You are on page 1of 10

I

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON IMPERIOR FUEL USAGE IN CI ENGINE


A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted By

S.RAJESH T.RAJESHKANNAN C.SATHESH KUMAR


(09MER085) (09MER086) (09MER103)

in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SCHOOL OF BUILDING AND MECHANICAL SCIENCES

KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE


(Autonomous)

PERUNDURAI ERODE 638 052

APRIL 2013

II

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE


(Autonomous) PERUNDURAI ERODE 638 052 APRIL 2013

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Project report entitled EPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON IMPERIOR FUEL USAGE IN CI ENGINE is the bonafide record of project work done by S.RAJESH, T.RAJESHKANNAN, C.SATHESH KUMAR

(09MER085, 09MER086, 09MER103) in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering in MECHANIAL ENGINEERING of Anna University Chennai during the year 2009 - 2013.

SUPERVISOR

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

Date:

Submitted for the end semester viva voce examination held on ___________

INTERNAL EXAMINER

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

III

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING KONGU ENGINEERING COLLEGE


(Autonomous) PERUNDURAI ERODE 638 052 APRIL 2013

DECLARATION
We affirm that the Project Report titled EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON IMPERIOR FUEL USAGE IN CI ENGINE being submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Engineering is the original work carried out by us. It has not formed the part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate.

(Signature of the candidates) S.RAJESH (09MER085) T.RAJESH KANNAN (09MER086) C.SATHESH KUMAR (09MER103)

I certify that the declaration made by the above candidates is true to the best of my knowledge.

Date:

Mr.A.SANTHOSH KUMAR

IV

ABSTRACT The fossil fuels are depleting at an alarm rate with ever increase in fuel price and increases air pollution because of particulate emission such as CO, NOx which cause Ozone layer depletion and Green House effect led to the search for renewable energies. Nowadays, there are many sources of renewable energy. Bio-diesel is one of the promising renewable, alternative and environmental friendly bio-fuels, that can be used in diesel engine with little or no modification in the engine. In this experimental work the vegetable oil i.e., Pongamia pinnate oil is chosen as an alternative fuel to diesel, which is due to the agricultural origin, is able to reduce the net carbon emission which the major contribution to the global warming along with import substitution of fuel for CI engine. To reduce the amount of NOx here we used the LPG as the manifold induction along with the air. In this project, experimental investigation is carried out to find the emission and performance characteristics of a CI engine running with bio-diesel blends along with LPG.

The experimental work has been conducted on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, compression ignition, direct injection diesel engine. Pongamia bio-diesel was blended with diesel in proportions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 70% by mass with partial replacement of LPG and was investigated under various load conditions in a compression ignition engine.

In the performance analysis the acquired data will be used to find the mechanical efficiency, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal efficiency, fuel consumption, fuel power, brake mean effective pressure, indicated mean effective pressure. The performance parameters were found to be closer to that of diesel. A minor decrease in thermal efficiency with significant improvement in reduction of NOx was found on the experimental investigation.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Words are only representations of our regards and gratitude that we have towards our actions and their inherent associations. As a matter of fact, without co-operation, no thought could be coined into real action. Consistent motivation and invaluable support throughout any project is an issue that cannot quantitatively measured. These acknowledgements are only a fraction of regards towards their gestures.

Our sincere thanks to PROF.S.KUPPUSWAMI, Principal, Kongu Engineering College for his co-operation and operational support throughout our project.

My special thanks to Dr.P.NAVANEETHA KRISHNAN, Head of the Department, Mechanical engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode. Who has given an immense support throughout the course of the project.

I express my deep sense of gratitude to Mr.A.SANTHOSH KUMAR,Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department . Kongu Engineering College, who has been a source of inspiration throughout the course of this work with his inestimable advice and moral encouragement.

We would like to thank all the LAB TECHNICIANS at KEC for their assistance throughout our project.

VI

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO. ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES

TITLE

PAGE NO. IV VIII IX X 1 1 1 2

LIST OF FIGUREURES NOMENCLATURE 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO ENGINE 1.2 CLASSIFICATION OF HEAT ENGINES 1.3 FOUR-STROKE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES 1.3.1 Suction Stroke 1.3.2 Compression Stroke 1.3.3 Expansion Stroke 1.3.4 Exhaust Stroke 1.4 FOUR-STROKE DIESEL ENGINES 1.5 CI ENGINE FUEL 1.5.1 1.5.2 Petroleum Diesel Alternate Fuels

2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 8

1.5.3 Pongamia Oil 1.5.4 Gaseous Fuels 1.5.4.1 Liquefied Petroleum Gas 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 COMBUSTION AND EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS 2.2 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A DUAL FUEL ENGINE

8 11

VII

PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION 3.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT WORK

12 12 13 13 13 14 16 24

EXPERIMENTAL SETUPS 4.1 DUAL FUEL ENGINES 4.2 TECHNICAL ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS 4.3ENGINE DESIGN AND MODIFICATIONS

RESULT AND DISCUSSION 5.1 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS 5.2 EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS DIESEL BLENDS FOR BIO-

25

5.3 PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS FOR BIODIESEL BLENDS AND LPG 5.4 EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS DIESEL BLENDS AND LPG 6 FUTURE WORK REFERENCE FOR BIO-

27

32

21 22

VIII

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22

TITLE Observation for pure Diesel Performance for pure Diesel Observation for 90% Diesel & 10% Pongamia Performance for 90% Diesel & 10% Pongamia Observation for 80% Diesel & 20% Pongamia Performance for 80% Diesel & 20% Pongamia Observation for 70% Diesel & 30% Pongamia Performance for 70% Diesel & 30% Pongamia Observation for 60% Diesel & 40% Pongamia Performance for 60% Diesel & 40% Pongamia Observation for 50% Diesel & 50% Pongamia Performance for 50% Diesel & 50% Pongamia Observation for 30% Diesel & 70% Pongamia Performance for 30% Diesel & 70% Pongamia Observation for pure diesel + LPG Performance for Diesel + LPG Observation for B-30 + LPG Performance for B-30+ LPG Observation for B-50 + LPG Performance for B-50+ LPG Observation for B-70 + LPG Performance for B-70+ LPG

PAGE NO 16 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 30

IX

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE

TITTLE

PAGE NO

4.1 4.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10

Experimental setup in line diagram Experimental setup Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency Load Vs Mechanical Efficiency Load Vs CO Load Vs NO Load Vs NOx Load Vs Brake Thermal Efficiency Load Vs Mechanical Efficiency Load Vs CO Load Vs NO Load Vs NOx

15 15 24 24 25 25 26 32 32 33 34 34

LIST OF NOMENCLATURE

FC FuP BP SFC FP IP mech bt it BMEP IMEP T Cb N L kg kW LPG PPME

Fuel consumption Fuel power Brake power Specific fuel consumption Friction power Indicated power Mechanical Efficiency Brake thermal Efficiency Indicated thermal Efficiency Brake mean Effective Pressure Indicated mean Effective Pressure Torque Circumference of brake drum Speed Load kilo gram kilo Watt Liquefied Petroleum Gas Pongamia Pinnata Methyl Ester