s t#at o$erated in mild to moderate duty wit# #ig# .uality fuels) occasionally #as included gasoline engines in mild service. Bils designed for t#is service $rovide $rotection from bearing corrosion and ring-belt de$osits in some naturally as$irated diesel engines w#en using fuels of suc# .uality t#at t#ey im$ose no unusual re.uirements for wear and de$osits $rotection. &t was re$laced by "! designated oil in 1363. 2. Acronym for -ab0A(le describing t#e distance from t#e rear of t#e cab to t#e rear a1le. "AA
1. Acronym for -lean Air Act

2. Acronym for -ivil Aviation Authority "AAA Acronym for -lean Air Act Amendments of 1223 "AAM Acronym for -hina Association of Automobile Manufacturers. "A! 1. Acronym for -ivil Aeronautics Board 2. Acronym for "ontrollerC Anti-loc) bra)e "ab 1. A ta1i or car for #ire. 2. %#e closed $art of a truc" (or even a car! w#ere t#e %river sits. Also Access "abover "hassis "lub .ee "ab cab "ab

"re/ "ab %ouble "ab 'asy Access "ab '#ten*e* "ab 4ing "ab :ua* "ab Regular "ab "ab Asi*e 'ngine (2A:! A truc" w#ere t#e driver=s cab sits to one side of t#e engine as seen on refuse truc"s and some construction e.ui$ment. "abbage %ruc"er slang for a long stee$ incline in :astern Bregon as in F& 8ammed t#e bra"es $ullin= off of 2abbageF "ab ? chassis %#e front of a tractor trailer unit "ab an* chassis %#e front of a tractor trailer unit "ab-!ehin* 'ngine (2B! (2B:! 2onventional style of a large truc" w#ic# #as a #ood and an engine in front of t#e cab. "ab chassis A truc" "hassis w#ic# includes t#e driver com$artment. "ab For/ar* A truc" t#at is similar to a cabover in t#at t#e cab is $ositioned a#ead of t#e engine. (ost commonly seen on refuse truc"s and some construction e.ui$ment. "ab-for/ar* *esign A car design in w#ic# t#e front end is s#ort and t#e footwells e1tended to t#e front a1le. %#is design gave more $assenger s$ace and $us#ed t#e winds#ield furt#er from t#e $assengers "abin A $assenger com$artment of an enclosed ve#icle. "abin altitu*e

%#e normal $ressure altitude maintained in t#e cabin of a $ressurized aircraft. "abin blo/er An engine-driven $um$, usually of dis$lacement ty$e, for maintaining an aircraft coc"$it or cabin above atmos$#eric $ressure. Also called cabin su!ercharger. "abin *ifferential pressure %#e $ressure in e1cess of t#at of t#e surrounding atmos$#ere w#ic# is needed to maintain comfortable conditions at #ig# altitude. ;or an aircraft flying at 3000m t#is differential would be about 60 "Am-,. "abin for/ar* .ee "ab-for/ar* *esign "abin-for/ar* *esign .ee "ab-for/ar* *esign "abin supercharger .ee "abin blo/er "able A cord generally made of strands of t#in wire. :lectrical cables are covered wit# a $rotective non-conducting material. 2ontrol cables are #oused wit#in an outer sleeve. Also .ee !alance*-pair "able !o/*en cable !ra)e cable "lutch cable "ontrol cable %erailleur "able 5earchange cables Heavy cable (gnition cable 7umper cables

,ight cable -ar)ing-bra)e "able .hift cables .par) plug cable .pee*ometer cable .tarter s/itch control cable .tirrup cable >niversal "able "able activate* A device w#ic# is controlled by a cable. As a lever or $edal is engaged, t#e device is corres$ondingly moved. %#e longer t#e cable t#e less efficient is t#e system. 2ables tend to stretc# and fray wit# use. "able-angle in*icator An indicator s#owing t#e vertical angle between t#e longitudinal a1is of a glider and its towing cable, also its yaw and roll attitude relative to t#e towing aircraft. "able bra)e A bra"ing device w#ic# is activated by a cable "able buoy A buoy attac#ed to an anc#or and serving to mar" its $osition. "ablecar A tram $ulled by a moving underground cable, in t#e same manner as t#e "able rail/ay. "able clamp 1. A device for securing a cable end to t#e $oint w#ere it connects. ,. A device w#ic# secures t#e outer s#eat# of a cable "able cover strip .ee .par) plug cable cover strip "able crimp A small aluminum or $lastic ca$ installed on t#e ends of bicycle bra"e and s#ift inner cables to "ee$ t#em from fraying) also "nown as a cable end. %#e outer cable s#eat# end is $rotected from fraying by a Ferrule

"able cutter

"able "utter A tool for severing a cable. "able *ucts :art#enware, steel, $lastic, or concrete $i$es containing cables. "able en* A small aluminum or $lastic ca$ installed on t#e ends of bicycle bra"e and s#ift inner cables to "ee$ t#em from fraying) also "nown as a cable crim!. %#e outer cable s#eat# end is $rotected from fraying by a Ferrule "able form %#e normal sc#eme of cabling between units of a$$aratus. %#e bul" of t#e cable is made u$ on a board, using nails at t#e a$$ro$riate corners, eac# wire of t#e s$ecified color identification being stretc#ed over its individual route wit# ade.uate s)inner. +#en t#e cable is bound wit# twine and wa1ed, it is fitted to t#e a$$aratus on t#e rac"s and t#e s"inners connected, by soldering, to t#e tag bloc)s. "able grip A fle1ible cone of wire w#ic# is $ut on t#e end of a cable. +#en t#e cone is $ulled, it tig#tens and bites into t#e s#eat# of t#e cable, and can be used to $ull t#e cable into a duct. "able gui*e A tube w#ic# is secured in $lace to c#annel t#e cable w#ic# runs t#roug# it "able Housing

.ee !ra)e "able Housing %erailleur "able Housing "able-lai* rope A ro$e formed of several strands laid toget#er so t#at t#e twist of t#e ro$e is in t#e o$$osite direction to t#e twist of t#e strands. "able loc) A t#ic" cable wit# a loc" at one end and w#ic# can be wra$$ed around a bicycle frame and a $ost to $rotect t#e bi"e from being stolen. "able logging A system of trans$orting logs from stum$ to landing by means of steel cables and winc#. %#is met#od is usually $referred on stee$ slo$es, wet areas, and erodible soils w#ere tractor logging cannot be carried out effectively. "able loom .ee .par) plug cable loom "able mar)er .ee .par) plug cable mar)er "able operate* An item w#ic# is controlled by a cable "able rail/ay (eans of trans$ort w#ereby carriages are $ulled u$ an incline by an endless overground or underground cable. "ables .ee "able "able separator .ee .par) plug cable separator "able-staye* bri*ge A bridge ty$e for medium s$ans in w#ic# t#e dec"ing is sus$ended by diagonal cables attac#ed directly to t#e su$$orting tower. 2an be of fan or #ar$ design. %#e

dec"ing is always in com$ression and is self-su$$orting during construction. Also .ee !ri*ge "able-/ay A construction consisting of cables slung over and between two or more towers, so t#at s"i$s sus$ended from t#e cables may be moved often over long distances. &t is used for trans$ort of ore etc. Also called blondin. "abover

"abover truc) A truc" or tractor design in w#ic# t#e cab sits over t#e engine on t#e c#assis. %#e cabover is identified by t#e winds#ield being located directly over t#e front bum$er and t#e driver is directly over t#e steering a1le. Also called flat-faced, butt-nosed, or -ab-over-

engine

"ab-0ver-'ngine (2B:! A truc" or tractor design in w#ic# t#e cab sits over t#e engine on t#e c#assis. %#e cabover is identified by t#e winds#ield being located directly over

t#e front bum$er and t#e driver is directly over t#e steering a1le. Also called flat-faced or butt-nosed. "ab -lus A ty$e of $ic"u$ truc" (by (azda! w#ic# #as a second row of seating) but unli"e a "re/ cab (w#ic# #as four full size doors! it #as a half-door t#at can be o$ened only after t#e main door is o$ened. %#e seating is usually a little more cram$ed t#an in a "re/ cab. Also called "lub "ab, '#ten*e* "ab, 4ing "ab, Dtracab, Access "ab, .upercab "abriolet 'imilar to t#e s$ort cou$K, it #as a $rovision for converting to an o$en-ty$e body (i.e., "onvertible!. A Rumble seat is a common on older ve#icles, but not mandatory feature. (ercedes-Benz distinguis#es t#e cabriolet from t#e roadster in t#at t#e former #as a soft-to$ w#ic# folds u$ w#ile t#e roadster #as a #ardto$ w#ic# is stored in t#e trun". Also called a %rophea* coupE. "A" Acronym for -harge Air -ooler "A"(. Acronym for "ontinuous A" (gnition .ystem "A% Acronym for com!uter aided design "a*astral survey 9and survey, boundary delineation. "a**y An eu$#emistic name for "a*illac Also .ee -lug ca**y "a*ence %#e s$eed your bicycle $edals turn. rofessional bicycle riders #ave cadence of over 100 r$m "a*ence bra)ing

A bra"ing met#od in w#ic# t#e driver ra$idly de$resses and releases t#e bra"e $edal to bring a ve#icle to an emergency sto$ "a*illac

%#e following 2adillacs are classic cars All 13,0->0 models All 1,-cylinder models All 16 cylinder models All 13>7-61 60 '$ecial models All 13>6-67 series L65, L50, L5,, L50, L70, L70, L30 ;or a #istory of 2adillac, see "a*illac History. (odels include t#e followingM AllantK (1375-133>! Broug#am (1370-133,! 2alais (1360-1356! 2astilian 'tation +agon (1350-1356! 2atera (1335-,001! 2imarron (137,-1377! commercial c#assis (13>0-7>! used for funeral cars and ambulances 2ou$e de -ille (1363-3>! 2%' (,00>-current! 2%'-- (,006-current! Ee-ille (1363-,000! E%' (,006-current! 'l*ora*o (130>-,00,! :ldorado Biarritz (1306-66, 1356-31!

:ldorado Broug#am (1305-60! :ldorado 'eville (1306-60! :scalade (1333-current! :scalade :'- (,00>-current! :scalade :N% (,00,-current! ;leetwood (13,5-1336! ;leetwood :ldorado (1360-,00>! .eventy-Five (13>6-56! .eville (1350-,006! .i#ty-one (13>3-01! .i#ty-&/o (1360-66! .i#ty .pecial (13>7-133>! '<N (,006-current! '%' (,000-current! '%'-- (,006-current! N9< (,006-current! N9<-- (,006-current!

"a*mium cell A reference voltage standard, giving 1.0176 - at 20=". Also called Weston standard cadmium cell. "a*mium copper A variety of co$$er containing 0.5 to 1.04 cadmium. /sed for trolley, tele$#one, and telegra$# wires because it gives #ig# strengt# in cold-drawn condition combined wit# good conductivity. "a*mium photocell A $#otoconductive cell using cadmium disulfide or cadmium selenide as t#e $#otosensitive semiconductor. 'ensitive to longer wavelengt#s and infrared. &t #as a ra$id res$onse to c#anges in lig#t intensity. "a*mium-plate* 'omet#ing t#at is covered wit# a coating of cadmium. &t is usually used to $rotect aluminum and steel nuts and bolts

"a*mium re* line '$ectrum line formerly c#osen as a re$roducible standard of lengt#, wavelengt# 66>.7636 nm. "A' 1. Acronym for -om!uter Aided Engineering 2. Acronym for "ab Asi*e 'ngine seen on refuse truc"s and some construction e.ui$ment. "aesium Britis# s$elling for "esium "AF' Acronym for "orporate Average Fuel 'conomy. /nder 2A;:, w#ic# was enacted in 1350, a motor ve#icle manufacturer must $lace its /.'. automobile and lig#t truc" fleet sales in one of two ve#icle fleets, eit#er domestic or im$ort, for fuel economy averaging $ur$oses. "afE chop 2onverting a stoc" motorcycle into a cafK racer is "nown as doing a cafK c#o$ on a bi"e "afE racer 1. (otorcycle modified to resemble racing motorcycles from t#e 1300s and 60s. %#ey are called caf4 racers because t#eir owners su$$osedly raced from cafK to cafK in 9ondon, w#ere t#e bi"es first a$$eared in t#e 1360s 2. An early .portbi)e motorcycle w#ic# originated in :uro$e. %#ey #ad a low in*shiel* and t#e rider was bent forward to o$timize t#e flow of air. &ts name came from t#ose w#o raced from one restaurant (cafK! to anot#er. "age 1. Any enclosure. 2. Bn a front %erailleur of a !icycle, it is a $air of $arallel $lates t#at $us# t#e "hain from side to side) on a rear %erailleur, it is a set of $lates in

w#ic# -ulleys are mounted to #old and guide t#e "hain from "og to cog. 3. Any device for #olding or securing somet#ing, e.g., a bottle cage on a !icycle. Also

!ottle "age

see

4. +#en referring to bearings, it is t#e $art w#ic# #olds t#e balls or Rollers in $lace. /sually called !all cage. Also

9ee*le Roller .8uirrel "age

cage cage

.ee

5. +#en referring to a ve#icle, it is t#e safety enclosure called a Roll cage. Also

%ifferential (ntegrate* Multi-ree* cage

roll

cage cage

.ee

6. %#e $latform on w#ic# goods are #oisted u$ or lowered down a vertical s#aft or guides) in mines, t#e steel bo1 used to raise and lower wor"ers, materials, or tubs. (ay #ave two or t#ree dec"s. "age pe*al

"age -e*al A bicycle $edal t#at is surrounded by a cage. &t is found on all terrain bi"es. "age rotor A form of rotor, used for induction motors, #aving on it a "age /in*ing. Also called s5uirrel-cage rotor. "age /in*ing A ty$e of winding used for rotors of some ty$es of induction motors, and for t#e starting or dam$ing windings of sync#ronous mac#ines. &t consists of a number of bars of co$$er or ot#er conducting materials, $assing along slots in t#e core and welded to rings at eac# end. Also called s5uirrel-cage #inding. "ailletet2s process A met#od for t#e li.uefaction of gases based on t#e free e1$ansion of a gas from a #ig#er to a lower $ressure. "A7A% Acronym for -anadian Association of 6a!anese

Automobile

ealers

"a)e %#e rectangular casting of co$$er or its alloys before rolling into s#eet or stri$. "al Abbreviation for "alorie

"A,

Acronym for -om!uter Aided 7ighting "alan*ria 2losed vessel $enetrated by $i$es so t#at li.uids in eac# do not mi1. &n eva$orating $lant t#e tubes carry t#e #eating fluid and in certain ty$es of nuclear reactor, e.g., "A9%> reactors, t#e sealed vessel is called a calandria "alcination A $rocess in w#ic# a material is #eated to a #ig# tem$erature wit#out fusing, so t#at #ydrates, carbonates, or ot#er com$ounds are decom$osed and t#e volatile material is e1$elled. "alcium chlori*e 1. A c#emical (salt! w#ic# is added to water in a ,i8ui* ballast. 2. A soluble com$ound $roduced from calcium carbonate and #ydrogen c#loride generally used in cold tem$eratures (3F= - -30="! to deice roads or to $re-wet salt before a$$lying to roads. "alcium magnesium acetate A com$ound $roduced from limestone and acetic acid used for anti-icing and deicing of roads. &t is less corrosive t#an salt, but more e1$ensive. "alcium sulfate 2#emical com$ound (2a'B6!, w#ic# is used as a drying agent or desiccant in li.uid line driers Also see Anhy*rous calcium sulphate "alcium tungstate screen A fluorescent screen used in a cat#ode-ray tube) it gives a blue and ultraviolet luminescence. "alculation .ee ,oa* *istribution calculation "alen*ering

A t#in layer of rubber inside t#e &ire casing w#ic# covers t#e carcass cords to $rotect t#em from moisture and to $rotect t#e tube from c#afing by t#e cord body. &n tubeless tires, calendering consists of a layer of air $roof !utyl rubber. "aliber Also s$elled calibre 1. %#e internal diameter or bore of a $i$e, es$. t#e barrel of a fire-arm. ,. %#e arrangement of t#e various com$onents of a watc# or cloc". "alibrate
1. As a$$lied to test instruments it is t#e $rocedure

of ad8usting t#e dial 9ee*le to t#e correct zero or load setting to determine accurate measurements. ,. osition indicators to determine accurate measurements "alibrate* airspee* (2A'! &n automobiles, s$eed is calculated by t#e rotation of t#e driving a1le. &n an air$lane, #owever, s$eed is determined by t#e amount of air rus#ing $ast t#e $lane. &n a turn, air will rus# $ast faster on one side t#an t#e ot#er. 2alibrated airs$eed ma"es ad8ustment for t#is factor (called $osition error! and for any error in t#e instrument. Also called rectified "alibration (ar"ing t#e measuring units on an instrument or c#ec"ing t#eir accuracy "alibration assembly A memory module t#at $lugs into an on-board com$uter and contains instructions for engine o$eration "alibration oil Bil w#ic# is used in a tester for c#ec"ing in8ection nozzles, meeting 'A: J365E s$ecifications "alibration >nit

airs!eed

.ee 'ngine "alibration >nit "alibre .ee "aliber "alifornia Air Resources !oar* (2A<B! %#e state agency t#at regulates t#e air .uality in 2alifornia. Air .uality regulations establis#ed by 2A<B are often stricter t#an t#ose set by t#e federal government. "alifornia ,o/-'mission $ehicle -rogram 'tate re.uirement for automa"ers to $roduce ve#icles wit# fewer emissions t#an current '-A standards. %#e five categories of 2alifornia 9ow-:mission -e#icle rogram standards from least to most stringent are &,'$, ,'$, >,'$, .>,'$, and A'$. "alifornia -ilot -rogram ;ederal $rogram, administered by t#e '-A under t#e 2lean Air Act, w#ic# sets lower emission standards (relative to cars in t#e general /.'. mar"et! for a set number of new $assenger cars and lig#t truc"s sold in 2alifornia. %#e $rogram s$ecified t#at at t#e beginning of 1336, t#ere would be t#e sale of 100,000 clean ve#icles in t#e state. Beginning in 1333, t#is was to increase to >00,000 annually. 2alifornia must mandate availability of any fuel necessary to o$erate clean fuel ve#icles. "alifornia -o/er '#change A 'tate-c#artered, non-$rofit cor$oration w#ic# $rovides day-a#ead and #our-a#ead mar"ets for energy and ancillary services in accordance wit# t#e $ower e1c#ange tariff. %#e $ower e1c#ange is a sc#eduling coordinator and is inde$endent of bot# t#e inde$endent system o$erator and all ot#er mar"et $artici$ants. "alifornia /heel A name given to a s$o"ed w#eel $roduced by $articular manufacturer. Alt#oug# t#e w#eel is $o$ular in t#e :ast

and (idwest of /nited 'tates, it is not common in 2alifornia or ot#er +estern states. "aliper

1. "aliper %#e clam$ing device on %isc bra)es w#ic# straddles t#e rotating disc and by #ydraulic action it $resses t#e $ads against t#e disc to sto$ or slow t#e ve#icle. Also

!ra)e Floating caliper Fi#e* Four -iston ,o/-*rag .ingle-piston .li*ing -in sli*er caliper ./inging caliper

*isc

*isc

caliper bra)e "aliper "aliper "aliper "aliper "aliper bra)e

.ee

,. !icycle "aliper

Bn !icycles, t#e bra"e arms t#at reac# around t#e sides of a w#eel to $ress !ra)e pa*s against t#e w#eel rim.

>. "aliper (Britis# s$elling is calli!er!. An ad8ustable measuring tool t#at is $laced around ( 0utsi*e caliper! or wit#in ((nsi*e caliper! an ob8ect and ad8usted until it 8ust ma"es contact. &t is t#en wit#drawn and t#e distance measured between t#e contacting $oints. Also .ee

%ial %igital (nsi*e (nsi*e Machinists2 0utsi*e 0utsi*e -oc)et -oc)et $ernier caliper

spring spring sli*e

caliper caliper "aliper caliper caliper "aliper caliper caliper caliper

"aliper *isc

.ee Floating caliper *isc bra)e -in sli*er caliper *isc bra)e "aliper *isc bra)e .ee Floating caliper *isc bra)e -in sli*er caliper *isc bra)e "aliper gauge A "aliper (definition L>! "aliper mounting brac)et %#e com$onent t#at connects a bra"e cali$er to t#e steering "nuc"le, #ub carrier, or rear a1le "al) %o fill seams in a wood dec" wit# oa"um or #ammer t#e ad8oining edges of metal toget#er to sto$ lea"s. Also s$elled caul& "al)ing .ee "aul)ing "all .ee "lose call "all %istribution .ee Automatic "all %istribution "alliper Alternate s$elling for "aliper "al-loo) A style modification of small ve#icles w#ic# first started in 2alifornia. (ost of t#e c#rome is removed and t#e ve#icle is $ainted a brig#t color li"e yellow, lig#t blue, and red. "all-out %#e mobilization of $low o$erators to initiate snow and ice control activities "alorescence

%#e absor$tion of radiation of a certain wavelengt# by a body, and its re-emission as radiation of s#orter wavelengt#. %#e effect is familiar in t#e emission of visible rays by a body w#ic# #as been #eated to redness by focusing infrared #eat rays onto it. "alorie %wo different calorie units are used by scientists. %#e calorie used by medical science is a small #eat unit. &t e.uals t#e #eat re.uired to raise t#e tem$erature of one gram of water one degree 2elsius. %#e calorie used by engineering science is a large #eat unit. &t is e.ual to t#e amount of #eat re.uired to raise t#e tem$erature of one "ilogram of water one degree 2. &n t#e .( system it is recommended t#at t#e 7oule unit of energy be used in $lace of t#e calorie "alorific value A measure of #eating value of fuel. Amount of #eat $roduced by t#e com$lete combustion of a unit weig#t of fuel. /sually e1$ressed in calories $er gram or B%/=s $er $ound, t#e latter being numerically 1.7 times t#e former. "alorimeter An instrument to measure amount of #eat given off by a substance w#en burned Also see !omb "alorimeter "AM Acronym for -om!uter Aided Manufacturing "am 1. A designed bum$ on a s#aft or %isc w#ic# causes a roc"ing motion in an ad8acent $art. Also

"amshaft

.ee

2. A metal %isc wit# irregularly s#a$ed lobes used in

t#e "amshaft to activate t#e o$ening and closing

of t#e valves and in t#e %istributor, to force t#e $oints to o$en. >. A ste$$ed or curved eccentric w#eel mounted on a rotating s#aft. As a cam is turned, ob8ects in contact wit# it are raised or lowered. 6. %#e triangular $iece of metal t#at fits between t#e rollers on rollercam bicycle bra"es and moves t#e bra"e arms w#en t#e bra"e lever is s.ueezed 5. A collo.uial name for t#e "amshaft. 6. A name for t#e !rea)er cam. Also .ee A*6uster cam A*6usting "ams !arrel "am !rea)er "am "losing cam %istributor cam %ouble overhea* cam '#haust cam Face "am Fast i*le cam Floating cam Full "am (nlet cam (nta)e cam Race "am .emi-race "am .ingle 0verhea* "am .ingle-overhea* cam &hree-8uarter "am "am-an*-lever steering A steering system in w#ic# a conical $eg mounted on a lever engages in a #elically cut groove on a cylindrical drum. Also called cam-and-!eg steering "am-an*-peg steering .ee "am-an*-lever steering

"am-an*-roller steering A steering system in w#ic# a ta$ered disc or a set of discs or rollers engage wit# a #elically cut, ta$ered groove on a cylindrical drum "am angle .ee %/ell "amaro

"lic) image for boo)s on "amaro A series of -ony cars from t#e 2#evrolet division of General (otors $roduced from 1365 to ,00,. &t is often miss$elled as -amero because of a mis$ronunciation. &t s#ould be $ronounced &a-MA%-roh, not &aMERR-oh. %#e 1365-63 ''D<' --7 and O-,7 models are Milestone cars. "am belt .ee &iming belt "amber 1. %#e rise of a dec" of a s#i$, Ath/artship

,. "amber A w#eel Alignment ad8ustment of t#e inward or outward tilt on t#e to$ of t#e w#eel w#en viewed from t#e front of t#e ve#icle. %i$$ing t#e to$ of t#e w#eel center line outward $roduces -ositive camber. %i$$ing t#e w#eel center line inward at t#e to$ $roduces 9egative camber. +#en t#e camber is $ositive, t#e to$s of t#e tires are furt#er a$art t#an t#e bottom. 2orrect camber im$roves #andling and cuts tire wear. 2amber is measured in degrees.

"ambere* a#le An a1le t#at #as a slig#t arc# w#ic# curves u$ward at t#e center so t#at t#e w#eels can tilt outward at t#e to$. &n t#is way it is better t#an an a1le w#ic# mig#t sag under load. "amber thrust %#e side force generated w#en a tire rolls wit# "amber. 2amber t#rust can add to or subtract from t#e side force a tire generates. "am bolt A bolt fitted wit# an eccentric t#at will cause $arts to c#ange $osition w#en t#e bolt is turned. "am chain A &iming chain w#ic# controls t#e over#ead cams#aft.

"am *esign .ee "am profile "amel A $added fender to "ee$ a vessel away from a $ier or .uay to $revent damage to t#e #ull or $ier "amelbac) /ncured retread rubber in crescent s#a$e, available in various widt#s and de$t#s according to size and ty$e of tire being retreaded. Also .ee %ie size "amelba)G

"amelba) A brand name for a #ydration $ac" t#at fits on t#e bac" of a cyclist or #i"er. &t is filled wit# water and #as a tube $laced wit#in reac# for su$$lying water for t#e user.

"amel 5ran* &ouring -rototype (G% ! An &nternational (otors$orts Association=s (&('A! $remier racing category until 133> w#en it was re$laced by t#e controlled cars +orld '$orts 2ar 2#am$ions#i$. G% cars were t#e most $owerful and t#e fastest on most road racing circuits in Aort# America at t#at time. Bver t#e years, many automa"ers fielded factory teams in t#is series including ;ord, %oyota, Jaguar, Aissan, and orsc#e. "am engine .ee 0verhea* camshaft "amera %ruc"er slang for olice radar unit as in F%#ere=s a local yo"al wit# a camera 8ust a#ead.F Also see !oys "amera Automatic "amera "amero .ee "amaro "am face %#e surface of a cam lobe "am follo/er

"am Follo/er %#e t#e and t#e unit t#at contacts t#e end of t#e $alve stem and "amshaft. %#e follower rides on t#e "amshaft w#en t#e "am lobes move it u$ward, it o$ens valve. Also called $alve lifter or ta!!et.

"am grin* 1. A ty$e of bra"e s#oe arcing t#at $roduces a lining t#inner at its ends t#an at its center. ,. %#e inta"e and e1#aust timing of a $articular cam $rofile. "am groun* piston .ee "am-groun* piston "am-groun* piston A -iston wit# a .)irt t#at is ground slig#tly eggs#a$ed or oval-s#a$ed. %#e widest diameter of t#e s"irt is at rig#t angles to t#e $iston-$in a1is. +#en it is #eated, it becomes round. %#e design allows for a closer fit in t#e "ylin*er so t#at t#ere is a reduction of !lo/by gas, cylinder scuffing, and -iston slap.

"am heel %#e lowest $oint of a cam o$$osite t#e lobe. Also called

!ase circle

"am lobe .ee "am lobes "am lobes %#e bum$s on a cams#aft t#at contact and activate suc# devices as t#e ,ifters, w#ic# o$erate t#e valves, and t#e Rubbing bloc), w#ic# causes t#e $oints to o$en and close, as t#e cam s$ins wit# t#e %istributor shaft. "am lubricator A device, often in t#e form of a wic", for lubricating t#e contact brea"er cam in t#e distributor "ampaigning <acing a $articular ve#icle for an entire season. "amper

"amper A structure w#ic# fits into a truc" bed for cam$ing $ur$oses. &t usually #as beds and $ossibly coo"ing and was#ing facilities. Also called a &ruc) camper or slide-in cam!er. Also .ee

.li*e-in &ruc) "amper


"amping

"amper

.ee Fol*ing camping trailer "amping trailer A trailer containing cam$ing e.ui$ment. Also Fol*ing camping .oft-top Har*-top &railer "am profile %#e s#a$e of eac# lobe on a "amshaft. %#ese determine w#en t#e valves o$en or close. "am pulley hol*er

.ee trailer trailer trailer

s#a$es

"lic) image to supersize "am -ulley Hol*er A tool for ad8ustments securing are t#e cams#aft being w#en ot#er made.

"amHroc)er .ee 0pening camHroc)er

"amHroc)er .ee 0pening camHroc)er "am roller <otating w#eel acting as a cam follower "amry

"lic) image for boo)s on "amry A model of automobile manufactured by %oyota "amshaft

"amshaft A s#aft wit# "am lobes (bum$s! w#ic# is driven by gears, a belt, or a "hain from t#e "ran)shaft. %#e lobes $us# on t#e $alve lifters to cause t#e valves to o$en and close. %#e cams#aft turns at #alf t#e s$eed of t#e "ran)shaft. Also .ee

%ouble-overhea* '#haust (nlet (nta)e 0verhea* Race &hree-8uarter race .ingle 0verhea* .ingle-overhea* &/in camshaft

cam camshaft camshaft camshaft camshaft camshaft camshaft "amshaft camshaft

"amshaft bearing /sually a $lain bearing w#ic# su$$orts t#e cams#aft "amshaft *rive

A connection between t#e cran"s#aft and cams#aft by means of gears, c#ain, drive belt, s#aft, or eccentric s#aft to maintain t#e ratio of 1,. "amshaft *rive belt A &iming belt "amshaft *rive sproc)et A s$roc"et attac#ed to a cran"s#aft (eit#er at one end or somew#ere in t#e middle! w#ic# drives t#e cams#aft wit# t#e use of a c#ain "amshaft en* play %#e amount of lateral movement of t#e cams#aft once it is installed "amshaft engine .ee &/in camshaft engine "amshaft gear A gear t#at is used to drive t#e "amshaft. "amshaft housing %#at $art of t#e engine w#ic# encloses t#e cams#aft and often ot#er $arts of t#e valve train. "amshaft 6ournal %#at $art of t#e cams#aft t#at runs in one of its bearings "amshaft position sensor (2( ! A sensor t#at signals to t#e I'">J t#e rotational $osition of t#e cams#aft. %#is enables t#e com$uter to more $recisely time t#e fuel in8ection and ignition system for faster starting of t#e engine. "amshaft pulley %#e $ulley on t#e end of t#e cams#aft for t#e cams#aft drive belt "amshaft sensor 1. A sensor t#at signals to t#e I'">J t#e rotational $osition of t#e cams#aft. %#is enables t#e com$uter to more $recisely time t#e fuel in8ection and ignition system for faster starting of t#e engine.

,. A trigger device found on some distributorless ignition systems t#at sync#ronizes w#en t#e $ro$er ignition coil s#ould be fired. "amshaft sproc)et %#e s$roc"et on t#e cams#aft w#ic# (t#roug# a c#ain! is driven by t#e "amshaft *rive sproc)et "amshaft timing %#e relations#i$ between t#e o$ening and closing of t#e valves and t#e movement of t#e $istons must be coordinated. %#e cams#aft w#ic# o$erates t#e valves must t#erefore turn in relation to t#e cran"s#aft by means of a timing belt or timing c#ain. "amshaft timing belt %#e rubber belt t#at transfers $ower from t#e cran"s#aft to t#e cams#aft to o$erate it. %#e belt must be installed so it maintains t#e relations#i$ between t#e cams#aft and cran"s#aft so t#e valves for eac# cylinder o$en and close at t#e rig#t time for $ro$er engine o$eration, a factor called cams#aft timing "amshaft timing chain %#e metal c#ain t#at transfers $ower from t#e cran"s#aft to t#e cams#aft to o$erate it. %#e c#ain must be installed so it maintains t#e relations#i$ between t#e cams#aft and cran"s#aft so t#e valves for eac# cylinder o$en and close at t#e rig#t time for $ro$er engine o$eration, a factor called cams#aft timing "an 1. A tube in a canned motor $um$ w#ic# insulates t#e motor winding. ,. A muffler. >. A container for li.uid or ot#er substances. Also .afety &in 0il can .ee "an "an

"ana*a->+.+ Free &ra*e Agreement (;%A! &m$lemented in January 1373 to eliminate all tariffs on /.'. and 2anadian goods by January 1337 and to reduce or eliminate many non-tariff barriers. "ana*ian Automotive Repair an* .ervice "ouncil (2A<'! A not-for-$rofit organization establis#ed to serve t#e #uman resource and training needs of t#e 2anadian car and truc" re$air and service industry. "ana*ian cross bor*er shopping 2ross border s#o$$ing describes t#e $urc#asing by 2anadian consumers of $roducts in t#e /nited 'tates. Bf $articular interest is t#e decision by t#ese buyers to obtain t#eir $roducts in t#e /.'., even t#oug# similar $roducts are available in t#e 2anadian mar"et. "ana*ian %euterium >ranium Reactor (2AAE/! /ses #eavy water or deuterium o1ide (E,B!, rat#er t#an lig#t water (?,B!, as t#e coolant and moderator. Eeuterium is an isoto$e of #ydrogen t#at #as a different neutron absor$tion s$ectrum from t#at of ordinary #ydrogen. &n a deuterium-moderatedreactor, fuel made from natural uranium (0.51 /-,>0! can sustain a c#ain reaction. "ana*ian 'nvironmental -rotection Act (2: A! act w#ere t#e goal is $ollution $revention and $rotection of 2anadians from to1ic substances. "ana*ian 5as Association (2GA! A trade organization re$resenting all segments of t#e gas industry in 2anada. ;ounded in 1305, it s$ecifically re$resents distributors, transmission com$anies, $roducers, $i$eline contractors, manufacturers and allied service organizations. 2GA set u$ a standards writing, ins$ection and $roduct certification $rogram in t#e mid 1300=s at a time w#en natural gas was being e1tended to :astern 2anada and t#e +est 2oast. 2GA #as been accredited by t#e Aational 'tandards 2ouncil of 2anada to $re$are Aational 'tandards of 2anada in t#e area of e.ui$ment for use wit# natural gas and $ro$ane.

"ana*ian .tan*ar*s Association I".AJ %#e organization t#at sets safety standards for electric motors and ot#er electrical e.ui$ment used in 2anada "ana*ian $alue A**e* .ee Auto -act "ana*ian $alue A**e* "ancellation .ee 9oise cancellation "an*ela (cd! A basic unit of luminous intensity. &f, in a given direction, a source emits monoc#romatic radiation of fre.uency 060 1 101, ?z, and t#e radiant intensity in t#at direction is 1D67> watt $er .tera*ian, t#en t#e luminous intensity of t#e source is 1 candela. "an*le .ee "an*le po/er+ "an*le po/er A measurement of t#e lig#t $roducing ability of a lig#t !ulb. "an*lestic) barriers lastic $oles used to c#annel traffic. Aormally used in long-term traffic control in lieu of orange drums in tig#t construction areas. "A9%> Acronym for "ana*ian %euterium >ranium "an*y apple paint A brig#t color (usually red! $aint (often wit# metal fla"es! wit# a trans$arent clear coat "an*y paint A brig#t color (usually red! $aint (often wit# metal fla"es! wit# a trans$arent clear coat "an*y store An automobile dealers#i$ wit# lots of ve#icle inventory. "anister

Reactor

A small metal bo1 or can. /sually refers to a container in an emission control system t#at contains c#arcoal to tra$ fuel va$ors from t#e fuel system Also .ee Activate* carbon canister "harcoal canister "anister air filter A "entrifugal force air filter "anister purge shut-off valve (2 'B-! a vacuum-o$erated valve t#at s#uts off canister $urge w#en t#e air in8ection diverter valve dum$s air downstream "anister purge solenoi* An electrical solenoid t#at o$ens t#e canister $urge valve between t#e fuel va$or canister line and t#e inta"e manifold w#en energized "anister purge valve -alve used to regulate t#e flow of va$ors from t#e eva$orative canister to t#e engine "anne* motor pump A glandless $um$ wit# a s$ecial ty$e of submersible or canned motor, w#ose stator winding is insulated from t#e fluid $um$ed by a tube, t#e so-called can "annibalize %#e action of removing good $arts from one ve#icle in order to $ut t#em into anot#er ve#icle. "anning %#e insertion of t#e catalyst element into t#e converter s#ell of a catalytic converter "annular combustion chamber A gas turbine combustion system wit# individual flame tubes inside an annular casing. "anonical assembly %erm used in statistical t#ermodynamics to designate a single assembly of a large number of systems "anopy 1. %#e trans$arent cover of a coc"$it.

,. %#e fabric (nylon, sil", or cotton! body of a $arac#ute, w#ic# $rovides #ig# air drag. /sually #emis$#erical, but may be lobed or rectangular in s#a$e. "A9Acronym for canister !urge solenoid t#at o$ens t#e fuel va$or canister to t#e inta"e manifold w#en energized "ant 'lo$e of rail or road curve w#ereby outer radius is su$erelevated, to counteract centrifugal t#rust of traffic. "ant beam Beams su$$orting t#e dec" $lating in t#e over#anging $ortion of t#e stern. "ante* *ec) %#e flig#t dec" of an aircraft carrier $rolonged diagonally from one side of t#e s#i$, so t#at aircraft may fly off and land on wit#out interference to or from aircraft $ar"ed at t#e bows. %#e Britis# term is Angle*

*ec)

"ant frame A frame connected at t#e u$$er end to t#e cant beams "antilever An arm t#at $ro8ects from a source and su$$orts cables. Also .ee "antilever bra)e "antilever bra)e 1. A bicycle Rim bra)e wit# $ivoting arms mounted on For) bla*es or .eatstays at or below rim level. %#e two bra"e arms are connected by a straddle cable wit# t#e bra"e cable attac#ed to t#e mid$oint of t#e straddle cable. ,. A ty$e of A%B bra"e c#aracterized by #aving t#e two bra"e arms connected by a straddle cable wit# t#e bra"e cable attac#ed to t#e mid$oint of

t#e straddle cable. %#is ty$e of bra"e was used on A%B bicycles (as well as tandems, touring, and cyclocross bicycles! before t#e invention of t#e -Bra"e "antilever bra)es .ee "antilever bra)e+ "antilever bri*ge A bridge formed of self-su$$orting $ro8ecting arms built outward from t#e $iers and meeting in t#e middle of t#e s$an, w#ere t#ey are connected toget#er. "antilever *ec) A bridge w#ere t#e dec" slab is fi1ed above t#e main beams or trusses and is cantilevered beyond t#e outer beams or trusses. "antilever loa* A load w#ic# tends to im$ose a radial force ($er$endicular to t#e s#aft a1is! on an electric motor or gearmotor out$ut s#aft "antilever spring 1. A leaf s$ring w#ic# is mounted u$side down and attac#ed to t#e ve#icle at its mid-$oint. %#is system is no longer in use in modern ve#icles. 2. A :uarter-elliptic leaf spring "antrail %#e Roof rail "anvas top %#e convertible to$. "anyon A nuclear energy term for a long narrow s$ace often $artly underground wit# #eavy s#ielding for essential $rocessing of wastes from reactors. "ap 1. A $rotective round cover w#ic# is secured to somet#ing. ,. A covering over t#e bed of a truc".

>. %#e base of a lig#t bulb w#ic# fits into a soc"et. 4. 2leaner air $ac"age system for reducing t#e amount of unburned Hy*rocarbons in t#e automobile '#haust. Also !attery !ayonet !earing !ig-en* "ar "ol* %istributor %ouble cap %ust 'n* '#ternal mi# Filler Flip-top filler Fuel Full 5as Hot Hubcap (*le ,imiter (nner cap (nsulating (nternal mi# 9et cap 0il filler 0rifice 0uter cap -ile -lug -ressure -ressure-vacuum Ra*iator Roto .ee cap cap cap cap cap cap cap nut cap cap cap cap cap cap cap "ap cap "ap nut cap cap cost cap "ap nut caps cap cap "ap cap cap

air

air

.par) plug cap .pin*le cap &op cap $alve cap $alve spring cap "apable of being fuele* A ve#icle is ca$able of being fueled by a $articular fuel(s! if t#at ve#icle #as t#e engine com$onents in $lace to ma"e o$eration $ossible on t#e fuel(s!. %#e ve#icle does not necessarily #ave to run on t#e fuel(s! in order for t#at ve#icle to be considered ca$able of being fueled by t#e fuel(s!. ;or e1am$le, a ve#icle t#at is e.ui$$ed to o$erate on eit#er gasoline or natural gas but normally o$erates on gasoline is considered to be ca$able of being fueled by gasoline and natural gas. "apacitance IcJ 1. %#e $ro$erty w#ic# o$$oses any c#ange in $oltage in an electrical circuit. %#e $ro$erty of a nonconductor by w#ic# it stores electrical energy w#en se$arated surfaces of t#e nonconductor are maintained at a difference of -otential. 2a$acitance is measured by t#e ratio of t#e c#arge induced to t#e $otential difference and is $ro$ortional to t#e area of t#e conducting $lates and t#e dielectric constant of t#e nonconducting material, and inversely $ro$ortional to t#e se$aration of t#e $lates (m"s unit farad!. ,. ro$erty of a nonconductor (condenser or ca$acitor! t#at $ermits storage of electrical energy in an electrostatic field. 3. Bf an isolated conductor, t#e ratio of t#e total c#arge on it to its $otential) -890". Also Fara* "apacitance bri*ge An ac bridge networ" ca$acitance. .ee for t#e measurement of

"apacitance coupling &nterstage cou$ling t#roug# a series ca$acitance or by a ca$acitor in a common branc# of a circuit. "apacitance gra*ing Grading of t#e $ro$erties of a dielectric, so t#at t#e variation of stress from conductor to s#eat# is reduced. %#e inner dielectric #as t#e #ig#er $ermitivity. &deally, t#e grading is continuous and t#e $ermittivity varies as t#e reci$rocal of t#e distance from t#e center. "apacitance integrator <esistance-ca$acitance circuit w#ose out$ut voltage is a$$ro1imately e.ual to t#e time integral of t#e in$ut voltage. "apacitative loa* %erminating im$edance w#ic# is mar"edly ca$acitative, ta"ing an ac leading in $#ase on t#e source emf, e.g., electrostatic louds$ea"er. "apacitative reactance &m$edance associated wit# a ca$acitor. ?as a magnitude in o#ms e.ual to t#e reci$rocal of t#e $roduct of t#e ca$acitance (in farads! and t#e angular fre.uency of t#e su$$ly (in rads s -1!. Also introduces a 30C $#ase angle suc# t#at t#e current t#roug# t#e device leads t#e a$$lied voltage. "apacities .ee Flui* capacities "apacitive *ischarge (2E! A ty$e of (gnition system. &t can be eit#er allelectronic or !rea)er point controlled. %#e $rimary $ower is drawn from t#e engine=s !attery and $ut into t#e 2E $ower su$$ly, w#ere it is c#anged from 1, volts %irect current to about >00 volts of $ulsating %irect current t#at is stored in a "apacitor ("on*enser!. %#e release of t#is energy t#roug# t#e "oil is governed by a silicon-controlled Rectifier ('2<!. +#en t#e '2< switc# is closed, t#e $oltage stored in t#e "apacitor

is su$$lied to t#e "oil, w#ic# acts as a voltage ste$-u$ &ransformer boosting firing voltage to around >0,000 volts to fire t#e $lugs. "apacitive reactance %#e o$$osition or resistance to an alternating current as a result of ca$acitance) e1$ressed in o#ms "apacitor 1. A device w#ic# gives "apacitance, usually consisting of conducting $lates or foil se$arated by layers of a dielectric. A -otential difference a$$lied across t#e $lates induces a se$aration of c#arge centers in t#e dielectric, t#us storing electrical energy. ,. %y$e of electrical storage device used in starting andDor running circuits on many electric motors >. A device t#at, w#en connected in an alternating current circuit, causes t#e current to lead t#e voltage in time $#ase. %#e $ea" of t#e current wave is reac#ed a#ead of t#e voltage wave. %#is is t#e result of t#e successive storage and disc#arge of electric energy Also Absorption Air !loc)ing !y-pass "eramic "on*enser (gnition Motor "apacitor "apacitor "on*enser .ee %ry "apacitor "on*enser "apacitor controlle* electronic ignition .ee 'lectronic ignition "apacitive *ischarge .ee capacitor "apacitor "apacitor "apacitor "apacitor capacitor

system

"apacitor *ischarge ignition I"%(J .ee "apacitive *ischarge "apacitor mo*ulator 2a$acitor micro$#one, or similar &rans*ucer, w#ic#, by variation in ca$acitance, modulates an oscillation eit#er in am$litude or fre.uency "apacitor motor 'ingle-$#ase induction motor wit# an au1iliary starting winding connected in series wit# a condenser (ca$acitor! for better starting c#aracteristics. "apacitor-resistance la/ (2-< law! 9aw relating to e1$onential rise or decay of c#arge on ca$acitor in series wit# a resistor, and, by e1tension, to signal distortion on long submarine cables. "apacitor start 'tarting unit for electric motor using series ca$acitance to advance $#ase of current. "apacitor-start motor (otor w#ic# #as a ca$acitor in t#e starting circuit "apacitron .ee !an* ignitor tube "apacity 1. %#e ability to contain or #old somet#ing. ,. (a1imum $roduction attainable under normal conditions. +it# regard to normal conditions, t#e com$any=s o$erating $ractices are to be followed wit# res$ect to t#e use of $roduction facilities, overtime, wor"s#ifts, #olidays, etc. >. %#e out$ut of an electric motor or ot#er electrical e.ui$ment. 6. %#e volume of fluid w#ic# a $um$ can #andle. 0. A measure of t#e t#eoretical ma1imum amount of refrigeration-$roduced out$ut, measured in tons or B%/s $er #our

6. <efrigeration rating system. /sually measured in B%/ $er #our or watts. 7. 'ometimes used to mean "apacitance Also .ee Ampere hour capacity !attery capacity !oiler "apacity !rea)ing "apacity !reathing capacity !un)er "apacity "arrying capacity "harge "apacity 'nergy 'ngine capacity Fuse Ma#imum Regulation "apacity 9et capacity 9ominal capacity 0#ygen .torage "apacity -assenger capacity -ly rating Rate* capacity Reserve capacity .eating capacity .pecific Heat "apacity &op off or) capacity "apacity plan A $lan outlining t#e s$aces available for fuel, "argo, ballast, fres# water, etc, wit# guides on weig#t and volume for s$aces at various drafts and dis$lacements "apacity rating .ee Rate* capacity "ap-an*-pin type insulator A s$ecial form of t#e .uspension insulator "ap cost

.ee

"apitalize* 9et cap cost

cost

"ap cost re*uction .ee "apitalize* cost re*uction "ape chisel A metal cutting c#isel s#a$ed to cut or wor" in c#annels or grooves "apillarity A $#enomenon associated wit# surface tension, w#ic# occurs in fine bore tubes or c#annels. "apillary A tube wit# a very small bore used for tem$erature gauges "apillary action %#e $ro$erty of a li.uid to move into small s$aces if it #as t#e ability to #et t#ese surfaces "apillary tube A tube usually gas-filled, wit# a $recisely calibrated lengt# and inside diameter, used to connect t#e remote bulb or coil to t#e e1$ansion valve or t#ermostat. A tube wit# a very small bore used for tem$erature gauges. Also called -ressure sensing line "apitalize* .ee 9et capitalize* cost "apitalize* cost %#e total $rice of t#e ve#icle, in effect, its $urc#ase $rice. &n t#eory, t#e ca$ cost s#ould e.ual t#e amount you would $ay for t#e ve#icle if you were $urc#asing t#e ve#icle. +#en a lease is made, t#e dealer sells t#at ve#icle to t#e leasing com$any (for t#e ca$ cost!, w#ic# t#en leases t#e ve#icle to you. Also .ee 9et capitalize* cost

"apitalize* cost re*uction A fancy name for a cas# down $ayment, money you $ay u$ front t#at is a$$lied to t#e final $urc#ase $rice of a lease. A large ca$ cost reduction will, of course reduce t#e mont#ly $ayments, but it will also negate one of t#e big advantages of leasing. ?owever, if you own your $resent car, you may be able to use it, as a trade-in, to satisfy t#e ca$ cost reduction to start t#e lease. <emember, you must $ay sales ta1 on any ca$ cost reduction you ma"e. Anot#er source of ca$ital cost reduction may be dealer or manufacturer $artici$ation. Eealers and manufacturers will sometimes lower t#e ca$ cost or offer a rebate t#at reduces t#e ca$ cost. A dealer or manufacturer ca$ cost reduction does lower your total out-of-$oc"et dollars, unli"e a ca$ cost reduction t#at you must $ay. "apital e#pen*itures :1$enditures to ac.uire or add to ca$ital assets t#at will yield benefits over several accounting $eriods. &ncluded are cost of $rocuring, construction, installing new durable $lants, mac#inery and e.ui$ment w#ere for re$lacement, addition or for lease or rent to ot#er com$anies including subsidies. "ap nut

"ap 9ut A t#readed nut t#at is closed (blind! at one end often wit# a dome or acorn-s#a$ed to$. &t is used to $rotect t#e $ro8ecting t#reads or to $rotect a $erson from being #urt by t#e s#ar$ edge of $ro8ecting t#reads. Also called bo( nut or dome nut. Also .ee

%ouble

cap

nut

(nner 0uter cap nut

cap

nut

"apping 1. &nstalling a new tread on a tire carcass. Also

Retrea*+
2. %oor molding or ca$$ing

.ee

"ap scre/ A screw wit# a #e1agon #ead, slotted #ead, s.uare #ead, or soc"et #ead Also see !utton soc)et hea* cap scre/ .oc)et hea* cap scre/ "apstan 1. A stum$ wit# a vertical a1is used for #andling mooring and ot#er lines. ,. A vertical drum or s$indle on w#ic# ro$e is wound, it is rotated by man$ower or by #ydraulic or electric motor. >. <oller $roviding t#e constant s$eed drive in a magnetic ta$e recorder. "apstan-hea* scre/ A screw #aving a cylindrical #ead $rovided wit# radial #oles in its circumference. &t is tig#tened by a tommy bar inserted in t#ese #oles. "apstan lathe A lat#e in w#ic# t#e tools re.uired for successive o$erations are mounted radially in a tool-#older resembling a ca$stan) by revolving t#is, eac# tool in turn may be broug#t into $osition in e1act location. "apstan nut

A nut w#ic# is tig#tened in t#e same way as a

"apstan-hea* scre/

"apstan scre/ A screw or bolt wit# a round #ead and one or more #oles t#roug# it into w#ic# a bar may be inserted for securing or removing it "apstan /inch A winc#, generally mounted on or 8ust be#ind t#e front bum$er, usually run from an engagable e1tension to t#e engine cran"s#aft. %#e active com$onent is usually a slowly revolving drum, about 10 cm in diameter, round w#ic# a ro$e may be wound to effect a winc#ing o$eration. ?as t#e advantage of being $owered by t#e engine at idling s$eed and being a very low-stress unit t#at may be used all day wit#out over#eating or #ig# electrical load. "apstat A wa1-ty$e t#ermostat at t#e base of t#e 8et of a '/ carburetor, w#ic# e1$ands and reduces fuel flow w#en t#e under#ood tem$erature rises. Also .ee

&emperature compensator

"apsule .ee Altitu*e "orrection "apsule $acuum capsule "aptive 'omet#ing t#at is $ermanently located in t#e desired $osition "aptive balloon A balloon anc#ored or towed by a line. /sually t#e term refers only to s$#erical balloons. '$ecial s#a$es (e.g., for stability! are called &ite balloons "aptive finance company A ,easing or finance com$any w#ic# is affiliated wit# an automobile manufacturer or distributor.

"aptive import An im$orted motor ve#icle or $art manufactured by anot#er automa"er usually for sale under t#e brand name of t#e im$orter. "aptive nut A nut w#ic# fits into a cage and is welded in $lace. %#is is done w#ere t#e nut is not easily accessible. "aptive refinery M&!' plants M&!' $roduction facilities $rimarily located wit#in refineries. %#ese integrated refinery units $roduce M&!' from ;luid 2at 2rac"er isobutylene wit# $roduction dedicated to internal gasoline blending re.uirements. "aptive refinery o#ygenate plants B1ygenate $roduction facilities located wit#in or ad8acent to a refinery com$le1. "aptive scre/

"aptive scre/ A screw w#ere t#e t#reads are a larger diameter t#an t#e s#oulder "apture Any $rocess in w#ic# an atomic or nuclear system ac.uires an additional $article. &n a nuclear radiative ca$ture $rocess t#ere is an emission of electromagnetic radiation only, e.g., t#e emission of gamma rays subse.uent to t#e ca$ture of a neutron by a nucleus. "ap /rench

"ap /rench A cu$-s#a$ed tool used to fit on one end of an oil filter in order to install or remove t#e filter. "ar
1. A

w#eeled ve#icle suc# as an automobile, a section of a train, or a streetcar. %#e word is an abbreviation of "arriage -- a device to carry $eo$le or goods. ,. &n an airs#i$, t#e $art intended for t#e carrying of t#e load (crew, $assengers, goods, engines, etc.!. &t may be sus$ended below, or may be inside t#e #ull of envelo$e. Also 4K-state !ubble "hamp "ity "lassic "ollector "ompact "ompany "ompetition "oncept "ult "ycle .ee car car car car car car car car car car car car

%onor %ream '*/ar*ian 'lectric 'state '#ecutive Family Fleet Formula Forty-nine Full-size Funny 5host Hybri* (nterme*iate 4it ,arge ,u#ury Mass-pro*uce* Mi*-size Milestone Milestone Motor Multi-storey 9e/ 0pen -ace -arts -assenger -assenger -ony -ro*uction -rogram Recycling .hopping .olar .ports .toc)

state

-assenger

"ar car car

car

car car car car car car car car "ar car car car "ar car car car "ar car car car .ociety cars car par) *ealer car car car /heel car car car cars car car car car car

.treet car .un car .uper car &ouring car &o/n car $eteran car $intage car $olume car "ar acci*ent A collision between two or more ve#icles (or between a ve#icle and a stationary ob8ect!, w#et#er t#e ve#icles are cars or truc"s. 'ome are minor li"e a Fen*er ben*er w#ile ot#ers are &otalle*. Also .ee ritten off "ar alarm A c#ime, bell, siren, or #orn t#at sounds w#en a $roblem e1ists (e.g., door a8ar, seat belt undone, lig#ts on after engine is off, "ey left in ignition switc#, unaut#orized entry! "aravan 1. A grou$ of ve#icles (belonging to one organization! w#ic# follows after one anot#er. ,. A Britis# term for cam$ing trailer or a mobile #ome. >. %#e name of a minivan $roduced by 2#rysler (Eaimler-2#rysler! from 137>. Also see Har*-si*e* "aravan Motor "aravan "aravanning A Britis# term for traveling wit# a cam$ing trailer "arb An abbreviation for "arburetor. "AR! Acronym for -alifornia Air Resource Board -- %#e state agency t#at regulates t#e air .uality in 2alifornia.

Air .uality regulations establis#ed by 2A<B are often stricter t#an t#ose set by t#e federal government. "ar banger A Britis# term for a $erson or organization w#ic# fa"es a "ar acci*ent in order to defraud an insurance com$any "ar banging %#e act of fa"ing a "ar acci*ent in order to defraud an insurance com$any "arbi*e A binary com$ound of metals wit# carbon. 2arbides of grou$ &- to -& metals (e.g., silicon, iron, tungsten! are e1ce$tionally #ard and refractory. &n grou$ & and &&, calcium carbide (et#ynide! is t#e most useful. Also .ee "ementite .ilicon carbi*e "arbi*e bla*e A snow$low blade com$osed of a carbon com$ound t#at generally wears longer and re.uires less fre.uent c#anges t#an steel blades "arbi*e precipitation 2arbon t#at brea"s loose from its bond wit#in t#e stainless solution w#en material is #eated between 427= - 7;0=". /nder severe corrosive conditions, it can result in e1tra o1idation and surface corrosion. "arbi*e tools 2utting and forming tools used for #ard materials or at #ig# tem$eratures. %#ey are made of carbides of tungsten, tantalium, and ot#er metals #eld in a matri1 of cobalt, nic"el, etc., and are very #ard wit# good com$ressive strengt#. "arb )it A collection of gas"ets, B-rings, 8ets, etc. to rebuild a carburetor "ar blin*

A curtain or $ull-down covering for t#e bac"lig#t (i.e., rear window! to obscure t#e brig#t #eadlig#ts of a following ve#icle. 'ome are also used for side windows for $rivacy. &t is generally illegal to use t#em on t#e driver=s side window or t#e winds#ield. "arbon 1. %#e #ard or soft, blac" de$osits found in t#e "ombustion chamber, on t#e $lugs, under t#e rings, on and under t#e $alve hea*s, etc. Alt#oug# it is not a metal, it is a good "on*uctor of electricity. ,. An element w#ic# forms various "inds of steel w#en combined wit# iron. &n steel, it is t#e c#anging carbon content w#ic# c#anges t#e $#ysical $ro$erties of t#e steel. Adds strengt# to stainless steel, but also lowers corrosion resistance. %#e more carbon t#ere is, t#e more c#romium must be added, because carbon offsets 15 times its own weig#t in c#romium to form carbides, t#us reducing t#e c#romium available for resisting corrosion. >. 2arbon is used in a solid form as an electrode for arc welding, as a mold to #old weld metal, or for motor brus#es. Also .ee Activate* carbon %egra*able 0rganic "arbon 'lemental "arbon High carbon steel ,o/ carbon steel Me*ium carbon steel &otal "arbon "arbon arc An arc between carbon electrodes, usually limited to $ure carbon rat#er t#an flame carbon electrodes "arbon-arc lamp

Bbsolete lig#t source from t#e arc between carbon electrodes. "arbon-arc /el*ing Arc welding carried out by means of an arc between a carbon electrode and t#e material to be welded. "arbonate Fuel "ell .ee Molten "arbonate Fuel "ell "arbon blac) A by-$roduct of t#e $etroleum industry used as a $igment and to give body in t#e manufacture of rubber $roducts, bot# natural and synt#etic. 2arbon is t#e blac" residue from burning $etroleum. "arbon brush A bloc" of carbon to w#ic# a co$$er wire (or braided cable! is attac#ed at one end and t#e ot#er end rubs against a commutator, collector ring, or sli$ ring to transmit electricity "arbon brush spring .ee !rush spring "arbon buil*-up A de$osit of burned oil w#ic# collects in t#e combustion c#amber on t#e to$ of t#e $iston and t#e #ead. %oo muc# carbon build-u$ can lead to an inefficient engine and stic"y valves. "arbon button .ee "arbon microphone "arbon canister .ee Activate* carbon canister "arbon contact &n a switc#, an au1iliary contact designed to brea" contact after and to ma"e contact before t#e main contact to $revent burning of t#e latter) it is of carbon and designed to be easily removable. "arbon-core lea*s

?ig# tension wire going from t#e distributor to t#e coil or t#e s$ar" $lugs. :ac# wire #as a core of carbon or gra$#ite rat#er t#an co$$er wire to conduct t#e electricity. 2arbon-core wire is not recommended for most small engines suc# as motorcycle engines. "arbon *ating Eating met#od w#ic# uses t#e fact t#at atmos$#eric carbon dio1ide contains a constant $ro$ortion of radioactive 216, formed by cosmic radiation. 9iving organisms absorb t#is isoto$e in t#e same $ro$ortion. After deat# it decays wit# a #alf-life of 0.05110P years. %#e $ro$ortion of 21, to t#e residual 216 indicates t#e $eriod ela$sed since deat#. Also called radiocarbon "arbon *eposits %#e residue of carbon from burning fuel, w#ic# can clog grooves in $istons, combustion c#ambers, and valves, and cause engine #esitation and ot#er o$erational $roblems "arbon *io#i*e (2B,! A colorless, odorless, non-to1ic gas w#ic# is a $roduct of breat#ing and t#e combustion $rocess. 'ometimes used as refrigerant. (&dentified as <efrigerant L<-566! "arbon *io#i*e e8uivalent %#e amount of carbon dio1ide by weig#t emitted into t#e atmos$#ere t#at would $roduce t#e same estimated radiative forcing as a given weig#t of anot#er radiatively active gas. "arbon *io#i*e laser 9aser in w#ic# t#e active gaseous medium is a mi1ture of carbon dio1ide and ot#er gases. &t is e1cited by glow-disc#arge and o$erates at a wavelengt# of 10.6 Qm. 2arbon dio1ide lasers are ca$able of $ulsed out$ut wit# $ea" $ower u$ to 100 (+ or continuous out$ut u$ to 60 "+. "arbon-*io#i*e /el*ing

dating

(etal arc /el*ing using 2B, as t#e s#ielding gas. "arbone* up 2overed wit# a t#ic" de$osit of carbon. &n Britain it is called co&ed u! "arbon fiber 1. A #ig#-tec# material favored in many motorcycle and bicycle a$$lications because it is e1tremely strong, lig#t and e1$ensive. %#e distinctive loo" of carbon fiber #as become trendy. 2. %#readli"e strands of $ure "arbon t#at are strong and fle1ible. 2arbon fiber can be bound in a $lastic Resin matri1 to form a strong "omposite. &t is lig#t-weig#t and stronger t#an steel. 2an also be s$elled carbon fibre. "arbon fibre A #ig#-tec# material favored in many motorcycle a$$lications because it is e1tremely strong, lig#t and e1$ensive. %#e distinctive loo" of carbon fiber #as become trendy. Also .ee "arbon fiber+ "arbon filter An air filter using activated carbon as a cleansing agent "arbon fouling %#e situation t#at occurs w#en t#e two electrical terminals of t#e s$ar" $lug are coated wit# carbon causing a reduction in efficiency leading to intermittent firing or com$lete failure. "arbon glan* A ty$e of gland used to $revent lea"age along a s#aft. &t consists of carbon rings cut into segments and $ressed into contact wit# t#e s#aft by an encircling #elical s$ring or 5arter spring "arbon intensity %#e amount of carbon by weig#t emitted $er unit of energy consumed. A common measure of carbon

intensity is weig#t of carbon $er Britis# t#ermal unit (Btu! of energy. +#en t#ere is only one fossil fuel under consideration, t#e carbon intensity and t#e emissions coefficient are identical. +#en t#ere are several fuels, carbon intensity is based on t#eir combined emissions coefficients weig#ted by t#eir energy consum$tion levels. "arbonitri*ing A $rocess of case har*ening "arbonization %#e stee$ing of wool in a dilute solution of sulfuric acid, or its treatment by #ydroc#loric acid gas (dry $rocess!. %#is converts any cellulosic im$urities into carbon dust and t#ereby facilitates t#eir removal. "arbonize Building u$ of "arbon on ob8ects suc# as .par) plugs, -istons, Hea*s, etc. "arbonize* filament %#oriated tungsten filament coated wit# tungsten carbide to reduce loss of t#orium from t#e surface. "arbonizing Anot#er term for "arburizing or reducing "arbon )noc) +#en t#ere is a build-u$ of carbon in t#e combustion c#amber, uncontrolled ignition will ta"e $lace causing a "noc"ing noise. "arbon microphone A micro$#one in w#ic# a normally %" energizing current is modulated by c#anges in t#e resistance of a cavity filled by granulated carbon w#ic# is com$ressed by t#e movement of t#e dia$#ragm. %#e diameter of t#e cavity is fre.uently very muc# less t#an t#at of t#e dia$#ragm, and it is t#en "nown as a carbon button. "arbon mono#i*e (2B! A deadly, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas found in t#e engine '#haust. %o1ic even in relatively small concentrations. ;ormed by incom$lete burning of

Hy*rocarbons. %#us at its greatest wit# a ric#


mi1ture. "arbon pile voltage transformer -ariable electrical resistor made from dis"s or $lates of carbon arranged to form a $ile. "arbon pin A t#in cylinder of carbon located in t#e distributor ca$ to transfer #ig# tension electricity from t#e coil to t#e rotor to t#e #ig# tension leads going to t#e s$ar" $lugs. "arbon resistor Aegative tem$erature coefficient, non-inductive resistor formed of $owdered carbon wit# ceramic binding material. /sed for low-tem$erature measurements because of t#e large increase in resistance as tem$erature decreases. "arbon .e8uestration 1. %#e absor$tion and storage of "02 from t#e atmos$#ere by t#e roots and leaves of $lants) t#e carbon builds u$ as organic matter in t#e soil. ,. %#e fi1ation of atmos$#eric carbon dio1ide in a carbon sin" t#roug# biological or $#ysical $rocesses. "arbon steel A steel w#ose $ro$erties are determined $rinci$ally by t#e amount of carbon $resent and contains no ot#er deliberate alloying ingredient e1ce$t t#ose necessary to ensure deo1idation and $#ysical .uality. Also called !lain carbon steel. Also .ee High carbon steel ,o/ carbon steel Me*ium "arbon .teel .teel "arbon tetrachlori*e A li.uid often used in fire e1tinguis#ers. %#e fumes are to1ic -- avoid in#aling. "arbon trac)ing

A trace of carbon found inside t#e distributor ca$ w#ic# leads away some electricity, t#us causing t#e engine to misfire. "arbon trac)s ;ine lines from burned carbon (suc# as from oil film! t#at may be found in a distributor ca$. 2arbon trac"s may cause engine misfire "arbonyl po/*ers (etal $owders $roduced by reacting carbon mono1ide wit# t#e metal to form t#e gaseous carbonyl. %#is is t#en decom$osed by #eat to yield $owder of #ig# $urity. "arborun*um %rade name for .ilicon carbi*e abrasives. "arborun*um /heel .ee 5rin*ing /heel "arboy 9arge, narrow-nec"ed container, usually of balloon s#a$e, #aving a ca$acity of ,01 or more. "arbs Abbreviation for "arburetors. Also .ee

%ual carbs

"arburation Britis# term for "arburetion "arburetion %#e mi1ture of va$orized fuel and air in t#e $ro$er $ro$ortions for combustion in an engine Also see "lose*-,oop "arburetion "arburetor

"lic) image to supersize "arburetor B$tionally s$elled carburetter or carburettor. A device t#at $aporizes fuel and mi1es it wit# air in $ro$er .uantities and $ro$ortions to suit t#e varying needs of t#e engine. A Filter screens t#e air w#ic# is drawn into t#e carburetor. ?ere t#e 5asoline mi1es wit# t#e air and t#is fuel va$or enters t#e "ombustion chamber t#roug# t#e (nta)e valve w#ere it is com$ressed and burned. Also .ee (2arb!

Air "ompoun* %ouble-barrel %o/n*raft %o/n*raught %ual %ual Fee*bac) Fi#e*-cho)e Fi#e*-6et Floo* Four-barrel H(F 9on-stage* .i*e*raft .i*e*raught .ingle-barrel

valve

the

carburetor carburetor carburetor carburetor "arburetor carbs carburetors carburetor carburetor carburetor carburetor carburetor carburetor "arburetor carburetor "arburetor carburetor

.li*e .tage* .tarting .tromberg .> &amperproof &/in-cho)e &/in barrel &/in &/o-stage >p*raft $ariable-venturi eber "arburetor

carburetor "arburetors carburetor carburetor carburetor carburetor carburetor carburetor carburetors carburetor carburetor carburetor

"arburetor Actuator .ee Fee*bac) "arburetor Actuator "arburetor a*apter An ada$ter t#at is used to fit or $lace one ty$e of "arburetor on an (nta)e manifol* t#at may not be originally designed for it. Also used to ada$t four-barrel "arburetors to two-barrel manifolds. "arburetor air horn .ee Air horn "arburetor barrel %#e tube-li"e $art of t#e ve#icle t#roug# w#ic# air flows and is mi1ed wit# $aporize* fuel. %#e "ho)e butterfly valve is located at t#e to$ of t#e "arburetor barrel, and t#e &hrottle valve is located at t#e bottom. (idway t#roug#, t#e barrel narrows, and t#is $art is called t#e $enturi. 2arburetors can #ave one, two, or four barrels. "arburetor base

%#e lower $art of t#e carburetor in w#ic# t#e t#rottle $late is located "arburetor circuit A series of $assageways and units designed to $erform a s$ecific function (*le circuit, full $ower circuit, etc. "arburetor circuits .ee "arburetor circuit "arburetor cleaner A $etroleum solvent for cleaning t#e carburetor "arburetor engine A combustion engine w#ic# uses a carburetor instead of fuel in8ection. "arburetor fuel bo/l A small fuel storage area in t#e carburetor, located at t#e carburetor fuel inlet. Also called t#e Float bo/l because it contains t#e carburetor float "arburetor fuel bo/l vent A vent on t#e Float bo/l. &t ty$ically is connected to an "arbon canister, w#ic# absorbs va$ors w#en t#e engine is off, and it also may be vented to t#e atmos$#ere w#en t#e engine is running. "arburetor fuel filter

"arburetor Fuel Filter A filter made of $leated $a$er or sintered bronze t#at is mounted into t#e body of t#e carburetor at t#e float bowl fuel inlet. &t is #eld in $lace by t#e fuel #oseD$i$e fittings. Bn some cars, a small (n-line filter is screwed directly into t#e carburetor=s fuel inlet. Also called an integral fuel filter. "arburetor fuel inlet A t#readed fitting on t#e side of t#e carburetor to w#ic# tubing from t#e Fuel pump is connected. ;uel enters t#e carburetor at t#is $oint. "arburetor icing %#e formation of ice on t#e &hrottle plate or valve during certain atmos$#eric conditions. As t#e fuel 9ozzles feed fuel into t#e Air horn it turns to a va$or. %#is robs #eat from t#e air and w#en weat#er conditions are 8ust rig#t (fairly cool and .uite #umid! ice may form.

Also

(cing

.ee

"arburetor )it A collection of gas"ets, B-rings, 8ets, etc. to rebuild a carburetor. Also called a carb &it. "arburetor throat .ee $enturi "arburetor venturi .ee $enturi "arburetter Britis# s$elling for "arburetor. "arburettor .ee "arburetor "ar burglar A $erson w#o steals ob8ect from a car, but does not steal t#e car itself. Also .ee

"ar thief

"arburization %#e $rocess of creating carbon steel by increasing t#e carbon content of steel to reac# t#e desired degree of #ardness "arburizing 1. A carburizing flame in welding terms is an o1ygenfuel gas flame wit# a slig#t e1cess of t#e fuel gas. 2. A met#od of "ase-har*ening low carbon steel in w#ic# t#e metal com$onent is #eated above its ferrite-austenite transition in a suitable carbonaceous atmos$#ere. 2arbon diffuses into t#e surface and establis#es a concentration gradient. %#e steel can subse.uently be #ardened by .uenc#ing eit#er directly or after re-#eating to

refine t#e grain structure. &t is usually lig#tly tem$ered afterwards, $roducing a #ard case over a toug# core. "ar cap A water$roof cover w#ic# encloses 8ust t#e 5reenhouse (i.e., t#e roof, winds#ield, side glass, and !ac)light! "ar care pro*uct Bne of several items for ta"ing care of t#e outward finis# of t#e car (i.e., cleaners, $olis#, wa1, $reservers! as well as t#e interior $ieces (e.g., das# cleaners, u$#olstery cleaners and sealers! "arcass %#e $rimary structure of a tire body wit# its cords, $lies, rim wires, etc. a$art from t#e tread itself. 'tructurally t#e carcass s#ould #old air and $rovide strengt# to t#e tire, but would not wear well wit#out t#e tread. "arcinogens 2#emicals and ot#er substances "nown to cause cancer. "ar "lub of America .ee "lassic "ar "lub of America "ar cover A cover w#ic# encloses t#e entire ve#icle to $rotect t#e finis# from t#e elements. "ar crash A "ar acci*ent "ar* %#e graduated dial or face of a magnetic com$ass to w#ic# t#e card and needle are firmly connected. .ee File car* brush "ar*an .ee "ar*an 6oint+

"ar*an 6oint

"ar*an 7oint A ty$e of >niversal 6oint named after t#e &talian 2ardan w#o develo$ed t#e conce$t in t#e 16t# century. &n t#e 15t# century, <obert ?oo"e of :ngland develo$ed and $atented t#e conventional universal 8oint. 'ometimes it is called t#e -ardan universal or t#e %oo&e universal. &t #as two @o)es at rig#t angles to eac# ot#er. "ar*an mount %y$e of gimbal mount used for com$asses gyrosco$es. "ar*an shaft A s#aft wit# universal 8oints at eac# end "ar*an universal .ee "ar*an 6oint "ar* brush .ee File car* brush and

"ar *ealer .ee 9e/ car *ealer >se* "ar %ealer "ar*inal planes &n a lens, $lanes $er$endicular to t#e $rinci$al a1is, and $assing t#roug# t#e cardinal $oints of t#e lens. "ar*ioi* A #eart-s#a$ed curve wit# $olar e.uation r8:a*1;cos<+. An e$icycloid in w#ic# t#e rolling circle e.uals t#e fi1ed circle. "ar*ioi* *irectivity '$ecial s#a$e of a directivity. &t is $roduced by su$erim$osing t#e fields of a mono$ole and a di$ole, and #as t#e s#a$e of a cardioid. "are pro*uct .ee "ar care pro*uct "ar-floor contact A contact attac#ed to t#e false floor of an electrically controlled lift) it is usually arranged to $revent o$eration of t#e lift by anyone outside t#e car w#ile a $assenger is in t#e lift. "argo .ee !ul) cargo 5eneral cargo "argo area %#e s$ace wit#in a station wagon or van for carrying goods or t#e bed of a $ic"u$ truc" for carrying goods "argo battens 'tri$s of wood fitted inside t#e frames to "ee$ cargo away from #ull steelwor". Also called s!arring "argo !o*y .tyle Auto "arrier A truc" cargo body ty$ified by t#e multi-dec"ed auto carrier trailer andDor $ower unit. "argo !o*y .tyle !ottom %ump

Ery bul" truc" bodies w#ic# em$ty by means of gravity alone t#roug# t#e bottom. "argo !o*y .tyle %ump A truc" body wit# a #ydraulic, electric, or mec#anical lifting mec#anism t#at tilts to unload cargo. Eum$ includes side dum$s, wal"ing dum$s, flatbed dum$s, and dum$ truc"s wit# snow $lows or blades. "argo !o*y .tyle Flatbe* A cargo truc" body style ty$ified by a flat cargo area. &ncludes angle beds, rollbac" beds, and ram$ #oists, w#ic# are flatbeds t#at tilt down to t#e ground so ve#icles can be driven onto t#e bed. "argo !o*y .tyle Flatbe* /ith .i*es A cargo truc" body style ty$ified by flatbeds wit# sides to #old and $rotect cargo. Also see sta)e bo*y "argo !o*y .tyle Flatbe* /ith '8uipment %#is cargo truc" body style is ty$ified by flatbeds wit# $ermanent cranes, loaders, $um$s, winc#es, or ot#er significantly #eavy and large a$urtenances. "argo !o*y .tyle 5arbage A cargo body style ty$ified by garbage truc"s t#at often #ave #ydraulic $ac"ing mec#anisms or #ydraulic arms for lifting dum$sters. &ncluded are roll-offs, ve#icles used for trans$orting refuse containers. <oll-offs #ave rails or a flat bed and a #oist for loading and unloading t#e refuse container. "argo !o*y .tyle ,ivestoc) "arrier A cargo truc" body style ty$ically wit# slotted or slatted sides. %railers may #ave a double dec". 9ivestoc" trailers sometimes #ave F$ossum bellyF com$artments in t#e bottom for #olding smaller animals. "argo !o*y .tyle ,o/ !oy Goosenec" flatbed truc"s slung very low to t#e ground. Bften t#e goosenec" is detac#able so t#at e.ui$ment can be loaded from t#e front. 'ometimes ram$s are at t#e rear. %y$ically about 1,F off t#e ground.

"argo !o*y .tyle 0pen &op $an A totally enclosed cargo area but wit#out a $ermanent, fi1ed, solid to$. "argo !o*y .tyle -ole ,ogging ole trailers wit# a set of a1les wit# a cradle to #old logs and a long, sometimes ad8ustable $ole attac#ed to t#e rear of a $ower unit. Bt#ers are framed wit# su$$ort sta"es. 'ome #ave double dec"s. (ost will #ave cradle-li"e features called bun)s to #old t#e logs in $lace. "argo !o*y .tyle Refrigerate* $an A cargo body style wit# a totally enclosed bo1 wit# a refrigeration unit. "argo !o*y .tyle &an) %ry A truc" used e1clusively for #auling dry bul" material. 2argo is em$tied $neumatically. Also called air can

trailer

"argo !o*y .tyle &an) ,i8ui* or 5as A cargo body truc" style c#aracterized by tan"ers w#ic# can carry only li.uids or gases in bul". "argo !o*y .tyle $an A totally enclosed cargo area truc". &ncluded are beverage vans, or bay vans, and sealed s#i$$ing containers mounted on a s$ecial bodiless c#assis. "argo bo#

"argo !o# A ty$e of container mounted on t#e roof of a ve#icle "argo net

"argo 9et A ty$e of !ungee net usually found in t#e &run) of a car to secure $ac"ages from moving around) but also found be#ind or beside a seat. "argo port B$ening in a s#i$=s side for loading and unloading cargo. "argo shifting (ovements or c#anging $ositions of cargo from one $lace to anot#er w#ic# can easily endanger t#e seawort#iness of t#e s#i$ "argo ship .ee %ry cargo ship "argo trailer

"argo &railer A "argo eight trailer wit# sides.

%#e combined weig#t of all loads, gear, and su$$lies on a ve#icle. "ar 5ui*e .ee 9A%A >se* "ar 5ui*e "arina

"lic) image for boo)s on &oyota "arina A model of automobile manufactured by %oyota "ar insurance An insurance $olicy (mandatory in most states and all of 2anada! to cover $ossible damage to t#e ve#icle or $ro$erty or $assengers, etc. 'ometimes basic insurance is abbreviated 9R E ($ublic liability and $ro$erty damage!. Also called motor insurance "ar 6ac)er A $erson w#o steals a car at gun$oint. "ar 6ac)ing A $rocess of stealing a car w#ile t#e driver is still in it. %#e car may be sto$$ed at a traffic lig#t w#en a car 8ac"er a$$ears wit# a gun and demands t#at t#e driver get out, t#en #e drives away wit# t#e car. &f it #a$$ens

to you, give #im t#e car -- your life is wort# more t#an t#e ve#icle. "ar )ey An unloc"ing device for t#e ignition switc#, doors, trun", gas ca$, etc. "ar lot A $lace w#ere ve#icles are sold by an inde$endent dealer "ar mechanic .ee Mechanic "arnot cycle An ideal #eat engine cycle of ma1imum t#ermal efficiency. &t consists of isot#ermal e1$ansion, adiabatic e1$ansion, isot#ermal com$ression, and adiabatic com$ression to t#e initial state. "arnot2s theorem %#eorem stating t#at no #eat engine can be more efficient t#an a reversible engine wor"ing between t#e same tem$eratures. &t follows t#at t#e efficiency of a reversible engine is inde$endent of t#e wor"ing substance and de$ends only on t#e tem$eratures between w#ic# it is wor"ing. "ar par) A $ar"ing area usually located wit#in a building. Also .ee Multi-storey car par) "arpeting %#e action of covering t#e $assenger com$artment floor (and sometimes t#e trun" floor! wit# a formfitting rug or car$et. "ar phone A tele$#one t#at is installed in a ve#icle, but #as recently been re$laced by $ersonal cell $#ones. Also .ee

"ellular phone

"ar polish

A $roduct w#ic# en#ances t#e s#ine of t#e $aintwor" of a ve#icle "ar ra*io A radio receiver w#ic# is installed (usually in t#e das#! in a ve#icle "arrene <efrigerant in Grou$ Bne (<-11!. 2#emical combination of carbon, c#lorine, and fluorine "arriage 1. A #orse-drawn ve#icle for $eo$le to ride in. ,. A railroad ve#icle for $assengers. Also Hac)ney (nvali*-carriages "arriage bolt see "arriage

"arriage !olt A bolt t#at #as a smoot# dome #ead (li"e a mus#room! so t#at no .cre/*river or wrenc# can remove it from t#e dome-side, a s.uare nec" under t#e #ead, and a unified t#read $itc#. %#e s.uare nec" is designed to "ee$ t#e bolt from turning as a nut is tig#tened. Also see

Fin nec) carriage .8uare 9ec) "arriage !olt


"arriage spring

bolt

.ee ,aminate* spring "arriage-type s/itchgear .ee &ruc)-type s/itchgear "arriage/ay A Britis# term for t#at $art of t#e road on w#ic# ve#icles travel in one direction. Also see %ual carriage/ay "arrier 1. A t#in substance t#at #el$s anot#er substance to reac# its goal. ;or e1am$le, a s$ray grease may #ave a carrier w#ic# trans$orts t#e grease to its destination. %#en t#e carrier dries u$ leaving t#e grease be#ind. ,. A real or imaginary $article res$onsible for t#e trans$ort of electric c#arge in a material. &n o1ide ceramics, electrons #o$$ing between ions, diffusing o1ygen ions and mobile cations can also trans$ort c#arge. Also

"arriers

.ee

>. A device for conveying t#e drive of a face-$late of a lat#e to a $iece of wor" w#ic# is being turned between centers. &t is clam$ed to t#e wor" and driven by a $in $ro8ecting from t#e face-$late. 6. A frame for #olding a negative in an enlarger or slides in a $ro8ector. 0. Aon-active material mi1ed wit#, and c#emically identical to, a radioactive com$ound. 2arrier is sometimes added to carrier-free material. 6. A ve#icle for communicating in formation, w#en t#e c#osen medium itself cannot convey t#e information but can convey a carrier, on to w#ic# t#e information is im$ressed by Mo*ulation.

5. &n radio transmission, t#e out$ut transmitter before it is modulated. Also

of

t#e .ee

Fre8uency mo*ulation

7. %#e fre.uencies c#osen for sending many signals simultaneously along a single communication c#annel Also Auto !arge !ent-tail !icycle !ul) "arrier "ommon "ontract %ifferential '#empt For-Hire Front Hub 7et ,ivestoc) ,95 ,&, ,uggage Minority Motor 0re-bul)-oil 0re -inion -lanet -rivate -ro*uct .pare .ee "arrier carriers "arrier carrier carrier bearing "arrier carrier carrier "arrier "arrier "arrier carrier carrier "arrier carrier "arrier carrier "arrier "arrier carrier carrier carrier carrier "arrier carrier carrier

heel

tire

&, "arrier &op "arriers "arrier bearing %#e bearings u$on w#ic# t#e %ifferential case is mounted. "arrier bearings .ee "arrier bearing+ "arrier mobility %#e mean drift velocity of t#e c#arge carriers in a material $er unit electric field. "arrier noise Aoise w#ic# #as been introduced into t#e carrier of a transmitter before modulation. "arrierC pinion .ee -inion carrier+ "arrierC planet .ee -lanet carrier+ "arrier po/er ower radiated by a transmitter in absence of modulation. "arriers &n a crystal of semiconductor material t#ermal agitation will cause a number of electrons to dissociate from t#eir $arent atoms) in moving about t#e crystal t#ey act as carriers of negative c#arge. Bt#er electrons will move from neig#boring atoms to fill t#e s$ace left be#ind, t#us causing t#e #oles w#ere no electrons e1ist in t#e lattice to be transferred from one atom to anot#er. As t#ese #oles move around t#ey can be considered as carriers of $ositive c#arge. Also .ee !arge carriers &op carriers "arrier &ransmission

.ee :uiescent "arrier &ransmission "arrier /ave An unmodulated radio wave $roduced by a transmitter on w#ic# information is carried by am$litude or fre.uency modulation. "arrosserie ;renc# term for "oach/or). "arrozzeria &talian term for "oach/or). "arrying capacity %#e ma1imum load t#at a tire is allowed to carry wit# a $articular w#eel and rim. Also called load ca!acity. "AR. Acronym for "ana*ian Automotive Repair an*

.ervice "ouncil

"ar society .ee Milestone "ar .ociety "ar sponge A large s$onge for was#ing t#e e1terior of a ve#icle "ar stan*s edestal-ty$e su$$orts for #olding u$ a car once t#e car #as been raised. "ar stereo A listening device in an automobile w#ic# usually #as an A(D;( radio and often a cassette $layer, 2E $layer, andDor 2E c#anger. &t also includes at least a $air of s$ea"ers. "art .ee &ool cart "artage company A com$any t#at $rovides local $ic"-u$ and delivery wit#in a town, city, or munici$ality. "ar ta#

A government im$osed ta1 w#ic# is added to t#e $rice of a new car. 'ome governments c#arge a road-use ta1 and call it a car ta1. "ar test A test of a ve#icle=s roadwort#iness, reliability, and $erformance. "ar theft /naut#orized removal (i.e., stealing! of a car or t#e items in or on a car. Also .ee "ar 6ac)ing "ar thief A $erson w#o steals a car. &f someone steals 8ust t#e ob8ects from a car, #e is a "ar burglar. Also .ee "ar 6ac)er "ar tire An automotive tire w#ic# is used e1clusively on a $assenger car, not a lig#t truc", etc. "artography %#e $re$aration and drawing of ma$s w#ic# s#ow, generally, a considerable e1tent of t#e :art#=s surface. "artri*ge .ee !urst "artri*ge "an Filter cartri*ge 0il filter cartri*ge :uarter-inch "artri*ge "artri*ge bottom brac)et A !ottom brac)et wit# $rotective seals to "ee$ water and grime from $enetrating to t#e bearings. Also called sealed bottom brac&et "artri*ge brass 2o$$er-zinc alloy containing a$$ro1imately >04 zinc. ossesses #ig# ductility) ca$able of being #eavily cold-

wor"ed. +idely used for cold $ressings, cartridges, tubes, etc. Also see "opper alloy+ "artri*ge starter A device for starting aero-engines in w#ic# a slowburning cartridge is used to o$erate a $iston or turbine unit w#ic# is geared to t#e engine s#aft. "art spring A leaf s$ring used in small trailers. "arvac A small, #and-#eld vacuum cleaner w#ic# is eit#er battery-o$erated or w#ic# is $lugged into t#e accessory outlet or cigarette lig#ter soc"et. "ar /ash 1. A $lace w#ere you can get your car cleaned. 'ome are automatic (you drive t#roug# and large brus#es clean t#e car! w#ile ot#ers $rovide a bay wit# s$ray wands and brus#es for you to do t#e labor. Also

Automatic car /ash

.ee

,. A $roduct li"e soa$ w#ic# is added to water for t#e $ur$ose of cleaning a ve#icle. "ar /a# A $olis# w#ic# may be in a $aste or a cream and used in $rotecting t#e finis# of a car. "ar /heel .ee -assenger car /heel "A. 1. Acronym for cleaner air system 2. Acronym for cran& angle sensor "asca*e

%#e arrangement of stages in an enric#ment or re$rocessing $lant in w#ic# t#e $roducts of one stage are fed eit#er forward to t#e ne1t closely similar or identical stage or bac"ward to a $revious stage, eventually resulting in two more or less $ure $roducts at eac# end of t#e cascade. %#e classic e1am$les are gaseous or centrifugal enric#ment $lants. An ideal cascade is t#e arrangement of stages in series and in $arallel w#ic# gives t#e #ig#est yield for a given number of units (e.g., centrifuges! and a given se$aration factor. "asca*e generator ?ig#-voltage generator using a series of voltagemulti$lying stages, es$. w#en designed for N-ray tubes or low-energy accelerators. casca*e particle article formed by a cosmic ray in a "asca*e sho/er "asca*es ;i1ed airfoil blades w#ic# turn t#e airflow around a bend in a duct, e.g., in wind tunnels or engine inta"es. "asca*e sho/er (anifestations of cosmic rays in w#ic# #ig#-energy mesons, $rotons, and electrons create #ig#-energy $#otons, w#ic# $roduce furt#er electrons and $ositrons, t#us increasing t#e number of $articles until t#e energy is dissi$ated. Also called air sho#er. "asca*e systems Arrangement in w#ic# two or more refrigerating systems are used in series) uses eva$orator of one mac#ine to cool condenser of ot#er mac#ine. roduces ultra-low tem$s "asca*ing of insulators ;las#over of a string of sus$ension insulators) initiated by t#e voltage across one unit e1ceeding its safe value and flas#ing over, t#ereby im$osing additional stress across t#e ot#er units, and resulting in a com$lete flas#over of t#e string.

"ase 1. %#at $art near t#e surface of a ferrous alloy w#ic# as been so altered as to allow case-#ardening. ,. Bne of t#e two clam-s#ell-li"e #alves in t#e bottom end of t#e engine surrounded by a metal s#ell Also .ee !as)et case !attery case "haincase "onverter case %ifferential case 0pen %isplay "ase .plitting &he "ases &op case &ransfer case "A.' Acronym for -ran&ing Angle $ensing Error "ase har*en %#e action of #ardening t#e surface of iron or steel so t#at t#e outer $ortion or case is made substantially #arder t#an t#e inner $ortion or core. %y$ical $rocesses used for case #ardening are carburizing, cyaniding, carbonitriding, nitriding, induction #ardening, and flame #ardening. "asehar*ene* A $iece of steel t#at #as #ad t#e outer surface #ardened w#ile t#e inner $ortion remains relatively soft. "asehar*ening %#e action of adding carbon to t#e surface of a mild steel ob8ect and #eat treating to $roduce a #ard surface. "ases %#e two clam-s#ell-li"e #alves in t#e bottom end of t#e engine surrounded by a metal s#ell "ash register

%ruc"er slang for %oll boot# as in F&=m comin= u$ on a cas# register at #ig#way 77F "ash an* carry 4erosene, fuel oil, or bottled gas (tan" or -ropane! $urc#ased wit# cas#, by c#ec", or by credit card and ta"en #ome by t#e $urc#aser. %#e $urc#aser $rovides t#e container or $ays e1tra for t#e container. "ash value .ee Actual cash value "asing 1. %#e &ire casing. ,. %#e outside s#ell of somet#ing suc# as t#e s#ell of an alternator or starter motor. Also .ee A#le casing %ifferential casing &ire "asing &urbine casing $olute casing "asing factor %#at $ortion of t#e load su$$orted by &ire casing stiffness instead of air $ressure. "asing hea* gasoline A term used to describe t#e lig#ter $arts of $etroleum $roducts, w#ic# were obtained from natural gasoline by condensing natural gas from an oil well "as) .ee Flas) "as)et .ee Flas) "assette 1. A ty$e of bicycle gear cluster t#at slides on a free#ub rat#er t#an t#reads on it. %#e free#ub body is attac#ed to t#e rear #ub.

,. A cartridge containing magnetic ta$e t#at can be inserted into a $layer for listening or viewing (e.g., an audio cassette or video cassette!. "assette cogs %#e individual cogs t#at ma"e u$ a bicycle cassette. "assette compartment A storage $lace for audio cassettes "assette %ec) .ee Ra*io cassette %ec) "assette hub (ore recent ty$e of rear #ub designed to acce$t t#e cassette ty$e of gear cluster. %#e cassette #ub #as t#e rotating, ratc#eting free#ub body attac#ed to t#e #ub for t#e cassette to slide onto and be secured by a loc"ring. "assette player A unit w#ic# $lays (but does not record! audio cassettes and is often lin"ed wit# a stereo unit in an automobile "assette size %#e size of a bicycle cassette is described by t#e number of teet# on t#e smallest cog and t#e number of teet# on t#e largest cog. An e1am$le of a common size for road racing would be 1, 1 ,1. "ast 1. %o s#a$e molten metal by $ouring it into a mol*. 2. A model or result made by $ouring metal into a mol*. Also "ast "asting %ie cast "ast Aluminum /heel .ee iron

"ast Aluminum .ee

heel

Alloy /heel
"astellate ;ormed

"astellate* .ee "astellate* nut+ "astellate* nut

"astellate* nut

to

resemble

a castle

battlement

e.g.,

"astellate* 9ut A nut wit# several lugs $rotruding from one end ma"ing it loo" li"e t#e turrets on t#e to$ of t#e wall of a castle. %#is nut is used on a s#aft wit# a #ole drilled in it. &t is secured to t#e s#aft by $assing a "otter pin t#roug# an o$ening in t#e nut and t#roug# t#e s#aft #ole.

"aster 1. A small w#eel at t#e front of a w#eelc#air or s#o$$ing cart t#at swivels and is tilted at an angle. Also

./ivel caster

.ee

,. "aster A w#eel Alignment ad8ustment t#at $ositions t#e w#eels li"e t#e casters on a c#air or s#o$$ing cart, so t#e tires follow naturally in a forward straig#t line. &n a truc" or older car, t#e to$ of t#e 4ingpin is eit#er forward (9egative! or toward t#e rear of t#e ve#icle (-ositive!. Bn a turn, t#e w#eels will tend to straig#ten out w#en t#e .teering /heel is released. &f t#e car #as inde$endent front sus$ension, t#e u$$er ball 8oint is set forward or rearward in relation to t#e lower ball 8oint. 2aster is measured in degrees. Also 9egative -ositive &rail *istance "aster action .ee "aster "aster

%#e self-centering action w#ic# causes a caster w#eel to move into a straig#t-a#ead $osition. "aster angle %#e inclination or angle t#at a w#eel ma"es w#en measuring t#e distance between t#e vertical $ost and t#e offset of t#e w#eel $lacement. "aster offset %#e distance on t#e ground between w#ere t#e vertical $ost would touc# t#e ground if it were e1tended and t#e $oint w#ere t#e w#eel touc#es t#e ground. Also called caster trail "aster trail %#e distance on t#e ground between w#ere t#e vertical $ost would touc# t#e ground if it were e1tended and t#e $oint w#ere t#e w#eel touc#es t#e ground. Also called caster offset "aster /obble A condition generally $roduced in t#e front w#eels w#en t#ey are attac#ed to t#e ends of a !eam a#le. &t is $articularly noticeable on roug# roads and t#e .himmy at t#e .teering /heel ma"es it difficult to control t#e ve#icle. Sou #ave $robably seen t#is condition in a s#o$$ing cart t#at #as caster w#eels t#at wiggle or fluctuate bac" and fort# and will not roll in a straig#t line. "ast holes ?oles made in cast ob8ects by t#e use of cores, in order to reduce t#e time necessary for mac#ining, and to avoid metal wastage. "asting

"lic) image to supersize "asting 1. A $rocess tec#nology t#at delivers a li.uid molten metal into a $ur$ose-built mold. After cooling, t#e solid metal surface #as t#e s#a$e of t#e mold cavity. 2. ouring metal into a Mol* to form an ob8ect. >. A metallic article cast in t#e s#a$e re.uired, as distinct from one s#a$ed by wor"ing. Also

!lo/n %ie ,ost-foam Malleable Monobloc .an* .teel &hin-/all casting

casting

"asting casting process castings casting casting "asting

.ee

"asting copper (etal of lower $urity t#an !est selecte* copper. Generally contains about 33.64 of co$$er. "asting la*le A steel ladle, lined wit# refractory material, in w#ic# molten metal is carried from t#e furnace to t#e mold in w#ic# t#e casting is to be made. "asting number %#e number cast into a bloc", #ead, or ot#er com$onent w#en t#e $art is cast. 2asting numbers can be #el$ful w#en identifying an engine or its $arts, but t#ey are not com$letely accurate, because castings are sometimes mac#ined differently "asting process .ee ,ost-foam casting process "astings (etallic forms w#ic# are $roduced by $ouring molten metal into a s#a$ed container or mold. Also .ee

Malleable castings

"asting /heel 9arge w#eel on w#ic# ingot molds are arranged $eri$#erally and filled from stream of molten metal issuing from furnace or $ouring ladle. "ast-in-situ concrete piles A ty$e of $ile formed by driving a steel $i$e into t#e ground and filling it wit# concrete, using t#e $i$e as a mold, or by a similar met#od. "ast iron 1. An Alloy of iron and more t#an ,4 "arbon. &t is used for engine !loc)s and &ransmission and %ifferential cases because it is relatively c#ea$ and easy to Mol* into com$le1 s#a$es. ,. Any iron-carbon alloy in w#ic# t#e carbon content e1ceeds t#e solubility of carbon in austenite at t#e

eutectic tem$erature. +idely used in engineering on account of t#eir #ig# fluidity and e1cellent casting c#aracteristics. 2arbon content usually in t#e range of ,-,.>4. 'ome "inds are brittle and ot#ers difficult to mac#ine. Also Alloy %uctile 5rey .pherulitic graphite cast-iron "ast-iron .ee "ast iron "astle .ee "astellate* nut+ "astle nut see "ast-iron cast-iron iron

"astle nut A "astellate* nut -- a si1-sided nut in t#e to$ of w#ic# si1 radial slots are cut. %wo of t#ese line u$ wit# a #ole drilled in t#e bolt or screw, a s$lit $in can be inserted to $revent turning. Also called he( slotted

nut

"astle section A $anel wit# #um$s or ribs w#ic# strengt#en t#e $anel. %#ey are called castle because from t#e end t#ey loo" li"e t#e turrets of a castle "astor Britis# s$elling of "aster.

"ast silicon 2rystalline silicon obtained by $ouring $ure molten silicon into a vertical mold and ad8usting t#e tem$erature gradient along t#e mold volume during cooling to obtain slow, vertically advancing crystallization of t#e silicon. %#e $olycrystalline ingot t#us formed is com$osed of large, relatively $arallel, interloc"ing crystals. %#e cast ingots are sawed into wafers for furt#er fabrication into $#otovoltaic cells. 2ast silicon wafers and ribbon silicon s#eets fabricated into cells are usually referred to as $olycrystalline $#otovoltaic cells. "ast spo)e assembly %#at $art of t#e ve#icle consisting of t#e bra"e drum and w#eel s$ider, #aving >, 0 or 6 s$o"es. "ast spo)e /heel 1. A ty$e of dual mounting w#eels w#ere two demountable rims are mounted directly on t#e s$o"e w#eel and drum assembly #eld a$art by a s$acer band and loc"ed in $lace by clam$s and nuts w#ic# attac# to studs in t#e s$o"e face. ,. A w#eel wit# five or si1 s$o"es originating from a center #ub. %#e s$o"ed $ortion, usually made of cast steel, is bolted to a multi$le-$iece steel rim Also see %emountable Rim %isc heel "ast steel '#a$es t#at #ave been formed directly from li.uid by casting into a mold. ;ormerly a$$lied to wroug#t ob8ects $roduced by wor"ing steel made by t#e crucible $rocess to distinguis# from t#at made by cementation of wroug#t-iron, but bot# of t#ese met#ods are long obsolete. "ast /el*e* rail 6oint A 8oint between t#e ends of two ad8acent rails made in $osition using t#e t#ermite $rocess in w#ic# aluminum

$owder and sodium $ero1ide are ignited causing t#e rails to weld toget#er. "at An abbreviation for "atalytic converter "ata*ioptric An o$tical system using a combination of refracting and reflecting surfaces designed to reduce aberrations in a telesco$e. "atalan process <eduction of #aematite to wroug#t-iron by smelting wit# c#arcoal. "atalog .ee -arts catalog "atalyst 1. A substance t#at c#anges t#e rate of a c#emical reaction wit#out itself being used u$. 2atalysts are used in many $rocesses in t#e c#emical and $etroleum industries. :mission control catalysts are used to $romote reactions t#at c#ange e1#aust $ollutants from internal combustion engines into #armless substances. After t#e reaction it can $otentially be recovered from t#e reaction mi1ture c#emically unc#anged. ,. A s$ecial agent w#ic# is added to a $lastic body filler or resin or $aint to s$eed u$ t#e #ardening $rocess. Also %iesel 0#i*ation ,ean 90# Metal 0#i*izing -articulate -ellet-type catalytic Re*ucing &hree-/ay catalyst "atalyst be* .ee "atalyst "atalyst catalyst catalyst catalyst converter catalyst

A layer of catalyst-coated material suc# as $ellets or ceramic in a catalytic converter t#roug# w#ic# t#e gases $ass. "atalyst charge A catalyst-coated material suc# as $ellets or ceramic in a catalytic converter. "atalyst coate* membrane (22(! %erm used to describe a membrane (in a -'M fuel cell! w#ose surfaces are coated wit# a catalyst layer to form t#e reaction zone of t#e electrode. .ee also Membrane 'lectro*e Assembly "atalyst coating A "atalytic layer "atalyst container A #ousing of a catalytic converter. Also called a "atalyst contamination A reduction of efficiency because of im$urity de$osits "atalyst *egra*ation A reduction of efficiency because of im$urities or over#eating. Also called catalyst deterioration "atalyst *eterioration A reduction of efficiency because of im$urities or over#eating. Also called catalyst degradation "atalyst efficiency .ee "atalytic efficiency "atalyst in*icator A lig#t on t#e instrument $anel w#ic# glows w#en a $rescribed distance #as $assed in order to remind t#e driver to #ave t#e catalytic converter re$laced. "atalyst loa*ing %#e amount of catalyst incor$orated in t#e fuel cell $er unit area. "atalyst substrate

converter shell

A base material w#ic# carries t#e "atalytic layer or coating. Also called catalyst su$$ort "atalyst support A base material w#ic# carries t#e "atalytic layer or coating. Also called catalyst substrate "atalytic .ee "atalytic converter %ual-be* catalytic converter Mini catalytic converter 0pen-loop catalytic converter -ellet-type catalytic converter -rimary catalytic converter &hree-/ay catalytic converter "atalytic activity %#e rate a catalytic converter $urifies t#e e1#aust system "atalytic converter

"atalytic converter
1. A $ollution-control device found on t#e '#haust

system of all cars since its introduction in 1356 w#ic# acts li"e an Afterburner to reburn unburned gas in t#e &ail pipe. &t loo"s li"e a small Muffler and is usually made of stainless steel. &t contains -latinum, r#odium, or $alladium w#ic# is a catalyst for t#e c#emical reaction needed to burn off any unburned Hy*rocarbons and "arbon mono#i*e by turning t#em into water va$or, carbon dio1ide and ot#er less to1ic gases.

2. A device containing a "atalyst for converting automobile e1#aust into mostly #armless $roducts. Also

%ual-be* catalytic ,ean burn Mini catalytic 0pen-loop catalytic -ellet-type catalytic -rimary catalytic .ingle-be* B-/ay catalytic &hree-/ay catalytic converter

converter engine converter converter converter converter converter

.ee

"atalytic crac)ing %#e refining $rocess of brea"ing down t#e larger, #eavier, and more com$le1 #ydrocarbon molecules into sim$ler and lig#ter molecules. 2atalytic crac"ing is accom$lis#ed by t#e use of a catalytic agent and is an effective $rocess for increasing t#e yield of gasoline from crude oil. 2atalytic crac"ing $rocesses fres# feeds and recycled feeds. "atalytic efficiency %#e effectiveness of a catalyst in $urifying e1#aust gases "atalytic Fines ?ard, abrasive crystalline $articles of alumina, silica, andDor alumina silica t#at can be carried over from t#e fluidic catalytic crac"ing $rocess of residual fuel stoc"s. article size can range from sub-micron to greater t#an si1ty (60! microns in size. %#ese $articles become more common in t#e #ig#er viscosity marine bun"er fuels. "atalytic hy*rocrac)ing A refining $rocess t#at uses #ydrogen and "atalysts wit# relatively low tem$eratures and #ig# $ressures for converting middle boiling or residual material to #ig#

octane gasoline, reformer c#arge stoc", 8et fuel, and Dor #ig# grade fuel oil. %#e $rocess uses one or more "atalysts, de$ending on $roduct out$ut, and can #andle #ig# sulfur feedstoc"s wit#out $rior desulfurization. "atalytic hy*rotreating A refining $rocess for treating $etroleum fractions from atmos$#eric or vacuum distillation units (e.g., na$#t#as, middle distillates, reformer feeds, residual fuel oil, and #eavy gas oil! and ot#er $etroleum (e.g., cat crac"ed na$#t#a, co"er na$#t#a, gas oil, etc.! in t#e $resence of "atalysts and substantial .uantities of #ydrogen. ?ydrotreating includes desulfurization, removal of substances (e.g., nitrogen com$ounds! t#at deactivate "atalysts, conversion of 0lefins to $araffins to reduce gum formation in gasoline, and ot#er $rocesses to u$grade t#e .uality of t#e fractions. "atalytic layer A t#in layer of catalyst suc# as $latinum and su$$orted by a ceramic or metal carrier material "atalytic Re*uction .ee .elective "atalytic Re*uction "atalytic reforming A refining $rocess using controlled #eat and $ressure wit# "atalysts to rearrange certain #ydrocarbon molecules, t#ereby converting $araffinic and na$#t#enic ty$e #ydrocarbons (e.g., low octane gasoline boiling range fractions! into $etroc#emical feedstoc"s and #ig#er octane stoc"s suitable for blending into finis#ed gasoline. 2atalytic reforming is re$orted in two categories. %#ey areM 9ow ressure. A $rocessing unit o$erating at less t#an ,,0 -.(5 measured at t#e outlet se$arator. ?ig# $ressure. A $rocessing unit o$erating at eit#er e.ual to or greater t#an ,,0 -.(5 measured at t#e outlet se$arator.

"atamaran A double #ulled vessel "ataphoretic painting A $rocess of a$$lying t#e first coat of $aint to t#e body of a ve#icle by $ositively c#arging t#e $aint $articles and t#en dun"ing t#e metal into t#e $aint. A current is turned on so t#at t#e $ositively c#arged $aint is attracted to t#e negative metal $anel. Also called cat#odic electro$ainting "atapult an accelerating device for launc#ing an aircraft in a s#ort distance. &t may be fi1ed or rotatable to face t#e wind. &t is usually used on s#i$s w#ic# #ave no landing dec", #aving been su$erseded on aircraft carriers by t#e Accelerator. Euring +orld +ar &&, fig#ters were carried on (cata$ult armed merc#ant s#i$s! for defense against long-range bombers. 9and cata$ults #ave been tried but #ave been su$erseded by RA&05 and .&0, aircraft. "atbac) A $erformance e1#aust system u$grade w#ic# consists of new $i$es from t#e catalytic converter to t#e &ail pipe w#ic# increases #orse$ower. %#ese new $i$es are larger, t#us, more e1#aust can e1it t#e system. %#e faster t#e e1#aust can e1it, t#e more #orse$ower you gain. "atch .ee .afety catch "atch basin An o$ening in t#e road surface wit# grated lid to allow water into a storm drainage system. .ee "atch pit "atcher %#e element in a velocity-modulated ultra#ig# fre.uency or microwave beam tube w#ic# abstracts, or

catc#es, t#e energy in a bunc#ed electron stream as it $asses t#roug# it. Also see !uncher "atcher foil Aluminum s#eet used for measuring $ower levels in nuclear reactor by absor$tion of fission fragments. "atching *io*e Eiode used to clam$ a voltage or current at a $redetermined value. +#en it becomes forward-biased it $revents t#e a$$lied $otential from increasing any furt#er. "atchment area %#e area from w#ic# water runs off to any given river valley or collecting reservoir. Also called "atchment "atchment basin %#e area from w#ic# water runs off to any given river valley or collecting reservoir. Also called "atchment "atch net A mes# construction t#at is electricaly grounded and $laced below #ig#-voltage transmission lines t#at cross over a road or railway. &n t#e event t#at t#e lines brea", t#ey will fall into t#e net. Also called a cradle "atch pit A small $it constructed at t#e entrance to a lengt# of sewer or drain $i$e to catc# and retain matter w#ic# would not easily $ass t#roug# t#e $i$es. Also called catch basin. Also see .ump "atch plate A dis" on t#e s$indle nose of a lat#e, driving a carrier loc"ed to t#e wor". "atch points

basin

area

A section of a railroad trac" w#ic# is activated w#en a train is su$$osed to be going u$#ill, but starts to slide bac". %#e catc# $oints $revent t#e train from rolling bac" any fart#er. "atch-/ater *rain A drain to catc# water on a #illside, wit# o$en 8oints or multi$le $erforations to ta"e in water in as many $laces as $ossible. "at "rac)er A large refinery vessel for $rocessing reduced crudes or ot#er feed-stoc"s in t#e $resence of a "atalyst, as o$$osed to t#e older met#od of t#ermal crac"ing, w#ic# em$loys #eat and $ressure only. 2atalytic crac"ing is generally $referred since it $roduces less gas and ot#er #ig#ly volatile by$roducts. &t $roduces a motor fuel of #ig#er octane t#an t#e t#ermal $rocess. "at ' 2ategory : damage to an aircraft) e.uivalent to a total loss or #rite off. "atenary construction A met#od of construction used for over#ead contact wires of traction systems. AT wire is sus$ended, in t#e form of catenary, between two su$$orts, and t#e contact wire is su$$orted from t#is by dro$$ers of different lengt#s, arranged so t#at t#e contact wire is #orizontal. "athea* 1. %#e s#eave assembly on t#e to$ of crane 8ib. 2. A lat#e accessory consisting of a turned sleeve #aving four or more radial screws at eac# end) used for clam$ing on to roug# wor" of small diameter and running in t#e .tea*y w#ile centering. Also called spider "athetometer An o$tical instrument for measuring vertical distances not e1ceeding a few decimeters. A small telesco$e, #eld #orizontally can move u$ and down a vertical

$illar. %#e difference in $osition of t#e telesco$e w#en t#e images of t#e two $oints w#ose se$aration is being measured are lined u$ wit# t#e cross-wires of t#e telesco$e, is obtained from t#e difference in vernier readings on a scale mar"ed on t#e $illar. Also called reading microscope and reading telescope "atho*e 1. &n an electric circuit, t#e 9egative terminal. :lectrons leave from t#is terminal. ,. &n an electronic tube or valve, an electrode t#roug# w#ic# a $rimary stream of electrons enters t#e inter-electrode s$ace. Euring conduction, t#e cat#ode is negative wit# res$ect to t#e anode. 'uc# a cat#ode may be cold, electron emission being due to electric fields, $#oto-emission, or im$act by ot#er $articles, or t#ermionic, w#ere t#e cat#ode is #eated by some means. >. &n a semiconductor diode, t#e electrode to w#ic# t#e forward current flows. 6. &n a t#yristor, t#e electrode by w#ic# current leaves t#e t#yristor w#en it is in t#e BA state. 0. &n a lig#t-emitting diode, t#e electrode to w#ic# forward current flows wit#in t#e device. 6. &n electrolytic a$$lications, t#e electrode at w#ic# $ositive ions are disc#arged, or negative ions formed. 7. %#e electrode at w#ic# reduction occurs. &n an electroc#emical cell, o1idation occurs at t#e Ano*e and reduction at t#e cat#ode. "atho*e coating A low-wor" function surface layer a$$lied to a t#ermionic or $#otocat#ode in order to en#ance electron emission or to control s$ectral c#aracteristics. %#e cat#ode coating im$edance is between t#e base metal and t#is layer. "atho*e copper

%#e $roduct of electrolytic refining, after w#ic# t#e cat#odes are melted, o1idized, $oled, and cast into wire-bars, ca"es, billets, etc. "atho*e efficiency <atio of emission current to energy su$$lied to cat#ode. Also called emission efficiency "atho*e follo/er A valve circuit in w#ic# t#e in$ut is connected between t#e grid and ground, and t#e out$ut is ta"en from between t#e cat#ode and ground, t#e anode being grounded to signal fre.uencies. &t #as a #ig# in$ut im$edance, low out$ut im$edance, and unity voltage gain. "atho*e glo/ Glow near t#e surface of a cat#ode, its color de$ends on t#e gas or va$or in t#e tube. "atho*e luminous sensitivity <atio of cat#ode current of $#otoelectric cell to luminous intensity. "atho*e mo*ulation (odulation $roduced by signal a$$lied to cat#ode of valve t#roug# w#ic# carrier wave $asses. "atho*e poisoning <eduction of t#ermionic emission from a cat#ode as a result of minute traces of adsorbed im$urities. "atho*e ray A stream of negatively c#arged $articles (electrons! emitted normally from t#e surface of a cat#ode in a vacuum or low-$ressure gas. %#e velocity of t#e electrons is $ro$ortional to t#e s.uare root of t#e accelerating $otential, being 61100ms-1 for one volt. %#ey can be deflected and formed into beams by t#e a$$lication of electric or magnetic fields, or a combination of bot#, and are widely used in oscillosco$es and %- (in cat#ode-ray tubes!, electron microsco$es and electron-beam welding, and electronbeam tubes for #ig# fre.uency am$lifiers and oscillators.

"atho*e-ray oscillograph An oscillogra$# in w#ic# a $ermanent ($#otogra$#ic or ot#er! record of a transient or time-varying $#enomenon is $roduced by means of an electron beam in a cat#ode-ray tube. Ee$recated term for

"atho*e-ray oscilloscope

"atho*e-ray oscilloscope (2<%! Eevice for dis$laying electronic signals by modulating a beam of electrons before it im$inges on a "atho*e ray tube A sealed tube on w#ic# gra$#s or $ictures are dis$layed li"e a %- screen "atho*ic electropainting A $rocess of a$$lying t#e first coat of $aint to t#e body of a car by $ositively c#arging t#e $aint $articles and t#en dun"ing t#e metal into t#e $aint. A current is turned on so t#at t#e $ositively c#arged $aint is attracted to t#e negative metal $anel. Also called cata$#oretic $ainting "atho*e spot Area on a cat#ode w#ere electrons are emitted into an arc, t#e current density being muc# #ig#er t#an wit# sim$le t#ermionic emission "atho*ic chal) A coating of magnesium and calcium com$ounds formed on a steel surface during "atho*ic protection in sea water "atho*ic etching :rosion of a cat#ode by a glow disc#arge t#roug# $ositive-ion bombardment, in order to s#ow microstructure "atho*ic protection 1. %#e action of $rotecting metal from electroc#emical corrosion by using it as t#e cat#ode of a cell wit# a .acrificial ano*e.

Fluorescent screen

,. &n s#i$s and offs#ore structures, corrosion can be $revented by $assing sufficient direct current t#roug# t#e sea water to ma"e t#e metal #ull a cat#ode. >. %#e met#od of $reventing corrosion in metal structures t#at involves using electric voltage to slow or $revent corrosion. &t is used along natural gas $i$elines, as well as in certain bridges or ot#er large metal structures t#at need to resist corrosion over an e1tended $eriod of time. &t is also used in some devices for a ve#icle to $revent rusting. "atho*oluminescence %#e emission of lig#t, wit# a $ossible afterglow, from a material w#en irradiated by an electron beam, suc# as occurs in t#e $#os$#or of a cat#ode-ray tube "atho*ophone (icro$#one utilizing t#e silent disc#arge between a #eated o1ide-coated filament in air and anot#er electrode. %#e disc#arge is modulated directly by t#e motion of t#e air $articles in a $assing sound wave. Also called ionophone "atholyte .ee "atolyte "ation &on in an electrolyte w#ic# carries a $ositive c#arge and w#ic# migrates toward t#e cat#ode under t#e influence of a $otential gradient in electrolysis. &t is t#e de$osition of t#e cation in a $rimary cell w#ic# determines t#e $ositive terminal. "atolyte %#at $ortion of t#e electrolyte of an electrolytic cell w#ic# is in t#e immediate neig#bor#ood of t#e cat#ode. Also called catholyte "atoptric element A com$onent of an o$tical system t#at uses reflection, not refraction, in t#e formation of an image

"auchy2s *ispersion formula Q* A I (BDU,! I (2DU,1! I ... An em$irical e1$ression for t#e relation between t#e refractive inde1 Q of a medium and t#e wavelengt# U of lig#t) A, B, and 2 are t#e constants for a given medium. "attle guar* A series of $i$es or bars s$aced a few inc#es a$art and $laced across t#e road to discourage animals from entering or leaving a $articular area. 'imilar to a &e#as gate e1ce$t a %e1as gate always uses round $i$es not flat bars. "at/al) 1. A raised wal"way running fore and aft from t#e mids#i$.

,. "at/al) An obsolete term for t#e section between t#e fender and t#e #ood. Bn modern cars, t#is section does not e1ist at all. But on older cars (li"e t#e 13>5 2adillac!, t#e fender was s$aced a little way a$art from t#e #ood. %#e #eadlig#ts were mounted toward t#e front of t#e catwal" or above it.

"aul)

%o fill seams in a wood dec" wit# oa"um or #ammer t#e ad8oining edges of metal toget#er to sto$ lea"s. Also s$elled cal& "aul)ing %#e $rocess of closing t#e s$aces between overla$$ing riveted $lates or ot#er 8oints by #ammering t#e e1$osed edge of one $late into intimate contact wit# t#e ot#er. A filler material is also used es$. for closing (e.g., dec" $lan"ing!. Also called calking Also see eather "aul)ing "aul)ing tool A tool, similar in form to a cold c#isel but #aving a blunt edge, for deforming t#e metal rat#er t#an cutting it. "ausality %#e $rinci$le t#at an event cannot $recede its cause. "austic curve A curve to w#ic# rays of lig#t are tangential after reflection or refraction at anot#er curve "austic embrittlement %#e intergranular corrosion of steel in #ot al"aline solutions, e.g., in boilers "austic etching %#e removal of metal by di$$ing aluminum $arts in caustic soda "aution A $eriod in racing in w#ic# trac" conditions are too #azardous for racing due to an accident or debris on t#e racing surface. %#e cars remain in t#eir racing $ositions be#ind t#e $ace car until it is determined t#at it is safe to resume t#e race. "ave* Eented inward as in When the car hit me, it caved in the door. "avitation

A condition in w#ic# a $artial $acuum forms around t#e blades or (mpeller w#eels of a -ump, reducing t#e $um$=s out$ut because $art of t#e $um$ blades lose contact wit# t#e li.uid. &t can be a $roblem in fuel and /ater pumps, flui* couplings, and tor8ue converters. +#en severe, it can result in t#e erosion of t#e $um$ blades and ot#er internal surfaces. "avity 1. An em$ty s$ace in a body structure, eit#er in a bo1 section or a double-s"inned area. ,. A #older and contact for fuses "avity sealant A $roduct made of oil, wa1, and rust in#ibitors w#ic# is $ainted or s$rayed into a cavity to $revent rust and corrosion. DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Da"

%a %b %c %* %e %f %g %h %i %6 %) %l %m %n %o %p %r

%s %t %u %v %/
%y %
1. Abbreviation for diesel. 2. Abbreviation for drive.

3. A mar" on t#e out$ut (live! terminal on a generator (contrasts wit# '! %ab A bicycle maneuver in w#ic# t#e rider $uts a foot down in order to catc# #is balance on a difficult section of trail as in, FSou will be dis.ualified if you dab on t#is course.F %A!
1. Acronym for

igital Audio Broadcast.

2. Acronym for %ae/oo

elayed Accessory Bus

%ae/oo A 'out# @orean automobile manufacturer w#ic# $roduced 9anos (1333-,00,!, Aubira (1333-,00,!, 9eganza (1333-,00,!. %agmar

$irginia Ruth 'gnor L%agmarL

3K<< "a*illac L%agmarL bumper


1. 9arge bullet-s#a$ed $rotrusion on !umpers of

cars in t#e 1300s. &t was named after t#e nic"name of a bu1om television star, -irginia <ut# :gnor (13,1-,001!. 2. Eagmar is an automobile of w#ic# only t#e ,0-50 models of 13,0-1367 are "lassic cars.

%aihatsu

%aihatsu A brand of automobile from t#e Eai#atsu (otor 2o., 9td. w#ic# began in 1301 and included t#e following models <oc"y (1375-37!, 2#arade (1355-,000! %aimler Also called Austro-%aimler. A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. %#e 1363-0> E:->6 2ustom Built models are Milestone cars. %#e 1363-0> ,.0 '$ecial '$ort 2onvertible models are Milestone cars. %alton2s la/ -a$or $ressure created in a container by a mi1ture of gases is e.ual to sum of individual va$or $ressures of t#e gases contained in mi1ture. %am .ee Air *am Heat *am %amage .ee Acci*ent *amage "enter section *amage %irect *amage 'cological *amage 'ngine *amage

Frame *amage (mpact *amage (n*irect *amage (nternal *amage .tone chip *amage %amp 1. %o reduce t#e oscillations of s$ring, carburetor $iston, etc. ,. %o reduce t#e vibration in a cran"s#aft %ampening belt A rubber belt wound around t#e outside of a bra"e drum or rotor $rior to mac#ining t#e drum or rotor. %#e belt dam$ens out vibrations t#at mig#t affect t#e .uality of t#e finis#ed surface. %amper

%amper
1. A

Friction device sometimes called a .hoc) absorber. /sed for controlling and dam$ing s$ring 0scillations. %#e s$rings actually absorb road s#oc"s) t#e dam$ers convert t#e energy im$arted to t#e s$rings into t#ermal energy (by friction!, w#ic# is dissi$ated to t#e atmos$#ere or

t#e ve#icle=s "hassis. Eam$ers are distinguis#able by t#e ty$e of friction involved, mec#anical or Hy*raulic but most modern cars used tubular-s#a$ed Hy*raulic s#oc" absorbers. Because t#ey affect u$ and down w#eel motions, dam$ers are an im$ortant lin" in tuning a ve#icle=s ride and #andling. ,. A movable $late w#ic# $ermits or restricts t#e flow of li.uids or gasses. Also

5as Harmonic Mass -iston -ulsation .teering &orsional $ibration *amper

vibration

*amper balancer *amper *amper *amper *amper *amper

.ee

%amper piston A $iston in a cylinder w#ose movement is restricted by a li.uid or gas, w#ic# t#us also restricts t#e movement of anot#er member to w#ic# it is connected. %amper settings .ee .pring an* *amper settings %amper springs '$rings in a clutc# $late $roviding a cus#ion against sudden loads due to abru$t engagement %amper strut A sus$ension strut w#ose #ub carrier is attac#ed to t#e s$ring element rat#er t#an to t#e dam$er tube. 2om$are Macpherson strut %amping 1. 2us#ioning of force.

,. %#e action of sus$ension to control t#e s$eed of movement t#roug# its travel, usually by a $iston running t#roug# oil and t#us gives a smoot#er ride. &t vastly im$roves t#at smoot#ness of ride offered. Also .ee "ompression *amping Reboun* %amping %amping force %#e amount of cus#ioning a$$lied by a s#oc" absorber %amping rate %#e amount of cus#ioning a$$lied by a s#oc" absorber %amping restriction %#e bore of a small cross section in t#e fuel distributor of t#e @-Jetronic ty$e system. &t dam$ens sensor $late movement in t#e air flow sensor during #ig# load and low r$m conditions %ar) B0 %ruc"er slang for nig#ttime as in F& am s#utting t#is rig down rig#t at dar" >0.F %ar)time %ruc"er slang for nig#ttime as in F& am s#utting t#is rig down rig#t at dar"time.F %arrac8 A ve#icle manufacturer in w#ic# only t#e 7-cyl. cars and 6-liter, 6-cyl. cars of 13,0-1367 are "lassic cars. %ash .ee %ashboar* %ash boar* .ee %ashboar* %ashboar* %#at $art of t#e body containing t#e driving instruments, switc#es, etc. Also called t#e (nstrument panel or dash !anel or 8ust dash. %ashboar* gearchange

Britis# term for %ash shifter %ashboar* pla8ue 1. A metal or $lastic $late w#ic# is mounted to t#e das# to indicate t#e brand, model, or series of ve#icle. ,. A metal $late w#ic# is mounted to t#e das# to indicate an award for attending or winning a rally or ot#er automotive event. %ash *esign .ee raproun* *ash *esign raparoun* %ash %esign %ash panel 1. A structural $anel wit# bracing across t#e widt# of t#e car on t#e inside of t#e bul"#ead below t#e winds#ield t#at $rovides t#e mounting locations of t#e das#board. Also called t#e fire wall because it is t#e $artition between t#e $assenger com$artment and t#e engine com$artment. 2. %#e !ul)hea* %ash pla8ue 1. A metal or $lastic $late w#ic# is mounted to t#e das# to indicate t#e brand, model, or series of ve#icle. ,. A metal $late w#ic# is mounted to t#e das# to indicate an award for attending or winning a rally or ot#er automotive event. %ashpot A unit using a "ylin*er and -iston or a "ylin*er and %iaphragm wit# a small vent #ole, to Retar* or slow down t#e movement of some $art. Also see Anti-stall %ashpot %ash-pot

(E ! a dia$#ragm t#at controls t#e rate at w#ic# t#e t#rottle closes %ash shifter A s#ift lever and indicator w#ic# is located on t#e instrument $anel eit#er as a s#ort lever or $us# buttons %ata .ee Ra*io %ata .ystem %ata "enter .ee Alternative Fuels %ata "enter %ata (nterchange .ee 'lectronic %ata(nterchange %ata lin) connector 2onnector(s! $roviding access andDor control of t#e ve#icle information, o$erating conditions, and diagnostic information. %ata .heet .ee Material .afety %ata .heets %ata .ystem .ee Ra*io %ata .ystem %ate "o*e .ee !uil* %ate "o*e %atsun

A model of automobile manufactured by Aissan

%atsun &ruc)

A model of truc" manufactured by Aissan %atsun A

A model of automobile manufactured by Aissan %avit A crane arm for #andling lifeboats, stores, etc. %ay "ab A truc" or tractor wit#out a slee$er birt#. %y$ically used for day tri$s or local routes. %aylighting controls A system of sensors t#at assesses t#e amount of daylig#t and controls lig#ting or s#ading devices to maintain a s$ecified lig#ting level. %#e sensors are sometimes referred to as !hotocells. %ay-night mirror A mirror w#ic# ad8usts to $revent t#e glare from t#e #eadlig#ts of following cars. %#e Britis# term is di!!ing mirror. %ays2 supply Aumber of days needed to sell all ve#icles in inventory, based on t#e $revious mont#=s sales rate. %aytime running lights

(E<9s! A safety-oriented lig#ting system in w#ic# t#e #eadlig#ts or ot#er front lig#ts are constantly on even during t#e day. %#ey #el$ to $revent $ossible accidents because oncoming traffic can be seen. Eecember 1, 1373, 2anada became t#e second country after Aorway to re.uire daytime running lig#ts on all new $assenger ve#icles. &n ot#er countries t#e im$lementation of E<9s #as #ad mi1ed res$onse. %azzle %#e glare from t#e #eadlig#ts of oncoming traffic w#ic# can momentarily blind a driver. %azzle mirror .ee

%imming mirror

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ea"


'a 'b 'c '* 'e 'f 'g 'h 'i '6 'l 'm 'n 'o 'p '8 'r

's 't 'u 'v '/ '# 'y


'z ' '30 Abbreviation for 'conomy 5ear

(Gaso#ol! :t#anolDgasoline mi1ture containing 104 denatured 'thanol and 304 gasoline, by volume. '40% Acronym for Electronic =-$!eed Overdrive 'F< A fuel containing a mi1ture of 70 $ercent 'thanol and 10 $ercent gasoline 'KB A fuel mi1ture containing 3>4 'thanol, 04 Methanol and ,4 4erosene, by volume. 'K< A fuel containing a mi1ture of 30 $ercent 'thanol and 0 $ercent gasoline 'A" Acronym for Electronic Air -ontrol -- re$laced by
A(R

'A"$ Acronym for 'lectronic air control valve. A valve used in fuel-in8ection system, usually com$uter controlled, t#at controls t#e amount of air by$assing t#e t#rottle during idle. %#e more air t#at by$asses t#e t#rottle, t#e #ig#er t#e idle s$eed 'A" $alve

An acronym for 'lectric air control valve. %#is is t#e G( version of a diverter air gul$ valve, $roviding t#ree functions in a single valve t#e normal diverter valve function, i.e., it diverts air on ra$id increase in manifold vacuum) it relieves $ressure by diverting air to t#e air cleaner w#en t#e air in8ection system $ressure e1ceeds a certain set level) being solenoid-controlled, it allows air to be diverted under any desired o$erating mode Also 'A. valve 'agle .ee

"lic) image for boo)s on 'agle A brand of automobile w#ic# was a carry-over from t#e AM" 'agle and later $roduced by 2#rysler. &t included t#e following modelsM +agon (1377! (edallion (1377-1373! remier (1377-133,! -ista (1377-133,! 'ummit (1373-1336! %alon (1330-1337! ,000G%N (1331-133,! -ision (133>-1335!

'A(R Acronym for Electronic $econdary Air In/ection 'AMA Acronym for Egy!tian Automobile Manufacturers Association. 'ar A $ro8ection in t#e s#a$e of an ear, usually as a lug or su$$ort for ot#er com$onents suc# as t#e brac"ets w#ic# are $art of t#e for" cover and to w#ic# t#e #eadlig#t is mounted on a motorcycle. &t is also a s$oiler be#ind t#e rear windows to im$rove stability in side winds. Also .ee For) ear 'AR Acronym for estimated additional resources 'arles for)s 9ong leading-lin" motorcycle for"s, i.e., front sus$ension #as a $ivoting for" controlled by twin s#oc" absorbers. Eesigned by :rnie :arles, t#ey were used by many manufactures of motorcycles in t#e 1300s 'arly fuel evaporation system (:;:! A system t#at #eats t#e inlet manifold to $rovide a warm airDfuel mi1ture, reducing condensation and im$roving fuel eva$oration, t#us im$roving cold engine o$eration and reducing e1#aust emissions. An :;: system o$erated by engine e1#aust gas res$onds .uic"er to engine #eat-u$ t#an systems #eated by engine coolant) some :;: systems use an electric #eater in t#e inta"e duct 'arly termination A ve#icle=s de$reciation is #ig#est in t#e first few mont#s after it leaves t#e dealer=s lot. 'ince a lessee $ays for de$reciation in e.ual mont#ly $ayments, lessees w#o end a lease early #ave almost always used

u$ more of a car=s value t#an t#ey=ve $aid for. %#erefore, lease contracts generally include $enalties for early termination. Be aware of t#ese $enalties before you sign t#e lease contract and consider your ability to fulfill t#e contract. 'arnings .ee Average /ee)ly earnings 'ars on %ruc"er slang for 2B is turned on as in FAny smo"eys out t#ere wit# t#eir ears onGF 'arth Britis# term for 5roun* 'arth connection Britis# term for ground connection 'arth electro*e Britis# term for ground electrode 'arthmover .ee A-2 tire 'arth return Britis# term for 5roun* return 'arth strap Britis# term for 5roun* strap 'arth /ire Britis# term for 5roun* /ire. 'arth/or) :1cavating, ditc#ing, trenc#ing, bac"filling, emban"ment construction, grading, leveling, borrow, and ot#er eart#-moving wor" re.uired in t#e construction of t#e $ro8ect. 'A. Acronym for Electronic air sus!ension. &ntroduced in t#e 133> model year on certain <ange <over models furt#er to en#ance standards of road noise insulation, ride and #andling, t#e system substitutes air bags and a live-line $neumatic system, (i.e., an electrically

driven com$ressor, air $ressure reservoir and associated controls! for t#e steel coil s$rings used on t#e rest of t#e 9and <over model range. 9ogiccontrolled by an electronic control unit, #eig#t sensors and driver controls, t#e system maintains front and rear self-leveling in t#e five #eig#t modes listed below. %#ese notes s#ow t#e versatility of t#e system and t#e $ur$ose for w#ic# it was designed. ?owever, for t#e casual driver, new to t#e ve#icle, no $rior "nowledge or e1$ertise is re.uired) ;A' will cycle automatically t#roug# a$$ro$riate modes according to $rior $rogramming. %#e driver need not even "now :A' is fitted. Bn engine start-u$ :A' assumes t#e last selected ride #eig#t. 'asement Allows anot#er $erson t#e rig#t to use $rivate land for a s$ecific $ur$ose. %#e most usual easements are t#ose granted to $ublic utility com$anies to run lines on or under $rivate $ro$erty. Bt#er common easements are for storm drainage $i$es and ditc#es, for wal"ways, and for access roads. 'ase up on the accelerator %#e action of releasing t#e accelerator $artially or com$letely in order to reduce t#e amount of fuel entering t#e engine and t#us slow down t#e s$eed of t#e ve#icle. B$$osite of %epress the accelerator or .tep on the accelerator. 'ase up on the gas pe*al %#e action of releasing t#e gas $edal $artially or com$letely in order to reduce t#e amount of fuel entering t#e engine and t#us slow down t#e s$eed of t#e ve#icle. B$$osite of %epress the gas pe*al or .tep on the gas pe*al+. 'ase up on the throttle %#e action of releasing t#e twist-gri$ or t#rottle lever $artially or com$letely in order to reduce t#e amount of fuel entering t#e engine and t#us slow down t#e s$eed

of t#e ve#icle. B$$osite of 'ngaging the throttle or "ran)ing on the throttle+. 'ase up on the throttle pe*al %#e action of releasing t#e t#rottle $edal $artially or com$letely in order to reduce t#e amount of fuel entering t#e engine and t#us slow down t#e s$eed of t#e ve#icle. B$$osite of %epress the throttle pe*al or .tep on the throttle pe*al+. 'asing flui* enetrating oil 'aston American develo$er of #ig# .uality aluminum and carbon fiber !icycle $roducts. 'ast-/est layout %ransverse $ositioning of t#e engine across t#e car from left to rig#t, found in many front-w#eel drive designs. Also called &ransverse engine. %#e o$$osite is 9orth-south layout. 'A. $alve %#e valve in an emission control system governing t#e airflow from t#e air $um$ in connection wit# t#e :A2 valve. +#en its solenoid is energized, air is directed into t#e e1#aust $orts to increase o1idation and accelerate catalytic converter #eat-u$ to o$erating tem$erature, and w#en its solenoid is de-energized, it switc#es airflow between t#e converter beds to #el$ t#e o1idizing catalyst to decrease t#e 2B and ?2 levels 'asy access cab

'asy access cab A regular cab $ic"u$ wit# an e1tra fold-out section be#ind t#e door to allow you to #ave access to t#e t#ings be#ind t#e front seat. /nli"e an '#ten*e* cab, t#ere is no seating be#ind t#e front seat. 'asy out A brand name for a .cre/ e#tractor. 'asy-out A brand name for a .cre/ e#tractor. 'at %o corrode and remove t#e metal from a body $anel w#ic# #as been sub8ect to e1cessive rust 'at a/ay %#e effect of e1cessive rust w#ic# #as seriously corroded a body $anel so t#at t#ere is almost no original metal left 'at-em-up %ruc"er slang for %ruc" sto$ 2afe as in F&t=s been so long since & sto$$ed at t#e eat-em-u$ t#at my stomac# t#in"s my t#roat=s been slas#ed.F

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Fa"

Fa Fb Fc F* Fe Ff Fg Fh Fi Fl Fm
Fn F
1. Abbreviation for Fahrenheit. 2. Acronym for Fiel*

3. Acronym for Fiel* terminal F4

% Acronym for 'ull Time 'our Wheel rive Fabric (aterial made from te1tile or man-made fibers Fabricate %o ma"e, usually by a relatively com$le1 $rocess or from several $arts Fabric bo*y A sim$le form of lig#tweig#t bodywor" in w#ic# a water$roof, clot#-bac"ed material is stretc#ed over a wooden framewor" $o$ular around 13>0 and still used later by %4 and even after ++&& by 9loyd. Fabric fatigue A term used wit# tires w#ere t#e fabric degrades and results in tire cord brea"down due to re$eated fle1ing and #eat. Fabric hoo* A Britis# term for t#e fabric to$ of a convertible. Fabric top

A soft to$ for a convertible made from a te1tile (suc# as canvas! as o$$osed to vinyl Face
1. %o s#ave t#e outer edges of a !ottom brac)et

s#ell or t#e u$$er and lower ends of a Hea* tube to ma"e t#em $arallel wit# one anot#er and s.uare to t#e tube=s centerline. ,. %o mac#ine a flat surface $er$endicular to t#e a1is at rotation on a lat#e. >. %o remove metal from t#e end of a s#aft or t#e face of a larger $art, e.g., flyw#eel. 6. %#e front, visible, or wor"ing surface of a $art (suc# as a valve! or a tool (suc# as a #ammer!. Also .ee !earing face "am face "oncave /el* face %oor face Full face helmet 5rille face panel (nner attachment face Mechanical face seal Mi#er Face 0pen face helmet $alve face $alve seat face el* face Face cam A cam system in w#ic# t#e eccentrics are situated on t#e face of a rotating disc Face* .ee .pot Face* Face hammer .ee .oft face hammer Face helmet

.ee Full face helmet 0pen face helmet Facelift (inor styling modifications made by t#e manufacturer to a car model w#ic# may be a$$roac#ing t#e end of its useful life, intended to im$rove t#e a$$earance and t#us boost sales wit# minimum cost, including suc# features as restyled Hea*lights, larger tail lig#ts, added trim, altered grille, and s$oilers Facel $ega A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 1306-66 --7 models are Milestone cars. Face of /el* %#e e1$osed surface of t#e el*. Face panel .ee 5rille face panel Face seal .ee Mechanical face seal Facia A front $rotective $anel. Also s$elled fascia. Facing .ee "lutch facing Hinge facing ,oc) facing Fact Abbreviation for factory. Factor .ee !la*e Activity Factor !ul)ing Factor "asing factor "hill Factor "onsumer factors

%ea* freight factor Form Factor Horsepo/er-/eight factor ,agging -o/er Factor ,ea*ing -o/er Factor Money factor -itting factor -o/er Factor :uality Factor Reactivity A*6ustment Factor .afety factor .ervice Factor Factory a*6uste* 'omet#ing t#at is set by t#e manufacturer w#en t#e ve#icle was built and is not intended to be c#anged Factory options B$tional features w#ic# may be installed by t#e manufacturer u$on re.uest. Aftermar"et o$tions are t#ose w#ic# are installed by a garage or consumer after t#e ve#icle #as been built and delivered to t#e selling dealers#i$. Factory primer A -rimer coat a$$lied to new body $anels in t#e factory for $rotection during storage, w#ic# in some cases #as to be removed $rior to $ainting because of $aint com$atibility $roblems Factory racers <acing mac#ines built and o$erated by t#e manufacturer Fa*e A gradual reduction in efficiency. Also .ee !ra)e fa*e 5as fa*e Heat fa*e ,ining fa*e Mechanical fa*e ater fa*e

Fa*er A device w#ic# ad8usts t#e sound balance of front and rear s$ea"ers in a four-s$ea"er layout Fa*ing 1. A loss of brig#tness or color in a $aint finis#. 2. !ra)e fa*e Fahrenheit %#ermometer on w#ic# t#e !oiling point of water is ,1, degrees and t#e freezing $oint is >, degrees above zero. %o convert from ;a#ren#eit to 2elsius, subtract >, t#en multi$ly t#e result by 0 and divide by 3. %o convert from 2elsius to ;a#ren#eit, multi$ly by 3, t#en divide by 0. Aow add >, to t#e result. Fahrenheit scale Bn a ;a#ren#eit t#ermometer, under standard atmos$#eric $ressure, boiling $oint of water is ,1, degrees and freezing $oint is >, degrees above zero. Fail-safe control Eevice w#ic# o$ens a circuit w#en t#e sensing element loses its $ressure. Failsafe system A system w#ic# remains safe even w#en $art of it fails, suc# as a %ual-circuit bra)e system. Failure .ee !ra)e failure (ntercoat a*hesion failure .econ*ary failure Fair 1. %o add a Fairing to a body. ,. A ve#icle in restorable condition needing only minor wor" to get all com$onents wor"ing Fairing
1. A $rotective s#ell or enclosure at t#e front of a

motorcycle w#ic# may #ouse t#e Hea*lights and signal lig#ts. &t is designed to im$rove t#e

aerodynamic $erformance of t#e mac#ine andDor $rovide rider comfort and $rotection from t#e elements. %#ese range from sim$le le1iglasV s#ields to com$le1, encom$assing body $anels. ,. %#e $lastic s#ield mounted on t#e front of a roof rac" of a ve#icle w#ic# is designed to reduce wind noise and im$rove fuel economy. Fairlane

"lic) image for boo)s on For* Fairlane A model of automobile manufactured by ;ord Fairmont

A model of automobile manufactured by ;ord FA4

Acronym for 'reight of All >inds describing mi1ed general freig#t in t#e bac" of a truc" or trailer. Also see ,&, Falcon

A model of automobile manufactured by ;ord False air Any air lea" t#at introduces unmeasured air into t#e inta"e system between t#e airflow meter and t#e inta"e valves is false False neutral +#en you fail to engage gears and t#e transmission be#aves as t#oug# it is in neutral, even t#oug# it is not False flat An illusion w#ere t#e o$erator or $assengers in a motor ve#icle or on a bicycle or motorcycle su$$ose t#at t#e road is flat, but in reality t#ere is a slig#t climb. False/or) A tem$orary su$$orting framewor" for a structure during construction or demolition. Family car A car suitable for trans$orting a family, usually a fourdoor sedan, Hatchbac), or .tation /agon. &t is becoming more $o$ular for families to obtain a Minivan instead of a station wagon. Fan

Fan
1. A fan is a rotating device wit# curved blades li"e a

$ro$eller. %#e $rimary fan in a ve#icle is generally located be#ind t#e Ra*iator. 'ome electric fans may be $laced in front of t#e radiator. &t draws air t#roug# t#e radiator so t#at t#e "oolant loses its #eat t#roug# t#e fins of t#e radiator. &t is es$ecially needed w#en t#e ve#icle is idling or moving slowly. +#en t#e ve#icle moves .uic"ly, t#ere may be no need for t#e fan. &n some cases, t#e fan is automatically disengaged under t#ose circumstances. Aon-electric fans may be activated by a Fan belt driven by t#e engine, w#ile electric fans are $owered by t#e electrical system inde$endent of t#e engine itself. 2. Bt#er fans are located t#roug#out t#e ve#icle to $us# air from one location to anot#er, es$ecially for #eating and $entilation. >. <adial or a1ial flow device used for moving or $roducing flow of gases. 6. %#e $attern emitted by a $aint s$ray gun.

Also

!lo/er !ooster "ooling 'vaporator Heater Ra*iator Ra*iator fan motor


Fan belt A fle1ible

Fan Fan fan Fan fan fan

.ee

rubber belt t#at connects various "omponents in t#e engine com$artment, i.e., Alternator, ater pump, 'mission controls, -o/er steering pump, and Air con*itioner "ompressor. Also called %rive belt or .erpentine

Fan bla*e A $art of t#e fan $ro8ecting at an angle from t#e central #ub, w#ic# draws t#e air t#roug# t#e radiator Fan clutch A $iscous (fluid! drive cou$ling device connected to t#e center of t#e fan to $ermit variable engine fan s$eeds in relation to engine s$eeds. %#e "lutch engages and disengages t#e fan according to t#e engine tem$erature t#roug# a t#ermostat Fan-coole* enclosure An electric motor #ousing t#at includes an integral fan to blow cooling air over t#e motor. &t may be &otally enclose* or '#plosion-proof Fan cooling A ty$e of air cooling w#ere a blower is res$onsible for trans$orting t#e amount of air re.uired for t#e cooling of t#e engine $ast t#e cooling fins, w#ic# in turn dissi$ate t#e #eat stored in t#em to t#e current of air flowing $ast t#em

belt

Fangle* 9ut .ee Hea*set .tar Fangle* 9ut Fan motor .ee Ra*iator fan motor Fanning %#e use of air $ressure t#roug# a s$ray gun to s$eed u$ t#e drying of -rimer or $aint -- t#is is not recommended Fan pulley A $ulley on t#e #ub of t#e radiator fan on w#ic# its driving belt runs Fara* /nit of electrical ca$acity) ca$acity of a condenser w#ic#, w#en c#arged wit# one coulomb of electricity, gives difference of $otential of one volt. Fara*ay e#periment 'ilver c#loride absorbs ammonia w#en cool and releases it w#en #eated. %#is is basis on w#ic# some absor$tion refrigerators o$erate. Fare/ell tour A year-long tribute or celebration for a retiring driver and #is racing fans. Farman A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic car. Farm gasoline Gasoline t#at #as been mi1ed wit# an identifying dye (usually $ur$le! and sold for less in order to #el$ farmers. &n most $laces w#ere t#is is $racticed, it is illegal to use farm gasoline in non-farm ve#icles. Also called !ur!le gas Farm out An action by a re$air s#o$ to send some re$air wor" to a s$ecialty s#o$. ;or instance you mig#t bring your car to t#e s#o$ for an engine tune-u$ and to re$lace a

bro"en winds#ield. %#e s#o$ can #andle t#e tune-u$, but will farm out t#e winds#ield re$air to a glass s#o$. Farm -ro*ucts cargo %ruc" content of un$rocessed items w#ic# were grown in or $roduced from agricultural activity on a farm or in a garden, nursery, or orc#ard. Articles manufactured or $rocessed from t#ese commodities are not included in t#is category. Farm &ractor A low-s$eed #ig#-tor.ue ve#icle used in farming. %y$ically wit# two small front w#eels and two large rear w#eels. Eesigned to $ull ot#er com$onents in farming. &n contrast wit# a &ruc) tractor Farm use etroleum $roducts sales for use on t#e farm including use in tractors, irrigation $um$s, ot#er agricultural mac#inery, etc.! FAR. Acronym for Fatality Analysis Reporting .ystem o$erated by t#e 9H&.A Fatality Analysis Reporting .ystem (;A<'! o$erated by t#e 9H&.A Farthing .ee -enny-farthing FA. Acronym for free alongside shi! Fascia Also s$elled facia. 1. A front $rotective $anel usually located below t#e !umper. ,. &n Britain it is t#e instrument $anel. Fast .ee ,ight-fast

Fastbac)

Fastbac) A design of car w#ere t#e roof gently slo$es to t#e rear end of t#e car. Any automobile wit# a long, moderately curving, downward slo$e to t#e rear of t#e roof. %#is body style relates to an interest in streamlining and aerodynamics and #as gone in and out of fas#ion at various times. 'ome ((ustangs for one! #ave grown .uite $o$ular. Bt#ers #ave tended to turn customers off. 2ertain fastbac"s are, tec#nically, two-door sedans or $illared cou$es. ;our-door fastbac"s #ave also been $roduced. (any of t#ese (suc# as Buic"=s late 1350s four-door 2entury sedan! lac"ed sales a$$eal. ;astbac"s may or may not #ave a rear-o$ening #atc#. Also .ee

&/o-*oor fastbac)

Fast charger A battery c#arger w#ic# can c#arge a battery at a rate of 60 am$s or more, used by garages and battery su$$liers Fastener Also ,ift-the-*ot 9ylon .nap fastener Fastener length .ee ,ength of Fastener Fast foo* freezing (et#od t#at uses li.uid nitrogen or carbon turn fres# food into long lasting frozen food. .ee fastener fastener

dio1ide to &t is often

referred to as cryogenic food freezing and freeze drying. Fast i*le +#en t#e engine is cold, it needs to run faster to "ee$ it from stalling. A cam on t#e "arburetor forces t#e &hrottle o$en a little more w#en t#e "ho)e is engaged. Fast i*le cam A cam in a "arburetor w#ic# o$ens t#e t#rottle slig#tly w#en t#e c#o"e is broug#t into o$eration, eit#er automatically or mec#anically Fast i*le scre/ A screw on a "arburetor for ad8usting t#e s$eed of t#e fast idle Fast i*le solenoi* A .olenoi* o$erating in con8unction wit# an automatic c#o"e to o$en t#e t#rottle slig#tly w#en t#e c#o"e is in o$eration Fast lane %#e outside lane (far left lane in Aort# America, etc. or t#e far rig#t lane in Britain, Australia, etc.!. Also called t#e !assing lane FA. value Acronym for 'ree alongside shi! value. %#e value of a commodity at t#e $ort of e1$ortation, generally including t#e $urc#ase $rice $lus all c#arges incurred in $lacing t#e commodity alongside t#e carrier at t#e $ort of e1$ortation in t#e country of e1$ortation. Fathom A measure of lengt#, e.uivalent to 6 linear feet, used for de$t#s of water and lengt#s of anc#or c#ain Fatigue A condition of a material, es$ecially a metal, causing loss of elasticity and tendency to fracture after long or re$eated stress, even t#oug# t#e stress may be less t#an t#at w#ic# would cause failure under static conditions.

Also .ee Fabric fatigue Metal fatigue Fatigue corrosion A condition caused by re$eated stress in a corrosive atmos$#ere. Fatigue life +#en a metal com$onent is sub8ected to re$eated bending or service action it will eventually brea". %#e number of bends is its fatigue life. Fatigue limit %#e ma1imum stress t#at a material can endure for an infinite number of stress cycles wit#out brea"ing Fatigue resistance %#e ma1imum stress t#at a material can endure for a given time wit#out brea"ing Fatigue strength 1. %#e ma1imum stress t#at a material can endure for a given time wit#out brea"ing ,. %#e stress to w#ic# a metal can be sub8ected for a s$ecified number of cyclic c#anges of stress. >. %#e endurance of a fastener s#owing t#e load it can acce$t wit#out brea"ing under re$eated load cycles. Fatigue test A test on a material to determine t#e range of stress it will stand wit#out failing, by sub8ecting it to ra$idly varying stresses to establis# its fatigue limit Fat loa* %ruc"er slang for overload, carrying more weig#t t#an local state law allows as in FBetter not be running at fat load, cause t#e coo$s are o$en and c#ec"ing ground $ressure t#is morning.F Fault A defect w#ic# is eit#er in#erent in t#e ve#icle as built (manufacturing fault! or w#ic# occurs during running.

Also .ee (ntermittent fault 9o fault insurance Fault co*es .ee &rouble co*e Fault *iagnosis %#e tracing of faults or error codes w#ic# can be determined by t#e in-built diagnostic system and an engine analyzer Fault insurance .ee 9o fault insurance Fault memory A $art of t#e electronic control unit and of t#e diagnostic system t#at stores error codes to assist t#e mec#anic in diagnosing $roblems. Fault rea*er A device used in con8unction wit# t#e ve#icle=s diagnostic system, $roviding a read-out of status of t#e various com$onents Faying surface %#e inner mating or contacting surfaces of a 8oint) common area of two surfaces t#at are bonded toget#er wit# an A*hesive DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ga"

5a 5c 5* 5e 5h 5i 5l 5m

5n 5o 5p 5r 5s 5t 5u 5v 5/
5y g A unit of measurement for ,ateral acceleration, or road-holding. Bne g is e.uivalent to 371 cm (>,., feet! $er second every second, t#e rate at w#ic# any ob8ect accelerates w#en dro$$ed at sea level. &f a car were cornering at 1.0 g -- a figure t#at very few $roduction cars are able to a$$roac# -- t#e driver=s body would be $us#ing e.ually #ard against t#e side of t#e seat as against t#e bottom of it. (ost fast sedans accelerate about 0.7 g. 'even industrial countries consisting of t#e /nited 'tates, Ja$an, Germany, ;rance, t#e /nited @ingdom, &taly and 2anada, w#ose leaders #ave met at annual economic summits since 1350 to coordinate economic $olicies. 5A Acronym for ?age or ?auge 5age A standard 'A: designation of wire sizes, e1$ressed in A+G (American +ire Gage!. %#e larger t#e gage number, t#e smaller t#e wire. (etric wire sizes are e1$ressed in cross-sectional area, w#ic# is e1$ressed in s.uare millimeters. 'ometimes t#e s$elling gauge is also used to designate wire size. ?owever, it is becoming standard to use gage for wire size and

57

gauge for instruments. Americans often use gage for


instruments. 5age tubing .ee -lain gauge tubing 5ain .ee Available -o/er 5ain -rocessing 5ain .teering gain 5ain "ontrol .ee Automatic 5ain "ontrol Automatic :uiet 5ain "ontrol 5aiter A dust boot 5al+ Abbreviation for gallon. A /' gallon (>.5706> liters! (,>1 cubic inc#es! is ,04 smaller t#an an &m$erial gallon (6.06603 liters!. 5ala#ie

5A,FA9G A trademar" for a s$ecial ty$e of #ot-di$ galvanized steel s#eet wit# a coating consisting of a zinc alloy containing 04 aluminum and rare eart#s 5allery A "hannel or tube usually found wit#in t#e engine bloc" for t#e transfer of fluid or gas.

Also see 'ngine 0il 5allery 0il 5allery 5alling A condition t#at ta"es $lace w#en two metals or fasteners stic" toget#er and cannot be easily loosened. &n tig#tening fasteners, for e1am$le, $ressure builds on t#reads as metals rub against eac# ot#er, and t#e $assive film $reventing corrosion on stainless may not form due to lac" of o1ygen. Also called 'eizing 5allon A /' gallon (>.570 liters! is ,04 smaller t#an an (mperial gallon (6.066 liters!. Also see (mperial 5allon Miles -er 5allon .tan*ar* >+.+ 5allon >+.+ -etroleum 5allon 5alvalumeG %rademar" for a s$ecial ty$e of #ot-di$ galvanized steel s#eet wit# a coating consisting of 004 aluminum, 6>.64 zinc and 1.64 silicon 5alvanic 2oncerned wit# an electrical current 5alvanic action +asting away of two unli"e metals due to electrical current $assing between t#em. %#e action is increased in t#e $resence of moisture. 5alvanic cell 2ell w#ic# converts c#emical energy into electrical energy by irreversible c#emical reactions 5alvanic corrosion 1. 2orrosion due to t#e action of a galvanic cell. ,. An accelerated degree of corrosion occurring w#en two different metals are in contact wit# moisture, $articularly sea water. All metals #ave w#at is termed a s$ecific electric $otential, so t#at low level electric current flows from one metal to

anot#er. A metal wit# a #ig#er $osition in t#e galvanic series will corrode sacrificially rat#er t#an one wit# a lower $osition, meaning stainless, for e1am$le, will corrode before gold. %#e furt#er a$art t#e metals on t#e c#art, t#e more electric current will flow and t#e more corrosion will occur. Ao serious galvanic action will occur by combining t#e same metals, only dissimilar ones. %o $revent galvanic corrosion, use insulation, $aint, or coatings w#en se$arating dissimilar metals) or $ut t#e metal to be $rotected ne1t to a metal w#ic# is not im$ortant in t#e assembly, so it can corrode sacrificially. (etals listed first will corrode due to galvanic reaction before t#ose at end of $aragra$#M magnesium, zinc, aluminum 1100, cadmium, aluminum ,0,6, steel and iron, lead, tin brass, co$$er, bronze, monel, >06 and >16 stainless ($assive!, silver, titanium, gra$#ite, gold. Also see !imetallic corrosion 5alvanize %#e action of $lating wit# zinc andDor lead by #ot di$$ing or 'lectro*eposition to $rotect from rust. Also .ee Hot-*ip galvanize 5alvanize* bo*y .ee Fully galvanize* bo*y 5alvanize* coating Oinc or zinc based coating a$$lied by galvanizing 5alvanize *ifferentially %#e action of obtaining different coating t#ic"nesses on t#e two sides of t#e s#eet of iron. 5alvanizing %#e a$$lication of zinc coatings on t#e surface of a metal, by #ot di$$ing or 'lectro*eposition.

Also .ee "ol* galvanizing %ry galvanizing 'lectrolytic galvanizing High-buil* galvanizing Mechanical plating Rac) galvanizing .pin galvanizing et galvanizing 5alvanizing bath A bat# for #ot-di$ galvanizing or 'lectrogalvanizing 5alvannealing A t#ermal $rocess w#ic# gives im$roved ad#esion to #ot-di$ galvanized steel s#eets 5alvanometer An instrument used to measure t#e $ressure, amount of, and direction of an electric "urrent. Also see !allistic 5alvanometer 5amma layer art of t#e zinc-iron alloy layer on #ot-di$ galvanized iron and steel containing ,1-,74 iron 5ang/ay A narrow #anging staircase used by $ersons entering or leaving a vessel from t#e $ier or boat 5antry

5antry

1. A structure wit# an over#ead beam, used for

lifting out an engine. 2om$are 'ngine hoist. ,. Bver#ead steel structures across t#e #ig#way to #old u$ a traffic sign

5ap 1. %#e distance between t#e center terminal ('lectro*e! and t#e outer terminal ('lectro*e! t#roug# w#ic# t#e .par) must travel in a .par) plug. Also

.par) Air gap+


2. %#e distance

plug
t#e $oints in

gap
contact .ee

.ee

between !rea)er points. Also

-oint gap+

>. %#e distance between two ve#icles traveling down t#e road as t#ey go in t#e same direction. Generally a safe distance is a minimum of two seconds be#ind t#e ve#icle in front. 4. %#e distance between t#e two ends of -iston rings. Also Air Alignment Annular !an* !uncher "ontact %oor .ee gap 5ap gap 5ap 5ap gap gap

brea)er

'lectro*e gap -iston ring en* gap -oint gap -oints gap Ring gap .par) air gap .par) gap .par) plug gap .urface gap 5ap bri*ging A formation of carbon or ot#er de$osits across t#e .par) plug gap w#ic# s#orts out t#e $lug 5ap coil tester .ee .par) gap coil tester 5ap insurance %#is covers you against additional losses not covered by your auto insurance in t#e case of an accident in w#ic# t#e ve#icle is totaled. (ost auto insurance will cover t#e actual cas# value of t#e ve#icle and w#at is owed on t#e lease contract, including early termination fees. Ga$ insurance is most im$ortant in t#e early years of a lease w#en t#e difference between t#e value of t#e car and w#at is owed are greatest. 'ome manufacturers now include Ga$ insurance in t#eir leases. 5apper A device for determining t#e distance between two metal contacts. Also .ee Feeler gauge+ 5apping Ad8usting t#e distance between t#e 'lectro*es of a .par) plug or t#e $oints of contact !rea)er points. Also .ee -lug gapping+ 5ap spar) plug

.ee .urface gap spar) plug 5ap style %#e arrangement or s#a$e of t#e s$ar" $lug electrodes 5arage 1. A building in w#ic# a motor ve#icle is "e$t. ,. %#e $remises on w#ic# motor ve#icles are re$aired or serviced andDor w#ere fuel is sold. >. %o "ee$ in a garage 5arage* A reference to a ve#icle w#ic# is "e$t in a garage, as in My car is al#ays garaged. %#e abbreviation in advertisements is gar=d. 5arage 6ac) A $owerful #ydraulic 8ac" used in garages 5arages .ee Morris 5arages 5arbage %ruc"er slang for !roduce (bananas, lettuce etc.! as in F& sure am glad &=m not ta"in= t#is load of garbage to ?unt=s oint.F 5arbage truc) A cargo body style often wit# #ydraulic $ac"ing mec#anisms or #ydraulic arms for lifting dum$sters. &ncluded are roll-offs, ve#icles used for trans$orting refuse containers. <oll-offs #ave rails or a flat bed and a #oist for loading and unloading t#e refuse container. Also called refuse truc) 5arbage /agon A scornful term used by some outlaw bi"ers to describe a &ouring motorcycle 5arboar* stra)e %#e stra"e of bottom s#ell $lating ad8acent to t#e "eel $late. 5ar2*

An abbreviation used in classified advertisements for

garaged

5ar*en gate A nic"name for t#e $lunger-s$rung frames used on Aorton motorcycles from t#e late 13>0s 5arnish mol*ing %#e u$$er molding on a door $anel used to retain t#e door trim $anel to t#e door assembly Also see %oor 5arnish Mol*ing 5arter spring A long, t#in coil s$ring wit# ends 8oined to form a ring. 5as 1. A va$or #aving no $articles or dro$lets of li.uid. &n $#ysics, a gas is a substance w#ic# $ossesses $erfect molecular mobility and, unli"e a li.uid or a solid, t#e ability to e1$and indefinitely ,. A non-solid material. &t can be com$ressed. +#en #eated, it will e1$and) and w#en cooled, it will contract (suc# as air.! Also

Hot gas (nert gas system

/el*ing

.ee

3. A common term for 5asoline. %#e Britis# term is !etrol. Also

>nlea*e* gas
4. A term for 9 G or -ropane. Also

.ee

!ottle* "ompresse* 0#ygen-,0#yhy*rogen gas

natural gas

gas gas flame

.ee

5. A term referring to t#e '#haust gases. Also

'#haust 'n* '#haust '#haust '#haust '#haust Ra/ .pent gas

gas gas recirculation gas analyzer gas purification system gas e#haust gas

.ee emissions+

6. A non-solid, non-li.uid combustible energy source t#at includes natural gas, co"e-oven gas, blastfurnace gas, and refinery gas. 5. ;uel gas, suc# as natural gas, undiluted li.uefied $etroleum gases (va$or $#ase only!, li.uefied $etroleum gas-air mi1tures, or mi1tures of t#ese gases. 7. %o a$$ly t#e t#rottle. Also %epress the gas 'ase up on the gas -umping the gas pe*al Also Associate*-%issolve* 9atural !iomass %elivere* %ry 9atural '#haust Flash 5reenhouse Hot ,an*fill ,i8uefie* 9atural ,i8uefie* -etroleum .ee pe*al pe*al see 5as 5as 5as 5as 5ases 5as 5ases 5as 5as 5as 5as

,i8uefie* ,o/ Manufacture* 9ative 9atural 9onassociate* 9oncon*ensable 9onhy*rocarbon 9on-Methane -rocesse* Ra*iatively Refinery Reformate Resi*ual Resi*ue .alable .our .till ./eet .ynthetic >nprocesse* $ent et 9atural 5as 5as Act .ee 9atural 5as Act 5asahol .ee 5asohol 5as-Air Mi#ture .ee ,p 5as-Air Mi#ture 5as analyzer .ee '#haust gas analyzer 5as-arc .ee (nert gas-arc /el*ing

Refinery !&>

9atural 0rganic Active '#haust 9atural

9atural

5ases 5as 5as 5as 5as 5as 5as 5ases 5ases 5as 5ases 5as 5as 5ases 5as 5as 5as 5as 5as 5as 5as 5ases

5as-arc /el*ing .ee (nert gas-arc /el*ing 5as Association .ee "ana*ian 5as Association 5as !affle .ee ,oa*-!earing Flue 5as !affle 9on-,oa*-!earing Flue 5as !affle 5as burner 2om$etition ve#icle wit# engine set u$ to o$erate on standard $um$ gasoline instead of an Alcohol, nitro, etc., mi1ture. Also called gasser. 5as-burner .ystem .ee Atmospheric 5as-burner .ystem 5as !ypass .ee Hot 5as !ypass 5as cap

5as cap A vented covering on t#e to$ of t#e tube leading to t#e fuel tan". Also called fuel ca!.

5as chamber A $ressure c#amber of a single-tube s#oc" absorber 5as "hec) $alve .ee '#haust 5as "hec) $alve 5as cleanup <emoval of a contaminant from gaseous feed streams by a mec#anical or c#emical $rocess. 5as *amper A gas s#oc" absorber 5as %efrost .ee Hot 5as %efrost 5as *ischarge hea*light A motor ve#icle Hea*light wit# a gas disc#arge lam$ 5as *ischarge lamp A disc#arge lam$ in w#ic# lig#t is generated by gas disc#arge 5as *ischarge light A disc#arge lig#t in w#ic# lig#t is generated by gas disc#arge 5as-*riven generator A generator w#ic# turned by a gas engine. 5aseous <eferring to gas 5aseous *ischarge lamp A gas disc#arge lam$ 5aseous *ischarge hea*light A 5as *ischarge light 5ases .ee "F" gases '#haust gases 5reenhouse gases Resi*ual e#haust gases

5ases in !ul) cargo ressurized tan"er item. :1am$lesM Aerosol $ro$ellant, butane, 2B,, 9 G, nitrogen, and $ro$ane. 5as fa*e Bra"e fade caused by #ot gases and dust $articles t#at reduce friction between t#e bra"e linings and drum or rotor under #ard, $rolonged bra"ing 5as filter A device for screening t#e 5asoline to remove t#e im$urities. Also .ee Fuel filter+ 5as flame .ee 0#ygen-,- gas flame 5as flo/ %#e flow of t#e airDfuel mi1ture or t#e e1#aust gases in an engine 5as Force*-air .ee Heat -ipe 5as Force*-air 5as force*-air heat pipe ?ig# efficiency gas furnace t#at uses vertical li.uid filled $i$es. %#e $i$es are #eated by a burner at t#eir base, and t#e li.uid boils and va$orizes wit#in t#e $i$e. %#e furnace blower circulates air over t#e $i$es for #eating. 5as Furnace .ee High 'fficiency 5as Furnace 5as gage .ee 5as gauge+ 5as gauge An instrument, usually located on t#e %ashboar* or center console, w#ic# indicates t#e amount of fuel in t#e Fuel tan). (ost gauges #ave a 9ee*le w#ic#

fluctuates between E (em$ty! and ' (full!. Bt#ers s#ow a digital readout of #ow many gallons or liters left in t#e tan". Also called fuel gauge. 5as guzzler A ve#icle w#ic# uses a lot of gasoline $er distance traveled. 5as Hy*rates .ee 9atural 5as Hy*rates 5asification A met#od for converting coal, $etroleum, biomass, wastes, or ot#er carbon-containing materials into a gas t#at can be burned to generate $ower or $rocessed into c#emicals and fuels. 5as)et

5as)et A material made of Asbestos, cardboard, cor", $a$er, rubber, or soft metal $laced between two metal $arts to insure $ro$er sealing. Also .ee

!ase !lo/n Foam Hea* Hollo/-tube ,i8ui*

hea*

gas)et gas)et 5as)et gas)et 5as)et gas)et

Magnetic 0il pan Reservoir %iaphragm Roc)er cover .him-type Hea* $alve cover gas)et

5as)et gas)et 5as)et gas)et 5as)ets

5as)etC foam Joint sealing material made of rubber or $lastic foam stri$s. 5as)et )it A collection of gas"ets re.uired to over#aul an engine or $art of an engine. Also .ee !ottom en* gas)et )it "arburetor )it &op en* gas)et )it 5as)et punch A tool used to cut out #oles in a s#eet of gas"et material to s#a$e a gas"et to size. 5as)et scraper

5as)et scraper A scra$er wit# a s#ar$ c#isel edge for removing old gas"et material from a surface before installing a new gas"etT 5as ,i8ui*s .ee 9atural 5as ,i8ui*s 5as metal-arc /el*ing

+elding using a continuously fed consumable electrode and a s#ielding gas. Also called sigma #elding. 5asC noncon*ensable Gas w#ic# will not form into a li.uid under t#e o$erating $ressure-tem$erature conditions. 5asohol A blend of 5asoline and et#anol Alcohol or met#anol t#at usually is 30 to 36.>4 5asoline and 0.5 to 104 et#anol. %#is term was used in t#e late 1350s and early 1370s but #as been largely re$laced by terms suc# as :10, 'u$er /nleaded lus :t#anol or /nleaded lus :t#anol. :t#anol is t#e Alcohol found in into1icating beverages. &t may attac" rubber and $lastic $arts of Fuel systems not designed to #andle alco#ol-blended fuels, but it is not $oisonous to #uman beings li"e wood alco#ol or Methanol. 5as oil :uro$ean and Asian designation for Ao. , #eating oil and Ao. , diesel fuel. Also see Automotive 5as 0il ,ight 5as 0ils 5asoil Eesignation for Ao., #eating oils and diesel fuels. A clean distillate fuel oil. 5asoline A Hy*rocarbon fuel used in an (nternal combustion engine. Gasoline is refined from crude oil w#ic# is made u$ of fossilized $lant and animal remains. &n Britain it is called !etrol. Also .ee Aviation 5asoline "asing Hea* 5asoline 'thyl gasoline ,ea*-free gasoline ,ea*e* gasoline ,ea*e* -remium 5asoline

Mi*gra*e 5asoline Motor 5asoline 9atural 5asoline 0#ygenate* gasoline -remium gasoline -ump gasoline -urple 5asoline Reformulate* gasoline Regular gasoline Regular 5ra*e 5asoline >nlea*e* gasoline >nlea*e* Mi*gra*e 5asoline >nlea*e* -remium 5asoline >nlea*e* Regular 5asoline 5asoline An* (sopentane .ee 9atural 5asoline An* (sopentane 5asoline !len*ing .ee Motor 5asoline !len*ing 5asoline blen*ing components 9aphthas w#ic# will be used for blending or com$ounding into finis#ed aviation or motor gasoline (e.g., straig#t-run gasoline, Al)ylate, Reformate, !enzene, &oluene, and Dylene!. :1cludes o1ygenates (alco#ols, et#ers!, !utane, and

-entanes plus

Also see Motor 5asoline !len*ing "omponents 5asoline gra*es %#e classification of gasoline by octane ratings. :ac# ty$e of gasoline (conventional, o1ygenated, and reformulated! is classified by t#ree grades - <egular, (idgrade, and remium. AoteM Gasoline sales are re$orted by grade in accordance wit# t#eir classification at t#e time of sale. &n general, automotive octane re.uirements are lower at #ig# altitudes. %#erefore, in

some areas of t#e /nited 'tates, suc# as t#e <oc"y (ountain 'tates, t#e octane ratings for t#e gasoline grades may be , or more octane $oints lower. 1. <egular gasolineM Gasoline #aving an anti"noc" inde1, i.e., octane rating, greater t#an or e.ual to 70 and less t#an 77. AoteM Bctane re.uirements may vary by altitude. ,. (idgrade gasolineM Gasoline #aving an anti"noc" inde1, i.e., octane rating, greater t#an or e.ual to 77 and less t#an or e.ual to 30. AoteM Bctane re.uirements may vary by altitude. >. remium gasolineM Gasoline #aving an anti"noc" inde1, i.e., octane rating, greater t#an 30. AoteM Bctane re.uirements may vary by altitude. 5asoline (n6ection .ee 'lectronic 5asoline (n6ection 5asoline -rices .ee Retail Motor 5asoline -rices 5asoline pump A device w#ic# $ulls fuel from an underground storage tan" into a ve#icle=s 5as tan). 5as 0#ygen .ensor .ee '#haust 5as 0#ygen .ensor Heate* '#haust 5as 0#ygen .ensor 5as pe*al %#e device actuated by t#e o$erator=s foot for increasing or decreasing t#e amount of fuel entering t#e "ombustion chamber. Also called throttle !edal or accelerator. Also .ee Accelerator %epress the gas pe*al 'ase up on the gas pe*al -umping the gas pe*al

5as 5as 5as 5as 5as

.tep on the gas pe*al &a)e foot off the gas pe*al poc)ets 2avities in weld metal caused by tra$$ed gas. -olicy Act 0f 3K7F .ee 9atural 5as -olicy Act 0f 3K7F pressure regulator A device for controlling a selected outlet gas $ressure. prop A gas-assisted strut li"e a #atc# strut, #ood strut, or tailgate strut pump

5as pump A device at a .ervice station w#ic# $ulls gasoline from a storage tan" (usually located underground! into t#e ve#icle=s 5as tan). 2ommercial units also record t#e amount of fuel dis$ensed as well as t#e cost. 5as purification .ee '#haust gas purification system 5as -urification .ystem

.ee '#haust 5as -urification .ystem 5as recirculation .ee '#haust gas recirculation 5as Recirculation .ystem .ee '#haust 5as Recirculation .ystem 5as Recirculation $alve .ee '#haust 5as Recirculation $alve 5asser A ve#icle w#ic# burns normal 5asoline instead of racing fuel. Also .ee 5as burner+ 5as shoc) A gas-assisted s#oc" absorber 5as shoc) absorber A gas-assisted s#oc" absorber 5assing %#e small #ydrogen bubbles rising to t#e to$ of t#e !attery 'lectrolyte during !attery charging. 5as spring A $ressurized, nitrogen-filled s$#ere, used in ?ydragas and #ydro$neumatic sus$ension systems 5as station A $lace w#ere gasoline is dis$ensed. 5as system .ee (nert gas system 5as tan)

5as tan) %#e container for #olding or storing fuel. Also called Fuel tan). 5as-tight 'ealed to $revent t#e $assage of gas 5as to li8ui* (G%9! A $rocess t#at combines t#e carbon and #ydrogen elements in natural gas molecules to ma"e synt#etic li.uid $etroleum $roducts, suc# as diesel fuel. 5as &ube .ystem .ee -erimeter Hot 5as &ube .ystem 5as tungsten-arc /el*ing +elding using a tungsten electrode and a s#ielding gas. 5as turbine

5as &urbine An internal-combustion rotating engine wit# one main moving $art t#e Rotor wit# $inw#eel-li"e blades

attac#ed. Air is com$ressed by t#e first rows of blades and delivered to t#e combustion c#ambers, from w#ic# t#e e1#aust is directed to $ass t#e remaining blades and to generate t#e $ower. ower is e1tremely smoot# due to t#e absence of e1$losions and Reciprocating $arts. 5as turbine 'ngine .ee 5as turbine 5as valve Eevice in a $i$eline for starting, sto$$ing, or regulating flow of gas. 5as $ehicle .ee 9atural 5as $ehicle 5as vent A $assageway, com$osed of listed factory-built com$onents assembled in accordance wit# t#e terms of listing, for conveying flue gases from gas utilization e.ui$ment or t#eir vent connectors to t#e outside atmos$#ere. 5as /el*ing A welding $rocess widely used in body re$air s#o$s (now being gradually re$laced by (&G welding!. Also called o1yacetylene welding. Also .ee Hot gas /el*ing Metal (nert 5as el*ing 5ate 1. %#e slotted guide for t#e 5earshift of an (nternal combustion engine. ,. %#e slotted guides in a s#ift drum. 3. A &ailgate. Also Anchor .ee 5ate

!alance 5ate 5ar*en 5ate 7 gate transmission shifter .hift gate &e#as gate aste gate 5ate transmission .ee 7 gate transmission shifter 5ate transmission shifter .ee 7 gate transmission shifter 5ating A device t#at $ermits a wave to $ass anot#er wave in a circuit in s$ecific intervals 5A&& Acronym for 5eneral Agreement on &ariffs an* &ra*e. 5auge %#is is t#e Britis# and 2anadian s$elling w#ile in t#e /nited 'tates it is sometimes s$elled wit#out t#e u (gage!. &t is becoming standard to use gage for wire size and gauge for an instrument. 1. An instrument or meter t#at registers t#e .uantity of a substance Also

Ammeter Au#iliary !oost !o/*en Fuel 5as Hy*rostatic (n-*ash ,o/-pressure ,o/

.ee

.i*e

5auge gauge 5auge gauge gauge 5auge gauge 5auge 5auge

0il 0il level 0il pressure 0il temperature 0ut*oor &emperature 0utsi*e temperature -oun*s -er .8uare (nch &emperature &urbo $acuum $oltmeter ater temperature gauge

gauge gauge gauge gauge 5auge gauge 5auge gauge gauge gauge

2. A tool for measuring "learances, $ressures, sizes, etc. Also

A*6usting ! ? . !eta &hic)ness !irmingham !irmingham ire !ri*ge .tan*ar* ire !roa* !ro/n an* .harpe !uc)ley "aliper "ompression "ompression %epth %ial %isc bra)e %raft Feeler Frame

ire

gauge gauge 5auge 5auge 5auge 5auge 5auge 5auge 5auge 5auge gauge gauge tester gauge gauge gauge 5auge gauge gauge

.ee

High-pressure (gnition Micron -ressure .cre/ pitch .ighting point .par) plug .tep Feeler &hrottle &ire &ire pressure &ram &rea* *epth $ernier heel alignment gauge
>. A measurement of tubing. Also -lain gauge tubing

5auge gauge 5auge 5auge gauge gauge gauge 5auge gauge gauge gauge gauge gauge gauge

.ee

5auge bo# A container w#ic# measures a "nown .uantity of material suc# as cement, sand, or roc"s for testing or ma"ing mi1tures 5augeC compoun* &nstrument for measuring $ressures bot# above and below atmos$#eric $ressure. 5augeC high-pressure &nstrument for measuring $ressures in range of 0 $sia to 000 $sia (101.> " a to >600 " a!. 5augeC lo/-pressure &nstrument for measuring $ressures in range of 0 $sia to 00 $sia 10 " a to >00 " a. 5augeC manifol*

1. 2#amber device constructed to #old bot# com$ound and #ig#-$ressure gauges. -alves control flow of fluids t#roug# it. 2. %#e one essential diagnostic tool re.uired for every air conditioner service $rocedure. A ty$ical gauge set includes #ig# and low side gauges and valves for c#ec"ing, measuring and controlling $ressure and vacuum, and a t#ird valve for controlling disc#arging, evacuation and c#arging $rocedures. Also called gauge set 5auge port B$ening or connection $rovided for a service tec#nician to install a gauge. 5augeC pressure <eading in $ounds $er s.uare inc# ($si! above atmos$#eric $ressure. 5auge set .ee 5augeC manifol* 5auge tubing .ee -lain gauge tubing 5augeC vacuum &nstrument used to measure $ressures below atmos$#eric $ressure. 5auntlet A long-sleeved leat#er glove used by motorcyclists to $revent was$s from flying u$ t#e sleeve, as one did to me. 5A R Acronym for ?ross A(le Weight Rating -(a1imum weig#t an a1le is rated to carry by t#e manufacturer. &ncludes bot# t#e weig#t of t#e a1le and t#e $ortion of a ve#icle=s weig#t carried by t#e a1le. 5aylor* A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 1300-05 models are Milestone cars.

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ha"

Hz H
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate t#at t#ey are

t#eoretically rated for .pee*s u$ to ,10 "$# (1>0 m$#!, as in .1@A%R1B. %#e ne1t #ig#er rating is $ and t#e one lower rating is &. 2. 'ystWme &nternational ('&! symbol for Henry 3. 'ymbol for Hy*rogen H20 Acronym for Water Habits .ee %riving habits HA" Acronym for %igh Altitude -om!ensator Hac)ney "arriage Blac" ta1is in 9ondon. Hac)sa/

Hac)sa/ A tool for cutting metal, wit# a narrow blade attac#ed to a frame

HA(
1. Acronym for Heate* air inlet system

2. Acronym for hot air inta&e Hair

.ee Helmet hair Hairline crac) A tiny stress crac" w#ic# forms due to strains in t#e material or e1treme tem$erature differences) as o$$osed to crazing, a single crac" of t#is ty$e will often occur alone Hair pin

Hair pin A roadway wit# several s#ar$ turns usually on an #ill.

Hair pin cotter

Hair pin cotter A securing device s#a$ed somew#at li"e a , in w#ic# t#e legs #ave a series of waves or bends. &nsert one leg into t#e #ole of a rod so t#at t#e bent leg will encircle t#e rod. Also .ee Hitch pin clip /here one leg is straight Hairpin valve spring A valve s$ring formed from a wire or metal stri$ bent to form two levers emanating from a #alf-loo$ or coil) used on some classic cars and motorcycles HA(. Acronym for %eated Air Inta&e $ystem (2#rysler! Half .ee "ran)case half Half *og point %#e same as a *og point but #alf as long) used on s#ort screws for t#e same $ur$oses as t#e dog $oint, but in a s#allower #ole or slot. Half *og point soc)et set scre/ A #eadless soc)et set scre/ t#readed t#e entire lengt#. &t #as a #e1agonal drive at one end and a $rotruding ti$ wit# a flat surface at t#e ot#er end. Half-life .ee !iological Half-life Half lin)

Half lin) :very "hain #as Rollers w#ic# are connected by side $lates or 4eepers. +#en counting t#e number of lin"s in a lengt# of "hain, it is easiest to count t#e number of side $lates on one side of t#e "hain and multi$lying t#e number by two. +#en a "hain needs to be an odd number, a #alf lin" is included. %#e term half lin& is a misnomer. &t s#ould be called a single lin". %#e side $late on a #alf lin" is not flat but #as a ste$ down s#a$e. ;or t#is reason, it is called an offset lin&. Half moon )ey .ee Half-moon )ey+ Half-moon )ey

Half-moon )ey A driving "ey serving t#e same $ur$ose as t#e regular "ey but it is s#a$ed somew#at li"e a #alf circle. Also called a oo*ruff )ey. Half-moon slip 6oint pliers A multi$le-sli$ 8oint $liers wit# groove 8oint Half-roun* bo*y file

A body file wit# domed file surface for wor"ing reversecrowned $anels Half-roun* file A s$ecial file t#at=s flat on one side and conve1 on t#e ot#er Half shaft A rotating s#aft t#at transmits $ower from t#e final drive unit to one side of t#e drive w#eels, but usually refers to t#e two s#afts t#at connect t#e road w#eels to t#e final drive wit# (n*epen*ent rear suspension or Front-/heel *rive as o$$osed to t#e a1le s#afts of a live rear a1le. Also called an A#leshaft Half step gearing .ee Half-step gearing+ Half-step gearing A 5earing system of a !icycle in w#ic# a s#ift between "hainrings in a double c#ainring set is e.uivalent to #alf a gear ste$ on t#e Free/heel. Halftrac)

Halftrac) -e#icle wit# cater$illar trac"s over t#e rear w#eels to $rovide motive $ower but steered by normal front w#eels Half /ave rectifier

.ee Rectifier+ Half-/ave rectifier .ee Rectifier+ Hali*e ,amp .ee Metal Hali*e ,amp Hali*e refrigerants ;amily of refrigerants containing #alogen c#emicals. Hali*e torch %y$e of torc# used to safely detect #alogen refrigerant lea"s in system. Hall effect &n electrical conductors w#ere electric current flows $er$endicular to a magnetic field, a so-called ?all voltage is $roduced $er$endicular to t#e direction of current flow and to t#e magnetic field Also see :uantum Hall 'ffect Hall-effect ignition system %ransistorized ignition wit# ?all generator Hall-effect sensor A Hall generator Hall-effect s/itch A Hall vane s/itch Hall element A $ulse generator t#at ma"es use of t#e ?all effect and consists of a rotor wit# vanes, a conductive element wit# a $ermanent magnet and t#e ?all &2. Also called %all generator. +#en t#e air ga$ is unobstructed, a ?all voltage is generated) w#en a vane stands in t#e air ga$, t#e magnetic flu1 cannot reac# t#e ?all &2. ?all generators used as ignition $ulse generators #ave as many vanes and ?all windows as t#e engine #as cylinders, dwell being determined by t#e widt# of t#e vanes. ?all generators used in electronic-ma$ ignition

systems to $rovide t#e engine starting signal #ave only one ?all window Hall generator A $ulse generator t#at ma"es use of t#e ?all effect and consists of a rotor wit# vanes, a conductive element wit# a $ermanent magnet and t#e ?all &2. Also called %all element. Also .ee &ransistorize* ignition /ith Hall generator Hall (" A solid state device wit# t#e actual ?all generator and integrated circuits for voltage am$lification and $otential reversal, $roducing t#e $ulses for t#e control unit Hall mo*ule A Hall (" Hall sensor A Hall generator. Also .ee &ransistorize* coil ignition /ith Hall sensor Hall vane s/itch A s#itch t#at ma"es use of t#e ?all effect. +#en t#e air ga$ is free, a magnetic field acts on t#e ?all &2 and t#e ?all voltage reac#es its ma1imum (#ig#!. +#en a rotor vane obstructs t#e air ga$, s#ielding t#e ?all &2 from t#e magnetic flu1, t#e ?all voltage reac#es its minimum (low!. %#e signal $roduced is a s.uare wave Hall voltage .ee Hall effect Halogen Bne of t#e c#emical elements fluorine, c#lorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine. Also .ee :uartz halogen bulb Halogenate* substances

A volatile com$ound containing #alogens, suc# as c#lorine, fluorine or bromine. Halogen bulb A bulb containing a trace of a #alogen, suc# as iodine. A #alogen bulb gives off a brig#ter lig#t. Also .ee :uartz halogen bulb Halogen hea*lamps %ungsten-#alogen bulb used in sealed beam unit or as se$arate bulb in com$osite #eadlam$ Halogen hea*light ?ig# intensity reflector wit# inner #alogen bulb, $recision lens, and >-$rong attac#ment. Eon=t touc# t#e glass of a #alogen bulb wit# your fingers. %#e oil left on t#e glass will cause t#e glass to brea" or reduce t#e life of t#e bulb. &f t#e glass is accidentally touc#ed, it may be cleaned wit# met#ylated s$irits or rubbing alco#ol on a soft clot# Halogen lamp A ty$e of (ncan*escent lamp t#at lasts muc# longer and is more efficient t#an t#e common incandescent lam$. %#e lam$ uses a #alogen gas, usually iodine or bromine, t#at causes t#e eva$orating tungsten to be rede$osited on t#e filament, t#us $rolonging its life. Halogens 'ubstance containing fluorine, c#lorine, bromine, and iodine. Hamlin s/itch A sus$ended-mass-ty$e sensor used in new air bag systems) avoids t#e ecological $roblems associated wit# t#e earlier mercury-ty$e switc#es Hammer 1. %o #it wit# a #ammer. ,. %o ride #ard and fast. >. 'omeone w#o rides #ard and fast. 6. %ruc"er slang for t#e accelerator $edal as in F+#en we get $ast t#is $ar"ing lot we can really #it t#e #ammer.F

0. A #and tool wit# a #ead (usually metal! and a #andle. &t is used to force one item against or t#roug# anot#er. 'everal ty$es of #ammers are available Also Air !all-pane !all peen !all pien !lac)smith !o*y !oilerma)ers !rass !ric)layer !umping "hipping "la/ "lub "opper-face* "urve* pein an* finishing Fen*er bumping Finish 5rooving Machinists2 9ail 9ylon -anel -een -ein -ic) an* finishing -ic) -lanishing -rospector2s Reverse curve panel Ripping Riveting Rotary .ee hammer Hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer Hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer pic) hammer hammer hammer hammer

Rubber .hingler2s .hrin)ing .le*ge .li*e .oft &ac) &ile &inner2s &/o-/ay ater el*ing i*e-nose ing oo* mallet

face setter

peen bumping

mallet hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer hammer Hammer hammer hammer hammer

Hammer *o/n %ruc"er slang for driving fast as in F+e got a sout#bound smo"ey wit# t#e #ammer downF. Hammer *rill :lectric #and drill t#at #ammers as well as rotates Hammerform A s#a$ed wooden bloc" used in $anel beating, on w#ic# a desired form is $roduced by #ammering Hammer /el*ing (etalwor"ing tec#ni.ue t#at includes gas welding, $referably wit#out t#e use of filler rod, followed by #ammer and %olly wor" on t#e welded 8oint to smoot# out any remaining im$erfections Han* .ee ,eft han* gear lever ,eft han* mon)ey /rench ,eft han* threa* Right han* threa* Right han* turn signal &hir* han* Han*boo)

A manual w#ic# gives instructions or information. Also .ee 0/ner2s han*boo) 0/ner2s manual Han*bra)e A bra"e o$erated by a #and lever. &t may also refer to t#e -ar)ing bra)e. Han*bra)e turn 170C turn ac#ieved by a$$lying t#e #andbra"e (acting on t#e rear w#eels! #ard w#en t#e ve#icle is starting to turn Han*bra)e /arning light A lig#t on t#e instrument $anel t#at illuminates w#en t#e #andbra"e is a$$lied) on most new cars it #as been su$erseded by a multifunction bra"e warning lig#t Han* controls An au1iliary set of com$onents to allow disabled $eo$le to o$erate a ve#icle. Han* "rafte* 'omet#ing t#at is built by #and rat#er t#an in an assembly line (i.e., mass $roduced!. Han* cran) Before 2adillac invented and first $roduced electric .tarters, engines were started by means of a #andle w#ic# was inserted into t#e front of t#e engine and rotated manually. After 13>0 it became obsolete. Han* cycle

Han* cycle A #uman $owered cycle t#at is $ro$elled by rotating t#e cran" wit# your #ands rat#er t#an your feet. /sually t#ere is one w#eel u$ front and two (often smaller! in t#e bac". &t is designed for $eo$le w#o are unable to use t#eir legs. Han* *rill

Han* *rill A $ower-driven device for boring #oles or (wit# t#e correct attac#ment! removing or securing screws and bolts Han*e*

'omet#ing t#at is made for a s$ecific side of a unit. ;or e1am$le, left #and arm rests are not interc#angeable wit# rig#t #and arm rests. Han* file A flat File for s#a$ing metal, wit# a rectangular cross section, constant blade widt# and one smoot# edge Han* gear .ee ,eft han* gear lever Han* gear lever .ee ,eft han* gear lever Han* lappe* valves A $rocess of grinding valves by #and so t#at t#ere is a $erfect matc# between t#e valve and its seat. Han*le 1. %#e reaction of a ve#icle under a $articular circumstance, es$ecially regarding cornering, road#olding, and maneuvering. ,. %o deal wit# or to co$e wit# (e.g., Ft#e tires can #andle 00 $siF means t#e tires can wit#stand $ressure u$ to 00 $si!. >. A 2B user=s code name. Also !oot !ra)e %oor %rive File Fle#ible 5rab 0ffset -ull-out Ratchet .pinner .tarting &run) han*le .ee han*le Han*le han*le han*le han*le han*le han*le han*le han*le han*le han*le han*le

*rive *oor

Han*lebar A steering

device found on !icycles and Motorcycles. Gri$s, bra"e levers, and s#ifters, etc. are attac#ed to t#e #andlebar. Also see !ullhorn han*lebar Han*lebar bag

Han*lebar bag A container, usually leat#er and nylon, w#ic# mounts on t#e front of a bicycle=s #andlebars. Han*lebar riser A brac"et w#ic# lifts t#e base of t#e #andlebar u$ #ig#er. Han*ler .ee Air Han*ler Han*ling %#e relative ability of a ve#icle to negotiate curves and res$ond to road conditions. &t is a factor of t#e weig#t of t#e ve#icle, t#e sus$ension, tires, air flow, etc.

Also .ee 9eutral han*ling -erformance han*ling system Han*ling system .ee -erformance han*ling system Han*s .ee 5la* han*s Han*s-free A car cell $#one t#at allows t#e driver to dial and tal" on t#e $#one wit#out #andling t#e $#one. Han*sha)er A collo.uial term for a $assenger car wit# a manual transmission Han* shiel* An eye and face $rotector #eld in t#e #and. &t enables a $erson to loo" directly at t#e electric arc t#roug# a s$ecial lens wit#out being #armed. Han* threa* .ee ,eft han* threa* Right han* threa* Han* turn .ee Right han* turn signal Han* turn signal .ee Right han* turn signal Hang a left %o ma"e a left-turn Hang a right %o ma"e a rig#t-#and turn Hang a >-ey %o ma"e a /-turn Hanger 1. A fle1ible ring or stra$ to #old a $i$e, e.g., an e1#aust $i$e.

2. A mounting brac"et, e.g., a .pring hanger for a

,eaf spring. >. A com$onent of sig#ting $oint gauges, used to install t#e gauge at t#e ve#icle c#assis. 6. Eevice attac#ed to walls or ot#er structure for su$$ort of $i$e lines. Also Ape !ri*ge %erailleur %ropout Replaceable .pring Hanger Hanger !olt .ee Hangers Hanger Hanger hanger Hanger

%erailleur

Hanger bolt A fastener w#ere one end is gimlet $ointed and #as a wood screw t#read. %#e ot#er end consists of a coarse mac#ine screw t#read. %#e center section is unt#readed. Hangover A modification of custom cars wit# se$arate c#assis, e.g., $ic"-u$s, w#ic# raises t#e floor$an and lowers t#e body, to give t#e im$ression t#at t#e body #as been $ulled down over t#e c#assis rig#t down to street level Har* agroun* A s#i$ w#ic# #as gone aground and is not able to move under #er own $ower. Har* ano*ic coating

?ard, wear-resistant, o1ide layer $roduced in an anodic o1idation $rocess Har* ano*izing A s$ecial ty$e of anodizing ada$ted to t#e $roduction of t#ic", #ard, abrasion-resistant films Har*boar* A board-li"e building material made of com$ressed wood c#i$ fibers and sawdust Har* chromium plating An electrolytic de$osition of a #ard, wear-resistant, c#romium layer Har* co*e A ty$e of trouble code t#at causes t#e '"> to disengage t#e AB' and not re-engage it until t#e $roblem is re$aired Har*-*ry %#e condition of $aint w#en it is #ard enoug# to $olis# Har*en 1. %#e action of turning from a li.uid to a solid. ,. %o set or to cure. >. %#e action of ma"ing t#e surface a metal toug#er. Also .ee "ase har*en+ Har*enability &n a ferrous alloy, t#e $ro$erty t#at determines t#e de$t# and distribution of #ardness induced by .uenc#ing. Har*ene* .ee "ase-har*ene* "hrome-har*ene* .train har*ene* or) har*ene* Har*ene* pushro*s '$ecially treated $us#rods designed for use wit# $us#rod-guided roc"er arms

Har*ener 2#emical added to $lastic filler to induce #ardening as used in auto body re$air. Har*ening 1. %#e $rocess of $aint, e$o1y, or glue becoming #ard. %#e drying or #ardening of $aint film goes t#roug# several stages. %#e first stage is called dust-free) at t#is stage, t#e $aint #as #ardened sufficiently to $revent dust from becoming embedded in t#e $aint film. %#e second stage is called touch-dry) at t#is $oint, t#e $aint film can actually be touc#ed wit# lig#t finger $ressure. %#e t#ird and final stage is referred to as hard-dry) at t#is $oint, t#e $aint film is #ard enoug# to $olis#. ,. A met#od of #eat treating metals by #eating to a tem$erature wit#in, or above, t#e critical range, #olding at t#at tem$erature for a given time, and t#en cooling ra$idly, usually by .uenc#ing in oil or water. Also .ee Age-har*ening Flame har*ening (n*uction Har*ening Har*ening me*ia A li.uid into w#ic# steel is immersed in order to #arden t#e steel. /sually involves cold water, brine, oil, and s$ecial $olymers. Har*ness 1. %#e toug#ness of t#e surface of a metal. Aormally stated in terms of <oc"well or Brinell scale of measurement, #ardness s#ows resistance of a fastener to roug# mar"s and abrasions, can indicate yield strengt# and brittleness, and #as a direct relations#i$ to tensile strengt# in alloy steel fasteners. ?owever, for stainless, brass, and silicon bronze, t#e correlation between #ardness and tensile or yield is tenuous wit# no definite

relations#i$. 2ase-#ardening uses surface #eat treatment on ferrous material to cause a #arder outside surface t#an t#e center. %#roug##ardening #ardens t#e entire fastener. Brig#t #ardening calls for #eat treatment wit#out o1ygen, so no o1ides are formed on t#e material surface. ,. <esistance to $lastic deformation by indentation, $enetration, scratc#ing or bending. Also .ee Abrasion har*ness !rinell har*ness (n*entation har*ness Roc)/ell har*ness .hore har*ness or) Har*ness Har* pe*al A loss in bra"ing efficiency so t#at an e1cessive amount of $ressure is need to actuate bra"es Har* rubber .ee 'bonite Har*-si*e* caravan A Britis# term for a trailer wit# foldable, #ard wall $anels Har*-si*e* trailer A trailer wit# foldable, #ard wall $anels Har* shoul*er A $art of t#e road t#at is divided by bro"en or continuous yellow lines from t#e rest of t#e road and s#ould be used only by certain road users in certain situations Har* sol*er /niting two $ieces of metal wit# a material #aving a melting $oint #ig#er t#an soft solder e.g., silver soldering Har* spots

'#iny bluis#Dbrown glazed areas on a bra"e drum or disc friction surface, caused by e1treme #eat. :1cessive #eat #as c#anged t#eir molecular structure. ?ard s$ots can usually be removed by resurfacing Har* stop ?ard bra"ing, but not necessarily wit# loc"ed w#eels Har*tail A term for a bi"e (motorcycle or bicycle! w#ic# #as no rear sus$ension Har*top

Har*top A two-door or four-door ve#icle wit#out a center door $ost, i.e., no !-post. &t gives t#e im$ression of uninterru$ted glass along t#e side of t#e car. %#e term is derived from Har*top convertible. Bt#er generic names #ave included s$orts cou$e, #ardto$ cou$e, or $illarless cou$e. &n t#e face of $ro$osed rollover standards, nearly all automa"ers turned away from t#e $illarless design to a $illared version by 1356-55. Also .ee

"olonna*e Formal Four-*oor Four-*oor &/o-*oor har*top

-illare*

Har*top Har*top Har*top Har*top

Har*top convertible An automobile wit# a fi1ed roof t#at does not retract into t#e &run), but gives t#e a$$earance of being a Har*top stan*

"onvertible

A foldable stand t#at #olds a detac#ed #ardto$ in a vertical $osition w#en stored Har*-top trailer

Har*-top trailer A vacation trailer wit# a #ard to$ and (most often! canvas sides. Har* trim &nstrument $anel moldings, center consoles and similar $lastic trim Har*y *isc A disc-style fle1ible cou$ling Har*y-.picer 6oint A ty$e of universal 8oint commonly used wit# $ro$ s#afts Har*y-.picer universal 6oint A ty$e of universal 8oint commonly used wit# $ro$ s#afts Harley-%avi*son

A motorcycle manufacturer Harm

.ee !o*ily harm Harmful .ee 'cologically harmful Harmonic balancer Also called $ibration *amper. &t usually is a solid "ran)shaft Fan belt -ulley t#at #as a weig#t ring bonded by rubber to t#e inner cran"s#aft-mounted ring. %#e outer ring absorbs and cancels out "ran)shaft vibrations t#at ot#erwise mig#t cause t#e "ran)shaft to brea". ;ormerly, two gearw#eels carrying an unbalanced weig#t, mounted in bearings below t#e middle main cran"s#aft bearing, driven at twice engine s$eed and rotating in o$$osite directions to counterbalance t#e secondary vibrations in a fourcylinder reci$rocating engine. Also .ee "ran)shaft pulley %amper Harmonic balance /heel A grooved w#eel attac#ed to t#e front end of t#e cran"s#aft w#ic# is connected by accessory belts to t#e fan, alternator, $ower steering $um$, water $um$, air conditioning com$ressor, and ot#er devices so t#at t#e rotating cran"s#aft can drive t#ese ot#er $arts as well. %#e cran"s#aft $ulley usually #as timing mar"s located on it, and t#ese are necessary for c#ec"ing and ad8usting timing wit# a timing lig#t. Harmonic %istortion .ee &otal Harmonic %istortion Harmonic voltage A voltage w#ose fre.uency is a multi$le of t#e fundamental fre.uency. Harness

1. A belt system used wit# c#ild seats and in cars, consisting of two s#oulder belts and two la$ belt $ortions fastened by a central buc"le. 2. A bundle of electrical wires. ;or convenience in #andling and for neatness, all wires going to certain $art of t#e ve#icle are bundled toget#er into a #arness. A iring harness. Also .ee Four-point Racing Harness !rinell har*ness iring harness Harness "onnector .ee iring Harness "onnector Harness ties 'elf-tig#tening nylon stra$s used to bundle wires into #arnesses. Bnce tig#tened, t#ey can=t be removed unless t#ey are cut Harness /rap Bne of several materials used to bundle wires into manageable #arnesses Also .ee ,oom .plit loom ,oom tape Harness ties Harvey /allbanger %ruc"er slang for a rec"less driver as in F%#at 6w#eeler is a real #arvey wallbanger.F Hat %#e $ortion of a detac#able bra"e disc t#at comes in contact wit# t#e w#eel #ub Also see Rotor Hat Hatch 1. %#e rear o$ening of a ve#icle w#ic# allows $assage into its cab.

2. A Hatchbac). 3. A &ailgate.

6. An o$ening in a dec" t#roug# w#ic# cargo and stores are loaded or unloaded. Also "ross-hatch Hot hatch Hatchbac) .ee

Hatchbac) A car design in w#ic# t#e rear &run) and lid are re$laced by a rear #atc# t#at includes t#e !ac)light (i.e., rear window!. /sually t#e rear seat folds down to accommodate more luggage. Briginally a #atc# was a small o$ening in t#e dec" of a sailing s#i$. %#e term hatch was later a$$lied to air$lane doors and to $assenger cars wit# rear liftgates. -arious models a$$eared in t#e early 1300s, but weat#er-tig#tness was a $roblem. %#e conce$t emerged again in t#e early 1350s, w#en fuel economy factors began to signal t#e trend toward com$act cars. %ec#nology #ad remedied t#e sealing difficulties. By t#e 1370s, most manufacturers $roduced one or more #atc#bac" models, t#oug# t#e .uestion of w#et#er to call t#em t#o-door or three-door never was resolved. %#eir main common feature was t#e lac" of a se$arate trun". 7iftbac& cou$es may #ave #ad a different rear-end s#a$e, but t#e two terms often described essentially t#e same ve#icle. Also .ee

Five-*oor Four-*oor ,iftbac) station /agon

hatchbac) hatchbac)

Hatchbac) coupe

Hatchbac) coupe Briginally a small o$ening in t#e dec" of a sailing s#i$, t#e term hatch was later a$$lied to air$lane doors and to $assenger cars wit# rear liftgates. -arious models a$$eared in t#e early 1300s, but weat#er-tig#tness was a $roblem. %#e conce$t emerged again in t#e early 1350s, w#en fuel economy factors began to signal t#e trend toward com$act cars. %ec#nology #ad remedied t#e sealing difficulties. By t#e 1370s, most manufacturers $roduced one or more #atc#bac" models, t#oug# t#e .uestion of w#et#er to call t#em t#o-door or three-door never was resolved. %#eir main common feature was t#e lac" of a se$arate trun". 7iftbac& cou$es may #ave #ad a different rear-end s#a$e, but t#e two terms often described essentially t#e same ve#icle. Also .ee

&hree-*oor hatchbac) &/o-*oor hatchbac) coupe

coupe

Hatch battens ;lat bars w#ic# are wedged against #atc# coamings to secure tar$aulin Hatch beam ortable beam across a #atc# to su$$ort #atc# covers Hatch coaming %#e vertical $lating bounding a #atc# for t#e $ur$ose of stiffening t#e edges of t#e o$ening and resisting water entry

Hatche* mar)ing 2#evron mar"ings on t#e road w#ic# #el$ se$arate traffic lanes Hatch/ay An o$ening in a dec" t#roug# w#ic# cargo and stores are loaded or unloaded Hat section .ee &op hat section Haul .ee ,ong-haul Haul %istance .ee Average Haul %istance Hauling .ee "ompensate* (ntracorporate Hauling (ntracorporate Hauling Hauling sno/ %#e loading, removing, and dis$osing of snow $iles after snow$lowing o$erations Haul roa* .ee access roa* Ha/se pipe %ube t#roug# w#ic# anc#or c#ain is led overboard from t#e windlass on t#e dec" Ha/ser 'trong ro$e or steel cable used for securing or mooring s#i$s Hazar* Anyt#ing t#at could be a source of danger on t#e road .ee Roa* hazar* Hazar* flasher s/itch A switc# (usually located on t#e steering column below t#e steering w#eel! w#ic# ma"es all t#e signal lig#ts

flas# simultaneously, to warn ot#er ve#icles t#at your car is disabled or going very slowly down t#e road. Also called =-#ay #arning light s#itch. Hazar*ous location Any area or s$ace w#ere combustible dust, ignitable fibers, or flammable, volatile li.uids, gases, va$ors or mi1tures are or may be $resent in t#e air in .uantities sufficient to $roduce e1$losive or ignitable mi1tures. Hazar*ous /astes Automotive wastes t#at are on t#e : A=s list of #azardous materials or t#at #ave one or more #azardous c#aracteristics Hazar* /arning flasher Actuates warning system of flas#ing front and rear turn signal lam$s Hazar* /arning s/itch A switc# (usually located on t#e steering column below t#e steering w#eel! w#ic# ma"es all t#e signal lig#ts flas# simultaneously, to warn ot#er ve#icles t#at your car is disabled or going very slowly down t#e road. Also called =-#ay #arning light s#itch. Hazmat ?azardous materials, as classified by t#e /.'. :nvironmental rotection Agency (: A!. %rans$ort of #azardous materials is strictly regulated by t#e /.'. Ee$artment of %rans$ortation. DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ia"

(a (b (c (* (e (f (g (h

(i (l (m (n (o (p (r (s (t (u (v
(z i '#ort form for in/ection indicating t#at t#e engine is fuel-in8ected, e.g., G%i, :;i, 1.6i, '':i (2R ,oss ower loss due to t#e current (&! flow t#roug# t#e resistance (<! of a conductor. (A Acronym for Inta&e Air (A" Acronym for (*le air control valve (A"$ Acronym for (*le Air "ontrol $alve ( ? " systems Acronym for instrumentation and control

systems

(AR (A.

Acronym for (ntegral alternatorHRegulator

Acronym for Inlet Air $olenoid (;ord! (A."A Acronym for International Auto $ound -hallenge Association. (A& Acronym for Inta&e Air Tem!erature

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ja"


7a
7b 7ac) 1. %o lift a ve#icle off t#e ground in order to effect re$airs ,. %o steal a ve#icle 3. A c#aracteristic of swing-a1le Rear suspensions. "ornering forces can act on t#ese sus$ensions to lift t#e body of t#e ve#icle so t#at t#e outer w#eel tuc"s or 8ac"s under t#e ve#icle. +#en carried to t#e e1treme, 8ac"ing forces could ti$ t#e ve#icle over. 6. A device for lifting t#e ve#icle, or $art of t#e ve#icle, off t#e ground to facilitate re$airs. Also .ee !o*y 6ac) !ottle 6ac) !umper 6ac) Floor 6ac) 5arage 6ac) Hi-lift 6ac) Hy*raulic 6ac) 7ib-6ac) .cissors 6ac) &ire 6ac) &o/er 6ac) &ripo* 6ac) &rolley 6ac) 7ac)er .ee "ar 6ac)er 7ac)et %#e enclosure on a water #eater, furnace, or boiler.

.ee 7apanese lantern-type 6ac)et tube ater 6ac)et 7ac)et tube .ee 7apanese lantern-type 6ac)et tube .haft 7ac)ing 7ac)ing .ee "ar 6ac)ing shaft 6ac)ing 7ac) )nife 1. %#e action of a ve#icle (tractor! wit# a trailer in w#ic# t#e trailer and t#e ve#icle form a " instead of normally being $ulled in a straig#t line. /sually t#is is t#e result of a .)i* in w#ic# t#e trailer swings around dangerously and tries to overta"e t#e cab. ,. '"idding of an articulated ve#icle sometimes results in rotation at t#e articulation (#itc#! $oint so t#at t#e tractor is rotated against t#e trailer in a manner similar to t#e closing of a 8ac""nife. >. %o $lace t#e trailer at a very s#ar$ angle to t#e tractor. 7ac)shaft .ee (nterme*iate shaft 7ac)son Hea* A mac#ine screw wit# a small oval #ead. 7ac) stan*

7ac) stan* A safety device t#at "ee$s t#e ve#icle from falling to t#e ground if t#e lifting 8ac" is removed or faulty. (ost 8obs re.uire two 8ac" stands for safety. Also called an A#le stan* or $afety stand 7ac) up %o raise using a 7ac) 7ac)ing point A strengt#ened $lace on t#e underbody to $ut t#e 8ac". 'mall cars #ave one $oint on eac# side but larger cars may #ave two 7aguar

A ve#icle brand $roduced by Jaguar 2ars 9imited of w#ic# t#e 13>,-1360 '' models e1ce$t 6-cyl. are "lassic cars. %#e 1305-66 >.6D>.7 'edans are Milestone cars. &ncludes 1X 9itre saloon (13>01363!, ,X 9itre saloon (13>0-1367!, >X 9itre saloon (13>5-1367!, ,60 (1366-1367!, >60 (1366-1367!, 6,0

(1366-1367!, 6,0G (1366-1350!, :-%y$e (1361-1356!, (ar" 1 (1300-1303!, (ar" , (1303-1365!, (ar" (1367-1301!, (ar" -&& (R -&&(! (1301-1305!, (ar" -&&& (1305-1303!, (ar" &N (1303-1361!, (ar" N (13611350!, '-ty$e (136>-1367, 1333-,007!, -anden las (,00,-00!, N-ty$e (,001-current!, N; (,007-current!, NJ (N>00! (,00>-current!, NJ6 'eries 1, , R > (13671375!, NJ6 (NJ60! (1376-1336!, NJ6 (N>00 R N>01! (1330-1335!, NJ7 (N>07! (1335-,00,!, NJ7 (1337,005!, NJ1, (135,-133,!, NJ1, (NJ71! (133>-1336!, NJ1, (N>00 R N>01! (1330-1335!, NJ< (1330-,005!, NJ<-' (133>!, NJ-' (1350-1336!, NJ '$ort (,00,-0>!, NJ 'u$er (,00,-05!, N@7 (1335-,006!, N@ (N100! (1335-,000!, N@ (N100! (,006-current!, N@1,0 (13671306!, N@160 (1306-1305!, N@100 (1305-1361!, and N@< (,000-06! 7aguar %rophea* A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 1301 (ar" - Ero$#ead is a Milestone car. 7aguar '-type

A model of automobile manufactured by Jaguar in :ngland. %#e 1361-65 :-%y$e models are Milestone cars. 7aguar Mar)

A model of automobile manufactured by Jaguar in :ngland. %#e 1366-67 models wit# ,.0 9itre, >.0 9itre

(ar" &- (not 6-cyl.! are "lassic cars. %#e 1301-06 (ar" -&& and =06 (ar" -&& ( models are Milestone cars. %#e 1306-05 (ar" -&&& models are Milestone cars. %#e 1307-61 (ar" &N models are Milestone cars. %#e 136,-66 (ar" N models are Milestone cars. 7aguar D7

A model of automobile manufactured by Jaguar in :ngland 7aguar D4

A model of automobile manufactured by Jaguar in :ngland. %#e 1360-06 N@ 110 models are Milestone cars. %#e 1306-05 @N 160 models are Milestone cars. %#e 1307-61 N@ 100 models are Milestone cars. 7a)e bra)e A device w#ic# s#uts off t#e '#haust valves manually so t#at in t#e '#haust stro)e, t#e burned gasses cannot esca$e t#roug# t#e '#haust valves. &nstead t#ey $ress against t#e Hea* of the piston and causes t#e -iston to slow down. +#en t#e (nta)e valve o$ens, some of t#e e1#aust esca$es out t#e inta"e valve and gives a distinctive loud ra$$ing

noise. Ja"e bra"es are used in large truc" engines to assist in slowing t#e ve#icle. (any munici$al bylaws $ro#ibit t#e use of 8a"e bra"es because of t#e e1cessive noise. %#e most common ty$e is called a 6a&e Bra&e because t#e $redominant manufacturer is Jacobs -e#icle :.ui$ment 2o. Bt#er ty$es of retarders include e1#aust retarders, transmission-mounted #ydraulic retarders and a1le-mounted electromagnetic retarders. Also called a retar*er. 7alopy A worn-out old car 7am .ee &raffic 6am 7AMA Acronym for 7apan Automobile Manufacturers 7amb s/itch A $us#-button lig#t switc# located in a door 8amb (e.g., for courtesy lig#ts, trun" lig#t! 7am nut 1. A second nut (usually t#inner! on a screw or bolt w#ic# loc"s against t#e first nut (i.e., 8ams against it! so t#at t#e nut won=t come loose. ,. A self-loc"ing nut 7am on the bra)es %#e action of .uic"ly de$ressing t#e bra"e $edal ($ulling t#e bra"e lever on a motorcycle or bicycle! es$ecially in an emergency situation. 7am the bra)es %#e action of .uic"ly de$ressing t#e bra"e $edal ($ulling t#e bra"e lever on a motorcycle or bicycle! es$ecially in an emergency situation. 7A:nglis# engine manufacturer. ;ounded in 130> by Jo#n A. restwic#, t#e com$any was boug#t by -illiers in 1305

Association

7apanese lantern-type 6ac)et tube A web-ty$e 8ac"et tube of a steering column w#ic#, on im$act, folds li"e a Ja$anese lantern 7apanese Motorcycle .ee >niversal 7apanese Motorcycle 7A. Acronym for 6et Air $ystemM ((itsubis#i! 7avelin

An automobile manufactured by A(2 7a/s .ee

Ratchet &o/ing 6a/s

7a/

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ka"

4a*enacy effect +#en a $ort of a two-stro"e engine o$ens abru$tly, as is t#e case wit# a rectangular e1#aust $ort, t#e cylinder $ressure gives rise to a $ositive $ressure wave transmitted down t#e e1#aust $i$e at t#e s$eed of sound 4A(%A Acronym for >orea Automobile Im!orters and istributors Association. 4aiser

A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 1306 Earrin 161 is a Milestone car. %#e 1301-0, Eelu1e and Eelu1e -irginian are Milestone cars. %#e 1301-0> Eragon models are Milestone cars. %#e 1306-00 (an#attan models are Milestone cars. %#e 1363-00 -agabond models are Milestone car. %#e 1363-00 -irginian (?ardto$! models are Milestone cars. 4aizen Activities Activity t#roug# w#ic# continuous im$rovement is soug#t. 4AM .ee 4eep alive memory 4AMA Acronym for 4orean Automotive Manufacturers 4amm bac) &t was once t#oug#t t#at a long ta$ered end in t#e s#a$e of a ve#icle would give it t#e most aerodynamic configuration. +. @amm discovered t#at t#e lengt# of t#e end would #ave to be so long as to ma"e t#e ve#icle im$ractical. %#ere would also be an increase in surface area w#ic# would also create its own Friction%rag. ?e found t#at if #e cut t#e t#eoretically long tail in #alf #e would #ave bot# good Aero*ynamics and minimal surface %rag. %#is s#ar$ly cut off rear end is named after #im. 4amm tail &t was once t#oug#t t#at a long ta$ered end in t#e s#a$e of a ve#icle would give it t#e most aerodynamic

Association

configuration. +. @amm discovered t#at t#e lengt# of t#e end would #ave to be so long as to ma"e t#e ve#icle un$ractical. %#ere would also be an increase in surface area w#ic# would also create its own Friction%rag. ?e found t#at if #e cut t#e t#eoretically long tail in #alf #e would #ave bot# good Aero*ynamics and minimal surface %rag. %#is s#ar$ly cut off rear end is named after #im. 4angarooing A collo.uial term for moving forward in a succession of sudden 8er"s as a result of im$ro$er use of t#e clutc#, (a c#aracteristic of beginner drivers or t#ose not used to standard s#ifting! 4aplan turbine A ty$e of turbine t#at t#at #as two blades w#ose $itc# is ad8ustable. %#e turbine may #ave gates to control t#e angle of t#e fluid flow into t#e blades. 4A- R Acronym for irect Battery .o#er 4arosserie German term for "oach/or). 4ata thermometer 9arge-bulb alco#ol t#ermometer used to measure air s$eed or atmos$#eric conditions by means of cooling effect. 4a/asa)i A motorcycle manufacturer

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "La"


,a ,b ,c

,* ,e ,f ,h ,i ,6 ,n ,o ,p ,r ,s ,t ,u ,v ,/
,y , 1. 9ow gear in an automatic transmission. 2. Eesignation for lu1ury or ,u#e 3. %#e symbol for (n*uctance 4. Acronym for 7iters lH300 )m %#is is t#e metric measurement of fuel consum$tion or Fuel economy. %#e lower t#e number t#e more economical t#e ve#icle. %#us a ve#icle t#at gives 5 lD100 "m is better t#an one t#at gives 7 lD100 "m. A ve#icle t#at gives 5.> lD100 "m is giving >,., m$g /' and >7.5 m$g &m$erial. ,4 Acronym for 'our -ylinder Inline Engine ,AA%A Acronym for 7atvian Authori)ed Automobile ealers Association. ,abel

.ee .afety "ompliance "ertification ,abel ,abeling Act .ee American Automobile ,abeling Act ,abor An engine w#ic# is struggling to "ee$ turning due to lac" of revs or t#e use of too #ig# a gear ,aboratories .ee >n*er/riters ,aboratories ,aboratory Horsepo/er .ee 5ross ,aboratory Horsepo/er ,aboring An engine t#at is ,ugging because it #as difficulty in turning over. ,ac) of parallelism A measurement of bra"e rotor t#ic"ness variation at various $oints around a rotor. ,ac8uer 1. A fast drying automotive body $yro1ylin $aint. ,. A glossy coating made by dissolving cellulose derivatives in a ra$idly eva$orating solvent. >. rotective coating or finis# w#ic# dries to form a film by eva$oration of a volatile (easily goes from li.uid to gas! constituent. Also "lear 5eneral purpose lac8uer thinner ,ac8uer thinner .ee 5eneral purpose lac8uer thinner ,a**er .ee .an* la**ers ,a**er bars .ee lac8uer

A rigid triangular sus$ension devices used to locate an a1le front to rear. %#ese are used almost e1clusively in drag race cars due to t#e fact t#at t#ey bind w#en cornering. A $an#ard rod or a watts lin" is used to locate t#e a1le side to side. ,a**er chassis .ee ,a**er frame ,a**er *iagram :lectrical diagram t#at indicates order of electrical devices in a s$ecific electrical circuit. ,a**er Form 'lectrical %iagram .ee .chematic ,a**er Form 'lectrical %iagram ,a**er frame

,a**er Frame A ty$e of Frame design w#ic# #as two long $arallel sections w#ic# run from t#e front to t#e rear of t#e ve#icle. &n various $laces t#ere are s#orter sections w#ic# connect t#e long sections. %#e result loo"s li"e a ladder. %#e connecting $ieces #old various "omponents suc# as t#e engine. %#is design is not used today because it is too #eavy and lac"s rigidity. Also called ladder chassis ,a*en -e#icle carrying some or full $ayload. ,a*en /eight .ee 5ross vehicle /eight+ ,a*ing %#e load or freig#t t#at a ve#icle carries.

Also .ee !ill of la*ing ,a*ies2 frame %#e ty$e of Frame in w#ic# t#e &op tube is re$laced by a second %o/n tube to ma"e mounting and dismounting t#e bi"e easier. ,a*le .ee "asting ,a*le ,ag Eelay in res$onse. Also .ee Heat ,ag (gnition lag (n6ection ,ag ,ea* an* lag &urbo lag ,ag bolt

,ag bolt A full-bodied fastener wit# #e1 #ead or a s.uare #ead, s$aced coarse-$itc# t#reads and gimlet or cone $oint. Eesigned for insertion in wood or ot#er resilient materials and $roducing its own mating t#read. Also called lag scre#. ,agging %#e $rocess of covering #ot fluid lines wit# a nonconducting material in order to maintain its tem$erature. ,agging po/er factor A designation of t#e relative instantaneous direction of t#e currents to t#e voltagesM (angle is 0 to I30C!

,ago .ee &albot ,ago ,agon*a A ve#icle brand of w#ic# all 13,0-67 models e1ce$t <a$ier are "lassic cars. %#e 1367-63 --1, models are Milestone cars. Also see ,agon*a club ,agon*a %rophea* A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 1363-0> ,.0 9iter Ero$#ead 2ou$es are Milestone cars. ,ag scre/ .ee ,ag bolt ,a)e pipes Aonfunctional side $i$es attac#ed along t#e lower sides of a ve#icle for decorative $ur$oses only. Also called 7a&es !i!es or la&ers ,a)er A ty$e of s#i$ w#ic# trades only in t#e Great 9a"es of Aort# America. %#e cargo is usually grain and ore. ,a)ers

,a)ers Aonfunctional side $i$es attac#ed along t#e lower sides of a ve#icle for decorative $ur$oses only. Also called la&e !i!es or 7a&es !i!es ,a)es pipes Aonfunctional side $i$es attac#ed along t#e lower sides of a ve#icle for decorative $ur$oses only. Also called la&e !i!es or la&ers ,a)es ship .ee 5reat ,a)es ship ,amb*a 1. :levent# letter of t#e Gree" al$#abet. /$$er case*C (loo"s li"e A wit#out t#e cross bar!, lower case*D (loo"s li"e an u$-side-down y!. ,. Bosc#=s term for o1ygen Also 4-6etronic /ith ,amb*a see

,amb*a control Bosc#=s term for a closed loo$ system t#at ad8usts t#e air-fuel ratio to lambda-1, based on sensing t#e amount of e1cess o1ygen in t#e e1#aust ,amb*a control valve .ee Fre8uency valve ,amb*a probe .ee 0#ygen sensor ,amb*a sensor .ee 0#ygen sensor ,amb*a-son* A device t#at senses if t#e fuel mi1ture is ric# or lean and ad8ust t#e control units 9ambda regulator accordingly so t#at t#e catalytic converter can o$erate most effectively ,amb*a valve &n Bosc# 2&', a device t#at regulates $ressure in t#e lower c#amber of t#e differential-$ressure valve, in res$onse to a signal from t#e lambda (o1ygen! sensor. Also called Fre8uency valve or a &iming valve ,amb*a /in*o/ A narrow range (w#ere lambda * 1!, w#ic# yields t#e lowest emission values for 2B, AB1, and ?2 ,amborghini

A model of automobile manufactured in &taly

,AM!.' Acronym for $hort Term 'uel Trim ,aminate 1. %o build u$ or construct out of a number of t#in s#eets w#ic# are bonded toget#er. %#e Magneto"oil #as a laminated "ore. ,. A s#eet of material made of several different bonded layers. Also !alance* .an*/ich construction ,aminate* 'omet#ing made u$ of many layers. ,aminate* spring .ee ,aminate

,aminate* spring A series of curved or flat s$ring steel used to su$$ort sus$ension. Also called leaf spring ,aminate* contact %#e contacts of a switc# wit# several layers so t#at as you a$$ly more and more $ressure t#e resistance is reduced and more voltage is $ermitted. ,aminate* glass A sandwic#-ty$e construction of two or more $anes of glass laminated toget#er wit# an e1tremely toug#, crystal-clear $lastic film) on severe im$act, laminated glass will crac", but not s#atter li"e ordinary glass, nor craze over li"e toug#ened glass ,aminate* iron core

%#e core of an ignition coil consisting of $ieces of soft iron laminations, insulated from one anot#er ,aminate* /in*shiel* Blder safety in*shiel*s were made of &empere* glass w#ic# is #eat treated so t#at t#e surface is very toug#. +#en a ve#icle wit# tem$ered glass is involved in an accident, t#e winds#ield s#atters into a s$ider web of little crystals. &ts ad#esive $ro$erty is greatly diminis#ed so t#at an ob8ect (your body! can easily be e8ected t#roug# t#e winds#ield. 9aminated winds#ields, #owever, are made wit# two s#eets of glass wit# a t#in layer of rubbery $lastic in between. +#en your #ead #its t#e winds#ield, t#e winds#ield bows out wit#out being $unctured. %#e $lastic sandwic# $revents t#e glass from s$lintering. %#e !lastic sand#ich can also contain a tint to reduce #eat in t#e $assenger com$artment and $rotect t#e eyes from glare (li"e sunglasses!. 2om$are &oughene* /in*shiel* ,aminate* /in*shiel* glass .ee ,aminate* /in*shiel*+ ,aminating 2overing s#eets wit# a $articular layer or covering molded $arts wit# a s$ecific $lastic film ,amination 1. %#e act of laminating. %#e $rocess of bonding two or more layers or $lies of material toget#er wit# an ad#esive ,. A t#in layer. >. A structure made u$ of t#in layers ,amp 1. A device for giving off lig#t wit#out being consumed itself. 2. Artificial lig#t. %#e term is often used w#en referring to a bulb or tube.

Also .ee Automatic Arc ,amp Au#iliary *riving lamp !allast ,amp !lo/lamp "arbon-arc ,amp "learance lamp %ome lamp %riving lamp 5as *ischarge lamp 5aseous *ischarge lamp Hea*light Hea*light retractor in*icator lamp (nfrare* ,amp (nspection lamp ,o/--ressure .o*ium ,amp Mar)er lamp Mercury $apor ,amp Metal Hali*e ,amp 9umberplate lamp -ar)ing lamp -u**le lamp :uartz-io*ine ,amp Rear fog lamp Rear lamp cluster Rear license plate lamp Repeater lamp Retractor (n*icator ,amp .i*e mar)er lamp .trobe lamp &ail lamp &est lamp arning lamp ,amp aperture An o$ening in a s#eet metal $anel for mounting t#e #eadlig#t or taillig#t ,amp blac)ening

%#e blac"ening of a lig#t bulb) gradual blac"ening of conventional, i.e., non-#alogen lig#t bulbs, occurs as a result of metal va$or de$osition on t#e glass envelo$e w#ic# reduces lig#t emission) severe blac"ening indicates imminent bulb failure ,amp cluster A grou$ of lig#ts be#ind a cover) t#e rear lig#ts of most cars are grou$ed toget#er in clusters. Also .ee Rear lamp cluster ,amp panel A $anel t#at encloses $art or all of t#e #eadlig#t or taillig#t cutout and may e1tend across t#e widt# of t#e car to include bot# cutouts) in t#e latter case, it forms an additional $anel to be 8oined to t#e smaller front or rear valances ,amp soc)et A device w#ic# #olds a lig#t bulb and $rovides electricity to t#e bulb. %#e Britis# term is Bulb holder ,amp unit A sealed lig#t unit wit# reflector and lens all-in-one ,anchester A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. ,ancia

A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. %#e 1303-66 ;laminia Oagato models are Milestone cars. %#e 1361-6> ;laminia G% %wo assenger 2ou$e or 2onvertible are Milestone cars. %#e 136,-66 ;lavia

2ou$e are Milestone cars. %#e 1301-03 Aurelia B.,0 and B.,B 2ou$e are Milestone cars. %#e 130>-03 Aurelia B.,6 '$yder and 2onvertible are Milestone cars. ,ancing .ee a# lancing ,an* %#e smoot#, o$en area of a grooved surface, suc# as t#e bands of metal between t#e grooves in a $iston w#ic# carry t#e $iston rings. %#e metal se$arating a series of 5rooves. Also .ee Hea* lan* -iston ,an* -iston lan*s ,an*au A closed-ty$e body on t#e sides, it #as $rovision for o$ening or folding t#e fabric to$ over t#e rear .uarter. %#is $recludes t#e use of rear .uarter windows. 9andau irons are fairly common but not a mandatory feature. ,an*au bar .ee ,an*au bars+ ,an*au bars '-s#a$ed bars or irons on t#e "-post. Bn "onvertibles, t#ey are functional) but decorative on ot#er body styles. ,an*aulet A classic car style c#aracterized by t#e fact t#at only t#e rear seats were $rotected by a #ard or convertible to$, w#ereas t#e driver was e1$osed to t#e o$en air in order to be more aware of road and weat#er conditions) an imitation landaulet style is still found on some American sedans. Also called ,an*au

,an*aulet se*an %#is body style is similar to t#e landau .e*an in a$$earance, but wit# a stationary rear .uarter. 9andau irons are mounted on t#e rear .uarter but are nonfunctional. ,an*fill gas Gas t#at is generated by decom$osition of organic material at landfill dis$osal sites. %#e average com$osition of landfill gas is a$$ro1imately 00 $ercent met#ane and 00 $ercent carbon dio1ide and water va$or by volume. %#e met#ane $ercentage, #owever, can vary from 60 to 60 $ercent, de$ending on several factors including waste com$ositionM (e.g. carbo#ydrate and cellulose content!. %#e met#ane in landfill gas may be vented, flared, combusted to generate electricity or useful t#ermal energy on-site, or in8ected into a $i$eline for combustion off-site. ,an*ing .ee Hoo* lan*ing panel ,og *ec) lan*ing :uarter-space ,an*ing ,an*ing 5ear %#e retracting legs w#ic# su$$ort t#e front of a semitrailer w#en it is not cou$led to a tractor. Also see !ogie ,an*ing 5ear ,an*ing panel .ee !onnet lan*ing panel Hoo* lan*ing panel ,an*ing section .ee Fen*er lan*ing section ing ,an*ing .ection ,an*line 'lang for tele$#one as in F&t is #ard to find a landline w#en you need one.F

,an* management .ee !ureau of lan* management ,an* Rover

An '/- built in :ngland including Eefender 30 (133635!, Eefender 110 (133>!, Eiscovery (1336-,006!, Eiscovery 'eries && (1333-,00,!, ;reelander (,00,00!, 9<> (,000-05!, <ange <over (1350-,005!, and <ange <over '$ort (,006-05! ,an*s %#e -iston metal between t#e Ring grooves. Also see -iston lan*s ,an* tractor 2ommonly called Fan agricultural tractor,F or Ffarm tractorF -- t#ese ve#icles are designed to wor" on land in connection wit# agricultural, forestry or land drainage-ty$e o$erations and are driven on a $ublic road only w#en $roceeding to or from t#e site of suc# wor" ,ane 1. A narrow road, often in t#e country. ,. A trac" on a road, defining lines of traffic. Also Au#iliary !i)e "ra/ler Fast High 9on-"ar .ee lane lane lane lane lane lane

0ccupancy

$ehicle

0uter lane -assing lane Runa/ay ,ane .ingle lane .plitting lanes &raffic lane ,ane mile A measure of road lengt# t#at reflects t#e number of miles in eac# driving lane. ;or e1am$leM %#ree miles of a four-lane #ig#way e.uals twelve lane miles. ,ane splitting <iding between lanes of traffic on a freeway (i.e., straddling t#e w#ite line! ,angley A unit or measure of solar radiation) 1 calorie $er s.uare centimeter or >.63 Btu $er s.uare foot. ,anguage .ee :uery ,anguage ,antern-type 6ac)et tube .ee 7apanese lantern-type 6ac)et tube ,anyar*

,anyar* A line (made of ro$e, nylon, etc.! w#ic# is attac#ed at one end to a frame or large item w#ile t#e ot#er end is attac#ed to a smaller $iece t#at mig#t get lost. %#e $icture s#ows a lanyard attac#ed to a #itc# $in.

,ap 1. Bne com$lete tri$ around a race trac" or route laid out for racing. 2. %o fit two surfaces toget#er by "oating t#em wit# Abrasive and t#en rubbing t#em toget#er (e.g., to la$ valves into valve seats!. >. %#e u$$er surface of t#e #uman body from waist to "nees w#en seated. 6. A rotating disc covered wit# fine abrasive for $olis#ing. Also .ee -ace lap &urn a lap ,ap belt A ,-$oint belt $ulled across t#e #i$s, or la$ belt $ortion of a combined la$Ds#oulder belt) mostly only on t#e rear center seat, on some models on all rear seats. Also see .ubmarining ,ap 6oint 1. A $iston ring ga$ in w#ic# t#e two ends of t#e ring are s#a$ed li"e t#e letter 7. ,. A welding term describing a union in w#ic# t#e edges of t#e two metals to be 8oined overla$ one anot#er. ,appe* $alves .ee Han* ,appe* $alves ,apper .ee $alve lapper ,apping

'moot#ing a metal surface to #ig# degree of refinement or accuracy using a fine abrasive. ,apping compoun* .ee $alve grin*ing compoun* ,arge passenger car A $assenger car wit# more t#an 1,0 cubic feet of interior $assenger and luggage volume. ,arge pic)up truc) A $ic"u$ truc" weig#ing between 6,000-7,000 lbs gross ve#icle weig#tM (G-+!. ,arge .>$ 9ong w#eelbase s$ort utility ve#icle based on a $ic"u$ truc" c#assis. 'ome e1am$les are t#e 2#evrolet 'uburban, 2#evrolet %a#oe, ;ord :1$edition, G(2 Su"on, Aissan Armada, and %oyota 'e.uoia. Also see -remium large .>$ ,a.alle A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,5-13>> models are "lassic cars. ,aser .ee "arbon %io#i*e ,aser ,ash 1. %#e amount of free motion between two com$onents (e.g., two gears!. %#e Britis# term is free !lay. 2. Acronym for 7ighter Aboard $hi! a s#i$ designed to carry floating containers or ,ighters. Also !ac)lash Hot $alve hiplash ,ast station memory .ee ,ash lash

An audio and video term describing t#e circuit w#ic# ensures t#at w#en t#e unit is turned on, t#e tuner automatically tunes to t#e station t#at was received before t#e unit was turned off ,atch A fastening device for a door or $anel. &t consists of a small metal bar, eit#er mounted on t#e movable $art (always on doors and on some tailgates!, or on t#e car body (always on #oods and trun"s!, w#ic# engages wit# a stri"er on t#e o$$osite $art. Also .ee %oor latch ,atching pillar .ee !-pillar ,atching &ype valve A manual gas valve w#ic# re.uires at least two se$arate actions or movements to turn on t#e valve, as for e1am$le, $us#ing in on t#e valve #andle to unlatc# t#e valve before t#e valve #andle can be rotated to turn on t#e fuel. ,atch pillar .ee !-pillar ,ate bra)ing Bra"ing later into t#e turn, t#us moving t#e entry $oint and a1is of t#e ve#icle ,atent heat %#e #eat absorbed or radiated during a c#ange of state (i.e., melting, va$orization, fusion! at constant tem$erature and $ressure. 2alled latent cause it is #idden -- cannot be felt or measured wit# a t#ermometer ,atent heat of con*ensation %#e amount of #eat given off w#en a substance c#anges from a va$or to t#e li.uid wit#out c#anging tem$erature ,atent heat of evaporation

%#e amount of #eat re.uired to c#ange a li.uid into a va$or wit#out raising t#e tem$erature of t#e va$or above t#at of t#e original li.uid ,atent heat of vaporization Amount of #eat re.uired, $er $ound of substance, to c#ange its state from a li.uid to a va$or (gas!. ,ateral <elating to t#e side. ,ateral acceleration %#e acceleration created w#en a ve#icle corners t#at tends to $us# a ve#icle sideways. Because of "entrifugal force, t#e ve#icle is $us#ed outward. ;or t#is reason, you need to accelerate a little as you reac# t#e Ape# of t#e curve to $ull you t#roug# t#e curve. An ine1$erienced %river may $anic in a curve as t#e lateral acceleration $us#es #is ve#icle into t#e left lane. ?e mig#t #it t#e bra"es to slow t#e motion only to find t#at t#e $roblem actually increases. %#e $ro$er way to ta"e a s#ar$ corner is to slow down before t#e curve, t#en accelerate at t#e Ape# of it to bring t#e ve#icle around. %o increase your frustration, try following an ine1$erience %river as #e drives on mountain roads. ?e maintains #is .pee* to t#e corner and bra"es at t#e Ape#. Also .ee Acceleration ,ateral acceleration sensor A device t#at signals t#e '"> w#en t#e ve#icle is being sub8ected to #ig# g-force from a turn) t#e signal voltage varies according to t#e amount of g-force ,ateral acceleration s/itch 'imilar to a lateral acceleration sensor, but t#e switc# $rovides a sim$le on-off signal, rat#er t#an t#e variable voltage signal $rovided by t#e sensor ,ateral air passage A $assage at t#e nozzle of a s$ray gun for s#a$ing t#e s$ray $attern to a long or elongated oval

,ateral arm A sus$ension member connecting t#e u$rig#t to t#e c#assis. Also see &ransverse arm+ ,ateral atomization orifice An additional $assages at t#e nozzle of a s$ray gun for su$$lying additional air to brea" u$ t#e $aint into smaller dro$lets ,ateral clearance %#e smallest distance laterally between t#e tire and t#e nearest fi1ed $oint of t#e ve#icle. ,ateral grip %#e ability of a tire to maintain its course, or remain under normal steering control, w#ile being sub8ected to directionally disturbing influences ,ateral impact A side cras# ,ateral lin) A .uspension lin" t#at is aligned to resist sideways motions in a w#eel. ,ateral run-out 1. Amount of side (i.e., side-to-side! movement of a rotating w#eel, tire, or t#e rotor from t#e vertical. ,. A tire assembly t#at does not run true to its $lane) i.e., a damaged w#eel moving in a wobbling, side to side manner. >. A measurement of t#e lateral c#ange in $osition of t#e dis"-bra"e-rotor surface during one revolution. ,ateral runout .ee ,ateral run-out ,ateral stability 9imiting side movement. (1! %read grooves running circumferentially around t#e tire resist side forces for ma1imum traction on sums. (,! 'tabilizing tread $lies

limit side to side movement of t#e tread ribs caused by t#e e1$ansion and contraction of tread areas as sidewalls fle1. Also called ,ateral grip ,ateral stiffness %#e resistance of a ve#icle body structure to lateral im$act ,ateral tire clearance %#e distance between t#e tire sidewall and t#e nearest $oint on t#e ve#icle, reduced by any increase in rim offset and 1D, any increase in tire section from t#e e1isting tire. ,ate# An artificial rubber com$ound used in tires, tubes, etc. ,ate# tube An bicycle inner tube for tires because of its lig#ter weig#t. 2an be #ard to re$air, must be reinflated for eac# ride. ,athe A device for s#aving t#e metal from t#e outside or inside of a "ylin*er. Also .ee !ar ,athe !ra)e *rum lathe !ra)e ,athe "apstan ,athe ,athe-cut A $rocess of cutting rubber seals to a $recise s#a$e on a rotating drum. ,a/ .ee Ampere2s ,a/ !abos ,a/ !arbas ,a/ !iot-.avart ,a/ !oyle2s ,a/ "apacitor-resistance ,a/ "harles2s ,a/

%alton2s ,a/ 7oule2s ,a/ 9e/ton2s la/ 0hm2s ,a/ -ascal2s la/ ,a/ 0f Absorption .ee !ouguer ,a/ 0f Absorption ,a/ 0f &hermo*ynamics .ee First ,a/ 0f &hermo*ynamics .econ* ,a/ 0f &hermo*ynamics ,ay-by A Britis# term for a rest sto!, i.e., a $lace at t#e side of a road w#ere drivers can sto$ (to rest! ,ayer A certain weld metal t#ic"ness made of one or more $asses. Also .ee !arrier ,ayer !oun*ary ,ayer "atalytic layer 5amma layer Ainc-iron alloy layer ,ayer "ontrol .ee !oun*ary ,ayer "ontrol ,ayering %#is occurs in tan"s w#en a #ig# density fuel is mi1ed wit# a low density fuel. ,ayer 9oise .ee !oun*ary ,ayer 9oise ,ayer of pure zinc %#e to$ layer on #ot-di$ galvanized steel w#ic#, in contrast to zinc-iron alloy layers, almost com$letely consists of zinc ,ayer thic)ness

A coating t#ic"ness (indicated in micrometers or millimeters! ,aying the bi)e *o/n A cras# w#ere you slide down on one side of t#e bi"e ,aying up %#e $rocess of adding several layers of fibreglass mat and resin to form a G< s#ell ,ayout .ee %rive layout 'ast-/est layout 'ngine layout 9orth-south layout ,ayrub coupling A universal 8oint using four molded rubber inserts mounted on a round steel $late ,ayshaft A Britis# term for a "ountershaft -- t#e intermediate s#aft between and $arallel to t#e in$ut and out$ut s#afts, carrying t#e two $airs of gearw#eels w#ic# $rovide t#e re.uired c#anges in gear ratio ,ay-up resin %#e resin substance used to laminate G< $arts. %#e resin available on t#e do-it-yourself mar"et for fibreglass mat re$airs also belongs to t#is category ,azy tongs 1. Any device wit# e1tensible arms (often in t#e form of a series of crossed, #inged bars! for #andling ob8ects at a distance. ,. A s$ecific ty$e of $o$ rivet gun wit# suc# arms

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ma"

M300 1004 (neat! Methanol

MF<

704 Methanol and 104 unleaded 5asoline by volume, used as a motor fuel in ;;-s.

M1.

Acronym for mud and sno#, as in M;$ tire. A tire wit# a tread design (usually large lugs wit# wide s$aces between t#em! w#ic# gives t#e ma1imum traction in mud and snow. M1. tire

Mu* an* sno/ tire Acronym for mud and sno# tire, as in M;$ tire. A tire wit# a tread design w#ic# gives t#e ma1imum traction in mud and snow. MA"

Acronym for motor assisted bicycle -- usually an electric motor Machine .ee Air-coole* Machine Automatic .cre/ Machine Automatic .cre/ Machine !alancing Machine !olt-ma)ing Machine !oring Machine (n6ection mol*ing machine

Milling machine -erpetual motion machine -icture Machine heeling machine Machineability 1. <elative ease or difficulty in forming. 2. %#e malleable c#aracteristics of metal w#en cutting or forming on screw mac#ines. 'ame as

free machining

Machine *rive %#e direct $rocess end use in w#ic# t#ermal or electric energy is converted into mec#anical energy. (otors are found in almost every $rocess in manufacturing. %#erefore, w#en motors are found in e.ui$ment t#at is w#olly contained in anot#er end useM (suc# as $rocess cooling and refrigeration!, t#e energy is classified t#ere rat#er t#an in mac#ine drive. Machine* surface A smoot# surface of metal suc# as t#e to$ of a cylinder bloc". Machine patch A new layer of as$#alt is $laced on sections of t#e road, $er#a$s leaving some ga$s de$ending on condition. ;irst a layer of li.uid as$#alt or tac" coat is s$rayed on t#e road. Ae1t, fabric may be $laced on any badly bro"en areas for added strengt#. ;inally #ot as$#altic concrete is a$$lied, ra"ed and rolled to a $rescribed density. +or" moves .uic"ly and you can drive on t#e new as$#alt as soon as t#e rolling is com$lete. %#e wor" must be done w#en t#e ground is dry and reasonably warm. Machine room Area w#ere commercial and industrial refrigeration mac#inery -- e1ce$t eva$orators -- is located. Machinery cargo .ee Heavy Machinery cargo

Machinery spaces .ee >nmanne* machinery spaces Machine scre/ 1. A screw wit# t#read running t#e lengt# of t#e s#an" and available wit# a variety of different #eads ,. A straig#t s#an" fastener for binding metal to metal by going t#roug# a $re-ta$$ed #ole or nut. &ts #ead may be one of four common s#a$esM
o o o o

flathea* ovalhea* roun*hea* machine scre/ fillister-hea* machine scre/

Also see .ems scre/ .tructure Machine .cre/s Machining An o$eration w#ic# s#a$es metal $arts by carving away e1cess material as c#i$s $roduced in a se.uential $rocess of turning, milling and grinding o$erations. Machinists2 caliper A measuring tool wit# two curved arms for inside or outside measurement) t#e reading ta"en wit# t#e arms is transferred to a steel rule or micrometer to attain t#e e1act value Machinists2 hammer A !all pien hammer Mac-herson strut

"lic) image to supersize A .uspension $iece w#ic# em$loys a "oil spring and .hoc) absorber attac#ed to t#e lower A-arms and t#e to$ of t#e front body structure. Briginally it #ad a ,ateral lin) wit# an Anti-roll bar instead of t#e lower A-arm. &t was first invented by a ;ord of :ngland engineer, :arle '. (ac #erson. Mac-herson strut to/er A s#eet metal $anel surrounding t#e u$$er mount of t#e Mac-herson strut at t#e side $anels of t#e engine com$artment) it may be a se$arate $anel fitted by s$ot-welding or a dee$-drawn section of t#e side $anel s#a$ed to ta"e t#e u$$er strut end. Also called Mac-herson suspension A sus$ension layout struts Macromolecule

sus!ension leg turret

incor$orating

Macpherson

Any very large molecule, suc# as a synt#etic $olymer used in t#e manufacture of $lastic Macromolecular +it# very large molecules Ma*e available A ve#icle is considered Made available if it is available for delivery to dealers or users, w#et#er or not it was actually delivered to t#em. %o be Made available, t#e ve#icle must be com$leted and available for delivery) t#us, any conversion to be $erformed by an 0'M -e#icle 2onverter or Aftermar"et -e#icle 2onverter must #ave been com$leted. MAF Acronym for Mass airflo/ meter. A sensor used to measure t#e amount of inta"e air entering t#e engine on some fuel in8ection systems MAF R&9 Acronym for Mass Airflo# $ensor ?round MAF&. Acronym for manifold air0fuel tem!erature

sensor

MA5 'wiss engine ma"ers, t#e initials stand for (otosacoc#e Acacias Geneva. %#e com$any also $roduced com$lete (otosacoc#e motorcycles Mag
1. Abbreviation for Magneto.

2. Abbreviation for magnesium #heel, or Mag

/heels

Mag alloy (agnesium alloy, a strong lig#tweig#t metal used for many com$onents, $articularly w#eels Magnaflu# 1. A s$ecial c#emical $rocess, used to c#ec" $arts for crac)s.

,. A magnetic met#od of determining surface and subsurface defects in metals. Magnesium acetate .ee "alcium magnesium acetate Magnesium chlori*e A soluble com$ound in li.uid form $roduced from magnesium carbonate and #ydrogen c#loride used to deice road or $re-wet salt before a$$lying it to roads. &t wor"s li"e anti-freeze by lowering t#e freezing tem$erature of water, $reventing ice from forming a strong bond to t#e road. Magnesium /heel An alloy w#eel. Also see Mag /heel Magnet 1. A $iece of magnetized steel t#at will attract all ferrous material. %#e -ermanent magnet does not need electricity to function and will retain its magnetism over a $eriod of years. Bften s#a$ed into t#e letter ,. ,. %#e $art of t#e electric actuating mec#anism, w#ic# w#en energized is attracted to t#e armature, creating a controlled force to a$$ly t#e bra"e(s!. Also AlnicoG !all-en*e* !ar !lo/out !ra)e -ermanent magnet Magnetic .ee "lutch .ee magnet Magnet magnet Magnet Magnet

Magnetic

Flu# Magnetic 9orth -ole Magnetic .outh -ole Magnetic Magnetically controlle* electronic ignition .ee 'lectronic ignition system+ Magnetic blo/out A device w#ic# e1tinguis#es an electric arc. A magnetized coil moves one terminal to a cool surface or stretc#es out t#e arc. Magnetic clutch 1. A cou$ling device used to turn t#e com$ressor off and on electrically. ,. 2lutc# built into automobile air conditioning com$ressor flyw#eel and is o$erated magnetically w#ic# allows t#e $ulley to revolve wit#out driving com$ressor w#en t#e refrigerating effect is not re.uired. Also .ee 'lectromagnetic clutch Magnetic core (agnetic center of a magnetic field. Magnetic *rain plug A $lug or bolt fitted in t#e sum$ or oil $an to collect metal filings Magnetic 'lectric !ra)e .ee .pot Magnetic 'lectric !ra)e Magnetic fiel* %#e area encom$assed by t#e magnetic lines of force surrounding eit#er a bar Magnet or electromagnet. %#e flow of magnetic force between t#e o$$osite $oles of a magnet. Also .ee Fiel* -rimary magnetic fiel* Magnetic flu#

9ines of force of a magnet. Magnetic gas)et Eoor-sealing material w#ic# "ee$s door tig#tly closed wit# small magnets inserted in gas"et. Magnetic materials An ob8ect made of certain $ure metals (es$. iron and nic"el! or an alloy of t#em suc# t#at w#en it encounters a magnetic field it is demonstrates an attraction or re$ulsion. Magnetic north pole :nd of magnet But of w#ic# magnetic lines of force flow. Magnetic permeability A test t#at determines t#e level of magnetism. Magnetic pic)-up 1. A $ulse generator consisting of a stator wit# a $ermanent magnet and a rotor, w#ic# induces an A2 voltage in t#e inductive winding by t#e $eriodic c#ange of t#e air ga$ between stator and rotor. (agnetic $ic"-u$s attac#ed to t#e distributor for ignition triggering #ave as many teet# on t#e $ole $iece (stator! and on t#e trigger w#eel (rotor! as t#e engine #as cylinders. 'ome magnetic $ic"-u$s #ave a bowl-li"e rotor wit# ferrite rods inserted in t#e walls. (agnetic $ic"-u$s on t#e cran"s#aft flyw#eel act as reference mar" sensors. ,. A tool wit# fle1ible or rigid s#aft and magnetic ti$ used to retrieve dro$$ed nuts, bolts, and ot#er metal $arts from #ard-to-reac# $laces. Also .ee -ic)-up tool &ransistorize* ignition /ith magnetic pic)-up Magnetic pic)-up assembly A $ulse generator consisting of a stator wit# a $ermanent magnet and a rotor, w#ic# induces an A2 voltage in t#e inductive winding by t#e $eriodic c#ange of t#e air ga$ between stator and rotor. (agnetic $ic"-

u$s attac#ed to t#e distributor for ignition triggering #ave as many teet# on t#e $ole $iece (stator! and on t#e trigger w#eel (rotor! as t#e engine #as cylinders. 'ome magnetic $ic"-u$s #ave a bowl-li"e rotor wit# ferrite rods inserted in t#e walls. (agnetic $ic"-u$s on t#e cran"s#aft flyw#eel act as reference mar" sensors Magnetic pic)-up tool A tool wit# fle1ible or rigid s#aft and magnetic ti$ used to retrieve dro$$ed nuts, bolts, and ot#er metal $arts from #ard-to-reac# $laces. Also .ee -ic)-up tool Magnetic plug A $lug or bolt fitted in t#e sum$ or oil $an to collect metal filings Magnetic scre/*river 1. A .cre/*river wit# a magnetized s#an". ,. A screwdriver tool wit# #e1agon soc"et end to acce$t and o$erate #e1 bits and #old t#em securely by magnetism. 'ome also #ave a #ollow #andle for storing t#e bits Magnetic south pole %#e $art of a magnet into w#ic# magnetic flu1 lines flow. Magnetism 1. A field of force w#ic# causes a magnet to attract materials made of iron, nic"el-cobalt or ot#er ferrous material. ,. As related to stainless fasteners, >00 series stainless is non-magnetic in its raw material condition. 2old wor"ing can sometimes induce traces of magnetism in >00 series, de$ending on t#e severity of cold wor"ing and c#emical com$osition of t#e stainless. A rise in magnetism is related to an increase in tensile strengt# and wor" #ardening caused by t#e #eat and friction of

cold forming and does not reduce corrosion resistance or cause any molecular c#ange in austentic raw material. A #ig#er $ortion of nic"el can increase stability in stainless, t#us decreasing wor" #ardening and any $ossibilities of magnetism. Brass and silicon bronze are nonmagnetic. Also see (n*uce* Magnetism Magnetization .ee Amperes &heory 0f Magnetization Magnetize* (ade magnetic Magneto An electrical device w#ic# generates electrical "urrent w#en it is rotated by an outside source of $ower. &t needs no outside source of $ower suc# as a !attery. &t may $roduce eit#er low or #ig# tension "urrent. Also .ee Fly/heel magneto Magneto file A tool for filing ignition $oints and ot#er small ob8ects Magneto ignition A com$act assembly of a magneto generator, an ignition coil, and a distributor. &gnition voltage is induced wit#in t#e magneto by t#e movement of a coil relative to t#e $oles of a $ermanent magnet. Because it needs no battery, t#e system is $articularly suited for small engines, e.g., motorcycles, outboard engines, etc. Magnetomotive force ImmfJ %#e magnetic energy su$$lied wit# t#e establis#ment of flu1 between t#e $oles of a magnet Magneto puller

A tool w#ic# screws into t#e center of t#e magneto to force t#e magneto away from t#e s#aft on w#ic# it rides. Magnet sensor .ee Hall vane s/itch Mags .ee Mag /heel+ Mag /heel

Mag /heel 9ig#tweig#t, s$orty w#eels made of magnesium. %#e term mag is often a$$lied to Aluminum and aluminum and steel combination w#eels. Also .ee

Alloy /heels

Main Britis# term for #ouse#old A2 voltage. .ee !last Main Four !olt Main &/o !olt Main Main bar %#e bar on a convertible to$ w#ic# carries t#e main load w#en t#e to$ is raised and taut, and defines t#e #inge $oint for t#e folding motion. Also called main

bo#

Main beam Britis# term for High beam

Main beam in*icator Britis# term for High beam in*icator Main bearings %#e bearings in t#e engine bloc" t#at su$$ort t#e "ran)shaft. Main bearings .ee Main bearing Main bearing support A steel $late t#at is installed over t#e main bearing ca$s to increase t#eir strengt# for racing $ur$oses. Main bearing supports .ee Main bearing support+ Main bo/ %#e bar on a convertible to$ w#ic# carries t#e main load w#en t#e to$ is raised and taut, and defines t#e #inge $oint for t#e folding motion. Also called main Main burner A device or grou$ of devices essentially forming an integral unit for t#e final conveyance of fuel or a mi1ture of fuel and air to t#e combustion zone, and on w#ic# combustion ta"es $lace to accom$lis# t#e function for w#ic# t#e e.ui$ment is designed. Also see (n*ivi*ual $alve Main !urner Main combustion chamber +it# diesel engines, t#e fuel may be in8ected in t#ree different locations in t#e $rec#amber, t#e swirl c#amber, or t#e main combustion c#amber (for direct in8ection engines!, de$ending on t#e $rocess used Main *ec) %#e continuous dec" of a s#i$ running from fore to aft. %#e freeboard is measured from t#is dec". Main 6et

bar

%#e $rimary, large fuel orifice in a carburetor t#roug# w#ic# most of t#e fuel flows. Mainline pressure .ee ,ine pressure Main member %#e $rimary c#assis rail Main metering circuit %#e cruising circuit or t#e #ig# s$eed circuit. &t su$$lies t#e correct airDfuel mi1ture to t#e engine during cruising and #ig#-s$eed conditions. Also called Main Main mi#ing /ell (ain well main nozzle (ain delivery tube Main mi#ture *ischarge nozzle %#e 8et t#roug# w#ic# t#e gasoline and air is fed into t#e carburetor barrel w#ere it becomes t#e airDfuel mi1ture Main petal %#e $rimary $etal of a dual-stage reed valve. %#e o$$osite is .ubsi*iary petal. &n dual-stage reed valves, t#e subsidiary $etal o$ens first Main pressure .ee ,ine pressure Main regulating system %#e carburetor com$onents are divided into t#e fuel inta"e control, t#e main regulating system, t#e idle system, and t#e staring aids. %#e main regulating system includes t#e main 8et, 8et needle, needle 8et, and t#rottle valve, w#ose $ur$ose it is to $rovide an a$$ro$riate amount of fuel and air to t#e carburetor Mains %#e ca$s w#ic# secure t#e cran"s#aft. .ee !olt Mains Four bolt mains

metering system

Main .eal !earing .ee .plit-lit-type Rear Main .eal !earing Main shaft %#e transmission 0utput shaft Main sun visor &n dual visor systems, t#e main visor is moved sideways and t#e secondary visor is fli$$ed down, t#us s#ielding t#e driver from t#e sun from bot# t#e front and side Maintenance %#e wor" underta"en by a car owner to "ee$ #is ve#icle in good wor"ing order) ty$ically c#ec"ing t#e tires, lig#ts, oil and coolant levels, windscreen wi$ers, and seat belts. 2om$are .ervice Maintenance-free 'omet#ing t#at re.uiring no wor" in order to be "e$t o$erational Maintenance-free battery A battery wit# a $ermanently sealed to$, t#us re.uiring no to$$ing-u$ Maintenance manual A boo" of instructions detailing routine maintenance Maintenance Reporting .tan*ar*s .ee $ehicle Maintenance Reporting .tan*ar*s Main triangle .ee Front triangle+ Main $alve .hutoff .ee Manual Main $alve .hutoff Main venturi 9arge venturi cast into t#e carburetor main body Main /ell %#e reservoir in w#ic# fuel for t#e main system is stored. %#e main well is located in t#e main body

casting. &t is connected to t#e venturi area by t#e disc#arge nozzle Main-/ell tube A $erforated tube w#ic# e1tends from an air bleed in t#e to$ of t#e air #orn down into t#e main well. Admits air from t#e air bleed into t#e main well to emulsify t#e fuel in t#e main well. &m$roves idle res$onse and stability w#en t#e engine is #ot and $revents fuel $ercolation and general #ot-starting $roblems. Also im$roves res$onse in t#e main metering circuit during $art t#rottle conditions. Also called 'mulsion tube Ma6or *iameter 1. Bn a bolt or screw, t#e diameter measured from t#e crest of a t#read to t#e corres$onding crest on t#e o$$osite side of t#e bolt or screw ,. 9argest or outside diameter of t#e screw t#reads. >. Bn a straig#t t#read, t#e diameter of t#e coa1ial cylinder w#ic# would $ass t#roug# t#e crests of an e1ternal t#read or t#e roots of an internal t#read. Ma)e Brand name of a car or truc" (i.e., 2#evrolet, ;ord, Eodge, ?onda!. Ma)e-an*-brea) ./itch .ee :uic) Ma)e-an*-brea) ./itch Ma)er .ee Automatic (ce "ube Ma)er .oli*-state "ontrolle* (ce Ma)er Male en* A $lug, $in, or $rotrusion w#ic# fits into a rece$tacle (female end!. Ma)e the tripM %ruc"er slang for cb signal rece$tion as in FEid my signal ma"e t#e tri$GF Male threa*

'omet#ing wit# e1ternal t#reads li"e a bolt or screw. Female threa*s are found in nuts. Malfunction roblem in system t#at affects normal o$eration Malfunction in*icator light ((&9! an electric circuit between t#e com$uter and t#e chec& engine or service engine soon lig#t on t#e das# $anel of a com$uter e.ui$$ed ve#icle Malibu Hybri* A 2#evrolet midsize Hybri* sedan similar to t#e .aturn Aura 5reen ,ine t#at uses a !elt Alternator .tarter #ybrid system. Malleable castings 1. 2ast forms of metal w#ic# #ave been #eat-treated to reduce t#eir brittleness. ,. A casting w#ic# #as been toug#ened by annealing Mallet .ee !ossing mallet Rubber mallet oo* mallet Man '#ort form for Manual transmission Management .ee !ureau 0f ,an* Management &hermal Management &otal 'nergy Management &otal :uality Management Management "ontrol .ystem .ee 'nergy Management "ontrol .ystem Management %istrict .ee Air :uality Management %istrict

Management system .ee 'ngine management system Man*rel A round s#aft used to mount a stone, cutter, saw, etc. Maneuver %o drive or steer a ve#icle around obstacles, c#ange direction, or moving in a confined s$ace. Maneuverability %#e ease wit# w#ic# a ve#icle can be steered around ob8ects Manganese A non-magnetic metal w#ic# im$roves strengt# and #ardness to steel and bronze .ee Methylcyclopenta*ienyl Manganese &ricarbonyl Manganese bronze An alloy of co$$er, zinc, and manganese Manganese phosphate coating A $#os$#ate coating wit# added manganese to increase resistance to wear and fatigue Manganese &ricarbonyl .ee Methylcyclopenta*ienyl Manganese &ricarbonyl Manhattan .ee Frazer+ Manhole A #ole or o$ening in a street, wit# a removable cover, t#roug# w#ic# an underground structure, suc# as a sewer or conduit, can be entered for re$air or ins$ection. Manifol* 1. A $i$e or number of $i$es connecting a series of #oles or outlets to a common o$ening. ,. A device w#ic# controls refrigerant flow for system test $ur$oses by means of #and valves w#ic# can o$en or close various $assageways connected

toget#er inside t#e manifold. /sed in con8unction wit# manifold gauges and service #oses 3. %#e conduit of an Appliance t#at su$$lies gas to t#e individual burner. Also .ee Air in6ection manifol* %ry Manifol* '#haust manifol* 5auge Manifol* High-rise manifol* (nlet manifol* (nta)e manifol* ,og manifol* Ram inta)e manifol* .ervice Manifol* .plit manifol* $ariable inta)e manifol* et Manifol* Manifol* absolute pressure ((A ! manifold $ressure measured on t#e absolute $ressure scale, an indication of engine load. At sea level, (A * 1 bar (16.0 $si! Manifol* absolute pressure sensor IMA-J 1. A sensor w#ic# monitors t#e engine=s inta"e manifold $ressure and transmits t#e data to t#e engine controller. A $ressure-sensitive dis" ca$acitor used to measure air $ressure inside t#e inta"e manifold. %#e (a$ sensor sends a signal to t#e com$uter w#ic# uses t#is information to determine load conditions so it can ad8ust s$ar" timing and fuel mi1ture. Also called Manifol* pressure sensor or -ressure *ifferential sensor ,. A sensor t#at measures absolute air $ressure in t#e inta"e manifold.

Also see !arometric An* Manifol* Absolute -ressure .ensor Manifol* air temperature sensor ((A% sensor! sensor t#at monitors t#e tem$erature of t#e air entering t#e inta"e manifold Manifol* charge temperature sensor ((2%! same as t#e air c#arge tem$erature sensor (A2%! Manifol* control valve ((2-! a t#ermostatically o$erated valve in t#e e1#aust manifold for varying #eat to t#e inta"e manifold wit# res$ect to t#e engine tem$. Also called e(haust heat Manifol* gauge set A com$lete, testing assembly consisting of a #ig# side gauge, a low side gauge and a #ig# side gauge, a test manifold, and a set of service or c#arging #oses. Also, can be used to disc#arge refrigerant, evacuate air and moisture, and c#arge air conditioning system wit# refrigerant Manifol* heat control valve A valve $laced in t#e '#haust manifol*, or in t#e '#haust pipe, t#at deflects a certain amount of #ot gas around t#e base of t#e "arburetor to aid in warmu$. Manifol* heater A system used to im$rove t#e cold start be#avior of an engine, consisting of #eating ducts incor$orated into t#e inta"e manifold t#at are connected to t#e water cooling system of t#e engine) alternatively, an electric #eater may be used. Also .ee (nta)e manifol* heater Manifol* pressure controlle* (( 2! a fuel in8ection system w#ic# determines engine load based on inta"e man $ressure

control valve

Manifol* pressure sensor A sensor t#at reads $ressure c#anges in t#e inta"e manifold in relation to barometric $ressure. Also "nown as Manifol* vacuum sensor, Manifol* absolute pressure sensor, -ressure *ifferential sensor, or $acuum sensor Manifol* runners 'ingle $assage in a manifold from one cylinder to t#e ma8or manifold o$ening Manifol*C service 2#amber e.ui$$ed wit# gauges and manual valves, used by service tec#nicians to service refrigerating systems. Manifol* surface temperature sensor A sensor t#at $rovides information on t#e surface tem$erature of t#e inta"e manifold Manifol* vacuum As t#e -istons move down on t#e (nta)e stro)e, t#ey create a suction or $acuum in t#e (nta)e manifol*. %#is vacuum reading can be used to determine #ow well t#e engine is running. Manifol* vacuum sensor ((-'! A sensor t#at reads $ressure c#anges in t#e inta"e manifold in relation to barometric $ressure. Also "nown as Manifol* pressure sensor, -ressure *ifferential sensor, or $acuum sensor Manifol* vacuum zone s/itch A ty$e of manifold vacuum sensor ((-'! t#at dramatically c#anges t#e sensor out$ut signal level u$on reac#ing a $reselected level or zone of manifold vacuum. Manoeuvrability Britis# s$elling of Maneuverability Manoeuvre Britis# s$elling of Maneuver Manometer

1. A device for measuring a vacuum, consisting of a

, s#a$ed tube $artially filled wit# fluid. Bne end of tube is o$en to air, t#e ot#er is connected to a c#amber in w#ic# vacuum is to be measured. A column of mercury >0 in. #ig# e.uals 16.5 $si, w#ic# is atmos$#eric $ressure at sea level. <eadings are given in inc#es of mercury (?g! ,. &nstrument for measuring $ressure of gases and va$ors. Gas $ressure is balanced against column of li.uid, suc# as mercury, in /-s#a$ed tube. Manual 1. Briginally somet#ing done by #and, but later #as come to mean somet#ing t#at is done wit#out $ower assistance. ;or instance, manual bra"es on a car are o$erated by t#e driver=s foot, not #and) but if t#e bra"es are $ower assisted, t#ey are no longer manual bra"es. ,. A collo.uial term for a ve#icle wit# manual transmission. >. A boo" of instruction. Also .ee Flat rate manual Maintenance manual Manual cho)e Manual steering Manual transmission 0/ner2s manual Repair manual .ervice manual Manual a*6uster A ty$e of bra"e ad8uster t#at must be ad8usted from time-to-time, wit# t#e use of a #and tool Manual blee*ing

A tec#ni.ue for bleeding #ydraulic bra"es t#at re.uires two $eo$le. Bne $um$s t#e bra"es, and t#e ot#er o$ens and closes t#e bleeder screw. Manual cho)e A ,in)age system w#ic# begins wit# a "nob on t#e %ash w#ic# can be $ulled to activate and $us#ed to de-activate. %#e "nob is attac#ed to a cable and t#e ot#er end of t#e cable is attac#ed to a t#e !utterfly valve on t#e "arburetor. Because many %rivers #ad difficulty "nowing w#en to use t#e c#o"e "nob, manufacturers develo$ed t#e Automatic cho)e system w#ic# decides t#is information for t#e %river. Manual-cran) /in*o/ .ee Manually operate* /in*o/ Manual frost control (anual control used to c#ange o$eration of refrigerating system to $roduce defrosting conditions. Manual gearbo# .ee Manual transmission Manual hy*raulic bra)e system A #ydraulic-ty$e bra"e system t#at uses unassisted driver effort. Manual Main valve shutoff A manually o$erated valve in t#e fuel line for t#e $ur$ose of com$letely turning on or s#utting off t#e fuel su$$ly to fuel utilization e.ui$ment, e1ce$t to a $ilot $rovided wit# inde$endent s#utoff valves. Manually operate* /in*o/ A window (usually a side windo! o$erated by turning a lever by #and. 2om$are 'lectric /in*o/ Manual panel cutter 2utting tool drawn manually across a $anel surface to cut to t#e desired s#a$e Manual steering

A .teering system t#at does not #ave a -o/er booster to reduce t#e effort of steering c#anges es$ecially during slow movements suc# as $arallel $ar"ing. Manual transmission

((% or (D%! A &ransmission system in w#ic# gears are selected by t#e %river by means of a #ando$erated 5earshift and a foot-o$erated "lutch. &n a Motorcycle t#e "lutch is #and-o$erated and t#e gears#ift is foot-o$erated. 2ontrasts wit# an Automatic transmission. Also called a standard transmission. Manual valve ((-! A control in an automatic transmission w#ic# distributes ,ine pressure to t#e various control valves and $istons w#ic# o$erate t#e multi-$late or band bra"es or t#e clutc#es) o$erated by t#e driver via t#e selector lever Manual valve shutoff A manually o$erated valve in a fuel line for t#e $ur$ose of com$letely turning on or s#utting off t#e fuel su$$ly to fuel utilization e.ui$ment. Manual version A $assenger car wit# a manual transmission

Manufacture* gas A gas obtained by destructive distillation of coal or by t#e t#ermal decom$osition of oil, or by t#e reaction of steam $assing t#roug# a bed of #eated coal or co"e. :1am$les are coal gases, co"e oven gases, $roducer gas, blast furnace gas, blueM (water! gas, carbureted water gas. Btu content varies widely. Manufacturer .ee Automobile manufacturer 0riginal '8uipment Manufacturer Manufacturers An* &ra*ers .ee .ociety 0f Motor Manufacturers An* &ra*ers Manufacturers Association .ee 9ational 'lectrical Manufacturers Association Manufacturer *iscounts &n some leases, $articularly subvented leases, t#e manufacturer reduces t#e ('< w#ic# lowers t#e $urc#ase $rice of t#e ve#icle, w#ic# t#e lease is based on. %#is is a form of ca$italized cost reduction. Manufacturer2s performance ratings %#e $erformance data as s$ecified by t#e car manufacturer Manufacturer2s suggeste* retail price (('< ! %#e suggested retail $rice t#e dealer is as"ing. Generally t#e same as t#e stic&er !rice. Eealers ty$ically sell at a discount to t#is $rice. Manufacturer $ehicle .ee 0riginal '8uipment Manufacturer $ehicle Manufacturing 1. rocess tec#nology (i.e., metal forming, mac#ining, in8ection molding, blow molding, die casting, forgings, electronicsDelectrical, assembly, coatingD$lating!) ca$acity utilization (in $ercent!)

$roduction volumes) strategic alliances (e.g., 8oint ventures, tec#nology agreements!. ,. An energy-consuming subsector of t#e industrial sector t#at consists of all facilities and e.ui$ment engaged in t#e mec#anical, $#ysical, c#emical, or electronic transformation of materials, substances, or com$onents into new $roducts. Assembly of com$onent $arts of $roducts is included, e1ce$t for t#at w#ic# is included in construction. Manufacturing *ivision Bne of ten fields of economic activity defined by t#e 'tandard &ndustrial 2lassification (anual. %#e manufacturing division includes all establis#ments engaged in t#e mec#anical or c#emical transformation of materials or substances into new $roducts. %#e ot#er divisions of t#e /.'. economy are agriculture, forestry, fis#ing, #unting, and tra$$ing) mining) construction) trans$ortation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services) w#olesale trade) retail trade) finance, insurance, and real estate) $ersonal, business, $rofessional, re$air, recreation, and ot#er services) and $ublic administration. %#e establis#ments in t#e manufacturing division constitute t#e universe for t#e (:2'M (an '(A survey!. Manufacturing establishment An economic unit at a single $#ysical location w#ere mec#anical or c#emical transformation of materials or substances into new $roducts are $erformed. MA1. Acronym for Manifol* absolute pressure 2. Acronym for manifold air !ressure sensor Map A $ictorial re$resentation of a series of data $oints stored in t#e memory of t#e control unit of system wit# com$lete engine management. %#e control unit refers

to t#e ma$ to control variables suc# as fuel in8ection $ulse widt# and ignition timing Also .ee "haracteristic map %/ell-angle map 'ngine map (gnition map Map-controlle* ignition A micro$rocessor-controlled ignition system wit# electronic ignition timing by means of an ignition ma$ stored in t#e control unit memory. %#e engine s$eed is sensed by ?all generators at t#e distributor or magnetic $ic"-u$s on t#e cran"s#aft, t#e load signal being given by $ressure sensors w#ic# measure t#e air mass or air $er unit of time Map light An interior lig#t to facilitate, for e1am$le, ma$ reading. Also .ee 5oosenec) map light MA-A stabilized met#yl acetylene-$ro$adiene fuel gas. &t is a Eow 2#emical 2o. $roduct. Mappe* ignition A micro$rocessor-controlled ignition system wit# electronic ignition timing by means of an ignition ma$ stored in t#e control unit memory. %#e engine s$eed is sensed by ?all generators at t#e distributor or magnetic $ic"-u$s on t#e cran"s#aft, t#e load signal being given by $ressure sensors w#ic# measure t#e air mass or air $er unit of time Mapping .ee "haracteristic map MA- sensor (anifold absolute $ressure system sensor tells com$uter #ow muc# $ressure is in t#e inta"e manifold Ma8uila

(e1ican assembly $lant located near t#e /.'.-(e1ican border w#ere most $roduction is e1$orted to t#e /nited 'tates. Ma8uila*ora (e1ican assembly $lant located near t#e /.'.-(e1ican border w#ere most $roduction is e1$orted to t#e /nited 'tates. Marbling A s$ecial decorative $ainting effect wit# rotating brus#es Margin %#e return an intermediary ac#ieves on t#e selling $rice of t#e article. %#at is, if t#e intermediary buys a $roduct for Y1 and sells it for Y1.00, t#e margin is calculated. ;or e1am$le, .00 (i.e., Y1.00 - Y1! divided by Y1.00, or >>4. Also .ee 5ross margin $alve margin Margin brac)et A brac"et connecting a side frame to t#e margin $late at t#e bilge Margin line A line, not less t#an > inc#es below t#e to$ of t#e bul"#ead dec" at side, defining t#e #ig#est $ermissible water$lane in t#e final condition of sin"age, trim and #eel Marine %iesel 0il ((EB! (arine Eiesel oil is a middle distillate fuel oil w#ic# can contain traces often $ercentM (104! or more residual fuel oil from trans$ortation contamination andDor #eavy fuel oil blending. %#e (EB does not re.uire #eated storage. Marine freight ;reig#t trans$orted over rivers, canals, t#e Great 9a"es, and domestic ocean waterways. Mar)

.ee !each Mar)s !urn Mar) %raft mar)s 7aguar Mar) Reference mar) sensor .)i* mar) ./irl mar)s &iming mar) &rac)ing mar) itness mar) Mar)er .ee Mile Mar)ers -avement mar)ers .par) -lug "able Mar)er .par) -lug ire Mar)er Mar)er lamp A lig#t w#ic# is mounted on t#e e1treme edges of t#e roof of a truc" to s#ow t#e ma1imum #eig#t and widt# of a ve#icle. Also called clearance lam!. Also see .i*e mar)er light Mar)er light A .i*e mar)er light Mar)et .ee Aftermar)et %o-it-yourself mar)et 5rey mar)et Mechanic installe* mar)et Replacement mar)et 5ray Mar)et $ehicles Mar)et share %#e $ercentage of total sales re$resented by an individual manufacturerDim$orter, ma"e or name$late. Mar)et $ehicles

.ee 5ray Mar)et $ehicles Mar)ing .ee Hatche* mar)ing -avement mar)ings .ize mar)ing &ire .ize Mar)ings ater mar)ing heel mar)ing Mar) sensor .ee Reference mar) sensor Mar)-up %#e return an intermediary ac#ieves on t#e cost $rice of an article. /sing t#e same e1am$le described above, mar"-u$ is .00 divided by Y1, or 004. Marles steering A form of cam-and-roller steering Marmon A ve#icle brand of w#ic# all 16-cyl.) 13,0 56) 13,6 56) 13,5 50) 13,7 :50) 13>0 Big 7) 13>1 77 and Big 7 models are "lassic cars. Mar8ue A $articular brand name of a ve#icle. Also s$elled Mar8uee A $articular brand name of a ve#icle. Also s$elled

mar5uee mar5ue

Martensitic Aamed for <obert (artens, a German metallurgist, martensitic grades of stainless steel (ty$es 610, 616, and 6,0! #ave a #ig# carbon content w#ic# reduces corrosion resistance, but allows a s#ar$ increase in tensile strengt# after #eat treatment. Because of its #ig# tensile strengt#, martensitic stainless is used for #ig#ly stressed $arts suc# as control rod mec#anisms,

valves, s#afts, $um$ $arts under #ig# stress. (artensitic stainless is magnetic, contains no nic"el, loses toug#ness in very cold tem$eratures, and may #ave tendency to become brittle. /sed in a$$ro1imately 04 of stainless fasteners. &ts corrosion resistance is not as good as austentic or ferritic stainless, so martensitic fasteners are used in mild atmos$#eres. Martin .ee Aston Martin+ MA. Acronym for mi(ture ad/ust scre# Mascot .ee 'mily Maserati

"lic) image for boo)s on Maserati A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. %#e 1305-66 >000D>500 G% models are Milestone cars. Masher

A cyclist w#o #abitually $edals #ard in a #ig# gear, at a slow cadence. %#e o$$osite of a s!inner. Mas) %o cover t#e surrounding area w#en $aint s$raying to $rotect it from s$las#es Mas)ing .ee Aural Mas)ing Mas)ing tape An ad#esive ta$e used to cover surfaces t#at border an area to be $ainted, so as to $rotect t#em Mass %#e .uantity of matter a body contains. (ass is measured in "ilograms (and often incorrectly called weig#t!. %#e mass of a body does not c#ange if, for e1am$le, it is moved to t#e (oon w#ere t#e force of gravity is less. Also .ee Relative Atomic Mass .prung /eight >nsprung /eight eight Mass airflo/ meter ((A;! device for measuring t#e mass flow of air into an engine. Also .ee Air flo/ sensor Hot-/ire airflo/ meter Mass *amper A device w#ic# reduces or $revents vibrations or oscillations, usually a weig#t w#ic# counteracts (balances! undesirable motions) used on drive s#afts of some ;+E cars Mass Flo/ .ee Air Mass Flo/ Mass Meter

.ee Air Mass Meter Mass-pro*uce* car A car w#ic# is manufactured in great numbers to a standard $attern and wit# e1tensive mec#anization Mass .ensor .ee Air Mass .ensor Mass tone %#e tone of a $aint as it a$$ears from t#e color of t#e $aint in t#e can) t#is is re.uired for formulating t#e ingredients of a $aint tone. Also .ee &int tone Mass transit system A system designed to trans$ort large numbers of $eo$le or goods Mast A tall vertical or ra"ed structure, usually of circular section, located on t#e centerline of a s#i$ and used to carry navigation lig#ts, radio antennas and cargo booms Master %#e $rimary or controlling device. A secondary or de$endent device is called a slave. Also .ee !ra)e master cylin*er &an*em master cylin*er Master lin) Master bra)e cylin*er .ee !ra)e master cylin*er+ Master con ro* &n a two-stro"e dual $iston engines, t#e connecting rod t#at is articulated directly on t#e cran"s#aft. Also .ee .lave con ro* Master cylin*er

1. %#e $rimary com$onent for $ressurizing fluid in a #ydraulic system. /sed in t#e bra"ing system, it su$$orts a reservoir for #olding bra"e fluid and is activated eac# time t#e driver de$resses t#e bra"e $edal. ,. %#e device t#at converts mec#anical $ressure from t#e bra"e $edal into #ydraulic $ressure t#at is routed to t#e w#eels to o$erate t#e friction assemblies. Also .ee !ra)e master cylin*er %ual Master "ylin*er .ingle Master "ylin*er .lave cylin*er &an*em master cylin*er $acuum-po/ere* Master "ylin*er Master cylin*er pushro* %#e rod t#at transmits t#e movement and force of t#e driver from t#e bra"e $edal lever to t#e master cylinder $iston. Master 5auge A t#read-$lug gauge w#ic# re$resents t#e $#ysical dimensions of t#e nominal or basic size of t#e $art. &t clearly establis#es t#e minimum size of t#e t#readed #ole and t#e ma1imum size of t#e screw at t#e $oint at w#ic# interference between mating $arts begin. Master lin) A s$ecial lin" on a "hain t#at can be o$ened by fle1ing a $late, removing a screw, or some ot#er means besides driving out a Rivet. %#e retaining s$ring cli$ is s#a$ed li"e a fis# wit# a round #ead and twin tails. %#is illustration #el$s to determine t#e $osition of t#e cli$ because t#e fish moves in t#e direction of "hain movement. +#en installed in reverse, t#e cli$ may come off. Master mo*el

%#e first $recision model of an automobile based on a clay model or 2AE-data) essential for t#e manufacture of $rototy$es Master pattern %#e first $recision model of an automobile based on a clay model or 2AE-data) essential for t#e manufacture of $rototy$es Master s/itch .ee !attery master s/itch Master vac .ee $acuum bra)e booster Master vac servo unit .ee $acuum bra)e booster Masthea* light A w#ite lig#t situated on t#e fore and aft centerline of a s#i$ Mastic Any #eavy-bodied ad#esive of suc# a consistency t#at it must be a$$lied by notc#ed trowel, gob, or by buttering met#ods Mastication %#e reduction of rubber to a $ul$ $re$aratory to ma"ing tires Mastic seam sealant 'oft water$roof sealant for 8oints Mat 1. A dull, not s#iny, $aint finis#. Also s$elled matt. ,. A covering. 3. Acronym for Manifold Air Tem!erature Also !ea* Fiberglass Floormat Mata*or seat .ee mat mat

"lic) image for boo)s on Mata*or An automobile manufactured by A(2 Matching .ee -aint color matching Mate %o fit toget#er Material .ee Active American .ociety For &esting !ase !earing !ri*ges An* Friction Metallic Friction Mol*ing Moul*ing 9oncombustible 0rganic Friction -erformance characteristics of -iston .oun*proofing $iscoelastic aste Materials Material safety *ata sheets

Material Materials material material Materials Material Material material Material Materials Material materials material material materials

'#eets t#at contain information on t#e #andling of #azardous wastes, t#e use of $rotective e.ui$ment and t#e $rocedures to follow in case of an accident Mating ;itting toget#er) matc#ing Mating gears Gears w#ic# mes# toget#er Mating surface A surface w#ic# interacts $erfectly wit# anot#er Mating threa* A t#read w#ic# engages wit# a corres$onding t#read, suc# as t#e male and female t#reads of a nut and bolt MA& sensor Acronym for Manifol* air temperature sensor Matter .ee -articulate matter -olycyclic 0rganic Matter &otal -articulate Matter $olatile Matter Matri# %#at $ortion of t#e mold w#ic# surrounds t#e tire transferring #eat to t#e uncured rubber and forming t#e tread $attern. Matt A dull, not s#iny, $aint finis#. Also s$elled mat Ma#ima

A model of automobile manufactured by Aissan in Ja$an

Ma#imum bra)e po/er %#e ma1imum $ower of an engine as measured by a dynamometer Ma#imum *iameter bra)e *rum %#e largest diameter to w#ic# a bra"e drum can be mac#ined or worn before it becomes unsafe. %#is dimension is usually stam$ed or cast into t#e drum near t#e #ub. %y$ically, t#is is 0.060F over original diameter. Ma#imum ignition &ime %#e ma1imum allowable time for t#e s$ecified function of any device. Ma#imum Material ,imit %#e ma1imum limit of size of an e1ternal dimension or t#e minimum limit of size of an internal dimension. Ma#imum operating pressure ((B ! %#e steady-state or transient gauge $ressure at w#ic# a $art or system o$erates. &t s#all not e1ceed t#e allowable wor"ing $ressure, and it is usually "e$t at a suitable level below t#e setting of $ressurelimitingDrelieving devices to $revent t#eir fre.uent functioning. Ma#imum po/er %#e ma1imum $ower of an engine as measured by a dynamometer Ma#imum regulation capacity %#e #ig# limit of flow below w#ic# is found acce$table regulating c#aracteristics. Ma#imum trailer /eight Also "nown as towing ca$acity) t#e #eaviest trailer t#e ve#icle is rated to tow. %owing ca$acity is ty$ically based on t#e ve#icle $lus a driver of 100 $ounds. %#e weig#t of additional $assengers andDor cargo s#ould be deducted from t#e ma1imum trailer weig#t. Maybach A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models are "lassic cars. Mays

.ee Raymon*-Mays Maz*a

"lic) image for boo)s on Maz*a A model of automobile manufactured in Ja$an by t#e (azda (otor 2or$oration. &t includes >,> (1370-36!, 6,6 (137>-,00,!, 3,3 (1371-30!, B,,00 (13ZZ-3>!, B,>00 (1336-,005!, B,000 (1337-,001!, B,600 (13ZZ-3>!, B>000 (1336-,005!, B6000 (1336-,005!, 2N-5 (,005!, 2N-3 (,005!, (AOEA> (,006-07!, (AOEA0 (,006-05!, (AOEA6 (,00>-07!, (azdas$eed> (,005!, (AOEA' ::E6 (,006-05!, (iata (N-0 (1330,007!, (illenia (1330-,00,!, ( - (1373-,006!, (N-> (133,-30!, (N-6 (1377-35!, Aava8o (1331-36!, rotege (1330-,00>!, rotege0 (,00,-0>!, <N-5 (133>-30!, <N-7 (,006-05!, and %ribute (,001-06! Maz*a RD

A model of automobile wit# a Rotary engine manufactured in Ja$an by t#e (azda (otor 2or$oration. &t began wit# t#e <100 and included t#e <N,, <N>, <N6, <N0, <N5, and <N7. DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Na"

9a 9c 9* 9e 9g 9h 9i 9l 9m 9o
9p 9
1. A gear selection indication for 9eutral

2. 'ymbol for Eitrogen 920

'#ort for nitrous o(ide 9AAM.A Acronym for 9ational Association of Automobile

Manufacturers of .outh Africa


for

9AA:. Acronym

$tandards

Eational

Ambient

Air

9uality

9A"A *uct %#is is an air o$ening w#ic# was named after t#e Aational Advisory 2ommittee for Aerodynamics. &t was t#e American organization w#ic# develo$ed t#e "inds of designs for low %rag air ducts for 8et engines. AA2A ducts are used on cars to force air for engine

$assenger com$artment. 9acelle A $lastic or metal covering. A #eadlig#t nacelle on a Motorcycle is t#e buc"et surrounding t#e Hea*light. 9A%A Acronym for Eational Automobile ealers

!reathing and cooling, for forcing air t#roug# t#e Ra*iators, and for $roviding fres# air for t#e

Association

9A%A >se* "ar 5ui*e A listing of current car $rices, based on age, condition, and o$tional e.ui$ment) $ublis#ed by Aational Automobile Eealers Association 9AF&A Acronym for on #tt$MDDstrategis.ic.gc.caD''GDam006>0e.#tml. 9+A+5+ A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#ese models, wit# re.uired a$$lication, are "lassic cars. 9A(". Acronym for 9orth American (n*ustrial "lassification .ystem. A coding system develo$ed 8ointly by t#e /nited 'tates, 2anada, and (e1ico to classify businesses and industries according to t#e ty$e of economic activity in w#ic# t#ey are engaged. AA&2' re$laces t#e 'tandard &ndustrial 2lassification ('&2! codes. 9ail hammer A #ammer designed to #it t#e #ead of nails and usually #as a claw device w#ic# allows for t#e removal of nails. 9ail -oint A s#ar$ $yramidal $oint of a$$ro1imately >0 degrees or 60 degrees included angle. 9ail punch .ee %rift punch

9orth American Free &ra*e Agreement

9a)e* bi)e A motorcycle wit#out any ty$e of fairing 9ameplate A metal tag attac#ed to a mac#ine or a$$liance t#at contains information suc# as brand name, serial number, voltage, $ower ratings under s$ecified conditions, and ot#er manufacturer su$$lied data. Also see (mport nameplate 9A-A Acronym for Eational Automotive .arts 9aphtha An artificially $roduced $etroleum or coal tar fraction wit# a volatility between 5asoline and 4erosene. &t is colorless and #as an a$$ro1imate boiling range between <0=" and 204=". /sed $rimarily as $aint solvent, cleaning fluid, and blendstoc" in 5asoline $roduction, to $roduce motor gasoline by blending wit# straig#t-run gasoline. Also see -etrochemical fee*stoc) .pecial 9aphthas 9aphtha-type 6et fuel A fuel in t#e #eavy na$#t#a boiling range #aving an average gravity of 0,.7 degrees A &, ,0 to 30 $ercent distillation tem$eratures of 34B=" to 24B=", and meeting (ilitary '$ecification (&9-%-06,69 (Grade J 6!. &t is used $rimarily for military turbo8et and turbo$ro$ aircraft engines because it #as a lower freeze $oint t#an ot#er aviation fuels and meets engine re.uirements at #ig# altitudes and s$eeds. AoteM Beginning wit# January ,006 data, na$#t#a-ty$e 8et fuel is included in (iscellaneous roducts. 9aphthenes

Association

Bne of t#ree basic #ydrocarbon classifications found naturally in crude oil. Aa$#t#enes are widely used as -etrochemical fee*stoc). 9A:. Acronym for Eational Air 9uality $trategy in t#e /@ 9arro/ /i*th chain A c#ain used on multi-s$eed bicycles wit# a cassette of 7 or more s$roc"ets. Also see %erailleur "hain 9arro/ i*th 9A. Acronym for Eational Aeros!ace $tandards 9A."AR Acronym for Eational Association for $toc& -ar Auto Racing or Eorth America $toc& -ar Auto Racing or 9A. %ra/ings an* .pecifications Eimensional and material standards for aircraft fasteners develo$ed by t#e Aational Aeros$ace 'tandards 2ommittee. All drawings and s$ecifications are $refi1ed by EA$. 9ash

A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13>0 %win &gnition 7) 13>1 'eries 300) 13>, 'eries 330, Advanced 7, and Ambassador 7 wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. %#e 1301-06 ?ealey models are Milestone cars. Also .ee Frazer 9ash+

9ational Ambient Air :uality .tan*ar*s (AAA['! Ambient standards for criteria air $ollutants s$ecifically regulated under t#e "AA. %#ese $ollutants include ozone, "0, 902N, lead, $articulate matter, and .0#. /rban areas are re.uired to ac#ieve attainment in regard to ambient concentrations of t#ese criteria $ollutants. 9ational Automotive &echnical '*ucation Foun*ation A consortium of automotive education e1$erts w#ic# #as establis#ed a steering committee to administer t#e 2?A( certification $rocess at educational institutions. 9ational coarse threa* (A2! A standard for t#e t#reads of nuts and bolts in w#ic# t#e number of t#reads $er inc# is muc# fewer t#an a fine (A;! nut or bolt. Bbserve t#e difference in t#e number of t#reads $er inc# (% &! of t#e A; and A2 in t#e following c#art. Also called >nifie* 9ational

"oarse threa* I>9"J


WIDTH NF TPI NC TPI #10 32 2 #12 2! 2 1" 2! 20 #"1$ 2 1! 3"! 2 1$ %"1$ 20 1 1"2 20 13 &"1$ 1! 12 #"! 1! 11 3" 1$ 10 %"! 1 & 1 1 ! 1-1"! 12 % 1-1" 12 $ 1-3"! 12 $

1-1"2 12 # 1-3" '"a 2 '"a (# 2-1" '"a (# 2-1"2 '"a 2-3" '"a 3 '"a 9ational electrical co*e I9'"J A code for t#e $ur$ose of $ractical safeguarding of $ersons and $ro$erty from t#e #azards arising from t#e use of electricity. &t is s$onsored by t#e Aational ;ire rotection &nstitute. &t is used to serve as a guide for governmental bodies w#ose duty is to regulate building codes 9ational 'lectrical Manufacturers Association I9'MAJ An organization w#ic# establis#es certain voluntary industry standards relating to electric motors. %#ese standards refer to t#e o$erating c#aracteristics, terminology, basic dimension, ratings, and testing 9ational 'nvironmental -olicy Act (A: A! %#e Aational :nvironmental olicy Act re.uires federal agencies to integrate environmental values into t#eir decision-ma"ing $rocesses by considering t#e environmental im$acts of t#eir $ro$osed actions and reasonable alternatives to t#ose actions. 9ational fine threa* (A;! A standard for t#e t#reads of nuts and bolts in w#ic# t#e number of t#reads $er inc# is muc# greater t#an a coarse (A2! nut or bolt. Also called >nifie* 9ational Fine threa* I>9FJ. Bbserve t#e difference in t#e number of t#reads $er inc# (% &! of t#e A; and A2 in t#e following c#art WIDTH NF TPI NC TPI #10 32 2 #12 2! 2 1" 2! 20

#"1$ 2 1! 3"! 2 1$ %"1$ 20 1 1"2 20 13 &"1$ 1! 12 #"! 1! 11 3" 1$ 10 %"! 1 & 1 1 ! 1-1"! 12 % 1-1" 12 $ 1-3"! 12 $ 1-1"2 12 # 1-3" '"a 2 '"a (# 2-1" '"a (# 2-1"2 '"a 2-3" '"a 3 '"a 9ational flag %#e flag flown by a s#i$ to s#ow #er nationality. 9ational High/ay &raffic .afety A*ministration (A?%'A! A /' regulatory body w#ic# determines t#e regulations for ve#icles. 9ational ,o/-'mission $ehicle A lig#t-duty $assenger car or truc" u$ to 6,000 lb G-+< t#at meets t#e 9ational ,o/-'mission $ehicle -rogram standards. 9ational ,o/-'mission $ehicle -rogram (A9:-! 'till under develo$ment, t#is $rogram creates voluntary re.uirements w#ic# automa"ers can ado$t in lieu of com$liance wit# ot#er ve#icle emission control measures. %#e $rogram a$$lies to t#e manufacture of new lig#t-duty ve#icles and new lig#t-duty truc"s u$ to 6,000 lb G-+<. -e#icle e1#aust emission standards #ave been establis#ed for t#e 1> nort#eastern states of

t#e Bzone %rans$ort 2ommission, a$$licable on and after t#e 1335 model year. 'tandards are e1tended to t#e rest of t#e /.'., e1ce$t 2alifornia, on and after t#e ,001 model year. &n general, t#e standards lie between levels establis#ed for t#e federal %ier & rogram and t#e 2alifornia ,'$ rogram. Automa"ers can use a manufacturer=s effective average standard to meet t#e non-met#ane organic gas standard. -e#icles are certified wit# 2alifornia test $rocedures. 9ational 0ff-Roa* !icycle Association (AB<BA! %#e /' governing body for off-road racing 9ational -etroleum "ouncil (A 2! An advisory body of a$$ointed members w#ose $ur$ose is to advise t#e 'ecretary of :nergy. 9ational -ollutant %ischarge 'limination .ystem (A E:'! %#e $art of t#e /.'. federal 2lean +ater Act, w#ic# re.uires $oint source disc#arges to obtain $ermits. 9ational priorities list %#e :nvironmental rotection Agency=s list of t#e most serious uncontrolled or abandoned #azardous waste sites identified for $ossible long-term remedial action under t#e 2om$re#ensive :nvironmental <es$onse, 2om$ensation, and 9iability Act (2:<29A!. %#e list is based $rimarily on t#e score a site receives from t#e :nvironmental rotection Agency ?azard <an"ing 'ystem. %#e :nvironmental rotection Agency is re.uired to u$date t#e Aational riorities 9ist at least once a year. 9ational &raffic .afety A*ministration (A?%'A! /nder t#e /.'. Ee$artment of %rans$ortation, A?%'A is res$onsible for reducing deat#s, in8uries and economic losses resulting from motor ve#icle cras#es. A?%'A investigates safety defects in motor ve#icles, sets and enforces fuel economy standards, #el$s states and local communities reduce t#e t#reat of drun" drivers, $romotes t#e use of safety belts, c#ild safety seats and air bags, investigates odometer fraud,

establis#es and enforces ve#icle anti-t#eft regulations and $rovides consumer information on motor ve#icle safety to$ics. 9ational &ransportation .afety !oar* (A%'B! An inde$endent ;ederal agency c#arged by 2ongress wit# investigating every civil aviation accident in t#e /nited 'tates and significant accidents in t#e ot#er modes of trans$ortation -- railroad, #ig#way, marine and $i$eline -and issuing safety recommendations aimed at $reventing future accidents. 9ative gas Gas in $lace at t#e time t#at a reservoir was converted to use as an underground storage reservoir in contrast to in8ected gas volumes. 9A&0 to/ing hoo) 9arge, robust, four-bolt attac#ment towing $intle wit# to$-closure and, usually, >60C rotational ca$ability about t#e longitudinal a1is originally s$ecified for AA%B 5.0 tonne military ve#icles. 'uitable for off-road towing. 9atural convection 1. (ovement of a fluid caused only by tem$erature differences (density c#anges!. ,. 2irculation of a gas or li.uid due to difference in density resulting from tem$erature differences. 9atural fre8uency %#e fre.uency at w#ic# an ob8ect, circuit, or system oscillates or vibrates w#en set in free vibration. 9arge #eavy ob8ects #ave low natural fre.uencies and small lig#t ob8ects #ave #ig# natural fre.uencies. 9atural gas (AG! A gaseous mi1ture of #ydrocarbon com$ounds, t#e $rimary one being Methane and occurs naturally in t#e eart#. %#e :nergy &nformation Administration measures wet natural gas and its two sources of $roduction, Associate*-*issolve* natural gas and 9onassociate* natural gas, and %ry natural

gas, w#ic# is $roduced from

et natural gas. As an

alternative, environmentally friendly fuel, it can be stored under $ressure in t#e trun" of a ve#icle as "ompresse* natural gas (2AG!. Also .ee Associate*-%issolve* 9atural 5as %ry 9atural 5as ,i8uefie* natural gas 9onassociate* 9atural 5as .alable 9atural 5as .ynthetic 9atural 5as et 9atural 5as 9atural 5as Act %#e Aatural Gas Act was $assed in 13>7, giving t#e ;ederal ower 2ommission (now t#e ;ederal :nergy <egulatory 2ommission or ;:<2! 8urisdiction over com$anies engaged in interstate sale or trans$ortation of natural gas. %#e act instituted federal oversig#t of rates c#arged by interstate gas-transmission com$anies, and also limited certification aut#ority. Aobody was allowed to build an interstate $i$eline to deliver gas into a mar"et already served by anot#er gas $i$eline wit#out first obtaining a ;ederal ower 2ommission certificate. %#e $rinci$le aims of t#e Aatural Gas Act were toM 1! $rovide a stable financial and regulatory environment for t#e financing and construction of interstate gas $i$elines) and ,! $revent t#e Fnaturally mono$olisticF $i$elines from engaging in undue discrimination and ot#er feared abuses, including t#ose attendant on t#eir control by utility #olding com$anies or ma8or oil and gas $roducers. 9atural gas hy*rates 'olid, crystalline, wa1-li"e substances com$osed of water, met#ane, and usually a small amount of ot#er gases, wit# t#e gases being tra$$ed in t#e interstices of a water-ice lattice. %#ey form beneat# $ermafrost and on t#e ocean floor under conditions of moderately #ig#

$ressure and at tem$eratures near t#e freezing $oint of water. 9atural gas li8ui*s (AG9! %#ose #ydrocarbons in natural gas t#at are se$arated from t#e gas as li.uids t#roug# t#e $rocess of absor$tion, condensation, adsor$tion, or ot#er met#ods in gas $rocessing or cycling $lants. Generally suc# li.uids consist of -ropane and #eavier #ydrocarbons and are commonly referred to as lease condensate, natural gasoline, and li.uefied $etroleum gases. Aatural gas li.uids include natural gas $lant li.uids ($rimarily et#ane, -ropane, !utane, and (sobutane) see Aatural Gas lant 9i.uids! and lease condensate ($rimarily $entanes $roduced from natural gas at lease se$arators and field facilities) see 9ease 2ondensate!. 9atural 5as -olicy Act of 3K7F (AG A! 'igned into law on Aovember 3, 1357, t#e AG A is a framewor" for t#e regulation of most facets of t#e natural gas industry. %#e gas mar"et before 1357 was drastically different t#an t#e one currently e1isting in t#e /nited 'tates. %#e c#anges in t#e mar"et since t#e 1350=s #ave come $artially from increasing tec#nology, but also largely from c#anges in natural gas regulation. %#e Aatural Gas olicy Act was one of t#e first efforts to deregulate t#e gas industry. 2ongress intended to allow t#e su$$ly, demand, and t#us t#e $rice of natural gas to be dictated by mar"et forces, rat#er t#an regulation. Bt#er deregulation bills include Brder 6>6. 9atural 5as $ehicle (AG-! A natural gas ve#icle is a new breed of car, bus or truc" t#at is $owered by a natural gas, eit#er in com$ressed or li.uefied form, rat#er t#an t#e traditional gasoline or diesel fuel. %#ese ve#icles offer an e1tremely clean, safe and efficient alternative to traditional trans$ortation. +it# t#e $assage of t#e

2lean Air Act Amendments and t#e :nergy olicy Act of 133,, t#ese alternative fuel ve#icles are e1$ected to $roliferate in t#e later 1330=s. Already, ma8or car manufacturers are offering natural gas ve#icles, and t#ere are over 500 fueling stations nationwide. 9atural gasoline A term used in t#e gas $rocessing industry to refer to a mi1ture of li.uid #ydrocarbons (mostly $entanes and #eavier #ydrocarbons! e1tracted from natural gas. &t includes iso$entane. 9atural 5asoline an* (sopentane A mi1ture of #ydrocarbons, mostly $entanes and #eavier, e1tracted from natural gas, t#at meets va$or $ressure, end-$oint, and ot#er s$ecifications for natural gasoline set by t#e Gas rocessors Association. &ncludes iso$entane w#ic# is a saturated branc#-c#ain #ydrocarbon, (20?1,!, obtained by fractionation of natural gasoline or isomerization of normal $entane. 9aturally aspirate* engine A conventional engine t#at ta"es in air at normal $ressure, i.e. not turboc#arged or su$erc#arged. %#e o$$osite is forced-induction engine 9atural o#i*e film A trans$arent film w#ic# forms naturally on an aluminum surface due to o1idation 9atural o#i*e s)in A trans$arent film w#ic# forms naturally on an aluminum surface due to o1idation 9atural rubber (A<! An elastomer $roduced from late1, a mil"y sa$, obtained from t#e rubber tree (%evea brasiliensis! and ot#er $lants. An elastic and $orous form of rubber. Also .ee .ynthetic rubber 9atural /eathering A corrosion test by means of w#ic# t#e corrosion resistance of a material is tested in t#e o$en air 9autical Mile

%#e @not is t#e unit of measurement for water s$eed. &t is nearly e.uivalent to miles $er #our for land. &t is also used to measure wind s$eeds over water. 9aval brass A corrosion resistant metal containing 60 $er cent co$$er, >3 1D6 $er cent zinc and >D6 $er cent tin. .ee &obin bronze 9aval bronze Basic brass wit# a small addition of tin for added corrosion resistance against salt water. Also called

naval brass

9ave A w#eel #ub 9ave plate A #ub ca$ 9avigating bri*ge %#e command $ost of a s#i$. 9avigator .ee

'lectronic navigator

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Oa" 02 Acronym for O(ygen 02.-33 Acronym for O(ygen $ensor $ignal *Ban& 1+ 02.-23 Acronym for O(ygen $ensor $ignal *Ban& :+ 02 sensor A device t#at detects t#e amount of o1ygen in t#e e1#aust stream and sends t#at information t#e :2(. Also called an 0#ygen sensor or an '#haust 0B

o#ygen sensor

.ee 0zone 0A" Acronym used by car dealers to indicate on a!!roval of credit. 0A.(. Acronym for 'ord Motor -om!any Online

Automotive $ervice Information $ystem


DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Pa" p
1. A tire designation for .assenger, as used in

rating tires suc# as 170<1>. 2. A tire designation for s$eeds u$ to 100 "$# (30 m$#! as in 130 <57 (t#e first is $assenger, but t#e second is t#e .pee* rating. 3. %#e designation for !ar& on t#e gear selector of an automatic transmission. Also -R9%, -A
1. Acronym for .ressure Air (?onda!

see

2. Acronym for -o/er antenna. -Ha -?%

An abbreviation for -o/er-assiste*

Acronym for .ic&u! and delivery -ace car A ve#icle w#ic# leads t#e $ac" of racers during t#e first $art of t#e race (usually one la$! so t#at t#e racers can warm u$ t#eir engines, etc. %#e $ace car never runs t#e actual race. %#ey also lead during $arade, $ace la$, caution $eriods, and restarts. -ace lap

%#e warm-u$ $art of t#e race before t#e actual race begins. -acer

"lic) image for boo)s on -acer An automobile manufactured by A(2 -ac) .ee !lister -ac) 5lass pac) muffler Hy*ration -ac) Rectifier pac) -ac)age .ee Accessory pac)age '8uipment pac)age &railer-to/ing pac)age -ac)age units 2om$lete refrigerating system including com$ressor, condenser, and eva$orator located in refrigerated s$ace. -ac)ar*

"lic) image for boo)s on -ac)ar*

A ve#icle brand of w#ic# all si1es and eig#ts 13,0->6) all 1,-cyl. models) 13>0 (odels 1,00-1,07) 13>6 (odels 1600-1607) 13>5 (odels 1000-1007) 13>7 (odels 160>-1607) 13>3 (odels 150>-1507) 1360 (odels 170>-1707) 1361 (odels 130>-1307) 136, (odels ,006-,007 $lus ,0,>) 1366-65 (odels ,106 and ,1,6) all Earrin-bodied wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. %#e 130>-06 2aribbean models are Milestone cars. %#e 1366-00 2li$$er and 2ustom :ig#t are Milestone cars. %#e acific sedan and convertible for 1306 are Milestone cars. %#e 1306 ant#er Eaytona is a Milestone car. %#e atrician 600 for 1301 to 06 are Milestone cars. -ac)e* glan* A cylindrical recess t#at accommodates a number of rings of $ac"ing around t#e s#aft or s#aft sleeve of a -ump. um$s used for #ig#-tem$erature fluids are $rovided wit# 8ac"eted, water-cooled $ac"ed glands. Also called stuffing bo(. -ac)ing 'ealing device consisting of soft material or one or more mating soft elements. <es#a$ed by manually ad8ustable com$ression to obtain or maintain a lea"$roof seal. Also .ee .tuffing-bo# pac)ing -ac) muffler .ee 5lass pac) muffler .teel pac) muffler -A% Acronym for .rogram Associated ata. -a* A common term for a bra"e s#oe used in disc bra"es

Also !ac)ing !ra)e "eramic %isc %oor %oor -illion .intere* .)i* pa* -A%% Acronym for

bra)e !ra)e &rim metal bra)e

.ee pa* pa* pa* -a* -a* -a* pa* pa*

-a**ing *isc An insert in t#e cran"case area designed to reduce t#e internal volume of t#e cran"case and t#us to increase t#e $recom$ression ratio) t#is #el$s to increase t#e out$ut of a two-stro"e engine -a**le .ee .ol*er pa**le .tirring pa**le -a**ling .ee Foot -a**ling -a**ling the lea* %#e act of filling re$air areas by smoot#ing t#e body lead layer until a smoot# surface is ac#ieved -a* retainer A $in w#ic# locates t#e bra"e $ad in a disc bra"e -a* retainer pin A $in w#ic# locates t#e bra"e $ad in a disc bra"e -a* .ets .ee Hybri* -a* .ets -a* /ear in*icator

efense

.etroleum istricts

Administration

for

(ec#anical or electrical devices w#ic# warn t#e driver w#en t#e lining material on t#e bra"e $ads #as worn to t#e $oint t#at t#ey s#ould be re$laced. Also .ee !ra)e pa* /ear in*icator -AF. Acronym for .ulse Air 'eeder $ystem (2#rysler! -ago*a roof An unusual roof design, introduced on t#e (ercedesBenz '9 ?ardto$, w#ic# was slig#tly lower in t#e center t#an at t#e sides -ago*a-style roof An unusual roof design, introduced on t#e (ercedesBenz '9 ?ardto$, w#ic# was slig#tly lower in t#e center t#an at t#e sides -AH 1. Acronym for .olycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 2. Acronym for !olyaluminum hydro(ide 3. Acronym for -olynuclear Aromatic

Hy*rocarbons

-ai* value .ee %uty pai* value -aige .ee 5raham--aige -aint 1. A li.uid or $aste consisting of a sus$ension of a -igment in oil or water, etc. +#en s$read over a surface, it dries to form a #ard, t#in covering colored by t#e $igment. %#e $rimary $ur$ose of $aint is to #el$ in t#e $reventing of rusting. A secondary $ur$ose is to $rovide a variety of color. ,. %#e act of s$ray $ainting a surface. Also Acrylic .ee paint

!arrier paint !ituminous paint "an*y apple paint "an*y paint "oach paint %ust-free paint Finishing paint Flame paint Heavy paint ,ight paint ,i8ui* paint ,o/-ba)e paint Metallic paint 9itrocellulose paint 0verlay paint -olyurethane paint -yro#ylin paint Refinishing paint .oft paint .ol*er paint .oli* paint &ire paint &/o-pac) paint &/o-tone paint Ainc-rich paint -aint booth A closed area w#ere coats of $aint are a$$lied -aint chip boo) A "olor chart -aint color matching %#e $rocess of determining t#e correct $aint s#ade wit# t#e aid of color c#arts and s$ecial mi1ing devices and t#roug# s$ectral analysis -aint film %#e actual t#ic"ness of t#e $aint on a surface. -aint gun .ee .pray gun

-ainting .ee "ataphoretic painting 'lectrophoretic painting 'lectrostatic painting 0ff-line painting 0n-line painting -ainting line %#e route ta"en by t#e bodywor" of a newly manufactured ve#icle on its way t#roug# t#e $aint s#o$ -ainting robot A robot used for $aint a$$lication -aint refinishing %#e various ste$s involved in re$ainting a second#and car -aint shop 1. %#e $roduction stage in an automobile manufacturing $lant during w#ic# t#e bodywor" is treated wit# $aint. ,. A se$arate $aint re$air s#o$, usually near a body re$air s#o$ (i.e., for damaged ve#icles! -aint stripper A li.uid $aint remover -aint system %#e sum of all coats of $aint on a wor" -aint/or) %#e overall result of $ainting) t#e $aint coating or finis# -A(R Acronym for .ulsed $econdary Air In/ection -A(R system .ee -ulse air system -alla*ium A w#ite, ductile, malleable, noble metal of t#e $latinum family) atomic number 66, atomic weig#t 106.6) resembles $latinum and toget#er wit# ot#er $latinum

metals is used as a catalyst in automotive e1#aust converters. 2om$are -latinum metals -alletize* construction %#e $rocess of building a ve#icle w#ere t#e wor"ers assemble a com$lete "hassis at a comfortable wor"benc# #eig#t, in a well-lig#ted area, away from t#e main line -- not underneat# a moving body. +or"ing conditions and $roduct .uality are vastly im$roved. -alm spinner

-alm spinner A device w#ic# is attac#ed to a steering w#eel to allow disabled $eo$le to insert a #and into its brac"et in order to steer a ve#icle. -an

A t#in stam$ed "over t#at is bolted to t#e bottom of t#e "ran)case, it forms a .ump for t#e engine oil and "ee$s dirt, etc. from entering t#e engine. Also .ee Floor pan 0il pan -anama# A water-borne vessel (i.e., s#i$! designed small enoug# for $assage t#roug# t#e anama 2anal -anca)e engine

An engine in w#ic# t#e "ylin*ers are on a #orizontal $lane, t#is reduces t#e overall #eig#t and enables t#em to be used in s$ots w#ere vertical #eig#t is restricted. Also see Flat engine+ -an *rain plug .ee 0il pan *rain plug -ane A s#eet of window glass -anel 1. A flat $iece of metal t#at is stam$ed to create a body "omponent suc# as a door $anel. ,. A $lastic molding) e.g., interior trim of doors. Also A-panel Access Aperture !ac) !o*y !onnet "losing "luster "orner "o/l "o/l %ashboar* %ash %ec) %oor Front Full 5rille 5rille Hea*er Hea*light High .ee panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel

lan*ing

si*e

face mounting cro/n

Hinge Hoo* (nner (nstrument 4ic) ,amp ,o/ ,o/er Manual 0ff-the-*olly 0n-the-*olly -arent -atch -attern -resse* :uarter :uarter :uarter Ra*iator Rear Rear Rear Rear Replacement Roc)er Roof .cuttle .cuttle .eat .helf .i*e .i*e .olar .plash .8uab .traightene* .unroof &rim

lan*ing fen*er

cro/n !ac) panel panel panel

light

filler

/in*o/ filler support corner *ec) :uarter

si*e bumper &hermal

aperture

panel panel panels panel panel panel panel -anel cutter beating beating panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel panel -anel panel panel panel panel panel /ell panel panels panel -anels panel panel panel panel panel

>n*er sill panel heel house panel heel panel in*shiel* corner panel in*shiel* hea*er panel in*shiel* panel -anel beater 1. A $erson w#o beats out t#e dented bodywor" of a damaged ve#icle. 2. A -anel hammer -anel beating Beating out t#e dents in damaged bodywor". Also .ee 0ff-the-*olly panel beating 0n-the-*olly panel beating -anel bon*ing A new re$air $rocess using a s$ecial ad#esive to glue body $anels in $lace instead of s$ot-welding t#em -anel contour %#e normal s#a$e of a new, undented body $anel as $roduced by t#e factory -anel cutter An air-o$erated tool used to cut out old $anels. &t is a relatively coarse tool and is t#us suited mainly for cutting s#eet metal in areas w#ere minor distortion along t#e cutting lines does not matter. Also see Manual panel cutter -anel file .ee !o*y file -anel flanger .ee 7oggler -anel hammer

A s$ecial #ammer for metalwor"ing t#at #as two different fly-s#a$ed #eads for different $ur$oses, e.g., cross-$ein and s#rin"ing #ammer. Also see "urve* pein an* finishing hammer -ic) an* finishing hammer -lanishing hammer Reverse curve panel hammer .hrin)ing hammer -aneling 1. A combination of se$arate s#eet metal $anels to form a com$lete assembly, e.g., t#e outer $anels of t#e body or even t#e $anels surrounding t#e engine ,. A $lastic molding) e.g., interior trim of doors. Also .ee "la**ing >n*ersi*e paneling -anel pic)ing %#e act of straig#tening very fine indentations or mar"s of very small diameter on a $anel surface wit# a $ic" #ammer -anel puller

.li*e Hammer %ent -uller A tool wit# a slide #ammer and #oo" or self-t#reading screw ti$ to $ull dented doors, fenders, and ot#er s#eet metal $anels bac" into $lace. After drilling a #ole in t#e dee$est $art of t#e dent, t#e #oo" or screw ti$ is inserted to $ull out t#e dent by means of slide #ammer im$act. Also called 4noc)er -anel release tool .ee &rim panel release tool -anel repair A ty$e of re$ainting 8ob involving an entire $anel but not t#e entire ve#icle -an gas)et .ee 0il pan gas)et -an guar*

.ee 0il pan guar* -anhar* A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e Eyna for 1366-65 models are Milestone cars. -anhar* ro* A rod or ,in)age on t#e a1le w#ic# runs from side to side. /sually one end is attac#ed to t#e body and t#e ot#er end is connected to t#e a1le. Also called a trac& bar. -anhar* ro* mounting bo# Bo1 section used to mount t#e -anhar* ro* of t#e rear a1le -anhea* ?arley-Eavidson=s second generation over#ead-valve Big %win, introduced in 1367. -an hea* A ty$e of screw wit# a dome s#a$ed #ead. ;lat to$ surface rounded into cylindrical sides, and a flat bearing surface. %#e recessed $an #ead #as a rounded to$ surface blending into cylindrical sides and a flat bearing surface. -annier A luggage bag used in $airs and fastened alongside one or bot# w#eels of a motorcycle or bicycle. Also see .a**lebag+ -anniers 9uggage bags used in $airs and fastened alongside one or bot# w#eels of a motorcycle or bicycle. Also see .a**lebags+ -anoramic /in*shiel* A winds#ield style $o$ular in t#e 1300s and =60s t#at featured recessed screen $illars, giving a wide, unobstructed view of t#e road) entry for t#e front

$assengers was aw"ward, since t#e screen $illar comers $ro8ected into t#e door o$ening -+ ant Abbreviation for -o/er antenna. -antechnicon A Britis# term for a large van or truc", es$ecially one for moving furniture -antera

"lic) image for boo)s on -antera A model of automobile manufactured in &taly -anting %#e $ulsation in and out of t#e bow and stern $lating as t#e s#i$ alternately rises and $lunges dee$ into t#e water -anting frame %#e frames in t#e forward and after $ortions of t#e #ull framing to strengt#en against s#ell -anting -aper .ee Abrasive paper -aper air cleaner An Air cleaner t#at ma"es use of s$ecial $a$er t#roug# w#ic# t#e air to t#e "arburetor is drawn.

-AR

Acronym for a !arabolic alumini)ed reflector lam$ -arabolic *ish A #ig#-tem$erature (above F2="! solar t#ermal concentrator, generally bowl-s#a$ed, wit# two-a1is trac"ing. Also see .olar &hermal -arabolic %ishes -arabolic reflector An old #eadlig#t reflector in t#e s#a$e of a $arabola, now re$laced by elli$soidal reflectors -arabolic spring A leaf s$ring ta$ered in t#e s#a$e of a $arabola. Also called ta!ered leaf s!ring -arabolic trough A #ig#-tem$erature (above F2="! solar t#ermal concentrator wit# t#e ca$acity for trac"ing t#e sun using one a1is of rotation. Also see .olar -arabolic &rough -arachute .ee Automatic -arachute !ra)e -arachute -araffin 1. A Britis# term for 4erosene a solvent for removing grease ,. A lig#t-colored, wa1-free oil obtained by $ressing $araffin distillate. >. %#e wa1 removed from $araffin distillates by c#illing and $ressing. +#en se$arating from solutions, it is a colorless, more or less translucent, crystalline mass, wit#out odor and taste, slig#tly greasy to touc#, and consisting of a mi1ture of solid #ydrocarbons in w#ic# t#e $araffin series $redominates.

-araffinic hy*rocarbons 'traig#t-c#ain #ydrocarbon com$ounds wit# t#e general formula 2n?,nI,. -araffins Grou$ of saturated ali$#atic #ydrocarbons, including Methane, et#ane, -ropane and !utane and noted by t#e suffi1 -ane. -arallel 1. %#e same distance a$art at every $oint. 2. %wo or more electrical com$onents eac# receiving t#e same voltage resistors connected in $arallel. B$$osite to .eries. >. %o connect in $arallel Also see "ircuit -arallel -arallel action loc)ing pliers A loc"ing $liers wit# $arallel action 8aws, e.g., for $inc#ing off #oses w#en servicing cooling systems -arallel circuit 1. An electrical circuit wit# two or more Resistance units so wired as to $ermit "urrent to flow t#roug# bot# units at t#e same time. /nli"e t#e .eries circuit, t#e "urrent in t#e $arallel circuit does not #ave to $ass t#roug# one unit to reac# t#e ot#er. A met#od or $attern of connecting units in an electrical circuit so t#at t#ey are connected negative-to-negative and $ositive-to-$ositive. &n a $arallel circuit, current can flow inde$endently t#roug# several com$onents at t#e same time. ,. Arrangement of electrical devices in w#ic# t#e current divides and travels t#roug# two or more $at#s and t#en returns t#roug# a common $at#. Also .eries-parallel circuit -arallel connection see

A way of 8oining $#otovoltaic cells or batteries by connecting $ositive leads to $ositive leads to "ee$ t#e voltage out$ut t#e same, but increase t#e am$erage. 'ome 1,-volt ve#icles running two batteries to give more winter starting $ower must connect t#e batteries in $arallel. &f t#ey were "onnecte* in series t#e out$ut would be ,6 volts and fuses would blow or com$onents would burn out. -arallelism %#e same t#ic"ness of bra"e discs all t#e way around. %#e relations#i$ between one friction surface of a bra"e disc and t#e ot#er. Also .ee A#le parallelism ,ac) 0f -arallelism -arallel )ey .ee Feather )ey -arallel mi**le bo*y %#e amids#i$s $ortion of a s#i$ in w#ic# t#e contour of t#e underwater #ull form is unc#anged -arallelogram steering .ee -arallelogram steering lin)age -arallelogram steering lin)age

-arallelogram steering lin)age

A .teering system using two s#ort &ie ro*s connected to t#e .teering arms and to a long center lin". %#e lin" is su$$orted on one end on an (*ler arm and t#e ot#er end is attac#ed directly to t#e -itman arm. %#e arrangement forms a $arallelogram s#a$e. -arallelogram steering system .ee -arallelogram steering lin)age -arallelogram suspension .ee %ouble /ishbone suspension -arallel par)ing %#e action of bringing a ve#icle to a sto$ be#ind anot#er ve#icle (or between two ve#icles! so t#at your front bum$er is rig#t be#ind t#e rear bum$er of t#e ve#icle in front of you. %#e tec#ni.ue of $arallel $ar"ing involves driving beside t#e ot#er ve#icle and t#en bac"ing u$ w#ile turning t#e steering first to t#e rig#t and t#en at t#e correct time turning it to t#e left. &t is one of t#e testing re.uirements for obtaining a license. -arallel trailing lin) suspension A front sus$ension layout used $rimarily by -ol"swagen on rear-engined cars -arallel t/in A ty$e of engine usually found on two-cylinder motorcycles w#ere t#e cylinders are beside eac# ot#er and on t#e same side of t#e cran"s#aft. An 0ppose* t/in #as two cylinders t#at are on eit#er side of t#e cran"s#aft. -arallel-t/in engine A two-cylinder engine wit# its cylinder $laced side-byside in an u$rig#t $osition -arallel valves %#e inta"e and e1#aust valves wit# $arallel valve stems -arameters

.ee 'ngine parameters -arapet 2oncrete rails on a bridge. -arent panel %#e $anel left in $lace on t#e car to w#ic# a new $anel is welded after all t#e rusted metal #as been cut out -arison A s#ort lengt# of glass -ar) ( ! 1. Bne of t#e $ositions of t#e gear selector for an automatic gearbo1) w#en engaged (after t#e ve#icle #as come to a com$lete standstill! t#e driving w#eels are loc"ed. ,. %o leave a ve#icle in a $articular $lace. 3. A -ar)a*e. Also .ee "ar par) Multi-storey car par) -ar)a*e A $lace w#ere ve#icles can be $ar"ed on one of several levels. Also .ee "ar par) Multi-storey car par) -ar) an* Ri*e rovision of long stay $ar"ing areas at t#e edge of a built u$ area w#ic# are lin"ed by fre.uent bus (or ot#er $ublic trans$ort! services to t#e 2ity center and $otentially ot#er locations. -ar) Avenue

"lic) image for boo)s on -ar) Avenue A model of automobile manufactured by t#e Buic" division of General (otors -ar) bra)e .ee -ar)ing bra)e -ar) bra)e e#tension

-ar) bra)e e#tension A device w#ic# is attac#ed to t#e $ar"ing bra"e to #el$ disable $eo$le to o$erate t#e $ar"ing bra"e more easily. -ar)bra)e /arning light

A lig#t on t#e instrument $anel t#at illuminates w#en t#e $ar"bra"e is a$$lied) on most new cars it #as been su$erseded by a multifunction bra"e warning lig#t -ar)ing %#e action of $lacing a ve#icle at a full sto$ out of t#e flow of traffic. Also .ee Angle par)ing Atten*ant par)ing 'chelon par)ing -arallel par)ing .elf-par)ing $alet par)ing -ar)ing bra)e 1. ?and or foot o$erated bra"e w#ic# $revents ve#icle movement w#ile $ar"ed by loc"ing rear w#eels, or &ransmission 0utput shaft. Bne ty$e a$$lies t#e rear !ra)e shoes by mec#anical means and t#e ot#er ty$e a$$lies a !ra)e ban* to a !ra)e *rum installed in t#e %rivetrain. ,. %#e secondary bra"e system used to #old a stationary ve#icle from moving. %#e system is a$$lied wit# a #and or foot lever, and o$erates on only two w#eels. >. %#e mec#anically actuated $ortion of a drum bra"e or disc bra"e cali$er, used to $revent t#e ve#icle from rolling w#en it is $ar"ed, a$$lied by a lever, $edal, or rod Also .ee Au#iliary %rum -ar)ing !ra)e 'mergency bra)e -ar)ing-bra)e cable 2ables t#at transmit bra"e actuating force in t#e $ar"ing-bra"e system. -ar)ing bra)e console

%#e reinforcing member incor$orated in t#e center tunnel area of t#e floor$an to $rovide t#e mounting su$$ort for t#e #andbra"e -ar)ing-bra)e e8ualizer A device to e.ualize $ull between t#e $ar"ing-bra"e actuator and two w#eels. -ar)ing bra)e lever 1. A lever inside t#e drum bra"e w#ic# s$reads t#e bra"e s#oes outward) t#e long end is connected to t#e $ar"ing bra"e cable, t#e o$$osite end to one bra"e s#oe and to a $us# bar w#ic# acts on t#e ot#er s#oe. ,. A lever inside t#e $assenger com$artment attac#ed to t#e end of t#e $ar"ing bra"e rod and w#ic# activates t#e $ar"ing bra"e cable. -ar)ing bra)e lever strut A $us# bar between t#e s#oes in a drum bra"e -ar)ing bra)e pe*al ;oot-o$erated $edal for t#e $ar"ing bra"e -ar)ing bra)e /arning s/itch assembly A unit used to actuate a warning device indicating t#e $ar"ing bra"e a$$lication mec#anism is not in t#e fully released $osition. -ar)ing *isc A mar"er dis$layed on t#e inside of a $ar"ed car s#owing time of arrival or latest $ermitted time of de$arture in a Britis# $ar"ing lot -ar)ing heater An air #eating system w#ic# o$erates inde$endently of t#e engine -ar)ing interloc) .ee -ar)ing loc) -ar)ing lamp An energy-saving ve#icle illumination mode on Britis# cars for long-term roadside $ar"ing) includes only one

front sidelig#t and one taillig#t) t#e $ar"ing lig#t can be switc#ed to illuminate t#e left side or t#e rig#t side -ar)ing light An energy-saving ve#icle illumination mode on Britis# cars for long-term roadside $ar"ing) includes only one front sidelig#t and one taillig#t) t#e $ar"ing lig#t can be switc#ed to illuminate t#e left side or t#e rig#t side -ar)ing loc) ( 9! A loc" gear and $awl t#at loc" t#e transmission mec#anically -ar)ing lot A ground level, outdoor area w#ere ve#icles can be left tem$orarily. -ar)ing lot stencil A $rinting device w#ic# is $laced on t#e ground so t#at information li"e #andica$ $ar"ing signs can be made. -ar)ing meter A coin-o$erated timing device t#at indicates #ow long a ve#icle may legally remain $ar"ed -ar)ing space A $ar"ing $lace reserved for a $articular ve#icle -ar)ing tic)et A written fine for a $ar"ing offence, es$ecially w#ere a ve#icle #as e1ceeded t#e time limit for $ar"ing -ar) light A low intensity lig#t w#ic# is often incor$orated into t#e front signal lig#ts. %#e $ar" lig#ts are to be illuminated w#en t#e ve#icle is still running, but $ulled off t#e road. ?owever, many $eo$le drive wit# t#em on -- an action w#ic# is illegal in some $arts of Aort# America. -ar) safety s/itch A switc# w#ic# allows t#e starter to be engaged only w#en t#e automatic s#ift lever is in eit#er $ar" or neutral -art A com$onent of a ve#icle. Also .ee Aftermar)et part

(ntegral -art Mol*e* part 9e/-ol*-stoc) part .pare part .tructural part -artial flo/ filter A !ypass filter -artial o#i*ation ;uel reforming reaction w#ere t#e fuel is $artially o1idized to carbon mono1ide and #ydrogen rat#er t#an fully o1idized to carbon dio1ide and water. %#is is accom$lis#ed by in8ecting air wit# t#e fuel stream $rior to t#e reformer. %#e advantage of $artial o1idation over steam reforming of t#e fuel is t#at it is an e1ot#ermic reaction rat#er t#an an endot#ermic reaction and t#erefore generates its own #eat. -artial o#i*ation burner ?eat source for t#e $artial o1idation reactor. -artial pressures 2ondition w#ere two or more gases occu$y a s$ace and eac# one creates $art of t#e total $ressure. -artial respray A res$raying of only $art of t#e bodywor", o$$osite to Full respray or "omplete respray -articipation .ee %ealer participation -articulate A small, discrete mass of solid or li.uid matter t#at remains individually dis$ersed in gas or li.uid emissions. articulates ta"e t#e form of aerosol, dust, fume, mist, smo"e, or s$ray. :ac# of t#ese forms #as different $ro$erties. Also .ee %iesel particulate filter -articulates -articulate catalyst

A -ellet catalyst -articulate emission An emission of solid $articles of carbon and unburnt #ydrocarbons from t#e e1#aust system -articulate emission limit %#e weig#t of $articulate emissions in t#e e1#aust of diesel engines, s$ecified in grams $er mile -articulate filter .ee %iesel particulate filter -articulate ignition temperature &n diesel filtration tests, t#e e1#aust gas tem$erature at w#ic# t#ere is an e.uilibrium between $articulate burn-off and de$osit build-u$ -articulate matter ( (! 1. 'us$ended solids of carbon and unburnt #ydrocarbons from t#e e1#aust system 2. A generic term for a broad class of c#emically and $#ysically diverse substances t#at e1ist as discrete $articles (li.uid dro$lets or solids! over a wide range of sizes. A 9AA:. $ollutant. 3. articles formed by incom$lete combustion of fuel. 2om$ression ignition (diesel! engines generate significantly #ig#er ( emissions t#an s$ar" ignited engines. %#e $articles are com$osed of elemental carbon, #eavy #ydrocarbons (.0F!, and #ydrated sulfuric acid (sulfate !articulates!. Also see %iesel -articulate Matter &otal -articulate Matter -articulates 1. ( (! 'us$ended solids of carbon and unburnt #ydrocarbons from t#e e1#aust system ,. 'mall $ieces ($articles! of matter) dust is a common $articulate.

-articulate &rap Eiesel ve#icle emission control device t#at tra$s and incinerates diesel $articulate emissions after t#ey are e1#austed from t#e engine but before t#ey are e1$elled into t#e atmos$#ere. -art-loa* %#e t#rottle o$ening between idle and fully o$en -art-loa* enrichment :1tra fuel in8ected during t#rottle o$ening to enric# t#e mi1ture during transition. /sually occurs during closedloo$ o$eration -art-loa* operation %#e o$eration of systems and com$onents under conditions below full load -artnership Business owned by at least two $eo$le -artnership for a 9e/ 5eneration of $ehicles ( AG-! establis#ed in 133>, t#is $artners#i$, between t#e /nited 'tates ;ederal Government and t#e Automotive industry, was founded to establis# global tec#nical leaders#i$ in t#e develo$ment and $roduction of affordable, fuel-efficient, low emission ve#icles t#at meet today=s $erformance standards. -art number ($Dn, A! A reference number attributed to a $articular $art. :ac# com$any uses its own system of numbering t#e $arts. -art out %o dismantle a ve#icle and sell t#e $arts. Britis# term is

brea& u!

-art panel .ee -atch panel -arts car A ve#icle t#at #as been damaged beyond re$air or Restoration, or t#at #as deteriorated badly. &t is

useful only as a source of $arts. &t may be %riveable t#oug# unsafe, but it usually is not in driveable condition. -arts catalog A directory listing available $arts for a $articular $roduct -arts per million ($$m! /nit of concentration of one element in anot#er. -arts store .ee Auto parts store -art &hrottle .ee A*6ustable -art &hrottle -art-throttle operation Eriving wit#out using full t#rottle -art-time four-/heel *rive A manually selectable four-w#eel drive -A. 1. Acronym for -o/er-assiste* steering 2. Acronym for .assive Anti-Theft $ystem -ascal IpaJ '& measurement of $ressure, it e.uals one newton $er s.uare meter. Also see 4ilopascal -ascal2s la/ A $rinci$le w#ic# states t#at w#en $ressure is e1erted on a confined li.uid, it is transmitted undiminis#ed. %#e law is $articularly valid for Hy*raulic systems. Eiscovered by Blaise ascal (16,>-166,! -A sensor Acronym for Atmos!heric !ressure sensor -ass 1. %#e act of overta"ing a ve#icle w#ic# is traveling in t#e same direction you are.

,. %#e act of going $ast a ve#icle w#ic# is traveling is t#e o$$osite direction from you. >. +eld metal created by one $rogression along t#e weld. 4. Acronym for .ersonali)ed Automotive

$ecurity $ystem
Also see !ypass -assage .ee ,ateral air passage 0il !lee* -assage 0il passage .cavenging passage &ransfer passage ater passage -assenger capacity %#e ma1imum number of $eo$le t#at a ve#icle can carry. -assenger car A four-w#eeled motor car $owered by an engine and designed for $assengers andDor t#eir luggage. Also see ,arge -assenger "ar -assenger car /heel A one-$iece w#eel made of s#eet steel. %#e rim and disc are welded toget#er or made of lig#t-alloy (cast or forged!, and designed for tubeless tires. <ims for $assenger cars are almost e1clusively designed as 0C dro$ center rims incor$orating a safety bead seat (double #um$ and combination #um$ are most common) flat #um$ designs are less common! and a 7flange. %#e !-flange ty$e is reduced in #eig#t and used on $assenger cars wit# small rim diameter and rim widt# -assenger cell

%#at $art of t#e ve#icle in w#ic# t#e driver and $assengers sit -assenger compartment %#at $art of t#e ve#icle in w#ic# t#e driver and $assengers sit -assenger-miles travele* %#e total distance traveled by all $assengers. &t is calculated as t#e $roduct of t#e occu$ancy rate in ve#icles and t#e ve#icle miles traveled. -assenger ship A s#i$ aut#orized to carry more t#an twelve $assengers. -assenger-si*e air bag An air bag restraint system designed to $rotect t#e front $assenger) introduced on some cars in t#e early 1330s, it usually occu$ies t#e s$ace normally $rovided for a glove com$artment -assenger vehicle ;our w#eeled motor ve#icle t#at also includes minivans and s$ort utility ve#icles. -asser .ee .lo/ -asser -assing 1. %#e action of overta"ing anot#er ve#icle going in t#e same direction you are. ,. %#e action of going $ast anot#er ve#icle w#ic# is going in t#e o$$osite direction you are. -assing gear An Automatic transmission gear t#at s#ifts a ve#icle into a lower gear for a s#ort burst of e1tra $ower to $ass ot#er cars on t#e #ig#way. %#e gear is engaged by s#ar$ly de$ressing t#e 5as pe*al. +#en t#e $edal is released, t#e ve#icle returns to normal to normal driving gear.

Also see Force* *o/nshift+ -assing lane %#e outside lane (far left lane in Aort# America, etc. or t#e far rig#t lane in Britain, Australia, etc.!. Also called t#e fast lane -assivate 1. %o reduce t#e reactivity of a c#emically active metal surface by electroc#emical $olarization or by immersion in a $assivating solution ,. A $rocess of surface treatment for neutralizing stainless steels. An o1ydizing solution, suc# as nitric acid is a$$lied to t#e surface. %#is strengt#ens t#e normal $rotective film w#ic# #el$s in resisting corrosion. &t also removes any foreign substance w#ic# mig#t cause local corrosion. -assivating 1. %ec#nical definitionM a $rocess of di$$ing a metal ob8ect into a nitric acid solution to ra$idly form a c#romium o1ide on t#e surface of t#e material, creating a $assive film t#at $rotects stainless from furt#er o1idation called a passive film. %#e $ur$ose of $assivating is to remove bot# grease left from manufacturing and traces of steel $articles w#ic# may #ave rubbed off manufacturing tools onto t#e ob8ect. 2ontrasts wit# commercial definition of cleaning. ,. 2ommercial definitionM cleaning. A wide range of cleaning met#ods using different mi1tures containing nitric, $#os$#oric and ot#er acids or sim$ly e1$osing cleaned stainless ob8ects to air for a $eriod of time will result in a F$assivatedF condition. ;or metal ob8ects t#at #ave been $ro$erly cleaned, it is im$ossible to determine t#e met#od of cleaning or $assivation t#at was used. -assive film

%#e ma8or c#aracteristic of stainless steel is its ability to form a t#in layer of $rotection, called a F$assive film,F on its outside surface. %#is film results from a continual $rocess of low-level o1idation, so o1ygen from t#e atmos$#ere is needed for t#e $assive film to e1ist. Bnce formed, it $revents furt#er o1idation or corrosion from occurring. :ven if c#i$$ed or scratc#ed, a new $assive film on stainless will form. -assive restraint system .ee Airbag restraint system+ -assive safety Any device w#ic# automatically $rovides $rotection for t#e occu$ants of a ve#icle suc# as t#e bum$ers, .eat belt, $added das#, ,aminate* /in*shiel*, #ead restraints, colla$sible steering column, air bags, etc. &n contrast wit# Active safety. -assive safety features &tems in a ve#icle w#ic# do not re.uire action on t#e $art of t#e driver to avoid a #azard, e.g., crum$le zones, bum$ers, side im$act beams, and roll-over bars. Also see -assive safety+ -assive solar heating A solar #eating system t#at uses no e1ternal mec#anical $ower, suc# as $um$s or blowers, to move t#e collected solar #eat. -assive state A state for t#e fuel cell internal com$onents normally entered w#en t#e $ower $lant is $urged wit# steam, air or nitrogen, or $er t#e manufacturer=s instructions w#en t#e $ower $lant is turned off or $rior to w#en t#e $ower $lant is turned on (initialization!. -assport

"lic) image for boo)s on Hon*a -assport A model of automobile manufactured by ?onda -aste .ee 5lass reinforce* filler paste 5rin*ing paste -atch 1. %o re$air a com$onent. ,. %#e added $art used to re$air a com$onent, e.g., a rubber disc glued to a tube to cover a nail #ole. >. %#e foot$rint of a tire in its contact wit# t#e ground. Also .ee "ontact patch !alance patch Machine patch -lug patch &ire "ontact -atch -atching 1. A re$air met#od for welding u$ local corrosion damage by using smaller $anels made u$ from s#eet metal. ,. A re$air met#od for gluing a rubber $atc# to a tube w#ic# #as a #ole in it. -atch panel A small s#eet metal $anel t#at is usually made u$ s$ecially to re$air minor rust #oles

-ath .ee Heat path -athfin*er

"lic) image for boo)s on -athfin*er A model of '/- manufactured by Aissan in Ja$an -atter .ee heel patter -attern .ee !itter -attern "ontact pattern Heavy si*e pattern Herringbone -attern (gnition pattern Master pattern -rimary pattern Reference ignition pattern .econ*ary pattern .pray pattern &rea* pattern ear pattern -attern 9uts '$ecial nuts usually furnis#ed in $lain or c#amfered face unless ot#erwise s$ecified, and t#reads are unified

2oarse or unified ;ine, 2lass ,B. (also small and e1tra small! -attern panel A body $anel made by somebody ot#er t#an t#e original manufacturer, usually for re$air $ur$oses) t#is also includes $anels remanufactured after t#e factory #as discontinued ma"ing and su$$lying t#ose $arts. -attern percentage .ee &rea* pattern percentage -attern snips .ee .traight pattern snips -avement .ee !are pavement -avement mar)ers %#ree-dimensional mar"ers, reflectorized or nonreflectorized, e$o1ied onto $avement. -avement mar)ings %raffic mar"ings suc# as lines, arrows, bicycle symbols, and words li"e FonlyF and Fsc#oolF. -aving .ee .pot -aving &actile paving &rue an* ,evel -aving -a/l 1. A bar, $in, or .tu* t#at can be moved, $ivoted, or slid into engagement wit# teet# cut on anot#er $art, suc# as t#e $ar"ing $awl on t#e Automatic transmission t#at can be slid into contact wit# teet# on anot#er $art to loc" t#e rear w#eels. ,. A catc# at t#e bottom of a lever w#ic# connects wit# a toot#ed rac" to #old t#e lever in $osition (e.g., wit# a #andbra"e lever or in ratc#ets!.

>. An arm $ivoted so t#at its free end can fit into a notc#, slot, or groove at certain times in order to #old a $art stationary -ayloa* 1. %#e actual weig#t of cargo being carried, including $ac"aging, etc. (G-+ -- /nladen weig#t * $ayload!. ,. %#e revenue-earning cargo of a commercial ve#icle. Also

(nterior payloa*
-ayment .ee Monthly payment DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - ")a"

see

:O :b :c :* :e :f :g :i :m :p :ua :ue :ui :uo :s

:t :v
:

:/ 1. %#e letter on t#e sidewall of a tire denoting t#e ma1imum s$eed for w#ic# it is designed (160 "$# or 100m$#!. 2. A symbol for through!ut. >. A symbol for t#e .uantity of water disc#arged, usually in m>s-1. 6. A symbol of merit, often called t#e [-factor, for an energy-storing device, resonant system, or tuned circuit. 5. A symbol for "harge. Also see .pee* rating :AM Acronym for :ua*rature amplitu*e mo*ulation DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ra"

Ra Rb Rc R* Re Rf
Rh R 1. 9etter designation for tires to indicate t#at t#ey are Ra*ial as in .1@AR1B tire. 2. Reverse. >. A letter on a fuel gauge indicating low fuel) w#en first illuminated it indicates t#at t#ere is a$$ro1imately five liters left in reserve. 4. 'ymbol for Resistance

Also see .pee* rating+ R-33 (tric#loromonofluoromet#ane! 9ow $ressure, synt#etic c#emical refrigerant w#ic# is also used as a cleaning fluid. R-32 (dic#lorodifluoromet#ane! o$ular refrigerant "nown as ;reon 1,. R-22 (monoc#lorodifluoromet#ane! 9ow tem$erature refrigerant wit# boiling $oint of -40+<=" at atmos$#eric $ressure. R-33B (tric#lorotrifluoroet#ane! 'ynt#etic c#emical refrigerant w#ic# is nonto1ic and nonflammable. R-3;0 (et#yl c#loride! %o1ic refrigerant now seldom used. R-370 (et#ane! 9ow tem$erature a$$lication refrigerant. R-2K0 ($ro$ane! 9ow tem$erature a$$lication refrigerant. R-<00 <efrigerant w#ic# is an azeotro$ic mi1ture of <-1, and <-10,a. R-<02 <efrigerant w#ic# is azeotro$ic mi1ture of <-,, and <110. R-<0B <efrigerant w#ic# is azeotro$ic mi1ture of <-,> and <1>. R-<04 <efrigerant w#ic# is azeotro$ic mi1ture of <->, and <110. R-;00 (butane! 9ow-tem$erature a$$lication refrigerant) also used as a fuel. R-;33

(met#yl formate! 9ow $ressure refrigerant. R-737 (ammonia! o$ular refrigerant for industrial refrigerating systems) also a $o$ular absor$tion system refrigerant. RA!. Acronym for Rear-#heel Anti-loc& Bra&e $ystem (;ord! RA" Acronym for t#e Royal Automobile -lub. Race

!earing Race
1. %#e inner or outer ring t#at $rovides a contact

surface for t#e balls or Rollers in a bearing. 2. A com$etition (usually based on .pee*! between two ve#icles. >. %o run an engine at #ig# s$eed w#en not in gear. Also

!all !earing %rag (nner Race camshaft

Race race race Race

.ee

Race cam A ty$e of cams#aft for race car engines w#ic# increases lift of valve, s$eed of valve o$ening and closing, lengt# of time valve is #eld o$en, etc. Also called Full cam, &hree-8uarter cam, or .emi-race cam, de$ending u$on design. Race camshaft A "amshaft, ot#er t#an stoc", designed to im$rove engine $erformance by altering "am profile. rovides increased lift, faster o$ening and closing, earlier o$ening and later closing, etc. <ace cams#afts are available as semi-race or street grind, &hree-8uarter race camshaft or full race. Grinds in between t#ese general categories are also available. Also see &hree-8uarter Race "amshaft Racer .ee !oy racer "afe racer Factory Racers .ports Racer Racing .ee !anger racing "yclo-"ross Racing Racing 5reen .ee !ritish Racing 5reen+ Racing harness .ee Four-point Racing Harness Racing start

A start on a normal street, e.g., at traffic lig#ts, using e1cessive t#rottle resulting in w#eels$in and screec#ing tires. Rac) 1. A long, toot#ed bar. ,. <emovable wood or metal wall sections attac#able to flatbed trailers to ma"e sides for confining loads. Also Hea*ache Hitch ,uggage Roof .teering &run) rac) Rac) an* pinion .ee Rac) an* pinion gearbo#+ Rac) an* pinion gearbo# .ee Rac) Rac) rac) rac) rac)

Rac) an* pinion gearbo# A ty$e of .teering system wit# a -inion gear on t#e end of t#e .teering shaft. %#e $inion engages a long rac" (a bar wit# a row of teet# cut along one edge!. +#en t#e .teering /heel is turned, t#e $inion turns and moves t#e rac" to t#e left or rig#t. %#is movement is carried t#roug# &ie ro*s to t#e .teering arms at t#e w#eels. Rac) an* pinion steering

Rac) an* pinion steering %#e $inion gear rotates wit# t#e steering s#aft, moving t#e rac" from side to side. 'everal full turns of t#e $inion are re.uired to s#ift t#e rac" from loc" to loc". Because t#ere are so few $arts in t#e steering lin"age, rac" and $inion is a very $recise and res$onsive steering system and is often used in s$orts cars. Also .ee

Rac) an* pinion gearbo#

Rac)-an*-pinion steering .ee Rac) an* pinion steering Rac) galvanizing A galvanizing met#od for ob8ects w#ic# can be $laced on a rac". Ra* Abbreviation for Ra*iator. RA% Acronym for radiator tem!erature s#itch Ra*ar *etector A device w#ic# will sense t#e $resence of a radar device w#ic# law enforcement officers mig#t be using to s$ot s$eeders. Ra*ial

.ee Ra*ial engine Ra*ial tire .teel !elte* Ra*ial Ra*ial bearing A bearing designed to absorb t#e radial forces acting on a $um$. 2om$are &hrust bearing Ra*ial clearance .ee Ra*ial play+ Ra*ial commutator :lectrical contact surface on a rotor w#ic# is $er$endicular or at rig#t angles to t#e s#aft center line. Ra*ial compressor A com$ressor wit# $istons radiating out from t#e centerline of t#e com$ressor. %#e ?arrison (;rigidaire! is a ty$ical e1am$le. Ra*ial cooling fins Bra"e drum cooling fins t#at are $arallel to t#e centerline of t#e a1le. Ra*ial crac)ing 2rac"ing of sidewall rubber running $er$endicular to t#e tire beads. (ay result from underinflation or e1$osure to ozone. Ra*ial *ischarge nozzle Booster venturi wit# four s$o"es or arms w#ic# carry fuel to t#e outer circumference of t#e booster before disc#arging it from tiny #oles in t#e ends of t#e s$o"es. /sed only on t#e 2orvair (odel ? carburetor. Ra*ial engine

Ra*ial 'ngine An internal combustion engine wit# a number of "ylin*ers arranged in a circle around t#e "ran)shaft center line. As t#e cran"s#aft turns, t#e $istons are in various stages of t#e stro"es (i.e., inta"e, e1#aust, com$ression, $ower!. A design often used for aircraft engines. Ra*ial-flo/ pump

Ra*ial-flo/ pump An end-suction centrifugal $um$ wit# t#e li.uid flowing $er$endicular to t#e $um$ s#aft. %#e li.uid enters at

t#e center of t#e im$eller and is directed out along t#e im$eller blades in a direction at rig#t angles to t#e $um$ s#aft. Ra*ial loa* A load $er$endicularly a$$lied to t#e a1is of rotation. Ra*ial play A bearing clearance in t#e radial direction. Ra*ial ply

Ra*ial ply %#e $ly or $lies used in tire in w#ic# t#e cords run at rig#t angles to t#e bead and $arallel to t#e tire radius. Also see Ra*ial tire+ Ra*ial ply tire A ty$e of tire construction in w#ic# sidewall structural $lies run radially out towards t#e tread instead of crisscross diagonally. +it# t#eir t#inner, more fle1ible sidewalls, radial tires #ave lower rolling resistance t#an cross-$ly tires (yielding better fuel consum$tion! as well as giving longer tread life. %#ey can accommodate t#e use of low inflation $ressures wit#out over#eating, due to t#eir fle1ible sidewalls, but are sometimes more $rone to sidewall damage w#en o$erating in roc"y or stony conditions. Because radial tires invariably also

#ave a braced tread area of great dimensional stability, t#ey Ftrac"-layF t#e tread (li"e a bulldozer!, do not suffer from Ftread s#uffleF and so ac#ieve more traction in limiting off-road conditions. Ra*ial runout 1. A tire assembly t#at does not form a true circle) t#e radii of t#e circle are not e.ual. (ost usual causes are bent w#eel (out of round! or tire not mounted $ro$erly (beads not seated!. %#is is one of t#e main causes of ve#icle vibration. ,. A variation in t#e diameter of a bra"e disc, w#eel, or tire from a s$ecified amount. Ra*ial shaft seal A ty$ical seal design used to $revent lea"s between stationary $arts and rotating s#afts and to e1clude foreign matter. A li$ seal, ty$ically of neo$rene, is #eld in a metal retainer and a$$lies a sealing $ressure to a rotating s#aft, t#e $ressure being $rovided by an annular garter s$ring winc# surrounds t#e sealing li$) radial s#aft seals are used w#erever a s#aft $enetrates a casing, suc# as on cran"s#afts, cams#afts, water $um$ s#afts, etc. Ra*ial tire

Ra*ial tire

A ty$e of tire construction w#ic# #as t#e main carcass -lies or cords w#ic# run at rig#t angles to t#e bead and $arallel to t#e radius. By itself, t#is construction is very wea" because w#en t#e !ias angle is smaller, t#e structure is stiff. ?owever, t#e radial tire #as a very large !ias angle. &n order to strengt#en t#e tire, a belt surrounds t#e circumference. %#is belt is made of lowangle $lies (usually about 10 degrees!. &n t#is way, t#e &rea* area is stiff and t#e .i*e/alls are fle1ible. &n t#is way t#e sidewalls can act inde$endently of eac# ot#er. &n a 170D70<1> tire, < indicates a radial tire. Also .ee

.teel belte* ra*ial tire

Ra*iant barrier A t#in, reflective foil s#eet t#at e1#ibits low radiant energy transmission and under certain conditions can bloc" radiant #eat transfer) installed in attics to reduce #eat flow t#roug# a roof assembly into t#e living s$ace. Ra*iant *rier .ee (nfrare* ra*iant *rier+ Ra*iant energy :nergy t#at transmits away from its source in all directions. Ra*iant heating ?eating system in w#ic# warm or #ot surfaces are used to radiate #eat into t#e s$ace to be conditioned. Ra*iation 1. %#e transfer of #eat from one ob8ect to anot#er w#en t#e #otter ob8ect sends out invisible rays or waves t#at u$on stri"ing t#e colder ob8ect, cause it to vibrate and t#us #eat. ,. %#e $rocess by w#ic# energy (suc# as #eat! is emitted by one body, as $articles or waves, transmitted t#roug# an intervening medium or

s$ace (li"e air!, and absorbed by anot#er body. Also refers to t#e energy transferred by t#is $rocess >. %#e transfer of #eat t#roug# matter or s$ace by means of electromagnetic waves. Also .ee !ac)groun* Ra*iation !eta Ra*iation !lac)-bo*y Ra*iation :uantity 0f Ra*iation .olar Ra*iation &hermal ra*iation Ra*iation shiel* A se$arate $anel or $anels inter$osed between surfaces and 8ac"ets to reduce #eat losses t#roug# radiation. Ra*iative forcing A c#ange in average net radiation at t#e to$ of t#e tro$os$#ere ("nown as t#e tro$o$ause! because of a c#ange in eit#er incoming solar or e1iting infrared radiation. A $ositive radiative forcing tends on average to warm t#e eart#=s surface) a negative radiative forcing on average tends to cool t#e eart#=s surface. Green#ouse gases, w#en emitted into t#e atmos$#ere, tra$ infrared energy radiated from t#e eart#=s surface and t#erefore tend to $roduce $ositive radiative forcing. Also see 5reenhouse gases Ra*iatively active gases Gases t#at absorb incoming solar radiation or outgoing infrared radiation, affecting t#e vertical tem$erature $rofile of t#e atmos$#ere. Also see Ra*iative forcing Ra*iator

Ra*iator A device t#at cools t#e li.uid in t#e "ooling system by allowing it to circulate t#roug# a series of water "hannels, w#ic# are e1$osed to air %ucts. Also .ee

"rossflo/ %o/nflo/ Heat Ro**ing the ra*iator


Ra*iator cap

ra*iator ra*iator e#changer

-ressure cap
1. A -ressure cap at t#e to$ of t#e radiator.

,. A #ig# $ressure ca$ used in radiators to allow o$eration at #ig# tem$erature. ?ig#er $ressure raises t#e boiling $oint of t#e coolant.

Ra*iator *rain coc)

Ra*iator *rain coc) A radiator ta$) unli"e t#e Ra*iator *rain plug, tools are not re.uired to drain t#e coolant from a radiator wit# a drain coc". Ra*iator *rain plug A t#readed closure $lug located at t#e underside of a radiator used to drain t#e coolant) usually e.ui$$ed wit# a #e1 or Allen #ead. Ra*iator fan %wo ty$es are used on automobiles a cran"s#aft-driven fan connected by a tem$erature-sensitive viscous cou$ling, or a fan driven by an electric motor. Ra*iator fan motor An electrically o$erated motor res$onsible for driving t#e radiator fan. An electric motor allows muc# more freedom in radiator location and engine bay design and $ermits aftercooling of t#e engine wit# t#e engine

switc#ed off most engines mounted crosswise at t#e front (as on most front-w#eel-drive subcom$acts! use electric radiator fans w#ic# also lead to reduced $ower losses, since t#e ve#icle=s engine is not also re.uired to drive t#e radiator fan also. %#e $roblem wit# t#em, #owever, is t#at even wit# t#e engine off, t#e fan may start u$ une1$ectedly for t#e $erson ins$ecting t#e engine bay. Ra*iator fill hole An o$ening at t#e to$ of t#e Ra*iator t#roug# w#ic# new water and "oolant can be added w#en t#e engine and radiator is cool. &n modern ve#icles, an overflow reservoir is t#e location for to$$ing off t#e radiator fluid since o$ening a #ot radiator ca$ can be dangerous. %#e -ressure cap seals t#e fill #ole. Ra*iator grille %#e grating t#at admits cooling air to t#e radiator. Ra*iator grille surroun* %#e s#eet metal $anel for mounting t#e radiator grille) often combined wit# t#e front a$ron to form a single front $anel. Ra*iator guar* .ee .i*e ra*iator guar*+ Ra*iator hose %#e rubber $i$e connecting t#e radiator to t#e cylinder bloc". Ra*iator hose shar) tooth pliers A s$ecial automotive tool for removing and installing radiator and #eater #oses) round and toot#ed 8aws securely gri$ t#e #ose w#ile t#e #andles $rovide leverage to twist t#e #ose free. Ra*iator overflo/ tan)

Ra*iator overflo/ tan) A small bottle t#at acts as a reservoir for li.uid e1$elled from t#e "ooling system t#roug# t#e 0verflo/ pipe and returns t#e li.uid to t#e system w#en it cools down. A s$ecial Ra*iator -ressure cap is also $art of t#e "it. &t is also called a -losed -ooling $ystem w#en it is $art of t#e 0riginal e8uipment. Ra*iator pressure cap .ee -ressure cap+ Ra*iator shell

Ra*iator shell A metal or $lastic enclosure w#ic# surrounds t#e outside $erimeter of t#e radiator and mounts to t#e frame of t#e ve#icle. &n modern motorcycles, it is usually c#romed. Ra*iator support panel A $anel located be#ind t#e radiator grille surround w#ic# $rovides a mounting for t#e radiator and connects t#e mudguard s"irts at t#eir front edge. Ra*iator tan) A reservoir containing t#e coolant in a radiator. :arly units were made from s#eet metal, ty$ically brass or aluminum. Aewer versions used advanced $olymer tec#nology and in8ection molding $rocesses #ave made it $ossible to $roduce radiator tan"s from t#ermo$lastics. 'ince all modern cars use forced circulation systems, t#ere is no need for a vertical flow t#roug# t#e radiator. %#us most radiators are mounted #orizontally. Also called Ra*iator 0verflo/ &an) Ra*ii a*apter A mounting device t#at is used to center a drum or rotor on t#e arbor of a lat#e. A radii ada$ter centers

t#e drum or rotor t#roug# contact wit# t#e bearing races. Ra*io A device w#ic# receives radio signals (eit#er A(, ;(, or bot#! and $lays t#e sound t#roug# t#e s$ea"ers. Automobile radios began to a$$ear in ve#icles in 13,7. :ven in t#e mid-1360s, many cars came wit#out radios. Also .ee "ar ra*io "! ra*io "itizens ban* ra*io %(9 ra*io Mobile t/o-/ay ra*io Ra*ioHcassette *ec) (rDc! A combined radio and ta$e dec". Ra*io cho)e An electric coil used to $revent static in t#e radio caused by o$ening and closing of t#e contact $oints in t#e instrument voltage regulator. Ra*io %ata .ystem (<E'! A system w#ic# interru$ts a radio broadcast wit# t#e latest information on e.g., traffic $roblems. Ra*io fre8uency interference (<;&! interference generated by t#e ignition system and ot#er electrical a$$aratus) counteracted by su$$ressors. Ra*iograph A $#otogra$# obtained by $assing N-rays or gamma rays t#roug# t#e ob8ect to be $#otogra$#ed and recording t#e variations in density on a $#otogra$#ic film. Ra*ius .ee !uffere* ra*ius "ro/n ra*ius Free ra*ius ,oa*e* ra*ius Ra*ius ro*s

Rolling ra*ius .crub ra*ius &urning ra*ius Ra*ius arm An additional sus$ension lin" in a beam a1le layout $roviding fore-and-aft location of t#e a1le. Ra*ius ro* An additional sus$ension lin" in a beam a1le layout $roviding fore-and-aft location of t#e a1le. Ra*ius ro*s <ods or arms w#ic# are $art of t#e .uspension, usually a live rear a1le. %#ey are attac#ed to t#e a1le and $ivoted on t#e Frame. %#ey are used to "ee$ t#e a1le at rig#t angles to t#e Frame (i.e., $revent lateral movement! and yet $ermit an u$ and down motion. Bn some cars li"e t#e %rium$# '$itfire, t#ey are used to #el$ locate t#e ./ing a#les. Ra*ius seat A s$#erical seat t#at $rovides $ositive centering of t#e w#eel bolt #ead in t#e w#eel. Ra*on A naturally occurring radioactive gas found in t#e /nited 'tates in nearly all ty$es of soil, roc", and water. &t can migrate into most buildings. 'tudies #ave lin"ed #ig# concentrations of radon to lung cancer. RAF Acronym for Reactivity Ad/ustment 'actor Raft .ee .uspension Raft Rag .ee &ac) rag+ Rage .ee Roa* rage+ Ragtop

2ollo.uial term for "onvertible. RA( Acronym for Eederlandse vereniging de Ri/#ielen-Automobiel Indusrie (Aet#erlands!.
1. A %ragster built around a relatively long $i$e

Rail Frame. %#e only body $anels used are around t#e %river2s coc"$it area. ,. A common $ressure accumulator. Also .ee !ull-hea*e* Rail "ommon Rail (n6ection %rip rail Fen*er rail Fuel rail ,ight Rail 0il rail Roof rail Running on rails .eat rail .hift rails Rail console .ee .eat rail console+ Railer .ee Roa*RailerG Rail 6ob A ve#icle t#at #as been transformed into a dragster built around a long $i$e frame wit# minimal body $anels. Rail 7oint .ee "ast el*e* Rail 7oint Railroa* locomotive 'elf-$ro$elled ve#icle t#at runs on rails and is used for moving railroad cars.

Railton A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models, wit# re.uired a$$lication, are "lassic cars. Rail/ay .ee "able Rail/ay Rail/ay "ontainer A cargo container t#at can be loaded or stac"ed on a railroad flat car. Rain .ee Aci* rain+ Rain grooves 2#annels cut into a road=s surface to #el$ water run off t#e road during a rainstorm Raising %#e action of beating a rounded s#a$e out of a flat $anel by starting in t#e center and wor"ing outward in a s$iral to t#e edge) t#e metal is s#run" around t#e edge but remains about t#e same in t#e center. Ra)e 1. %#e angle at w#ic# a rod is attac#ed. ,. %#e fore-and-aft inclination from t#e vertical. Also see !ac) Ra)e For) ra)e Ra)e* A ve#icle w#ic# #as t#e 5roun* clearance or body altered so t#at eit#er t#e front or rear of t#e ve#icle is increased or lowered, t#us giving t#e ve#icle a tilted a$$earance. Ra)e the leaves %ruc"er slang for t#e last ve#icle in a string as in F9oo"s li"e & get to ra"e t#e leaves tonig#t.F Rally .ee (ron !utt Rally

RAM

Acronym for Ran*om Access Memory -- memory t#at serves as a tem$orary storage $lace for data from t#e sensors. Ram air 1. &n a ram air system, carburetors get fres# air to be mi1ed wit# t#e gasoline via forward facing ducts. %#e idea is t#at as t#e ve#icle moves faster, more air is forced or rammed into t#e carburetors resulting in im$roved $erformance. ,. A term referring to t#e air forced t#roug# t#e condenser coils by ve#icle movement or fan action. Ram in*uction /sing t#e forward Momentum of ve#icle to scoo$ air and force it into "arburetor via a suitable $assageway. Ram inta)e manifol* An (nta)e manifol* t#at #as very long $assageways t#at at certain .pee*s aid t#e entrance of fuel mi1ture into t#e "ylin*ers. Ramp 1. :.ui$ment used to su$$ort a ve#icle=s front or rear for underbody wor". ,. A device used to raise a ve#icle in t#e air. Also see Hea* Ramp Runa/ay &ruc) Ramp Ramp angle A measure of ve#icle under-belly clearance or t#e ability to drive over a s#ar$ ridge or ram$ wit#out touc#ing t#e underside of t#e ve#icle on t#e obstacle. %#e ram$ angle is t#e angle measured from t#e lowest $art of t#e c#assis at mid-w#eelbase down to t#e $eri$#ery of front and rear w#eels. Bbviously a s#ort

w#eelbase ve#icle wit# large w#eels will #ave t#e smallest ram$ angle and best under-belly clearance. Ramp brea)over angle .ee Ramp angle Ramp-over angle An indication of #ow #ig# a #um$ t#e ve#icle can negotiate wit#out scra$ing t#e undercarriage or becoming #ig#-centered) t#at is, stuc" wit# t#e center of t#e ve#icle on t#e #um$ and t#e w#eels in t#e air. Ram pressure %#e $ressure generated by t#e deflection of t#e fluid flow due to t#e curvature of t#e stator blades, resulting in a momentum acting on t#e turbine. Ram tube A tube of a s$ecific lengt# and s#a$e in t#e inta"e manifold t#at $romotes $erformance at certain engine s$eeds by ramming air into t#e cylinders. R?% Acronym for Research F evelo!ment. Ran*om access memory (<A(! A ty$e of volatile memory t#at is used to store information for eit#er s#ort or long term usage. %#is ty$e of memory can be written to. &f energy is removed from t#e <A( device, t#e contents in memory are destroyed. Also see 9on-volatile Ran*om Access Memory Ran*onnEe A long bicycle touring ride of 160 to 1,00 "ilometers made u$ of several controls (c#ec"$oints!. Ran*onneur A male long-distance cyclist. Also see Ran*onneuse .uper Ran*onneur Ran*onneur <000

Bne of t#e most $restigious awards a Ran*onneur can earn. %o be one of t#e reci$ients, a randonneur must do a full series of ,00, >00, 600, 600, and 1000"m !revets, a aris-Brest- aris randonneur event, a ;lWc#e team ride, and t#e remaining distances ridden on sanctioned brevets for a total of 0000 "ilometers. %#e .ualifying events must all be com$leted wit#in a four-year $eriod. Ran*onneuring 9ong distance bicycle riding wit#in a s$ecified lengt# of time. ;irst develo$ed in ;rance in 1731 a few years before t#e Tour de 'rance w#ic# later s$un off from randonneuring. &t is not considered a race but a ride. :veryone w#o com$letes t#e ride wit#in t#e time limit is awarded t#e same medal regardless of #ow .uic"ly #eDs#e rides t#e distance. Ran*onneurs Mon*iau# An umbrella organization of national randonneuring grou$s. &ts $rimary functions are to organize foreign (i.e., ;rance, '$ain, /nited @ingdom, ?olland, Belgium, Australia, Eenmar", 'weden, Aorway, ;inland, Austria, Germany, <ussia, 'out# Africa, 2anada, and t#e /nited 'tates! $artici$ation in aris-Brest- aris and ot#er 1,00-"ilometer !revets, encourage t#e e1c#ange of information of interest to randonneurs, and reward clubs= and individuals= $artici$ation in long-distance randonnKes wit# various medals and tro$#ies. Ran*onneuse 1. A female long-distance cyclist. ,. A bicycle s$ecifically designed for randonneuring. Range ressure or tem$erature settings of a control) c#ange wit#in limits. Also .ee !on*ing Range %ual-range transmission

5ear Heat Heat range ,oa* Mi*-range -ro*uct Rev .par) -lug &ac) Range Range-change %#e transfer gearbo1 lever Also Au#iliary gearbo#+ Range gearbo# .ee HighHlo/ range gearbo#+ Range gearing .ee i*e range gearing+ Range reserve .ee Heat range reserve+ Range Rover

range range reserve range range range Range

Heat

see

"lic) image for boo)s on Range Rover A model of '/- manufactured in :ngland Range transmission .ee HighHlo/ range transmission+ Ran)

.ee &a#i ran)+ Ran)ine cycle %#e t#ermodynamic cycle t#at is an ideal standard for com$aring $erformance of #eat-engines, steam $ower $lants, steam turbines, and #eat $um$ systems t#at use a condensable va$or as t#e wor"ing fluid. :fficiency is measured as wor" done divided by sensible #eat su$$lied. Ran)ine cycle engine %#e <an"ine cycle system uses a li.uid t#at eva$orates w#en #eated and e1$ands to $roduce wor", suc# as turning a turbine, w#ic# w#en connected to a generator, $roduces electricity. %#e e1#aust va$or e1$elled from t#e turbine condenses and t#e li.uid is $um$ed bac" to t#e boiler to re$eat t#e cycle. %#e wor"ing fluid most commonly used is water, t#oug# ot#er li.uids can also be used. <an"ine cycle design is used by most commercial electric $ower $lants. %#e traditional steam locomotive is also a common form of t#e <an"ine cycle engine. %#e <an"ine engine itself can be eit#er a $iston engine or a turbine. Ran)ine scale Aame given t#e absolute (;a#ren#eit! scale. Oero (0C<! on t#is scale is -660C; RAAcronym for Retained Access .o#er Rapi* &ransit .ee ,ight Rapi* &ransit Rash .ee Roa* rash+ Rasp 1. A tool li"e a file wit# coarse teet# used to $re$are a tire for .ection repair and for !uffing $rior to Retrea*ing. ,. %#e action of using a ras$ tool.

Ratchet 1. A feature of a s$ecial wrenc# w#ic# allows you to turn t#e #andle in one direction to tig#ten a nut or bolt, but turning it in t#e o$$osite direction does not#ing but $osition t#e #andle bac" w#ere you started and leaves t#e wrenc# on t#e nut or bolt. 9i"ewise you could set t#e wrenc# to loosen a nut or bolt. 2. A drive #andle wit# ratc#et mec#anism, usually called a .oc)et /rench. 3. A toot#ed Rac) or w#eel w#ic# is engaged by a lever to $ermit motion in only one direction. Also .ee Air ratchet &ap ratchet Ratchet a*apter A device w#ic# converts a tor.ue wrenc# or drive #andle wit#out a ratc#et mec#anism into a reversible ratc#et tool. Ratchet han*le A Ratchet tool. Ratchet 6a/ %ruc"er slang for a non-sto$ tal"er as in F?e sure was a ratc#et 8aw.F Ratchet scre/*river A screwdriver wit# a ratc#et mec#anism. Rate .ee !ase interest rate !uy Rate "harging rate "onversion rate %amping rate %eflection rate %ischarge rate %oor rates Flat rate

Flat rate manual Flo/ rate 9et interest rate -rogressive rate spring Reaction Rate .par) rate .pring rate &urn-in rate Rate* capacity %#e .uantity of electricity w#ic# can be drawn from a fully c#arged battery for ,0 #ours by a constant disc#arging current until cutoff voltage of 1.50 volts $er cell is reac#ed. Also see Ampere-hour capacity+ Rate* horsepo/er .ee .A' horsepo/er+ Rate* po/er 1. %#e $ower out$ut of an engine as #orse$ower or "ilowatt. ,. %#e value stated on t#e generator name$late. &t is t#e $ower available at t#e out$ut terminals of a com$onent or $iece of e.ui$ment t#at is o$erated in com$liance wit# t#e manufacturer=s $erformance s$ecifications. Rate* pressure A nominal $ressure rating a$$lied to ve#icle $arts. Rate* voltage %#e voltage given for electrical e.ui$ment or devices w#ic# refers to s$ecified o$erating conditions. Rate manual .ee Flat rate manual+ Rate spring .ee -rogressive rate spring

.ingle rate spring $ariable rate springs Rate suspension .ee Rising rate suspension+ Rat Hole .ervice Erilling rigs. Rating .ee Amp Hr Rating Amperage rating "etane rating 5ross a#le /eight rating 5ross "ombine* eight Rating 5ross $ehicle eight Rating ,oa* rating Manufacturers -erformance Ratings 0ctane rating -ly rating Rate* capacity .pee* rating &o/ rating Ratio A fi1ed relations#i$ between t#ings in number, .uantity or degree. ;or e1am$le, if t#e fuel mi1ture contains one $art of gas for fifteen $arts of air, t#e ratio would be 10 to 1. Also .ee Air-fuel ratio Air ratio Aspect ratio A#ial Ratio !ore-stro)e ratio !ra)ing ratio !ree*ing Ratio !ypass Ratio "ompression ratio 'conomy ratio

'8uivalence Ratio Final *rive ratio Fuel-air ratio 5ear ratio 0verall gear ratio 0#ygen-&o-"arbon Ratio -e*al Ratio -o/er-to-/eight ratio -rimary compression ratio Rear a#le ratio .easonal 'nergy 'fficiency Ratio .pee* ratio .tall tor8ue ratio .team-&o-"arbon Ratio .teering overall ratio .teering ratio .toichiometric ratio Ratio A*apter "ontroller Mo*ule .ee %igital Ratio A*apter "ontroller Mo*ule Rationalization An industrial reorganization $rimarily aimed at a more cost-effective and time-saving $roduction $rocess. Ratio steering .ee $ariable ratio steering+ Rat-tail file A Roun* file. Rattle .ee !o*y rattle %eath rattle %iesel rattle Rattle spring .ee .prea*er spring+ Rattrap

%#e ty$e of !icycle $edals t#at #ave t#in metal $lates wit# 8agged edges running $arallel on eac# side of t#e $edal .pin*le. RA$' valve A device used on &/o-stro)e engines w#ic# automatically alters or varies t#e '#haust port size. &t stands for <ota1 ad8ustable variable e1#aust. Ravigneau# planetary gear set A system w#ic# is com$osed of two sun gears of different diameters, one internal gear, and several $lanet $inions. Ra/ e#haust gas %#e e1#aust gas u$stream of any emission control device, e.g., before it $asses t#roug# a catalytic converter. Ra/ rubber Aatural rubber t#at #as not been vulcanized. Ray .ee !eta Rays "atho*e Ray (nfrare* Rays >ltraviolet Rays Rayleigh fre8uency *istribution A mat#ematical re$resentation of t#e fre.uency or ratio t#at s$ecific wind s$eeds occur wit#in a s$ecified time interval. Raymon*-Mays A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. Rayon A synt#etic fiber. Ray &ube .ee

"atho*e Ray &ube

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Sa"

.
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate t#at t#ey are

t#eoretically rated for s$eeds u$ to 170 "$# (110 m$#!, as in .::3$R1A. %#e ne1t #ig#er rating is &. 2. Abbreviation for $!ecial or $!ort, indicating better $erformance t#an a standard car model. .2000 A model of automobile manufactured by ?onda .4 .A % Acronym for $electable 'our Wheel

rive

An A-( classification for straig#t mineral oil used in early gasoline and diesel engines w#ic# are o$erated under suc# mild conditions t#at t#e $rotection of com$ounded oils is not re.uired. %#is category #as no $erformance re.uirements, and oils in t#is category s#ould not be used in any engine unless s$ecifically recommended by t#e e.ui$ment manufacturer. &t was re$laced by t#e obsolete .!. (odern gasoline engines s#ould use oil t#at meets t#e .M classification. .aab

A model of automobile manufactured in 'weden and includes 3-,N (,000-06!, 3-> (1333-current!, 3-0 (1333-current!, 3-5N (,000-05!, 300 (1357-37!, and 3000 (1370-37! .acco panels .ee .i*e bumper panels .acrificial ano*e An electro$ositive metal coating, suc# as aluminum or zinc, t#at $rotects t#e steel of a car body by corroding first w#en attac"ed by electrolytic action .acrificial protection .ee "atho*ic protection .a**le 1. 'eat on a !icycle ,. (etal $iece on a center$ull bra"e. >. /$$er main bearing seat Also Anatomic 5el @o)e .a**lebag see sa**le sa**le

.a**lebag A large bag or one of a $air w#ic# #angs down from t#e sa**le or straddles t#e rear w#eel of a bicycle or motorcycle. Also called panniers .a**le gel A gelatin substance t#at is inserted into a bicycle or motorcycle saddle beneat# t#e leat#er cover to $rovide more cus#ioning. .a**le tan) 1. A fuel tan" mounted above t#e rear a1le. ,. A fuel tan" t#at fits over t#e to$ tube of t#e frame of a motorcycle .a**le valve

.a**le valve A device t#at is silver brazed or clam$ed on a tubing line or $i$e w#ere a s$i"e $unctures t#e line or a #ole is drilled in t#e line to $rovide a secondary outlet of t#e li.uid in t#e line. Also called ta!-a-line .A' Acronym for 'ociety of Automotive :ngineers. &t $ublis#es automotive researc# $a$ers and defines various automotive standards of measurement. .A' gross bhp An older unit of engine $ower. &n t#e 'A: gross b#$ test, a bare engine is used, i.e., an engine e.ui$$ed wit# only t#ose accessories t#at are necessary for its o$eration, suc# as t#e oil $um$ and fuel $um$) but water $um$, alternator, e1#aust system, etc. are not used) t#is results in a #ig#er $ower rating t#an ac#ievable by t#e same engine under real o$erating conditions .A' gross horsepo/er

A $roduction engine=s actual $ower available at t#e fly/heel or output shaft (usually cran)shaft! as tested wit# an absor$tion *ynamometer. &t differs from 'A: net #orse$ower in t#at many of t#e accessories (suc# as alternator, /ater pump, etc.! are not attac#ed. :ngines before 135> were $rimarily measured wit# t#ese FgrossF numbers. 'ince 135>, net figures were $ublis#ed. %#is confusion caused many $eo$le to su$$ose t#at t#eir engine #ad been seriously de-tuned w#en t#ey saw t#at t#e same engine in 135, #ad 600 #$ but in 135> #ad only ,>0 #$. (%#is e1am$le is from t#e 2adillac 000 cubic inc# engine!. 2om$are .A' net horsepo/er. Also .ee !ra)e horsepo/er Horsepo/er .A' horsepo/er A sim$le formula of long standing is used to determine horsepo/er. %#e formula is (bore *iameter! s.uared times (number of cylinders! divided by ,.0. %#is formula is used $rimarily for licensing $ur$oses and is not very accurate for determining actual bra)e horsepo/er. Also called rated #orse$ower. 2om$are .A' gross horsepo/er and .A' net horsepo/er. Also see Horsepo/er+ .A' net bhp A newer unit of engine $ower. A fully-e.ui$$ed engine (as w#en installed in a ve#icle! is used to determine 'A: net b#$ figures) as a roug# guideline, 'A: net is about 50-70 $ercent of .A' gross .A' net horsepo/er %#e bra"e $ower ($ower available at t#e fly/heel or output shaft -- usually t#e cran)shaft! of a fully e.ui$$ed engine fitted wit# all t#e accessories necessary to $erform its intended functions unaided. &n

135>, automobile manufacturers began $ublis#ing t#eir engine specifications in net #orse$ower and net tor8ue instead of gross figures. &n many cases t#e $ublis#ed numbers were significantly lower in 135> t#an in 135,. 'ome of t#e decrease was attributed to t#e addition of $ollution e.ui$ment, t#e lowering of compression, and t#e use of regular unleaded gasoline instead of $remium leaded fuel. ?owever most of t#e decrease in number was a switc# to net figures. 2om$are .A' gross horsepo/er. Also .ee

!ra)e Horsepo/er

horsepo/er

.A' .pecifications 'tandards develo$ed by t#e 'ociety of Automotive :ngineers, &nc. .A' .tan*ar* .cre/ &hrea*s %#e 'A: 'crew %#read 'tandard, as revised in 1306, conforms wit# t#e /nified and American 'tandard. .A' steels A numerical inde1 used to identify com$osition of 'A: steel .afe hea*/ay A safe distance between two ve#icles on t#e road .afe stop /heel A Run-on tire .AF'&'A-,> Acronym for $afe, Accountable, 'le(ible, and

.afety .ee Active %riveshaft '#perimental (nsurance (nstitute

Efficient Trans!ortation E5uity Act - a 7egacy for ,sers

safety .afety For High/ay

safety strap $ehicle .afety

(ntegrate* chil* safety seat (ntegrate* safety belts Motor $ehicle .afety Act -ar) safety s/itch -assive safety features -assive safety .afety factor .afety hub .afety rim .afety valve .afety Act .ee Motor $ehicle .afety Act .afetyC active .ee Active safety+ .afety A*ministration .ee 9ational &raffic .afety A*ministration 9ational High/ay &raffic .afety A*ministration .afety bea* seat A general term for a safety contour on t#e rim bead seat $reventing t#e tire bead from sliding into t#e rim well es$ecially during cornering maneuvers .afety belt .ee .eat belt (ntegrate* safety belts .afety !oar* .ee 9ational &ransportation .afety !oar* .afety can 1. A$$roved container of not more t#an 0-gal. ca$acity. &t #as a s$ring-closing lid and s$out cover. &t is designed to relieve internal $ressure safely w#en e1$osed to fire. ,. An a$$roved container of not more t#an two gallons ca$acity #aving a s$ring-closing lid and

s$out cover and so designed t#at it will safely relieve internal $ressure w#en sub8ected to fire e1$osure. .afety catch A secondary latc# usually located under t#e front edge of t#e #ood, near t#e center, w#ic# $revents accidental release of t#e #ood if t#e main cable-o$erated #ood loc" is activated by mista"e .afety chains

.afety chains %wo, crossed c#ains lin"ing t#e trailer and ve#icle frame as a safeguard if t#e towing #itc# fails .afety "ompliance "ertification ,abel ('22! An American label w#ic# must be attac#ed to t#e lower #alf of t#e left-#and front door loc" facing) s$ecifies t#e -&A and ot#er relevant information .afety control

1. Eevice to sto$ t#e o$eration of a unit if unsafe $ressure, tem$eratures, andDor dangerous conditions are reac#ed. ,. Automatic controls and interloc"s (including relays, switc#es, and ot#er au1iliary e.ui$ment! w#ic# are intended to $revent unsafe o$eration of t#e controlled e.ui$ment. Also see -rimary .afety "ontrol .afety-control circuit A circuit or $ortion t#ereof involving one or more safety controls aimed at $reventing unsafe o$eration of t#e controlled e.ui$ment due to grounding, o$ening or s#orting of any $art of t#e circuit. .afety "utout .ee Hea* -ressure .afety "utout ,o/ -ressure .afety "utout 0il -ressure .afety "utout .afety %ata .heets .ee Material .afety %ata .heets .afety factor 1. roviding strengt# beyond t#at needed, as an e1tra margin of insurance against $art failure. ,. Eegree of strengt# above normal re.uirements w#ic# serves as insurance against failure .afety features .ee -assive safety features .afety glass .ee ,aminate* glass .afety goggles

.afety goggles A close-fitting glasses or mas" to $rotect t#e eyes (e.g., during welding! .afety harness .ee Harness .afety hub A device t#at is installed on t#e rear a1le to $revent t#e w#eels from leaving t#e ve#icle in t#e event of a bro"en a1le. .afety hubs .ee .afety hub+ .afety le*ge A raised area (#um$! around t#e circumference of t#e bead seat area of $assenger w#eels. &ts function is to $revent t#e tire beads from becoming unseated during #ard cornering or w#ile running wit# low air $ressure. A must wit# tubeless $assenger tires. Also called .pecial

le*ge

.afety motor control :lectrical device used to o$en circuit to motor if tem$erature, $ressure, andDor current flow e1ceed safe conditions. .afety pin

.afety pin A securing device .afety plug Eevice w#ic# will release t#e contents of a container before ru$ture $ressures are reac#ed. .afety pressure cap .ee -ressure cap+ .afety reflector .ee arning triangle .afety relief valve A s$ring-loaded valve designed to o$en and relieve e1cessive $ressure in a device w#en it e1ceeds a $redetermined safe $oint .afety rim A rim #aving two safety ridges, one on eac# li$, to $revent t#e tire bea*s from entering t#e dro$ center area in t#e event of a blowout. %#is feature "ee$s t#e tire on t#e rim. .afety seat .ee !aby seat (ntegrate* chil* safety seat .afety shut*o/n %#e action of s#utting off all fuel and ignition energy to t#e fuel utilization e.ui$ment by means of a safety control or controls suc# t#at restart cannot be accom$lis#ed wit#out manual reset. .afety shutoff *evice

A device t#at will s#ut off t#e fuel su$$ly to t#e controlled burner in t#e event t#e source of ignition fails. %#is device may interru$t t#e flow of fuel to t#e main burner only, or to t#e $ilot and main burner under its su$ervision. .afety stan*

.afety stan* A device t#at can be securely loc"ed at a c#oice of #eig#ts, so it can be $laced under a s$ecific $art of t#e ve#icle underbody to su$$ort t#e weig#t of t#e ve#icle t#at #as been raised wit# a 6ac), and "ee$ t#e ve#icle safely in $lace. /sually used in $airs. Also called /ac& stand or a(le stand .afety steering column .ee "ollapsible steering column .afety strap .ee %riveshaft safety strap .afety s/itch

.ee 9eutral safety s/itch -ar) safety s/itch .afety valve 1. A valve designed to o$en and relieve t#e $ressure wit#in a container w#en container $ressure e1ceeds a $redetermined level. ,. 'elf-o$erated, .uic" o$ening valve used for fast relief of e1cessive $ressures. .afety valve shutoff A valve t#at is automatically closed by t#e safety control system or by an emergency device. 'uc# valve may be of t#e automatic or manually o$ened ty$e. .afety $ehicle .ee '#perimental .afety $ehicle .afety /heel A general term referring to eit#er a w#eel wit# a safety bead seat or a w#eel wit# run flat $ro$erties .A-F$ Acronym for .eparator assembly-fuel $acuum .ag 1. %o bend or droo$ under weig#t or $ressure. As a result of a front or rear end collision, t#e frame may develo$ a sag in t#e middle, muc# li"e a #ammoc". ,. %o fail to meet $ro8ected sales. >. A $aint $roblem. Also see -ump .ag .ags .agging 1. An aggravated condition of $aint w#ere a band of $aint runs down t#e side of a vertical area of t#e body. &t may be caused by e1cessive build-u$ of

$aint, t#inners w#ic# are too slow-acting, or e1cessively slow movement of t#e s$ray gun. ,. %#e straining of a s#i$ t#at tends to ma"e t#e middle $ortion lower t#an t#e bow and stern .agging *oor A door t#at sits too low in t#e door o$ening w#ic# is often indicated by an uneven door ga$ t#at widens towards t#e rear bottom and front to$ of t#e door but narrows down at t#e rear to$ and front bottom. %#is condition may be caused by faulty setting of t#e door #inges and loc"Dstri"er assembly. Bn convertibles, it often $in$oints structural damage, because t#e c#assis may be bending in t#e middle .ags An aggravated condition of $aint w#ere a band of $aint runs down t#e side of a vertical area of t#e body. &t may be caused by e1cessive build-u$ of $aint, t#inners w#ic# are too slow-acting, or e1cessively slow movement of t#e s$ray gun .ag /agon A su$$ort ve#icle for touring bicycles or motorcycles to $rovide food, re$airs, or a ride #ome. .A( Acronym for .teering a#is inclination .ailing .ee -lane sailing .ainte "laire .ee ills .ainte "laire .A(R Acronym for $econdary Air In/ection $ystem .alable natural gas Aatural gas mar"eted under controlled .uality conditions. .A,A suspension Acronym for .hort armHlong arm suspension

.ales %otal automotive $roduct sales (ve#icles, automotive $arts, including 0' and aftermar"et!. Also .ee !ul) .ales Fleet .ales 9et sales value @ar* .ale .ales value .ee 9et sales value .alient pole An electric motor #as salient $oles w#en its stator or field $oles are concentrated into confined arcs and t#e winding is wra$$ed around t#em (as o$$osed to distributing t#em in a series of slots! .aloon A Britis# term for .e*an .alt .ee !echgaar* .alt !lueing .alts .alt brine recycling 2ollecting brine runoff and reusing it as a $re-wetting agent for salt .alt flat 'alt mars# of very unreliable consistency and bearing strengt# found in desert regions and c#aracterized by a to$ crust of varying t#ic"ness and strengt# wit# soft salt mud of great de$t# beneat# it. .alt fog testing .ee .alt spray testing .alt spray chamber A test c#amber for .alt spray testing .alt spray testing '$ray tests wit# sodium c#loride solutions

.alt /ater splash An o$en-air corrosion test facility .alvage* A ve#icle totaled in an accident and t#en re$aired. %#ere is no guarantee of street wort#iness for a salvaged ve#icle. &t may loo" good, but be #azardous to drive. .am !ro/ne A wide stra$, made of reflective material, worn around t#e waist wit# a stra$ diagonally over t#e rig#t s#oulder .ampler .ee !omb .ampler .ampling .ee "onstant-volume sampling+ .an* 1. %o smoot# or clean a surface by rubbing wit# sand$a$er. 'anding usually refers to #and tools suc# as sand$a$er and bloc", w#ile grinding always refers to $ower tools suc# as angle grinders. ,. A term $o$ularly a$$lied to loose, unconsolidated accumulations of detrital sediment, consisting essentially of rounded grains of .uartz. &n t#e mec#anical analysis of soil, sand, according to international classification, #as a size between .06 and ,.0 mm. >. %o a$$ly a t#in layer of sand or sand and salt to an icy road surface to increase traction. Also see !lac) .an* .ilica san* .an* blast 2leaning by t#e use of sand $ro$elled at #ig# s$eeds in an air blast.

.an* blaster

.an* blaster A metal bo1 into w#ic# a rusty or dirty ob8ect is $laced. 2om$ressed air and sand or grit are forced t#roug# a nozzle and is directed at t#e ob8ect in order to remove t#e dirt, $aint, or rust. .an*blasting %#e cleaning of a surface wit# a 8et of sand (or grit! under air or steam $ressure .an* casting %#e formation of s#a$es by $ouring molten metal into a cavity s#a$ed in sand in a molding flas" .an* channels B$en face tubes or $lan"s (sometimes articulated! wit# a roug# inner surface wit# ridges used to $ut under t#e driving w#eels to assist in gaining traction w#en t#e ve#icle is stuc" in soft sand. Also see .an* la**ers

pierce* steel plan)ing .an* trac)s .an*er A $ower-driven tool wit# a rotating abrasive disc for smoot#ing and cleaning surfaces. Also .ee !elt san*er %isc san*er 5roun*-oriente* san*er 0rbital san*er .an*ing .ee !loc) san*ing et san*ing .an*ing bloc) A bloc" of rubber or $lastic to w#ic# t#e sand$a$er is fastened, offering t#e o$erator a good gri$. %#e bloc" s#ould be used for most sanding 8obs because it distributes t#e $ressure evenly and gives a more uniform surface. .an* la**ers A $air of aluminum ladders, about 150 cm long, s$ecially made wit# rungs closer t#an normal, to lay beneat# t#e ve#icle w#eels in soft sand to give gri$ and flotation. Also see .an* channels pierce* steel plan)ing .an* trac)s .an*paper An abrasive $a$er coated wit# sand for smoot#ing and cleaning. 2om$are 5lasspaper .an* recycling 2ollecting road sand used one winter and $rocessing it for reuse t#e ne1t winter or for ot#er a$$lications .an* scratch .ee .an* scratches+

.an* scratches %#e mar"s left in metal or in t#e old finish by abrasives. %#ey may also s#ow in t#e finish coat due to lac" of filling or sealing. .an* scratching A $aint fault c#aracterized by t#e $aint film a$$earing low in gloss and s#owing $rimer and metal im$erfections in t#e to$ coat) may be caused by e1cessively coarse sanding and too t#in a $aint coat .an* scratch s/elling .olvents $resent in surface scratc#es t#at cause t#e old finish to swell. .an* tires An off-road tire designed for desert sand and beac# sand. /sually wit# smoot# tread bloc"s rat#er t#an t#e s#ar$, bold bloc"s of a mud tire. .an* trac)s Generic name sometimes given to any item fulfilling t#e role of a san* la**er. (ay be pierce* steel Also see .an* channels .an* la**ers .an*/ich construction A com$osite construction of alloys, $lastics, and ot#er materials consisting of a foam or #oneycomb layer and glued between two #ard outer s#eets. Also called

plan)ing

.an*/ich laminate

.an*/ich laminate .ee .an*/ich construction .A.ee A(A-.A.A. 1. Acronym for .can*inavian .uppliers

Automotive

2. Acronym for s!eed ad/usting scre# .A.' Acronym for self-addressed stam!ed envelo!e. Bften used in advertisements w#ere t#e seller will $rovide information if $otential buyers will send a 'A': enclosed in t#eir .uery letter. Also see ..A'+ .atellite A bloc" of controls near t#e steering w#eel rim. Also see 5lobal -ositioning .atellite .aturate* vapor -a$or condition w#ic# will result in condensation into dro$lets of li.uid if va$or tem$erature is reduced. .aturation 2ondition e1isting w#en substance contains all of anot#er substance it can #old for t#at tem$erature and $ressure. .aturation perio* %#e lengt# of time t#e brea"er $oints are closed and current is flowing t#roug# t#e $rimary windings of t#e coil. .aturn

A ma"e of automobile manufactured by General (otors. &ncludes Aura (,005-current!, &on (,00>-05!, 9100 (,001-0,!, 9,00 (,001-0>!, 9>00 (,001-00!, 9' (,000!, 9'1 (,000!, 9', (,000!, 9+1 (,000!, 9+,

(,000!, 9+,00 (,001-0>!, 9+>00 (,001-0>!, Butloo" (,005!, <elay (,000-05!, '2 (1331-3,!, '21 (133>0,!, '2, (133>-,00,!, '@S (,005-current!, '9 (1331,00,!, '91 (1331-,00,!, '9, (1331-,00,!, '+1 (133>-33!, '+, (133>-,001!, and -/: (,00,-05! .aturn Aura 5reen ,ine A midsize Hybri* sedan $roduced by General (otors similar to t#e "hevrolet Malibu Hybri* t#at uses a Belt Alternator 'tarter (BA'! #ybrid system. .aver spare .ee .pace saver spare .aver /heel .ee .pace saver spare /heel .aving tire .ee .pace saving tire .A$M Acronym for $!ar& Advance "acuum Modulator .A Acronym for $!ar& Angle Wor& .aybolt Furol viscosity A viscosity test similar in nature to t#e 'aybolt /niversal viscosity test but one more a$$ro$riate for testing #ig#-viscosity oils. 2ertain transmission and gear oils, and #eavy fuel oils are rated by t#is met#od. %#e results obtained are a$$ro1imately 1D10t# t#e viscosity w#ic# would be s#own by t#e 'aybolt /niversal met#od. .aybolt viscometer An instrument used to determine t#e fluidity or viscosity of an oil. DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ta"

& A letter rating for tires to indicate t#at t#ey are t#eoretically rated for s$eeds u$ to 130 "$# (117 m$#!, as in .::3TR1A.%#e ne1t #ig#er rating is H and t#e one lower rating is . Acronym for Tem!erature Air (?onda! 1. A small $ro8ecting $art as on a tab was#er, or on a gas"et w#ere it engages wit# anot#er seal. ,. Aot a continuous flange as $rovided at t#e to$ mounting of a fender, but a s#ort flange section to $rovide localized fitting of one $anel to anot#er &A! Acronym for &hermactor Air bypass solenoi* &able .ee ,ining &able ,oa* an* inflation table &ray table &ab /asher A was#er wit# a $ro8ection t#at may be #ammered against a flat side of a nut, or into a #ole in t#e surface, or over an edge, in order to secure t#e nut to t#e surface on w#ic# it bears &A" 1. Acronym for &hermostatic air cleaner 2. Acronym for Throttle Actuator -ontrol &ach Abbreviation for &achometer. &acho 2ollo.uial term for &achograph &achograph

&A &ab

&nstrument to record, on a gra$#, ve#icle tri$ information suc# as s$eed, r$m, distance, time traveled, sto! and go $eriods. &t is used on trans$ort truc"s. &achometer (tac#! 1. A device used to indicate t#e s$eed of t#e engine in r$m. %#e tac#ometer is mounted on or near t#e %ashboar* (some even a$$ear on t#e Hoo* and ot#ers in a #eads-u$ dis$lay on t#e in*shiel*!. &t #el$s t#e %river to "now t#e o$timum r$m for c#anging gears on a ve#icle wit# Manual transmission. A tac#ometer is also a diagnostic device w#ic# a mec#anic uses to determine (*le spee* and ot#er "arburetor and running settings. Also called a rev counter 2. A small generator normally used as a velocitysensing device. %ac#ometers are ty$ically attac#ed to t#e out$ut s#aft of %" servo motors re.uiring close s$eed regulation. %#e tac#ometer feeds its signal to a control w#ic# ad8usts its out$ut to t#e %" motor accordingly (called closed loo! feedbac& control! &ac) 1. A term used to describe t#e stic"y .uality of a rubber com$ound. ,. %#e stic"y .uality of an ad#esive film, eit#er w#ile wet or after t#e film #as set. %ec#nically it is t#e $ull resistance (measured in dynes! e1erted by a material com$letely ad#ering to two surfaces being $ulled a$art. Also Rear .urface tac) &ac) cloth tac) .ee strip

A s$ecial clot# used to wi$e sanded $anels $rior to s$raying in order to remove even minute dust $articles and ot#er foreign substances from t#e $anel surface &ac) coat %#e first "oat of 'namel t#at is allowed to dry until tac&y usually about 10->0 minutes, de$ending on t#e amount of &hinner used. %#e surface is tac&y w#en it will not stic" to t#e finger w#en lig#t $ressure is a$$lied. &ac) hammer A s$ecial #ammer wit# a magnetic #ead for inserting small nails or tac"s &ac)iness %#e stic"iness of t#e ad#esive film w#ile in t#e stage of drying. &ac)ing Attac#ing a $anel $rovisionally by $lacing a few s$ots of weld along its outline) final s$ot or seam welding is carried out only afterwards &ac) rag A clot# im$regnated wit# a non-drying $arnish t#at is used to $ic" u$ dust and dirt $articles. &ac) range %#e time during of a film to distortion or ru$ture w#en it is e1$osed to forces e1erted in o$$osite directions (measured in $si!. &ac) strip .ee Rear tac) strip &ac) /el* 'mall weld used to tem$orarily #old toget#er com$onents of an assembly. &ac) /el*ing Attac#ing a $anel $rovisionally by $lacing a few s$ots of weld along its outline) final s$ot or seam welding is carried out only afterwards &aco

%o bend a w#eel over on itself, in t#e s#a$e of a taco. F& taco=d my w#eel w#en & #it t#at tree.F &A" system A contact brea"er ignition system develo$ed by 9ucas, controlled by two transistors, one serving as a $ower out$ut transistor &actile paving 2ontoured $aving to mar" out $edestrian crossing $oints for t#ose wit# vision $roblems. &A% Acronym for &hermactor air *iverter solenoi* &a*pole cycle A t#ree w#eel cycle wit# two w#eels in front and one in t#e bac". Also see %elta cycle &A'' Acronym for &ertiary amyl ethyl ether &ag a#le A non-$owered a1le $laced be#ind t#e drive a1le in large truc"s. 2ontrasted wit# a -usher a#le w#ic# is $laced in front of t#e drive a1le. &ag bloc) A wiring #arness terminal bloc" wit# a number of electrical $lugs and soc"ets &ag-Robinson "olorimeter An instrument used to determine t#e color of oils. Also a scale of color values. &ag &railers A single a1le trailer wit# e.ui$ment li"e generators, cement mi1ers, or wood c#i$$ers. &agalong &railers /sually single a1le e.ui$ment li"e generators, cement mi1ers, or wood c#i$$ers. &ail %#e rear of a ve#icle.

Also .ee 4amm tail hale tail &ailboar* A board at t#e rear of a $ic"-u$ t#at can be removed or let down on a #inge. 2om$are &ailgate &ail fin A vertical fin on t#e bac" of t#e rear fenders. 2o$ied from a 9oc"#eed >7 fig#ter $lane, 2adillac introduced tail fins on a cou$e in 1367) t#ey were a fas#ion until t#e 1360s &ailgate 1. Bn a truc" it is t#e fold down access door to t#e truc" bed. Bn some .tation /agon and '/-s, it is t#e rear o$ening w#ic# usually re.uires t#e window to be lowered before t#e tailgate folds out. &t differs from a liftgate in t#at t#e bac" o$ening is raised to allow entry. ,. As a verb, to follow closely be#ind anot#er ve#icle--an illegal and unsafe $rocedure. &ailgating Eriving so close to t#e ve#icle in front as to be affected by its sli$stream) a very dangerous $ractice as available reaction time is reduced to a minimum. %#e correct distance is , or > seconds be#ind t#e ve#icle in front. &ail heavy %#e descri$tion of t#e towing ve#icle if t#e ve#icle being towed is too #eavy &ail lamp %#e red rear lig#t t#at illuminates as soon as t#e lig#ts are switc#ed on, to s#ow your ve#icle to t#ose be#ind you &ail lift .ee !ra)e *ive &ail light

%#e red rear lig#t t#at illuminates as soon as t#e lig#ts are switc#ed on, to s#ow your ve#icle to t#ose be#ind you &ail light bo# A dee$-drawn $anel s$ot-welded into t#e tail lig#t a$erture to acce$t t#e com$lete tail lig#t cluster. %#e tail lig#t bo1 $rovides better corrosion $rotection for t#e electrical connections of t#e tail lig#t t#an would be $ossible by installing t#e tail lig#t wit# a rubber seal into t#e o$en lig#t a$erture &ail light panel .ee Rear panel &ail light surroun* .ee Rear light surroun* &ail pipe %#e '#haust pipe w#ic# runs from t#e Muffler to t#e rear of t#e ve#icle. and is o$en to t#e atmos$#ere, t#roug# w#ic# t#e '#haust gases are routed into t#e atmos$#ere. Butlet $i$e from t#e eva$orator. &ailpipe %#e last lin" in t#e e1#aust system. 2onducts e1#aust gases from t#e muffler to t#e rear of t#e car and into t#e atmos$#ere. &ailpipe e#pan*er A s$ecial automotive tool used for res#a$ing and e1$anding tail$i$es evenly, to assure a tig#t fit and $revent e1#aust lea"s &ailshaft A s#i$=s $ro$eller s#aft. Also see 5earbo# output shaft &a)e .ee -o/er ta)e off &a)e foot off the accelerator

%#e action of 'asing up on the accelerator com$letely so t#at t#ere is only a minimal amount of fuel entering t#e engine t#us t#e engine will slow down &a)e foot off the gas pe*al %#e action of 'asing up on the gas pe*al com$letely so t#at t#ere is only a minimal amount of fuel entering t#e engine t#us t#e engine will slow down &a)e foot off the throttle pe*al %#e action of 'asing up on the throttle pe*al com$letely so t#at t#ere is only a minimal amount of fuel entering t#e engine t#us t#e engine will slow down &a)e off .ee -o/er ta)e off &a)e up %o begin to transmit t#e drive w#en t#e clutc# is engaged &a)e-up %#e act of ta"ing u$. Also .ee ,ifting platform ta)e-up point :uic) ta)e-up valve &a)e-up point .ee ,ifting platform ta)e-up point &a)e-up valve .ee :uic) ta)e-up valve &albot ,ago A ve#icle brand of w#ic# all 1002 models are "lassic cars. &albot A ve#icle brand of w#ic# all 1002 and 1102 models are "lassic cars. %#e 1366-06 9ago 6.0 models are Milestone cars. &alc

owder lubricant to $revent stic"ing between tube and tire. A soft mineral) a basic magnesium silicate usually occurring in foliated, granular, or fibrous masses, used in t#e manufacture of electrical insulators &al)ing /arning system /sing t#e car radio s$ea"ers, t#is micro$rocessorbased system tells t#e driver t#e source of t#e $roblem in a clear, $leasant (female! voice. &f t#e radio is on at t#e time of t#e alert, t#e com$uter automatically turns down t#e volume so t#e warning can be #eard &all oil %#e oily mi1ture of rosin acids, fatty acids, and ot#er materials obtained by acid treatment of t#e al"aline li.uors from t#e digesting ($ul$ing! of $ine wood. &AM' Acronym for &ertiary amyl methyl ether &ampering .ee 5lass tampering *etector &ampering *etector .ee 5lass tampering *etector &amperproof carburetor A carburetor wit# factory-ad8usted idle s$eed, sealed idle s$eed ad8ustment screw, and $rovisions to ensure t#at e1#aust emission levels remain wit#in s$ecified limits over an e1tended $eriod of time &an*em 1. A !icycle t#at $rovides seats, bars, and $edals for two or more riders, one be#ind t#e ot#er. ,. A tractor-trailer truc". Also Fi#e* .li*ing .prea* &an*em &an*em a#le see &an*em &an*em

.ee &an*em a#les+ &an*em a#les 1. A $air of a1les at t#e rear of t#e $ower unit (tractor or straig#t truc"! or trailer. ;or $ower units, if described as a tandem, usually indicates t#e number of drive a1les on t#e $ower unit. 2. A combination of two a1les #aving a common sus$ension. air of a1les and associated sus$ension usually located close toget#er. 2alled &an*ems. Also see .prea* A#le &an*em booster A vacuum $ower booster t#at uses two dia$#ragms to increase bra"e a$$lication force. 'maller in diameter t#an single-dia$#ragm boosters. &an*em *rive %wo $owered a1les in combination. &an*em master cylin*er 1. A master cylinder wit# two $istons) w#en t#e bra"e $edal is $ressed, t#e $us#rod activates t#e $rimary $iston w#ic# in turn moves t#e secondary $iston) necessary for dual-circuit bra"ing systems 2. A master cylinder #aving a single bore wit# two $istons and se$arate fluid com$ression c#ambers. &n t#e event of significant fluid loss in one circuit, t#is design, used in s!lit bra"ing systems, ensures t#at t#ere will be some bra"ing $ower in t#e ot#er circuit. ;or t#is reason, it #as been mandatory on cars mar"eted in t#e /' since 1365 &an*ems .ee &an*em A#les &ang

A device mounted on a rotating s#aft or com$onent t#at engages in a recess of a com$onent to be driven Also see !earing &ang "enterstan* &ang &angential-flo/ scavenging .ee ,oop scavenging &an) A container into w#ic# any li.uid or gas can be #eld. Also it may even be em$ty suc# as a $acuum tan). Also .ee Acetylene cylin*er Air tan) Ano*izing tan) !allast tan) !lee*er &an) !ottom tan) !uffer &an) "ylin*er %eep tan) 'lectropaint tan) '#pansion tan) Flat &an) Fuel tan) Fuel tan) sen*er 5as tan) Hea*er tan) Miles -er &an) Ra*iator tan) .a**le tan) .lop tan) .upply &an) .urge &an) $acuum tan) :uiescent &an) &an) bag

A bag t#at sits on t#e gas tan" of t#e motorcycle, secured by a magnet or by stra$s. %an" bags are good for #olding lig#tweig#t items suc# as gloves, ma$s, and wallets &an)-barge A river barge for t#e carrying of li.uid bul" cargo &an) bib A leat#er or vinyl covering over t#e gas tan" of a motorcycle to $rotect t#e finis# from scratc#es &an) chap A leat#er or vinyl covering over t#e sides of a gas tan" of a motorcycle to $rotect t#e finis# from scratc#es &an)er 1. An enclosed cargo body designed solely for t#e trans$ortation of fluid or gaseous commodities in bul". Aot to be confused wit# trailers w#ic# are designed for carrying dry bul" $roducts. ,. A s#i$ designed for trans$orting li.uid cargo, usually $etroleum $roducts. 3. A dry bul" tan"er. 'ometimes called air-can trailers. /sed e1clusively for #auling dry bul" material. 2argo is em$tied $neumatically. Also .ee 0il tan)er -etrol tan)er &an)er truc) A truc" designed to carry li.uid in bul". Britis# term is $etrol tan"er &an) sen*er .ee Fuel tan) sen*er &an)C supply 'e$arate tan" connected directly or by a $um$ to t#e oil-burning a$$liance. &an)top A covering usually of wood, $laced over t#e tan" to$ for its $rotection

&an) $apor $alve .ee Fuel &an) $apor $alve &an) agon .ales .ee %ealer &an) agon .ales &ap

&ap 1. %o cut t#reads in a #ole, nut, or tube wit# a rotating tool called a Fta$.F ,. %#e fluted tool used to cut t#e t#reads. >. %o stri"e lig#tly Also

!ottoming %ie %rain -ressure .par) -lug (nsert &ap


&A-

&ap

.ee

tap &ap

Acronym for Transmission Ada!tive .ressure &ap an* *ie set A set of ta$s and dies for internal and e1ternal t#reading, usually covers a range of t#e most $o$ular sizes. &ap !olt A fully t#readed #e1agon #ead bolt. &ap-changing '8uipment .ee Automatic &ap-changing '8uipment &ape

.ee A*hesive tape !lac)ing A &ape !onnet tape Hoo* tape (nsulating tape ,oom &ape Mas)ing tape Rim tape &ap 'n* .tu* A double-end stud #aving eac# end t#readed for a different class of fit. %#e ta$ end #as a 2lass 0 fit to $roduce an interference fit in a ta$$ed #ole for semi$ermanent assembly. %#e nut end is t#readed 2lass ,A for assembly wit# a standard nut. &aper 1. A gradual narrowing in size of a long round ob8ect toward one end. ,. A lac" of $arallelism. A defect in w#ic# t#e t#ic"ness of t#e drum or rotor at t#e outer edge differs from its t#ic"ness at t#e inner edge. Also .ee A*vance* rim taper !ase rim taper %rop center rim taper Flat base rim taper (nterme*iate rim taper Rim bea* seat taper Rim taper .emi-*rop center rim taper orm an* taper pin &aper-brea)ing tool .ee !all 6oint separator &aper cutter A tool used to ream, deburr, align, and enlarge #oles, e.g., on car bodies. Also called &apere* reamer

&apere* !ottom !rac)et .ee .8uare &apere* !ottom !rac)et &apere* compression ring %#e u$$er com$ression ring w#ic#, due to its ta$ered cross-section, re.uires a reduced running-in $eriod t#us ensuring a tig#t seal .uic"ly &apere* leaf spring .ee -arabolic spring &apere* punch .ee %rift punch &apere* reamer .ee &aper cutter &apere* roller bearing

&apere* roller bearing An antifriction bearing using a series of ta$ered, cones#a$ed #ardened steel Rollers o$erating between an outer and inner #ardened steel Race. &t can acce$t a1ial t#rust as well as $roviding s#aft location. /sed w#ere bot# radial and t#rust loads are to be #andled. &aper leaf spring

.ee -arabolic spring &aper of Hea* &n flat bearing surface fasteners, t#e ta$er of a #ead or nut is t#e angle between a side and t#e a1is. &aper pin

&aper pin A roll $in or %o/el pin t#at is wider at one end t#an t#e ot#er. %#e ta$er $in aids in #ole alignment. Also .ee

&hrea*e* orm an* taper pin

&aper

pin

&aper seat 1. A conical seat t#at $rovides $ositive centering of a w#eel bolt #ead in t#e w#eel. %#e o$$osite of Ra*ius seat. ,. A seal wit#out a gas"et ac#ieved by mating t#e conical surface of t#e s$ar" $lug s#ell and t#e cylinder #ead &ape /eight .ee A*hesive /eight+ &ap hol*er A tool used to #old and drive ta$s, reamers, and screw e1tractors wit# two long #andles to $rovide #ig# leverage for turning o$eration &appe* Hole A t#readed #ole in a $art. &appet

1. %#e screw used to ad8ust t#e "learance between t#e $alve stem and t#e ,ifter or t#e Roc)er arm.

,. &appet %#e $alve lifter itself. Also !arrel !uc)et "am Flat Hy*raulic Mushroom $alve tappet &appet a*6usting scre/ .ee $alve a*6usting scre/ &appet gas)et .ee Roc)er cover gas)et &appet noise .ee tappet tappet follo/er tappet tappet tappet

Aoise caused by t#e ,ash or "learance between t#e $alve stem and Roc)er arm or between t#e valve stem and $alve lifter. &appet /rench A wrenc# designed for ad8usting valve clearances on B?--engines wit# buc"et ta$$et assembly t#at use an ad8usting screw instead of valve s#ims for ad8ustment &apping .ee !oot &apping Hinge tapping plate &apping plate .ee Hinge tapping plate &apping .cre/ A screw w#ic# is t#readed to t#e #ead and designed to form or ta$ its mating t#read in one or more of t#e $arts to be assembled, of various ty$es as followsM %a$$ing 'crew, %y$e AM A t#read-forming ty$e of ta$$ing screw #aving a gimlet $oint and a t#read of relatively coarse $itc# and s$ecial form, used in $unc#ed, or nested #oles in metal s#eets or in treated $lywood or s$ecial asbestos com$ositions. %a$$ing 'crew, %y$e BM Also designate Fty$e O.F A t#read-forming ty$e of ta$$ing screw, #aving a blunt $oint wit# ta$ered t#reads of moderate $itc#, used wit# $unc#ed, drilled or nested #oles. %a$$ing 'crew, %y$e 2M A t#read-forming ty$e of ta$$ing screw #aving a blunt $oint wit# ta$ered t#reads at t#e end, #aving /A2 or /A; t#reads and designed for fastening metal s#eets. %a$$ing 'crew, %y$e EM Also designated Fty$e :2.F A t#read-cutting ty$e of ta$$ing screw #aving t#e same t#read as ty$e 2 but $rovided wit# a fluted end $roduced at t#read rolling or a milled slot (or slots! $roduced after t#read rolling.

%a$$ing 'crew, %y$e ;M A t#read-cutting ty$e of ta$$ing screw #aving t#e same t#read form as ty$e 2 but $rovided wit# a multi$le flute ta$ered end to facilitate ta$$ing. %a$$ing 'crew, %y$e ;OM A t#read-cutting ty$e of ta$$ing screw #aving t#e same t#read form as ty$e B but $rovided wit# a multi$le fluted ta$ered end to facilitate ta$$ing. %a$$ing 'crew, %y$e GM Also designated Fty$e :2.F A t#read-cutting ty$e of ta$$ing screw #aving t#e same t#read form as ty$e 2 but $rovided wit# a slot across t#e end to facilitate ta$$ing in #ard materials or dee$ #oles. %a$$ing 'crew, %y$e ?M Also designated Fty$e EBF or Fty$e ,0.F A ta$$ing screw #aving t#e same t#read as a ty$e B but $rovided wit# a slot in t#e end to facilitate ta$$ing in $lastics.

&ap ratchet A tool wit# ratc#et mec#anism used to #old and o$erate bits suc# as ta$s, drills, reamers, or screw e1tractors &ap spanner .ee &ap hol*er &ap /rench .ee &ap hol*er &ar A blac", stic"y substance made from $etroleum. &t is useful for $atc#ing crac"s in t#e road. ?owever, w#en driving over it, t#e w#eels "ic" u$ $articles of it on a ve#icle=s $ainted surface. Also see !ug an* tar remover aste &ar &are /eight

%#e weig#t of a truc", e1clusive of its contents, but including gas, oil, etc., ready to roil. Also see "hassis eight "urb /eight &arga A removable-roof body style $o$ularized by orsc#e t#at is similar to a convertible e1ce$t t#at it incor$orates a fi1ed, roll-bar-li"e structure running from side to side be#ind t#e front seats. &arga bar A ty$e of roll bar made of a relatively wide band of s#eet steel rat#er t#an of tubing) made $o$ular by t#e orsc#e 311 %arga &arga top A rigid, removable roof section between t#e winds#ield and &arga bar &ariff 1. A duty or ta1 im$osed on im$orts. ,. A $ublis#ed volume of rate sc#edules and general terms and conditions under w#ic# a $roduct or service will be su$$lied. Also .ee 5eneral Agreement on &ariffs an* &ra*e 5eneralize* -referential &ariff &ariffs an* &ra*e .ee 5eneral Agreement on &ariffs an* &ra*e &arnish %o discolor due to t#e formation of a t#in film of o1ide, sulfide, or some ot#er corrosion $roduct &arpaulin +ater$roof canvas material used to cover cargo being trans$orted &ar remover .ee !ug an* tar remover+

&ar san*s Aaturally occurring bitumen-im$regnated sands t#at yield mi1tures of li.uid #ydrocarbon and t#at re.uire furt#er $rocessing ot#er t#an mec#anical blending before becoming finis#ed $etroleum $roducts. &A. Acronym for Throttle Ad/ust $cre# &A sensor Inta&e Air Tem!erature $ensor &atra A ve#icle brand of w#ic# t#e 13,0-1367 models wit# re.uired a$$lication are "lassic cars. &aurus

"lic) image for boo)s on For* &aurus A model of automobile manufactured by ;ord &A$ &a# .ee "ar ta# %isplacement ta#es Roa* ta# &a# *isc A road fund license disc dis$layed on t#e winds#ield to s#ow t#at a Britis# road ta1 #as been $aid &a#i A ve#icle in w#ic# $assengers are carried for #ire w#ic# is usually recorded by a meter

Acronym for Tem!erature Actuated "acuum

Also see &i6uana &a#i &a#icab A car in w#ic# $assengers are carried for #ire w#ic# is usually recorded by a meter &a#i ran) A Britis# term for a &a#i stan* &a#i stan* A $lace w#ere ta1is wait to be #ired DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ua"

>v >A(! Acronym for ,nion of Automobile Im!orters in >AR& Acronym for ,niversal Asynchronous Receiver>A

>a >b >c >* >e >i >6 >) >l >m >n >p >r >s >t

Bulgaria

Transmitter

Acronym for ,nited Auto Wor&ers -- An international union of wor"ers in t#e automobile, aeros$ace, and agricultural im$lement industries in Aort# America. DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Va"

$a $b $c $* $e $f $g $h $i $l $m $n $o $p $r $s $t $u $v $/
$# $
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate t#at t#ey are

t#eoretically rated for s$eeds u$ to ,10 "$# (1>0 m$#!, as in .::3"R1A. %#e ne1t #ig#er rating is and t#e one lower rating is H. ,. A letter indicating a valve configuration as in 16v meaning a 16 valve engine.

>. A letter indicating t#e configuration cylinders in an engine as in --7 4. Acronym for "olts $-4 .ee $-four $-; .ee $-si# $-F

of

t#e

.ee $-eight $-30 .ee $-ten $-32 .ee $-t/elve $-3; .ee $-si#teen $A -alue analysis. $ac Abbreviation for "acuum $ac servo .ee $acuum bra)e booster $acuum 1. An enclosed area in w#ic# t#e air $ressure is below t#at of t#e surrounding Atmospheric pressure. ,. %ec#nically, a com$lete absence of $ressure (0 $si!, alt#oug# t#e term is commonly used to describe any $ressure less t#an atmos$#eric.

Also .ee Air-valve carburetor 5auge $acuum Manifol* vacuum -orte* vacuum a*vance -ulse vacuum hubloc) .eparator Assembly-fuel $acuum $enturi vacuum $acuum activators Eam$ers and control valves used in automotive air conditioning system controlled by t#e vacuum created by engine inta"e manifold vacuum. $acuum a*vance A mec#anism on t#e side of t#e %istributor t#at automatically varies t#e instant at w#ic# t#e .par) occurs as a function of (nta)e manifol* vacuum. -acuum advance $rovides t#e additional advance t#at is needed w#en t#e engine is o$erating at $art t#rottle. At $art t#rottle less Air-fuel mi#ture gets into t#e "ylin*ers and t#e mi1ture ta"es longer to burn after it is ignited. Because t#e mi1ture burns more slowly, t#e -iston will be $ast &op *ea* center and moving down before t#e mi1ture #as a c#ance to burn and $roduce #ig# $ower. As a result muc# of t#e $ower in t#e fuel will be lost. %#e vacuum advance mec#anism consists of a fle1ible s$ring-loaded %iaphragm connected by a ,in)age to t#e !rea)er plate on w#ic# t#e $oints are mounted. %#e sealed side of t#e %iaphragm is connected by a tube to t#e "arburetor. %#e &hrottle valve is below t#e vacuum $assage in t#e "arburetor Air horn so t#ere is no vacuum advance w#en t#e engine is idling because t#e t#rottle is closed. ?owever, w#en t#e t#rottle is $artly o$en, (nta)e manifol* vacuum $ulls t#e %iaphragm in and t#is causes t#e !rea)er plate to rotate a few degrees and advance t#e &iming. +it# wide-o$en t#rottle t#ere is very little

vacuum in t#e (nta)e manifol* so t#ere will be no vacuum advance. &n most instances t#e vacuum advance is disconnected before c#ec"ing t#e timing and -oint gap. Also .ee -orte* vacuum a*vance .pee* control vacuum a*vance $acuum a*vance mechanism .ee $acuum a*vance $acuum a*vance unit .ee $acuum a*vance $acuum assiste* bra)e .ee !ra)e booster+ $acuum assiste* bra)es .ee !ra)e booster+ $acuum assist unit An actuating mec#anism t#at uses vacuum on one side of a dia$#ragm as a source of $ower. $acuum booster 1. A small %iaphragm $acuum pump, generally in combination wit# t#e Fuel pump, t#at is used to bolster engine $acuum during Acceleration so t#at t#e vacuum o$erated devices will continue to o$erate. ,. A $ower bra"e actuating mec#anism t#at uses vacuum on one side of a dia$#ragm as a $ower source. Also see (ntegral $acuum !ooster Multiplier $acuum !ooster $acuum bra)e booster A device directly connected to t#e master cylinder and mounted on t#e engine side of t#e bul"#ead, w#ic#

uses engine manifold vacuum to $roduce additional bra"ing force $acuum bra)e supply line %#e conduit for transmitting su$$ly vacuum from a vacuum source to t#e vacuum reservoirs. $acuum bra)e system A bra"e system t#at uses engine vacuum to o$erate and control. $acuum !ypass .ystem .ee %elay $acuum !ypass .ystem $acuum capsule A $neumatic actuator t#at converts air $ressure differences into a regulating s#ort-stro"e movement) t#e circular, flat ca$sule #as a s$ring-loaded dia$#ragm wit# a lever attac#ed $acuum chamber A $neumatic actuator t#at converts air $ressure differences into a regulating s#ort-stro"e movement) t#e circular, flat ca$sule #as a s$ring-loaded dia$#ragm wit# a lever attac#ed $acuum chec) valve (-2@--! a one-way valve used to retain a vacuum signal in a line after t#e vacuum source is gone $acuum control A load-de$endant mec#anical ignition timing, controlled by t#e inlet manifold vacuum $acuum control s/itch A switc# t#at monitors t#e vacuum signal enabling t#e '"> to recognize o$en or closed t#rottle (idle! o$eration $acuum control system &nta"e manifold vacuum is used to o$erate dam$ers and controls in some automobile systems. $acuum control unit An assembly for load-de$endent ignition timing controlled by t#e inta"e manifold vacuum, consisting of

a vacuum ca$sule wit# a s$ring-loaded dia$#ragm lin"ed to t#e brea"er $late $acuum control valve (-2-! a $orted vacuum switc#, controls vacuum to ot#er emission devices during engine warm u$ $acuum *elay valve (-E-! a valve used by G( to bleed $orted vacuum to t#e vacuum advance unit t#roug# a small orifice and control vacuum advance rate. /sed to retard or delay t#e a$$lication of a vacuum signal. Also called %elay $acuum *ifferential valve (-E-! a device used in a %#ermactor system wit# a catalyst t#at sense inta"e manifold vacuum and triggers t#e by$ass valve to dum$ in8ection air to t#e atmos$#ere during deceleration $acuum *istillation Eistillation under reduced $ressure (less t#e atmos$#eric! w#ic# lowers t#e boiling tem$erature of t#e li.uid being distilled. %#is tec#ni.ue wit# its relatively low tem$eratures $revents crac"ing or decom$osition of t#e c#arge stoc". $acuum-electric ./itch

valve

$acuum-electric ./itch A com$onent w#ic# gives gross reading of vacuum in t#e inta"e manifold by using a dia$#ragm to o$erate a sim$le on-off electrical switc#. $acuum filter A filter w#ic# removes electrical noise from t#e vacuum signal sent from t#e vacuum sensor to t#e :2/ $acuum gage

.ee $acuum gauge+ $acuum gauge A gauge used to determine t#e amount of $acuum e1isting in a c#amber. $acuum hose A $i$e w#ic# connects t#e inta"e manifold to t#e vacuum bra"e booster $acuum hubloc) .ee -ulse vacuum hubloc) $acuum hy*raulic po/er unit A unit consisting of a vacuum bra"e cylinder or c#amber, #ydraulic cylinder(s! and control valve, in w#ic# driver effort is combined wit# force from t#e cylinder $iston or c#amber dia$#ragm to dis$lace fluid under $ressure for actuation of t#e bra"e(s!. $acuum ignition-timing control .ee $acuum control $acuum lea) A loss of vacuum from a lea"ing #ose or defective gas"et $acuum mo*ulate* '5R An e1#aust gas recirculation in w#ic# t#e amount of e1#aust gas admitted to t#e inta"e manifold de$ends on a vacuum signal controlled by t#rottle $osition. +#en t#e t#rottle is closed, at idle or during deceleration, t#ere is no vacuum signal to t#e :G< valve) as t#e t#rottle is o$ened, a vacuum signal is su$$lied causing t#e :G< valve to o$en $acuum mo*ulator A small unit attac#ed to t#e Automatic transmission. &f t#e ve#icle tends to stay in ,o/ gear, s#ifts wit# difficulty or $roduces w#itis# smo"e, #as an Automatic transmission, and is constantly low in &ransmission flui*, try re$lacing t#e vacuum

modulator before underta"ing ma8or re$airs. (ost vacuum modulators sim$ly screw into $lace. Also see Mo*ulator+ $acuum motor A vacuum-actuated device used to o$erate doors and valves. Also see Air "leaner %uct An* $alve $acuum Motor $acuum operate* e#haust heat control valve (-?2! a vacuum o$erated #eat riser valve used by ;ord to cause t#e e1#aust to flow t#roug# t#e inta"e crossover $assage for $re#eating of t#e air-fuel mi1ture $acuum over hy*raulic bra)e system A #ydraulic-ty$e bra"e system actuated by a vacuum$owered master cylinder. $acuum-po/ere* master cylin*er A bra"e master cylinder actuated by a vacuum cylinder or c#amber. $acuum po/er motor A device for use in o$ening doors in #eating and air conditioning systems $acuum po/er unit A device for use in o$ening valves and doors in #eating and air conditioning systems using vacuum as a source of $ower. $acuum pressure Any $ressure less t#an t#at e1erted by t#e atmos$#ere. $acuum pump 1. A %iaphragm ty$e of -ump used to $roduce a $acuum. ,. A s$ecial #ig# efficiency device used for creating #ig# vacuums for testing or drying $ur$oses. >. A mec#anical device used to evacuate an air conditioning system to rid it of moisture, air, and contaminants. 6. A device w#ic# creates a vacuum to actuate t#e bra"es.

$acuum re*ucer valve (-<-! A valve used by G( to limit t#e amount of vacuum governing t#e ignition advance mec#anism of t#e distributor) on some ignition systems, a -<- is used to reduce inta"e manifold vacuum w#en t#e coolant tem$erature is above 304=", in order to $revent or reduce detonation $acuum regulator valve three an* four-port (-<-! t#is ty$e of vacuum regulator valve is used to control t#e vacuum advance to t#e distributor $acuum regulator valve t/o-port (-<-! t#is vacuum regulator $rovides a constant out$ut signal w#en t#e in$ut level is greater t#an a $reset level. At a lower in$ut vacuum, t#e out$ut e.uals t#e in$ut $acuum relief valve A valve w#ic# automatically o$ens and closes a vent for relieving a vacuum wit#in t#e a system, de$ending on w#et#er t#e vacuum is above or below a $redetermined value. $acuum reservoir (-<:':<! stores e1cess vacuum to $revent ra$id fluctuations and sudden dro$s in a vacuum signal, suc# as during acceleration $acuum restrictor (-<:'%! controls t#e flow rate andDor timing in actions to t#e different emission control com$onents $acuum retar* A vacuum control unit for retarding t#e s$ar" $acuum retar* *elay valve (-<E-! delays a decrease in vacuum at t#e distributor vacuum advance unit w#en t#e source vacuum decreases. /sed to delay release of vacuum from a dia$#ragm -- a momentary vacuum tra$ $acuum retar* unit A vacuum control unit for retarding t#e s$ar" $acuum runout point

%#e $oint reac#ed w#en a vacuum bra"e $ower -iston #as built u$ all t#e bra"ing force it is ca$able of wit# t#e $acuum available. Also see !ooster $acuum Runout -oint $acuum sealing apparatus A com$onent in continuous zinc va$or de$osition lines t#roug# w#ic# steel stri$s enter t#e de$osition c#amber and w#ic# $revents a build-u$ of $ressure wit#in t#e c#amber $acuum sensor A sensor w#ic# detects c#anges in manifold $ressure in com$arison to barometric $ressure) suc# c#anges indicate t#e need for an ad8ustment in airDfuel mi1ture and electronic s$ar" timing to maintain efficient engine o$eration. Also called Manifol* pressure sensor, -ressure *ifferential sensor, or Manifol*

vacuum sensor

Also see Manifol* $acuum .ensor $acuum servo A fle1ible dia$#ragm wit# a lin"age attac#ed to it installed in a sealed #ousing. +#en vacuum is a$$lied to one side of t#e dia$#ragm, atmos$#eric $ressure on t#e ot#er side moves t#e dia$#ragm and lin"age to $erform wor". Also .ee $acuum bra)e booster $acuum solenoi* Bn some engines, a vacuum solenoid controlled by an electrical sensor switc# is used to control t#e :G< valve $acuum suction cup

%ent -uller A #and tool for $ulling out s#allow body dents and for lifting flat, #eavy ob8ects suc# as winds#ields or s#eet metal $acuum suspen*e* po/er booster A ty$e of $ower booster t#at contains vacuum in bot# c#ambers of t#e booster w#en t#e bra"e $edal is at rest. +#en t#e $edal is a$$lied, t#e rear c#amber is vented to t#e atmos$#ere, causing t#e dia$#ragm of t#e booster to move toward t#e master cylinder w#ic# assist t#e driver in t#e a$$lication of t#e bra"es $acuum-suspen*e* po/er chamber A booster $ower c#amber t#at #as vacuum on bot# sides of its dia$#ragm w#en t#e bra"es are not a$$lied. $acuum s/itch A switc# t#at closes or o$ens its contacts in res$onse to c#anging vacuum conditions. Also .ee "ho)e &hermal $acuum ./itch 0il &hermal $acuum ./itch -orte* $acuum ./itch &emperature $acuum ./itch &hermal vacuum s/itch &hermostatic $acuum ./itch $acuum s/itching valve (-'-! an electrically controlled vacuum switc#ing valve used to control emission control devices $acuum tan)

A tan" in w#ic# a $acuum e1ists. &t is generally used to $rovide vacuum to a -o/er bra)e installation in t#e event engine vacuum cannot be obtained. %#e tan" will su$$ly several bra"e a$$lications before t#e vacuum is e1#austed. $acuum timing control .ee $acuum control $acuum trans*ucer

$acuum trans*ucer A sensor wit# a vacuum dia$#ragm w#ic# moves an iron rod inside a coil of wire sending a signal to t#e com$uter t#at is $ro$ortional to t#e amount of vacuum. $acuum transmitting valve (-%-! a valve used to limit t#e rate of vacuum advance $acuum unit .ee $acuum control unit $acuum valve .ee Hot ater $acuum $alve (*le $acuum $alve &hermal vacuum valve $acuum $alve Assembly .ee &hermactor Air "ontrol .olenoi* $acuum $alve Assembly $acuum vent valve

(---! controls t#e induction of fres# air into a vacuum system to $revent c#emical decay of t#e vacuum dia$#ragm t#at can occur on contact wit# fuel $acuum Aone ./itch .ee Manifol* $acuum Aone ./itch $AF 1. Acronym for $ane air-flo/ meter 2. Acronym for "olume Air 'lo# $alance A $anel used to conceal structural detail or to $rovide e1tra $rotection. Also .ee Rear corner valance Rear 8uarter valance Rear valance $alet par)ing %#e $ar"ing of your car by a $ar"ing attendant $alet s/itch Bn some alarm systems, a switc# to override t#e alarm system for valet $ar"ing, car was#es, etc. $alue .ee Actual cash value Anti)noc) $alue !eta $alue "alorific $alue "* value %uty pai* value '#pecte* resi*ual value Heating $alue ,o/er Heating $alue 9et sales value -h value .tate* resi*ual value &hermal $alue

&hreshol* ,imit $alue @iel* $alue $alue a**e* .ee Auto -act "ana*ian $alue A**e* "ensus value a**e* $alue of shipment 'ummation of value of s#i$ments $roduced by establis#ment, recei$ts of custom and re$air revenue. $alve A device used to eit#er o$en or close an o$ening to allow or $revent t#e flow of a li.uid or gas from one $lace to anot#er. Also .ee A!. relay valve Accumulator valve A*6ustable-port -roportioning $alve Air Aspirator $alve Air !ypass $alve Air control valve Air gulp valve Air (nlet $alve Air (nlet $alve Air 0utlet $alve Air 0utlet $alve Air select valve Air s/itching valve Air $alve Air-valve carburetor Allan $alve Altitu*e $alve Angle $alve Anti-bac)fire valve Anti-percolation valve Anti-bac)fire valve Anti-percolation valve Antisurge $alve Aspirator valve

Automatic '#pansion Au#iliary Air "ontrol Au#iliary Air Au#iliary "ontrol !all chec) !all !lee*er !lee* !lo/off !oost !ra)e pressure mo*ulator !ra)e proportioning !uc)et !urne* !urner !utterfly !ypass "am "anister -urge .hut-off "anister -urge "hange "hec) "lose* &ype "hec) "ho)e "ombination "ompensator "ontrol %elay %elivery %iaphragm &ype %iaphragm %ifferential -ressure %ischarge %isc %iverter %roppe* %ump 'A"

$alve $alve $alve $alve valve valve valve valve valve valve valve valve $alve valves $alve valve valve follo/er $alve $alve valve valve $alve valve valve valve valve valve valve $alve $alve $alve valve valve valve valve valve $alve

'A. 'conomizer '5R 'lectric air control 'lectric air s/itching 'lectric ater 'lectronic Air "ontrol 'lectronic 'gr 'mergency '#haust valve '#haust '#pansion Flapper Float Follo/-up-type Four Fre8uency French Fuel in6ector Fuel &an) $apor 5as 5overnor 5ulp Hairpin valve Han* ,appe* Heat control High pressure relief High-si*e .ervice High .i*e .ervice Hol*-off Hot ater $acuum Hy*raulic valve (*le Air "ontrol (*le stop (*le $acuum (nlet (nta)e valve (nta)e valve

$alve valve valve valve valve $alve $alve $alve $alve opens valve valve $alve $alve $alve valve valve $alve nozzle $alve $alve valve valve spring $alves valve valve $alve $alve $alve $alve lifter $alve valve $alve valve closes opens

(nta)e valve (ntegral !ac)pressure &rans*ucer '5R $alve 4ic)*o/n valve 4ing $alve 4neuter valve ,amb*a $alve ,atching &ype $alve ,i8ui* Receiver .ervice $alve ,oa* .ensing -roportioning $alve ,oa*-sensitive proportioning valve ,o/-si*e Float $alve ,o/-si*e .ervice $alve ,ubricate* -lug $alve Manifol* "ontrol $alve Manifol* heat control valve Manual valve Metering valve Mo*ulating $alve Mo*ulator valve Motor $alve 9ee*le -oint $alve 9ee*le valve 0il "ontrol 0rifice $alve 0il cooler bypass valve 0il *rain valve 0il filter bypass valve 0pen &ype "hec) $alve 0perating $alve 0verhea* valves 0verrun control valve 0versize valve gui*e -arallel valves -"$ valve -etcoc) -ilot 0perate* Absolute $alve -ilot $alve -0A .uction &hrottling $alve -op-off valve

-oppet valve -orte* '5R $alve -ositive "ran)case $entilation $alve -o/er valve -ressure %ifferential $alve -ressure limiting valve -ressure-operate* Altitu*e $alve -ressure regulating valve -ressure regulator valve -ressure relief valve -ressure ater $alve -resta valve -rimary valve -rogressive valve spring -rogressively /oun* valve spring -roportioning valve -ulse i*th Mo*ulation $alve -urge "ontrol $alve :uic) ta)e-up valve RA$' valve Reactionary &ype $alve Ree* valve Ree* valve in*uction timing Relay 'mergency $alve Relief valve Resi*ual !ra)e -ressure &ype "hec) $alve Resi*ual -ressure "hec) $alve Resi*ual pressure valve Reverse inhibitor valve Reversing $alve Riser $alve Rotary *isc valve Rotary valve Running-on control valve .a**le $alve .afety Relief $alve .afety valve .cavenging valve

.chra*er .econ*ary Air -ulse .econ*ary Air ./itching .econ*ary Air !ypass .econ*ary Air Anti-bac)fire .emi-Automatic .ervice !ra)e .ervice .hift .huttle .i*e .leeve .li*e .o*ium-coole* e#haust .o*ium-coole* .olenoi* .olenoi* $ent .par) %elay .ponge rubber .pool balance .pool .tep .top .uction -ressure "ontrol .uction .ervice .uction throttling .uction &emperature Relief &hermactor Air "ontrol &hermal time &hermal vacuum &hermal $ent &hermostatic '#pansion &hermostatic &hermostatic ater &hree-/ay &hrottle &iming

valve $alve $alve $alve $alve $alve $alve $alve valve valve $alve valve valve valve valve valve $alve $alve valve valve valve $alve $alve $alve $alve valve $alve $alve $alve valve valve $alve $alve $alve $alve $alve valve $alve

&ire valve &/o-temperature $alve &/o-/ay &ype "hec) $alve &/o-/ay $alve $acuum "hec) $alve $acuum "ontrol $alve $acuum %elay $alve $acuum %ifferential $alve $acuum 0perate* '#haust Heat "ontrol $alve $acuum re*ucer valve $acuum Relief $alve $acuum Retar* %elay $alve $acuum ./itching $alve $acuum &ransmitting $alve $acuum $ent $alve $ariable valve actuation arning ,ight $alve ater $alve D-valve $alve actuation .ee $ariable valve actuation $alve a*6usting scre/ A screw at t#e end of a roc"er w#ic# bears on a $us#rod) used to tilt t#e roc"er and t#us ad8ust t#e valve clearance $alve an* trans*ucer assembly %#is ty$e of :G< valve consist of a modified $orted :G< valve and a remote &rans*ucer. +or"s t#e same way as an integral bac"$ressure transducer :G< valve $alve angle A segment of t#e full circle of a rotary disc valve cut out to admit t#e fres# c#arge into t#e cylinder $alve aperture .ee $alve hole $alve assembly

A device t#roug# w#ic# a tire is inflated. &t includes a valve stem, valve core, and valve ca$. Also see "ontrol valve assembly $alve bloc) .ee "ontrol valve assembly $alve bo*y art of t#e valve assembly containing $lungers, $istons, s$rings, etc. $alve bo*y housing A #ousing w#ic# incor$orates t#e bores in w#ic# t#e valve s$ools slide and t#e canals w#ic# c#annel t#e oil flow $alve bo*y separator plate A $late sandwic#ed between two gas"ets w#ic# se$arates t#e u$$er and lower $arts of t#e valve body $alve bounce %#e bouncing of a valve on its seat due to t#e valve s$ring resonating at very #ig# engine s$eeds. Also called flutter. Also see !ounce $alve bushing .ee $alve gui*e $alve cap A screw-on ca$ to $revent t#e entry of dirt and dust into t#e tire valve. &t does not "ee$ t#e air in -- t#e $alve core does t#at. $alve carburetor .ee Air-valve carburetor $alve clearance %#e distance between t#e small end of t#e $alve stem and t#e Roc)er arm or $alve lifter. %#is ga$

is necessary to com$ensate for '#pansion due to #eat. Also called $alve lash. $alve clearance *epression A recess in t#e $iston crown $alve closes .ee '#haust valve closes (nta)e valve closes $alve core A c#ec" valve wit#in a tire air valve w#ic# $ermits air $ressure c#uc"s wit#out undue loss of air $ressure. %#e core s#ould not be considered a valve seal. $alve cover A long metal lid located on t#e to$ of t#e "ylin*er hea* on ve#icles wit# over#ead cams#afts. %#e valve cover is removed w#en t#e valves need ad8usting. %#e Britis# term is roc&er bo( or roc&er cover. $alve cover gas)et A gas"et between t#e cylinder #ead and t#e valve cover) usually eit#er a flat $a$er or cor" gas"et or an B-ring. %#e Britis# term is roc&er cover gas&et. $alve cro/n .ee $alve hea* $alve cut-out Bn some four-valve engines at low s$eed t#e main roc"er arms o$en only two valves $er combustion c#amber in order to "ee$ t#e energy of t#e gases at a #ig# level) wit# increasing r$m, t#e energy of t#e gases becomes sufficiently strong for t#e remaining two valves to be o$ened via #ydraulic loc"ing bolts $alve *iameter &nta"e valves can be distinguis#ed from e1#aust valves by t#eir larger diameter $alve *uration %#e lengt# of time, measured in degrees of engine "ran)shaft rotation, t#at a valve remains o$en.

$alve engine .ee .i#teen valve engine $alveC e#pansion %y$e of refrigerant control w#ic# maintains constant $ressure in t#e low side of refrigerating mec#anism. -alve is caused to o$erate by $ressure in low or suction side, Bften referred to as an automatic e1$ansion valve or A:-. $alve e#tension :1tra lengt# added to a tire valve stem for greater accessibility $articularly on inside duals. $alve face %#e outer lower edge of t#e $alve hea*. %#e face contacts t#e $alve seat w#en t#e valve is closed. $alve float A condition w#ere t#e valves in t#e engine are forced bac" o$en before t#ey #ave #ad a c#ance to seat. Broug#t about (usually! by e1tremely #ig# r$m. %#e $alve lifters lose contact wit# t#e cam lobes because t#e $alve springs are not strong enoug# to overcome t#e Momentum of t#e various $alvetrain com$onents. %#e onset of valve float $revents #ig#err$m o$eration. :1tended $eriods of valve float will damage t#e $alvetrain. Also called $alve bounce $alve follo/er .ee $alve lifter+ $alve gear A mec#anism t#at o$erates t#e inta"e and e1#aust valves) includes t#e cams, $us#rods, roc"er arms, etc. but not t#e valves t#emselves $alve grin*er A s$ecial automotive tool consisting of a wooden s#aft and rubber suction cu$(s! for #and grinding valves. $alve grin*ing

<enewing t#e $alve face area by grinding on a s$ecial grinding mac#ine. $alve grin*ing compoun* An abrasive com$ound used for refacing valve seats. %#e suction cu$ is $laced on t#e valve #ead and t#e valve is $ressed into t#e seat) turning t#e #andle between one=s #ands will grind t#e valve into its seat) always use wit# grinding $aste. Aot to be confused wit# valve seat cutter w#ic# is used to cut worn valve seats to a s$ecific angle. Also called valve la!!ing $alve grin*ing tool A s$ecial automotive tool consisting of a wooden s#aft and rubber suction cu$(s! for #and grinding valves $alve gui*e %#e cylindrical #ole w#ic# is located in t#e "ylin*er hea* or !loc) t#roug# w#ic# t#e stem of t#e -oppet valve $asses. &t is designed to "ee$ t#e valve in $ro$er alignment. &t also serves as a bearing surface. 'ome guides are $ressed into $lace and ot#ers are merely drilled in t#e bloc" or in t#e #ead metal. Also see 0versize valve gui*e $alve gui*e *river A tool for installing valve guides $alve gui*e reamer A tool used to enlarge worn valve guides to accommodate oversized valve stems $alve gui*e remover A drift $unc# for driving out valve guides $alve gui*e seal .ee $alve stem seal $alve hea* %#e surface of t#e large end of a valve. $alve hole

com!ound

%#e circular o$ening in t#e rim of a w#eel for mounting tubeless tires. %ubeless car tires commonly #ave a sna$-in valve consisting of a rubber molding bonded to t#e metal stem casing. %#e rubber molding #as a groove formed at t#e base) w#en t#e valve is $ulled t#roug# t#e valve #ole, t#e $liable rubber base sna$s into $osition. 2ommercial ve#icle valves for tubeless tires are all metal) t#ey are attac#ed to t#e rim and t#e valve #ole by an e1tended t#read formed at t#e base and secured by a nut. Airtig#t sealing is ac#ieved by eit#er an B-ring or a fiat and flanged rubber was#er. 2ommercial ve#icle valve stems may #ave a single, double, or tri$le bend to accommodate different rim $rofiles and single and twin w#eel combinations. Bn bicycle rims, t#e #ole may be one of two sizes to accommodate -resta or .chra*er valves. Also called valve a!erture $alve in*uction .ee Ree* valve in*uction timing $alve in*uction timing .ee Ree* valve in*uction timing $alve in hea* engine .ee $alve-in-hea* engine+ $alve-in-hea* engine An engine in w#ic# bot# (nta)e and '#haust valves are mounted in t#e "ylin*er hea* and are driven by $us#rods or by an over#ead cams#aft. Also called (hea* engine or Overhead-valve engine. $alve (n Receiver .ee 'vaporator '8ualize* $alve (n Receiver $alve 6ob <e$lacing or regrinding old valves $alve )eeper

A small unit t#at sna$s into a groove in t#e end of t#e $alve stem. &t is designed to secure t#e $alve spring, valve s$ring retaining was#er and valve stem toget#er. 'ome are of a s$lit design, some of a #orses#oe s#a$e, etc. Also called $alve )ey or valve retainer. $alve )ey @ey, "ee$er, was#er, or ot#er device w#ic# #olds valve s$ring cu$ or was#er in $lace on valve stem Also see $alve )eeper+ $alve lag %#e time between &%" or !%" and a valve closing $alve lapper A s$ecial automotive tool for grinding (la$$ing! valves into valve seats) some ty$es are $ower-o$erated, t#us allowing faster grinding com$ared wit# standard suction-ty$e valve grinding tools $alve lapping compoun* .ee $alve grin*ing compoun* $alve lash $alve tappet "learance or total "learance in t#e valve o$erating train wit# "am follo/er on "amshaft !ase circle. Also see $alve clearance $alve ,ea* %#e time between a valve o$ening and &%" or !%" $alve lift Eistance a valve moves from t#e full closed to t#e full o$en $osition. &t is usually about a .uarter of t#e diameter of t#e $ort. $alve lifter 1. %#e cylindrically s#a$ed com$onent t#at $resses against t#e lobe of a cams#aft and moves u$ and down as t#e cam lobe rotates. (ost valve lifters

#ave an oil-lubricated #ardened face t#at slides on t#e cam lobe. 'o-called roller lifters, #owever, #ave a small Roller in contact wit# t#e cam lobe -- t#ereby reducing t#e friction between t#e cam lobe and t#e lifter. Also called valve follo#er or "am follo/er. ,. A tool t#at com$resses valve s$rings for removal and re$lacement. Also see Hy*raulic valve lifter $alve loc) @ey, "ee$er, was#er, or ot#er device w#ic# #olds valve s$ring cu$ or was#er in $lace on valve stem $alve Main !urner .ee (n*ivi*ual $alve Main !urner $alve margin %#e widt# of t#e edge of t#e $alve hea* between t#e to$ of t#e valve and t#e edge of t#e face. %oo narrow a margin results in -reignition and valve damage t#roug# over-#eating. $alve oil seal A 9eoprene rubber ring t#at is $laced in a groove in t#e $alve stem to $revent e1cess oil entering t#e area between t#e stem and t#e guide. %#ere are ot#er ty$es of t#ese seals. $alve opens .ee '#haust valve opens (nta)e valve opens $alve overlap A certain $eriod in w#ic# bot# t#e (nta)e and '#haust valve are $artially o$en. %#e inta"e is starting to o$en w#ile t#e e1#aust is not yet closed. &t is usually e1$ressed in degrees of cran"s#aft rotation and determined by t#e valve timing, valve overla$ is

necessary for t#e efficient flow of gases in and out of t#e combustion c#amber $alve plate art of com$ressor located between to$ of com$ressor body and #ead. &t contains com$ressor valves and $orts. .ee $alve bo*y separator plate $alve port %#e o$ening, t#roug# t#e Hea* or bloc", from t#e (nta)e or '#haust manifol* to t#e valve seat. $alve principle %#e original met#od of AB' control using an electrically o$erated valve to control t#e air $ressure $alve Refrigerant "ylin*er .ee ,i8ui*-vapor $alve Refrigerant "ylin*er $alve retainer .ee $alve )eeper+ $alve rotator A unit t#at is $laced on t#e end of t#e $alve stem so t#at w#en t#e valve is o$ened and closed, t#e valve will rotate a small amount wit# eac# o$ening and closing. %#is gives longer valve life. Also called Roto cap $alve seat 1. %#e area onto w#ic# t#e face of t#e -oppet seats w#en closed. %#e two common angles for t#is seat are forty-five and t#irty degrees. ,. %#e surface against w#ic# a valve comes to rest to $rovide a seal against lea"age. $alve seat cutter A s$ecial automotive tool wit# carting blades for use wit# $ower tools) used to cut worn valve seats wit# >0C or 60C angles $alve seat face

An annular $art of a valve #ead located at t#e valve seat of t#e cylinder #ead $alve seat grin*ing <enewing t#e valve seat area by grinding wit# a stone mounted u$on a s$ecial Man*rel. $alve seat insert A #ardened steel valve seat t#at may be removed and re$laced. %#e use of valve seat inserts dis$enses wit# t#e need for lead in t#e fuel to act as a lubricant between t#e valve #ead and seat Also see (nsert+ $alve seat ring A ring-s#a$ed insert of a #arder metal t#an t#at of t#e cylinder #ead) t#e use of valve seat inserts dis$enses wit# t#e need for lead in t#e fuel to act as a lubricant between t#e valve #ead and seat $alveC service Eevice used to c#ec" $ressures, service, and c#arge refrigerating systems. $alve shim A calibrated s#im used to ad8ust valve clearance on B?- engines wit# buc"et ta$$et assembly) for ad8ustment, a calibrated valve s#im is $laced or removed from between ta$$et and cam $alve shim pliers A s$ecial automotive tool for t#e removal and installation of valve s#ims $alve .hutoff .ee Manual Main $alve .hutoff Manual $alve .hutoff .afety $alve .hutoff $alves-in-receiver unit (-&<! a com$onent used on G( system, in w#ic# t#e t#ermostatic e1$ansion valve, BA suction t#rottling valve, t#e receiver-drier, and, if e.ui$$ed, t#e sig#t glass are all combined into one assembly

$alve slot %ube-ty$e tires re.uire a valve slot instead of a valve #ole to allow t#e tire valve to be removed from t#e rim) a t#read ada$tor is molded to a circular rubber $atc# vulcanized to t#e inner tube) t#e valve stem casing is t#en screwed onto t#e tube ada$tor $alveC solenoi* -alve made to wor" by magnetic action t#roug# an electrically energized coil. $alve spool 1. &n an automatic transmission, a sliding cylindrical internal $art of a valve wit# one or more sections of reduced diameter ,. A s$ool-s#a$ed valve, suc# as in t#e $owersteering unit. $alve spring A small "oil spring t#at closes t#e valve after it #as been o$ened by t#e cam, and $revents t#e valve from bouncing on its seat. %#e action of t#e s$ring "ee$s t#e ,ifter in contact wit# t#e cam. &f t#e s$ring is wea", noise will be generated and t#e valve, s$ring, lifter and cam will be sub8ected to #ammer-li"e blows t#at cause Metal fatigue. Also .ee Hairpin valve spring -rogressively /oun* valve spring -rogressive valve spring $alve spring cap %#e retaining ca$ (of inta"e or e1#aust valves! w#ic# secures t#e valve "ee$er on t#e valve stem $alve spring collar %#e retaining ca$ (of inta"e or e1#aust valves! w#ic# secures t#e valve "ee$er on t#e valve stem $alve spring compressor

A s$ecial automotive tool used to com$ress valve s$rings for removal and re$lacement) t#e most common ty$e is a c-s#a$ed clam$ $alve spring *epressor A lever-ty$e tool used to de$ress valve s$rings, e.g., for removal and installation of valve stem seals $alve spring lifter A $liers-ty$e tool wit# two e1$anding 8aws, used to lift and com$ress valve s$rings for removal and re$lacement $alve spring retainer .ee $alve spring cap $alve spring seat A seat retaining t#e bottom of t#e valve s$ring $alve stem %#e long cylindrical $ortion of t#e valve t#at moves u$ and down in t#e $alve gui*e. $alve stem seal %#e oil seal between t#e valve and t#e cylinder #ead w#ic# $revents e1cessive oil lea"age from t#e to$ of t#e cylinder #ead into t#e combustion c#amber $alve stem seal installer A sleeve-ty$e tool used to $us# down valve stem seals for installation $alve stem seal pliers A s$ecial $lier for removing valve stem seals on over#ead cams#aft engines $alveC suction -alve in refrigeration com$ressor w#ic# allows va$orized refrigerant to enter cylinder from suction line and $revents its return. $alve s/itch .ee &hrottle position sensor $alve system .ee $&'" $alve system

$alve tappet An ad8usting screw to obtain t#e s$ecified "learance at t#e end of t#e $alve stem (ta$$et clearance!. %#e screw may be in t#e to$ of t#e ,ifter, in t#e Roc)er arm, or in t#e case of t#e !all 6oint roc"er arm, t#e nut on t#e mounting .tu* acts in $lace of a ta$$et screw. $alve &hree An* Four-port .ee $acuum Regulator $alve &hree An* Four-port $alve timing Ad8usting t#e $osition of t#e "amshaft to t#e "ran)shaft so t#at t#e valves will o$en and close at t#e $ro$er time. Also see $ariable valve timing $alve tip %#e u$$er end of t#e valve t#at contacts t#e roc"er arm $alvetrain .ee $alve train+ $alve train

1. %#e various $arts ma"ing u$ t#e valve and its o$erating mec#anism w#ic# causes t#e valves to o$en and close. ,. %#e system of valves t#at lets t#e fuel c#arges in and let t#e e1#aust gases out.

$alve &/o-port .ee $acuum Regulator $alve &/o-port $alve umbrella A was#er-li"e unit t#at is $laced over t#e end of t#e $alve stem to $revent t#e entry of e1cess oil between t#e stem and t#e guide. /sed in valve-in-#ead installations. $alve $acuum Motor .ee Air "leaner %uct An* $alve $acuum Motor $alveC /ater &n most water cooling units. a valve t#at $rovides a flow of water to cool t#e system w#ile it is running. $an 1. A covered road ve#icle for carrying goods. ,. A recreational ve#icle based on t#e body of a commercial van, usually wit# comfortable, $lus# interior trim, often wit# a bed. >. A cargo body style wit# a totally enclosed cargo area. &ncluded are beverage vans, or bay vans, and sealed s#i$$ing containers mounted on a s$ecial bodiless c#assis. Also !o# "ube ,ight 0pen .ee van van van $an

&op

Refrigerate* $an .tep van $ana*ium (nhibitor An organic andDor inorganic metal bearing c#emical intended to c#emically andDor $#ysically combine wit# t#e com$ounds formed during combustion of #eavy fuel oil to im$rove t#e surface $ro$erties of t#e treated as# com$ounds. $an camper .ee &ype ! motorhome "lass ! R$ $an conversions .ee "lass ! R$ $ane A t#in $late t#at is affi1ed to a rotatable unit to eit#er t#row off air or li.uid, or to receive t#e t#rust im$arted by moving air or li.uid stri"ing t#e vane. &n t#e first case it would be acting as a -ump and in t#e second case as a &urbine. Also .ee Air-inta)e 5ui*e $anes '#ternal vane pump Hall vane s/itch $ane air-flo/ meter (-A;! a sensor wit# a moveable vane connected to a $otentiometer calibrated to cause t#e amount of air flowing to t#e engine $ane air temperature sensor (-A%! located inside t#e vane airflow meter #ousing) sense t#e tem$erature of t#e air flowing into t#e engine $ane-in-rotor pump A .li*ing-vane pump $ane-in-stator pump .ee '#ternal vane pump

$ane pump A ty$e of rotary $um$ wit# eit#er a slotted rotor and sliding vanes or a rotor wit# #inged vanes) ty$ically used for air $um$s in secondary air in8ection systems, as a com$ressor in air conditioning systems, and in some transmission systems. Also .ee '#ternal vane pump $anes compressor (ec#anism for $um$ing fluid by revolving blades inside cylindrical #ousing. $ane s/itch .ee Hall vane s/itch $ane /heel impeller An im$eller wit# straig#t radial vanes $an lift

$an lift A $latform w#ic# is de$loyed from a ve#icle, allowing $eo$le w#o use w#eelc#airs or #ave trouble ste$$ing u$ easy access. %#ese $latforms or lifts are run by electricity or #ydraulics but can always be manually o$erated in t#e event t#at one of t#e $reviouslymentioned $ower sources fail. $anity mirror A mirror on t#e inside of a sun visor $anity plate A $ersonalized license $late $apor

1. %#e gaseous form of a li.uid w#ic# is usually created by #eating t#e li.uid. ,. A gas w#ic# is often found in its li.uid state w#ile in use. 3. %#e gaseous state of refrigerant. -a$orized refrigerant is $referred to t#e word gas. Also .ee Fuel vapor Fuel vapor recirculation system .aturate* $apor .uperheate* $apor ater $apor $apor barrier %#in $lastic or metal foil s#eet used in air-conditioned structures to $revent water va$or from $enetrating insulating material. $apor canister .ee Activate* carbon canister $apor *egreasing A ty$e of cleansing $rocedure to remove grease, oil, and loosely attac#ed solids from metals) a solvent suc# as tric#loret#ylene is boiled, and its va$ors are condensed on t#e metal surfaces $apor *eposition A $roduction of a surface film of metal on a #eated surface, usually in a vacuum, eit#er by decom$osition of t#e va$or of a com$ound at t#e wor" surface, or by direct reaction between t#e wor" surface and t#e va$or. Also see Ainc vapor *eposition $apor *isplacement %#e release of va$ors t#at #ad $reviously occu$ied s$ace above li.uid fuels stored in tan"s. %#ese releases occur w#en tan"s are em$tied and filled. $apor-engine

.ee !inary $apor-engine $apor in6ection .ee ater in6ection+ $aporization 1. Brea"ing t#e 5asoline into fine $articles and mi1ing it wit# t#e incoming air. ,. 2#ange of li.uid into a gaseous state. Also see Heat 0f $aporization ,atent Heat 0f $aporization $aporize %#e action of converting a li.uid into a mist or va$or by brea"ing it into small $articles and mi1ing it wit# air. %#e design of t#e "arburetor and Fuel in6ectors va$orizes 5asoline to $roduce a combustible Fuelair mi#ture. &f it is not va$orized, t#e li.uid gasoline may not burn $ro$erly and may even Hy*raulic. $apor ,amp .ee Mercury $apor ,amp $apor lines Air conditioning system lines in w#ic# refrigerant is normally in a gaseous or va$or state. $apor loc) 1. %#is is an unwanted condition w#ere bubbles of air form in t#e fuel line caused by boiling or va$orizing of t#e fuel in t#e lines from e1cess #eat. %#e boiling will interfere wit# t#e movement of t#e fuel and t#e air bubbles w#ic# form will in some cases, com$letely sto$ t#e flow. 'ometimes it will cause t#e Float c#amber to overflow w#ic# Floo*s t#e "arburetor and result in an over-ric# mi1ture t#at can cause stalling of t#e engine w#en t#e Accelerator is de$ressed. ;uels containing Alcohol #ave lower !oiling points and many

old-car owners #ave installed more-$owerful electric Fuel pumps w#ic# overcome va$or loc" tendencies of t#ese fuels by $us#ing t#em t#roug# t#e air bubble. A wet rag will cool t#e line and get rid of t#e $roblem. %o $revent t#e $roblem in #ot weat#er, some mec#anics wra$ tinfoil around t#e fuel lines to reflect t#e #eat away. ,. %#e abnormal condition t#at occurs w#en bra"e fluid contains too muc# moisture and is over#eated, causing t#e moisture in t#e fluid to boil. Gas bubbles are formed in t#e fluid, w#ic# causes a s$ongy bra"e $edal or a com$lete loss of #ydraulic $ressure. >. 2ondition w#ere li.uid is tra$$ed in line because of bend or im$ro$er installation. 'uc# va$or $revents li.uid flow. $apor pressure 1. ressure im$osed by eit#er a va$or or gas. ,. %#e tendency of a li.uid to $ass into t#e va$or state at a given tem$erature. +it# automotive fuels, volatility is determined by measuring <- . Also see Rei* $apor -ressure $apor pressure curve Gra$#ic $resentation of various $ressures $roduced by refrigerant under various tem$eratures. $apor recirculation .ee Fuel vapor recirculation system $apor recirculation system .ee Fuel vapor recirculation system $apor recovery An emission control system used by gasoline stations. A s$ecial filler nozzle seals t#e ga$ between t#e $um$ filler nozzle and t#e car=s filler o$ening, $reventing

benzene va$ors from esca$ing into t#e atmos$#ere) instead, t#ey are recycled into t#e gas station=s own fuel tan") t#e same system is also used w#en t#e gas station receives a new delivery of fuel from a gas tan"er Also see 0nboar* Refueling $apor Recovery $apor recovery system A system t#at $revents t#e esca$e of 5asoline va$ors from t#e Fuel system into t#e atmos$#ere. %#e basic system consists of a "anister filled wit# activated "harcoal and $i$es connecting t#e "anister to t#e Fuel tan) and "arburetor. Any va$or-filled air t#at leaves t#e Fuel tan) because of '#pansion $asses t#roug# s$ecial 'mission control $i$es to t#e "anister w#ere t#e va$ors are grabbed and stored by t#e "harcoal. %#en w#en t#e engine is started, (nta)e manifol* $acuum draws fres# outside air u$ t#roug# an o$ening in t#e "anister. %#is moving air $ulls t#e fuel va$or out of t#e "harcoal and carries it to t#e "arburetor and into t#e engine. &n t#e meantime any 5asoline t#at eva$orates from t#e "arburetor collects in t#e "arburetor and Air cleaner. As soon as t#e engine starts t#is va$or is drawn down t#roug# t#e "arburetor and into t#e engine along wit# t#e entering Fuel-air mi#ture. Also called eva$orative 'mission control. Also see '#haust emission controls Fuel $apor Recovery .ystem $apor recycling An emission control system used by gasoline stations. A s$ecial filler nozzle seals t#e ga$ between t#e $um$ filler nozzle and t#e car=s filler o$ening, $reventing benzene va$ors from esca$ing into t#e atmos$#ere) instead, t#ey are recycled into t#e gas station=s own

fuel tan") t#e same system is also used w#en t#e gas station receives a new delivery of fuel from a gas tan"er $apor retar*er A material t#at retards t#e movement of water va$or t#roug# a building element (walls, ceilings! and $revents insulation and structural wood from becoming dam$ and metals from corroding. Bften a$$lied to insulation batts or se$arately in t#e form of treated $a$ers, $lastic s#eets, and metallic foils. $aporC saturate* -a$or condition w#ic# will result in condensation into dro$lets of li.uid if va$or tem$erature is reduced. $apor separator A device used on cars e.ui$$ed wit# air conditioning to $revent $apor loc) by feeding va$ors bac" to t#e Fuel tan) via a se$arate line. $apor $alve .ee Fuel &an) $apor $alve $apor /ith*ra/al A system of $i$ing and connection to o$erate an engine directly on va$or ta"en from t#e to$ of an 9 G tan" $apour Britis# s$elling for $apor $AR A unit of reactive $ower in a circuit carrying a sinusoidal current. A -A< e.uals t#e amount of reactive $ower in t#e circuit w#en t#e $roduct of t#e root-means.uare value of t#e voltage (volts! by t#e root-mean value of t#e current (am$s! and t#e sine of t#e $#ase angle between t#e voltage and t#e current, e.uals 1. $AR( Acronym for "acuum Assisted Resin In/ection -a $rocess for forming com$osite $anels and bodywor" wit# consistent, controllable results. $ariable

.ee (nfinitely variable transmission (nput variable $ariable air volume (-A-! system on t#e #eating and cooling systemM A means of varying t#e amount of conditioned air to a s$ace. A variable air volume system maintains t#e air flow at a constant tem$erature, but su$$lies varying .uantities of conditioned air in different $arts of t#e building according to t#e #eating and cooling needs. $ariable air volume controller (-A-! Eevice #aving electronic com$onents used to regulate t#e volume of air in a distribution system. $ariable assist po/er steering A $ower steering system t#at enables t#e stiffness or tension of t#e steering to increase at #ig#er s$eeds for more control or to soften at low s$eeds w#en $erforming slower activities, suc# as $arallel $ar"ing. Also see $ariable ratio steering $ariable assist steering .ee $ariable assist po/er steering $ariable belt transmission A continuously variable transmission using rubber -belts on e1$anding-contracting $ulleys, de$ending on engine s$eed and load) originally develo$ed by van Eoorne for EA; and t#en used on t#e -olvo >60 $ariable-cho)e carburetor .ee $ariable-venturi carburetor $ariable *isplacement compressor A com$ressor w#ic# can c#ange its out$ut in accordance wit# t#e conditions. $ariable */ell .ee %/ell-angle control $ariable e#haust port

.ee A*6ustable variable e#haust port+ $ariable fuel vehicle .ee Fle#ible fuel vehicle $ariable hole cutter A drill bit wit# a ste$$ed cutting #ead used to drill #oles into s#eet metal and to enlarge t#e radii gradually by advancing from one ste$ diameter to t#e ne1t on t#e same drill bit $ariable inta)e manifol* A setu$ in w#ic# t#e $at# t#roug# w#ic# air travels into t#e engine can be altered. Altering t#e $at# at a set $oint allows an engine to develo$ more $ower over its rev range. $ariable-6et carburetor A carburetor wit# a sliding needle w#ic# moves in and out of a 8et to c#ange its functioning size. A ty$e found on many motorcycle carburetors. $ariable limite*-slip a#leHcenter *ifferential A limited-sli$ a1leDcenter differential wit# an electronically o$erated multi$le-disc clutc# as a sli$in#ibiting device $ariable message sign An u$rig#t electronic com$uter-controlled #ig#way information sign sign (eit#er $ermanent or movable!, w#ic# reveals road conditions, traffic restrictions, road safety, etc. $ariable pitch pulley ulley w#ic# can be ad8usted to $rovide different $ulley drive ratios. $ariable pitch stator A .tator t#at #as $anes t#at may be ad8usted to various angles de$ending on load conditions. %#e vane ad8ustment will increase or decrease t#e 'fficiency of t#e .tator. $ariable rate springs

'$rings w#ic# become stiffer under com$ression) variable rate gas s$rings are a feature of air sus$ension systems $ariable ratio steering 'teering ratio c#aracteristics in $ower steering systems $roviding different ratios for small and large steering angles $ariable reluctance sensor (-< or -<'! a non-contact &rans*ucer t#at converts mec#anical motion into electrical control signals $ariable resistor A resistor, connected in series wit# an electric motor t#at can be ad8usted to vary t#e amount of current available and t#ereby alter motor s$eed $ariable-spee* /in* turbines %urbines in w#ic# t#e rotor s$eed increases and decreases wit# c#anging wind s$eed, $roducing electricity wit# a variable fre.uency. $ariable spring '$ring $roviding variable effective lengt# t#roug# cam action to suit load. $ariable &rans*ucer .ee !ac)pressure $ariable &rans*ucer $ariable transmission .ee "ontinuously variable transmission (nfinitely variable transmission+ $ariable valve actuation &n older engines, t#e (nta)e and '#haust valves o$erated in a fi1ed $rogram of timed o$enings and closings. +it# variable valve actuation, t#ese actions are varied for a better balance of low-s$eed, mediums$eed, and #ig#-s$eed o$eration. $ariable valve timing %#roug# t#e use of com$uters, t#e $recise time w#en t#e valves o$en and close can be altered. &t may be

better to c#ange t#e timing slig#tly w#en t#e engine is at a #ig#er < ( t#an w#en it is slower. $ariable-venturi .ee Air-valve carburetor+ $ariable-venturi carburetor %#e c#aracteristic feature of t#is carburetor is t#e vacuum-o$erated $iston w#ic# ad8usts t#e crosssectional area of t#e venturi and moves a 8et needle in and out of a needle 8et) ty$ical designs are t#e '/ and 'tromberg carburetors $ariable volume in*uction system inta)e configuration A restrictor $late t#at o$ens and closes controlling t#e amount of o1ygen t#at can go into t#e engine. $ariomatic transmission A transmission w#ic# used rubber belts and e1$anding $ulleys to $rovide an infinitely variable belt drive. Also see $ariable belt transmission $arnish 1. A de$osit on t#e interior of t#e engine caused by t#e engine oil brea"ing down under $rolonged #eat and use. 2ertain $ortions of t#e oil de$osit t#emselves in #ard "oatings of varnis#. 2. <esidue formed w#en 5asoline gets old and stale. $A& Acronym for $ane air temperature sensor $A&. Acronym for "ehicle AntiTheft $ystem $au#hall

A ve#icle brand of w#ic# only t#e ,0D50 and >0D37 models of 13,0-1367 are "lassic cars. $A$ $A

Acronym for $ariable air volume & Acronym for vertical-a(is #ind turbine DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Wa"
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate t#at t#ey are

t#eoretically rated for s$eeds u$ to 270 )ph, as in .::3WR1A.%#e ne1t #ig#er rating is @ and t#e one lower rating is $ 2. Acronym for Watt H Abbreviation for #ith, as in blac& #0#hite to!. A" 1. Acronym for Wide O!en Throttle A0- -utoff <elay 2. Acronym for Wide O!en Throttle A0- -utout <elay A"A Acronym for A0- Wide O!en Throttle -utout a**le

Relay Monitor

A side to side roc"ing movement of a ve#icle in motion, caused by sus$ension or tire damage or e1cessive lateral runout a*ing plugs Bil drain #oles are $rovided in t#e bottom of t#e clutc# #ousing (and t#e cams#aft drive-belt #ousing on %di and ,.0E engines! to $reclude t#e $ossibility of t#e clutc# or cam belts becoming contaminated in t#e event of oil lea"s from t#e ad8acent bearings. +ading $lugs s#ould be fitted to bloc" t#ese #oles w#en driving t#roug# water over >0 cm dee$ and subse.uently removed. a* punch A tool wit# a round cutting edge for cutting out #oles in gas"ets or ot#er soft materials afer A t#in s#eet of semiconductor ($#otovoltaic material! made by cutting it from a single crystal or ingot. agon .ee %ealer &an) agon .ales %ragon agon Four-*oor station /agon 5arbage agon ,iftbac) station /agon .ag /agon .pace /agon .tation /agon &/o-*oor station /agon aistline A Britis# term for !elt line. An imaginary or molded #orizontal line below t#e bottom of t#e side window t#at se$arates t#e roof area from t#e bottom of t#e body aiver .ee %uty /aiver a)ening

.ee Fiel* a)ening alc)er .ee "henar*- alc)er al)e* over %ruc"er slang for Bver $owered by a stronger c.b. signal as in F2ome bac" on t#at someone wal"ed all over you.F al)-in cooler 9arger. commercially refrigerated s$ace "e$t below room tem$erature. Bften found in su$ermar"ets or w#olesale meat distribution centers. al)ing !eam .uspension A ty$e of truc" and tractor rear sus$ension consisting of two beams, one at eac# side of t#e c#assis, w#ic# $ivot in t#e center and connect at t#e front to one a1le of a tandem and at t#e rear to t#e ot#er a1le. al)ing Floor A ty$e of dum$ trailer wit# a conveyor belt or c#ain running down t#e center of t#e floor of t#e trailer to unload t#e cargo. Also called live bottom all .ee !earing all "ylin*er /all Retaining /all .oun* /alls alnut .ee !urr /alnut an*er A steering action w#ere t#e ve#icle moves or rambles from a fi1ed course wit#out $ositive control. an*erer %#e first +anderer car wit# a 0D1, #$ four-cylinder engine was test driven in 131,. &t went into series $roduction in 131>. %#is small +anderer car #ad not

been on t#e mar"et very long w#en it became a stage star in t#e o$eretta .u!!chen (w#ic# can be translated loosely as FdarlingF! by Jean Gilbert. %#e title song was rat#er catc#y FEarling, you are t#e a$$le of my eye, darling, & t#in" t#e world of you.F ;rom t#en on t#e little +anderer was "nown sim$ly by t#e name .u!!chen. an*ering A condition in w#ic# t#e front w#eels of an automobile tend to steer slowly one way and t#en anot#er, and interferes wit# directional control of stability an)el engine A rotary (nternal combustion engine invented by ;eli1 +an"el (130,-1377!. &t consists of an e.uilateral triangular member wit# curved sides orbiting about an 'ccentric on a s#aft inside a stationary Housing w#ose inner wor"ing surface is in t#e s#a$e of an 'pitrochoi*. %#e Rotor is in sliding contact wit# t#e 'ccentric and im$arts $ower to t#e eccentric s#aft as a connecting rod does to a "ran)shaft. +it# onet#ird of a rotor revolution $er s#aft revolution and a $ower im$ulse for eac# of t#e t#ree rotor sides, t#e +an"el generates one $ower im$ulse $er revolution $er rotor--twice t#at of w#at t#e Four-cycle -iston engine $roduces. %#us it #as become acce$ted $ractice to multi$ly t#e geometry %isplacement of t#e +an"el by a factor of two for com$arison wit# 0ttocycle $iston engines. %#e +an"el=s advantages include com$act size, lig#t weig#t and smoot# o$eration because t#ere are no Reciprocating $arts. &ts drawbac"s include relatively #ig# '#haust emission, $ossible sealing $roblems and low Fuel economy. (azda, #owever, #as made significant im$rovements in all t#ree areas. ar*ing file .ee 4ey file

arm Air .ee Furnace "entral arm Air arm Air Furnace .ee "entral arm Air Furnace arm up 1. %o run an engine until it reac#es normal o$erating tem$erature. ,. %#e la$s ta"en on t#e trac" $rior to t#e race used to warm u$ t#e tires, transmission, engine fluids and ot#er com$onents of t#e race car before t#e start of t#e event. arm-up %#e action of starting an engine and allowing it to idle until it reac#es o$erating tem$erature before driving away. arm-up control unit A unit t#at $roduces t#e ric#er mi1ture needed for cold running and modulates fuel system $ressure according to engine tem$erature) t#e unit includes an electrically #eated t#ermostatic s$ring, w#ic# reduces t#e force on a s$ring-loaded control dia$#ragm arm-up enrichment A reduced enric#ment of t#e airDfuel mi1ture following cran"ing and after-start enric#ment. &n t#e $ast, warming u$ an engine was t#oug#t to be good $ractice but now manufacturers recommend t#at motorists s#ould drive off immediately, as t#is is t#e .uic"est way of #eating u$ t#e engine and $reventing oil being was#ed off t#e cylinder walls by $artially burnt ric# mi1ture (w#ic# causes engine wear! arm-up regulator Bn Bosc# 2&', t#e original name for t#e control$ressure regulator arning

.ee %eflation /arning system %irection in*icator /arning light 'ngine oil level /arning light Flui* level /arning in*icator Han*bra)e /arning light Hazar* /arning s/itch ,o/ &ire -ressure arning 0il pressure /arning light -ar)bra)e /arning light Reversing /arning signal arning Flasher .ee Hazar* arning Flasher arning in*icator .ee Flui* level /arning in*icator ,evel arning (n*icator arning lamp A small lam$ on t#e instrument $anel t#at lig#ts u$ if t#ere is a $roblem arning light A small lam$ on t#e instrument $anel t#at lig#ts u$ if t#ere is a $roblem. Also .ee !ra)e /arning light "hec) engine /arning light "oolant level /arning light %irection in*icator /arning light 'ngine oil level /arning light Han*bra)e /arning light 0il pressure /arning light -ar)bra)e /arning light .eat belt /arning light .ignal light /arning light .R. /arning light arning light valve

A valve in t#e #ydraulic circuits of a dual bra"e system t#at switc#es on a das# warning lig#t w#en one system fails. arning signal .ee Reversing /arning signal arning s/itch .ee Hazar* /arning s/itch -ressure %ifferential arning ./itch arning ./itch Assembly .ee !ra)e Flui* ,evel arning ./itch Assembly %ifferential -ressure arning ./itch Assembly -ar)ing !ra)e arning ./itch Assembly arning system .ee %eflation /arning system &al)ing /arning system arning trac)s 1. %#e little ridges in t#e road t#at warn you of an u$coming tollboot# or anot#er lane. 'ometimes called #a&e-u! bum!s or BotGs ots -- (r. Bot got very ric# off t#ese. ,. A $art of t#e race trac" w#ic# is off t#e main $art of t#e section for driving. arning triangle A triangular red safety reflector t#at s#ould be carried on all ve#icles and be $laced at t#e side of t#e road to warn of an obstruction a#ead, suc# as a bro"en-down ve#icle arp 1. A bending or twisting out of s#a$e. ,. %#reads in clot# t#at run along t#e lengt# of t#e material. >. %o bend or twist out of s#a$e

arranty %#e $romise made by bot# t#e ve#icle manufacturer and t#e ve#icle dealer to fi1 or re$lace $arts on a new ve#icle if t#ere is a malfunction before a s$ecific time or distance #as ela$sed. &n some instances some manufacturers or dealers grant warranty even after t#e e1$iry of t#e designated time or distance. %#is is called good #ill #arranty. Also .ee Anti-corrosion /arranty 5oo* /ill /arranty ash .ee "ar /ash in*o/ ash ashboar* A road surface w#ic# #as a series of lateral grooves -usually found on gravel roads and caused by water runoff. Also called corrugations ashcoat An o1ide layer on t#e catalyst substrate w#ic# increases wit# t#e active surface area asher A flat %isc wit# a #ole in t#e center. &t may be made of metal, rubber, $lastic, or leat#er. &t is often $laced under a nut to even out $ressure and $revent damage to t#e $art on w#ic# it rests. Also .ee air /asher !ri*ge /asher "rush /asher "up /asher %ish /asher Flat /asher Helical spring loc) /asher 0pen /asher

-rotector /asher .lip asher .pacer asher .pring loc) /asher .pring /asher &ab /asher &hrust /asher in*shiel* /asher flui* in*shiel* /asher asher face A circular rim or boss on t#e underside of t#e #ead of a bolt (i.e., t#e bearing surface! or on one side of a nut to give a flat surface for t#e bolt or nut to sit on. A smoot# was#er face ta"es away any burrs or im$erfections caused by t#e manufacturing $rocess. asher flui* A fluid added to t#e water in t#e winds#ield was#er and rear window was#er reservoirsDbottles to im$rove t#e cleaning action and lower t#e freezing $oint. Also see in*shiel* /asher flui* asher pump .ee in*shiel* /asher pump ashH/ipe .ee Hea*light /ashH/ipe Rear /ashH/ipe system ashH/ipe s/itch A switc# on t#e instrument $anel t#at o$erates t#e rear was#Dwi$e system ashH/ipe system .ee in*shiel* /ashH/ipe system Rear /ashH/ipe system aste

.ee !iomass /aste Hazar*ous astes astegate .ee aste gate aste gate A valve used to limit t#e boost develo$ed in a turboc#arger. A waste gate o$erates by allowing some of t#e engine=s e1#aust flow to by$ass t#e turboc#arger=s &urbine section under certain conditions. Also see 'lectronically-controlle* astegate aste materials Bt#erwise discarded combustible materials t#at, w#en burned, $roduce energy for suc# $ur$oses as s$ace #eating and electric $ower generation. %#e size of t#e waste may be reduced by s#redders, grinders, or #ammermills. Aoncombustible materials, if any, may be removed. %#e waste may be dried and t#en burned, eit#er alone or in combination wit# fossil fuels. aste oil etroleum-based materials t#at are wort#less for any $ur$ose ot#er t#an fuel use. aste spar) metho* &n distributorless ignition systems, dual-s$ar" coils fire two s$ar" $lugs at t#e same time) one of t#ese s$ar"s is in a cylinder during its e1#aust stro"e, w#ere t#e s$ar" #as no effect (waste s$ar"!) t#e ot#er s$ar" occurs in t#e cylinder near t#e end of t#e com$ression stro"e aste tar etroleum-based materials t#at are wort#less for any $ur$ose ot#er t#an fuel use. atch*og timer A device t#at detects controller malfunction and initiates inde$endent action to safely deactivate t#e

e.ui$ment o$erated by t#e failed controller. %#e device accom$lis#es failure detection, by monitoring a $eriodic u$date signal from t#e controller, and activation, if t#is $eriodic signal does not occur wit#in a s$ecified time $eriod. ater .ee %e-ionize* /ater %istille* /ater ,ight ater ./eet ater $alve ater ater bar A diversion ditc# andDor #um$ installed across a trail or road to divert runoff from t#e surface before t#e flow gains enoug# volume and velocity to cause soil movement and erosion, and de$osit t#e runoff into a dis$ersion area. +ater bars are most fre.uently used on retired roads, trails, and landings. ater column A reference term used in connection wit# a manometer ater-coole* An engine w#ic# is cooled by antifreeze in contrast wit# an air-cooled engine. ater-coole* con*enser 1. ?eat e1c#anger designed to transfer #eat from #ot gaseous refrigerant to water. ,. 2ondensing unit w#ic# is cooled t#roug# use of water flow. ater cooling system %#e normal cooling system used on most cars and truc"s to "ee$ t#e tem$erature of t#e engine down to a desirable level) engine #eat is removed via water acting as a coolant w#ic# surrounds t#e cylinders in a water 8ac"et) t#e system ty$ically includes water $assages, coolant $um$, t#ermostat, #oses, and radiator

atercourse A definite c#annel wit# bed and ban"s wit#in w#ic# concentrated water flows continuously, fre.uently or infre.uently. ater *efrosting /se of water to melt ice and frost from eva$orator during off-cycle. ater e#tractor .ee Air transformer ater fa*e A delay in bra"e a$$lication caused by water contamination t#at reduces friction between t#e bra"e linings and drum or rotor. ater gauge A device, often a glass tube, w#ic# s#ows t#e level of water. ater hammer Aoise generated by bac" $ressure of water w#en a valve is closed. ater in6ection &n an attem$t to im$rove $erformance and allow t#e use of lower octane 5asoline, water in8ection was develo$ed. %#e cooling of t#e water va$or c#arge su$$resses %etonation. A small amount of water or alco#ol-water fluid is in8ected into t#e Fuel-air mi#ture as it enters into t#e "arburetor. %#eoretically, as t#e water eva$orates it s#ould cool t#e incoming c#arge w#ic# t#en becomes denser, leading to #ig#er $olumetric efficiency. %#is in turn s#ould lead to im$rovements in $erformance and 'conomy and allow t#e use of lower octane fuel because cooling of t#e c#arge su$$resses %etonation. ater 6ac)et 1. %#e area around t#e "ylin*er bloc) and Hea* or (nta)e manifol* t#at is left #ollow so t#at water

may be admitted for cooling. Also called cooling /ac&et. ,. 2#annels in t#e engine t#roug# w#ic# water and coolant circulate to cool t#e engine. Also .ee "ooling system+ ater 6et cutter A stream of water under great $ressure (00,000 $si! w#ic# is controlled by a com$uter and is used to accurately cut $lastic and fiberglass, etc. aterline %#e line of t#e water=s edge w#en t#e s#i$ is afloat. Also see ,oa* /aterline ater mar)ing 'tains on t#e $aintwor" caused w#en a dro$ of water eva$orates, leaving be#ind an outline of t#e dro$ ater passage A $assage wit#in t#e water 8ac"et designed to $revent t#e formation of $oc"ets of steam ater pump A device t#at circulates t#e li.uid t#roug# t#e "ooling system by $um$ing it from t#e engine ater 6ac)ets to t#e Ra*iator. %#e $um$ is usually mounted at t#e front of t#e engine and is driven by a belt from a -ulley on t#e front end of t#e "ran)shaft. Also called a coolant !um!. ater separator A device found on diesel cars w#ic# removes any water t#at may #ave contaminated t#e diesel fuel. ater splash .ee .alt /ater splash ater spotting

'tains on t#e $aintwor" t#at occur w#en a dro$ of water eva$orates from t#e $ainted surface and leaves a w#ite s$ot be#ind. Also see ater-spotting+ ater-spotting Ero$s of water t#at mar t#e Finish before it is t#oroug#ly cured. ater temperature gauge A gauge on t#e instrument $anel w#ic# indicates coolant tem$erature ater turbine A turbine t#at uses water $ressure to rotate its blades) t#e $rimary ty$es are t#e elton w#eel, for #ig# #eads ($ressure!) t#e ;rancis turbine, for low to medium #eads) and t#e @a$lan for a wide range of #eads. rimarily used to $ower an electric generator. ater valve 1. A s#ut-off valve, mec#anically or vacuum o$erated, for sto$$ing t#e flow of #ot coolant to t#e #eater. ,. &n most water cooling units, a valve t#at $rovides a flow of water to cool t#e system w#ile it is running. Also see 'lectric ater $alve -ressure ater $alve &hermostatic ater $alve ater vapor +ater in a va$orous form, es$ecially w#en below boiling tem$erature and diffused (e.g., in t#e atmos$#ere!. ater/ays .ee (nternational /ater/ays att (+!

1. %#e international unit of measurement of $ower.

Bne watt e.uals one 7oule $er second. ,. %#e unit of electrical $ower e.ual to one am$ere under a $ressure of one volt. A +att is e.ual to 1D566 #orse$ower. Also see ,umens att att lin)age A .uspension ,in)age w#ic# #as t#ree-bars to locate t#e Ee Eion or ,ive a#le. %#ere are two usual met#ods for arranging a +att lin"age Frame to $ivot on a1le Housing to frame or a1le to $ivot on frame to a1le. &n eit#er arrangement, t#is lin" structure restrains all movement of t#e a1le to a vertical $lane. atts lin) A device used to control side to side motion in a ladder bar, tor.ue-tube, or 6-lin" rear sus$ension. A watts lin" #as a $ivot $oint in t#e center of t#e a1le and a rod t#at runs to eac# side of t#e car. %#is design eliminate t#e side to side motion of a $an#ard rod. ave .ee !ac)/ar*-/ave tube !en*ing ave !o/ ave "arrier ave -ressure /ave supercharger -ressure /ave :uasi-longitu*inal ave :uasi-optical aves Rectifier ave A" "urrent .ee A" current sine /ave aveban* A series of wavelengt#s forming a grou$ aveform

.ee !i-*irectional aveform ave rectifier .ee Rectifier ave supercharger .ee -ressure /ave supercharger a# 1. A substance resembling beeswa1 in a$$earance and c#aracter, and in general distinguis#ed by its com$osition of esters and #ig#er alco#ols, and by its freedom from fatty acids) used for underbody sealing, cavity sealing, and $aintwor" care. ,. &ngredient in many lubricating oils w#ic# may se$arate from t#e oil if cooled enoug#. 3. A solid or semi-solid material at 2<=" consisting of a mi1ture of #ydrocarbons obtained or derived from $etroleum fractions, or t#roug# a ;isc#er%ro$sc# ty$e $rocess, in w#ic# t#e straig#t c#ained $araffin series $redominates. %#is includes all mar"etable wa1, w#et#er crude or refined, wit# a congealing $oint (A'%( E 3>7! between 70 (or 70! and 33;=" and a ma1imum oil content (A'%( E >,>0! of 00 weig#t $ercent. 6. %o treat wit# wa1. Also .ee "ar /a# Hot /a# Microcrystalline a# a#ing 1. %#e formation of wa1 crystals in diesel fuel in freezing conditions, t#us clogging t#e fuel filter and sto$$ing t#e engine) avoided by t#e use of a fuel #eater or fuel additives.

,. %#e a$$lication of a wa1 finis# on t#e $aint surface of a ve#icle to $reserve t#e $aint and maintain its beauty a# in6ection %#e in8ection of corrosion-in#ibiting wa1 into car body cavities a# lancing %#e in8ection of corrosion-in#ibiting wa1 into car body cavities a#-type thermostat A t#ermostat in w#ic# t#e e1$ansion of melting $araffin wa1 (in a rigid cylinder! deforms a molded rubber membrane and dis$laces a $istonD$in from t#e cylinder) t#is #as t#e advantage of being insensitive to sudden tem$erature fluctuations or to t#e $ressure in t#e system ay .ee 0il /ay 0ne /ay clutch ay clutch .ee 0ne /ay clutch ays 1. %#e mac#ined abutments on w#ic# a sliding bra"e cali$er rides ,. '$ecial sliding surfaces mac#ined into t#e anc#or $late and cali$er body w#ere t#ese $arts of a sliding cali$er ma"e contact and move against one anot#er.

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "*a"

Da

De Df Dl Dr Dt Dv
Dy D Briginally t#is letter indicated e(!erimental ve#icles, but later came to indicate an e(otic or unusual ve#icle. Also .ee

Michelin H

DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "Ya"


@a @b @c @e @i @o @p
@u @ A letter rating for tires to indicate t#at t#ey are t#eoretically rated for s$eeds u$ to >00 "$# (176 m$#!, as in .::3IR1A.%#e ne1t #ig#er rating is A and t#e one lower rating is @amaha

"lic) image for boo)s on @amaha A Ja$anese motorcycle manufacturer @ar* .ee !rea)er2s yar* .crap yar* @ar* Horse A tractor for moving trailers s#ort distances in a truc" yard or terminal com$ound. Also called switc#ing tractor, yard tractor, trailer s$otter, yard dog, and line#auler. :.ui$ment is manufactured and sold for suc# e1clusively off-road use, but sometimes old, s$are, or unroadwort#y tractors are used. @ar*ing (et#od of trans$ort from #arvest area to storage landing. @ar* 7oc)ey A $erson w#o o$erates a @ar* tractor @ar* Mule '$ecial tractor used to move trailers around a terminal, ware#ouse, distribution center, etc. Also called a Iard

Tractor

@ar* sale A bicycle term borrowed from s"iing w#ere a serious cras# leaves all your various #ares -- water bottles, $um$, tool bag, etc. -- scattered as if on dis$lay for sale. @ar*stic) %ruc"er slang for (ile mar"ers on t#e road side as in F%#ere=s a smo"ey advertising at t#e 50 yardstic".F @ar* &ractor

'$ecial tractor used to move trailers around a terminal, ware#ouse, distribution center, etc. Also called a Iard @arn .ee !allooning 0f @arn @a/ %#e rotation about a vertical a1is t#at $asses t#roug# t#e car=s center of gravity. @a/ acceleration A steady increase in t#e yaw angle @a/ angle %#e angle of deviation between a ve#icle=s longitudinal a1is and its true direction of motion, i.e., t#e difference between t#e direction a ve#icle is $ointing w#en cornering and t#e direction in w#ic# it is actually moving DICTIONARY OF AUTOMOTIVE TERMS - "+a"

Mule

Aa Ae Af Ai Ao
Av A
1. A letter rating for tires to indicate t#at t#ey are

t#eoretically rated for s$eeds over >00 "$# (176 m$#!, as in .:=A0A3JR1K. %#ere is no #ig#er rating, but t#e one lower rating is @ 2. %#e symbol for (mpe*ance Aahnra*fabri) Frie*richshafen .ee AF AA-

.ee A(A-AAA-a#le A rear a1le introduced wit# t#e B(+ O1 in 1377, consisting of a trailing arm, one u$$er lateral lin", one lower diagonal lin", and a coil s$ring at eac# side) also included is an anti-roll bar