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Topic 10

Collaborative Writing

Sharing written documents during the process of writing.

Explain what do group members do at each stage : 1. Invention stage : group members do preliminary() discussion of ideas and approaches using note-sharing & preliminary debating(). . !rafting stage : group members write the draft based on the outcomes of the invention stage. ". #evision stage : group members revise the draft & write the final draft.

State $ problems in %ollaborative &riting : 1. 'ime consuming ( ta)e more time than writing alone. . !isagreement among the group members. ". !iff among group members. $. *airness.

Topic 9

Research Papers

Is a form of e+tended essay of between 1, & - pages in length. It presents summari.ed information about the sub/ect to prove a point.

'able of %ontent for #esearch 0aper

'ips 1nd 2uideline

'ips for 3ote-ta)ing :

T P!C "

Writing # Presenting Proposals

!efine #esearch proposals & written report. Research proposals is a report 4 li)e writing to convince() others about the pro/ect 5 topic or issue & show them that the writer has the s)ills & competency() to complete it. Written report is a written document describing the findings of some individual or group prepared for the benefit of others. $P$ st%le

6lements 7f 1 #esearch 0roposal Introduction 5 problem statement 5 research methodology 5 analysis 5 conclusion & bibliography. 'ips to refine ( ) research proposal : 1. 8eep redefining ( ) title & content so that it become a doable pro/ect . . 'al) about your ideas to your friends. 'al)ing helps to clarify() ideas. ". &rite brief notes about idea in 1 or pages.

$. #ead through proposal & reread it 5 reflect on( ) whether hv done a good /ob. -. 8eep reading 4 spend time in library. 'a)e notes. 9. :ull over the write-up . ;. Sort out the various sub-topics so that they are in order. <. %arry out referencing so that ac)nowledge other ppl=s wor). 0roposals can be formal or informal. Informal proposals usually do not aim to get funding or an academic degree. >usiness & mar)eting research proposals need to be clearly written in order to win that contract.

1 feasibility study is another form of business proposal. It can be considered a brief formal analysis of a prospective business idea to determine whether it ma)e sense.

%ritical *actors in 0roposal 6valuation 1. It clarifies the ob/ectives of research pro/ects. . It enchances understanding of the steps & process. ". It provides ppl the information that help them to ma)e decisions about the pro/ect. $. It helps to measure the goals and ob/ectives.

Topic &

Report Writing

is the result of your researches5 analysis5 and investigations5 which you present in a written form.

>riefly e+plain - steps that one has to do in preparing report wrting :


tips of 2athering the data

'able of %ontent for a #eport

2ood #eports 1re : Clear '.help the readers understand by using plain 5 clear language. concise ' not necessarily long but it must be clear. smooth (lowing ' must logically 5 interesting & hv good continuing between sentences 5 paragraphs written (orm an ob)ective point o( view*