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ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD (Department of Bus ness A!

m n strat on"

BUSINESS RESEAR#$ MET$ODS (%&'" #$E#(LIST SEMESTER) SPRIN*, &+,+


This packet comprises the following material: 1. Text Book 2.Course Outline 3.Assignment No. 1 an 2 !.Assignment "orms #2 sets$ %n this packet& if 'ou fin an'thing missing out of the a(o)e*mentione material& please contact at the a ress gi)en (elow: Deput- Re. strar Ma / n. Se0t on, B/o012&3 A//ama I45a/ Open Un 6ers t$23, ISLAMABAD

Beenish Ehsan Course Coor inator

ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY, ISLAMABAD (Department of Bus ness A!m n strat on"
,8 &8 PLA*IARISM OR $IRIN* O9 *$OST 7RITER(S" 9OR SOLVIN* T$E ASSI*NMENT(S" 7ILL DEBAR T$E STUDENT 9ROM A7ARD O9 DE*REE:#ERTI9I#ATE, I9 9OUND AT ANY STA*E8 SUBMITTIN* ASSI*NMENTS BORRO7ED OR STOLEN 9ROM OT$ER(S" AS ONE;S O7N 7ILL BE PENALI<ED AS DE9INED IN =AIOU PLA*IARISM POLI#Y>8

7ARNIN*

ASSI*NMENT No8 ,
#ourse) Bus ness Resear0? Met?o!s (%&'" Le6e/) MBA:MS0 (E0o" +. 1 #a$ #($ +. 2 #a$ #($ +. 3 +. ! Semester) Spr n., &+,+ Tota/ Mar1s) ,++

,xplain the nee an importance of research in a ser)ices organi-ation. #1/$ 0iscuss elineation of research task with appropriate examples. #1/$ 0iscuss the 1cientific an 2nscientific metho s of research in a manufacturing organi-ation. #1/$ ,xplain the importance of research in tra ing organi-ation. #1/$ 1'stematic #2/$

0ifferentiate (etween 1tratifie sampling& Cluster sampling an sampling with appropriate examples. #a$ #($

0iscuss fi)e situations in etail& where it woul (e more (eneficial to engage an internal research team rather than external one. #1/$ 0escri(e fi)e situations in etail& where it woul (e more (eneficial to engage an external research team rather than internal one. #1/$

+. 3

0iscuss an' ten situations& where it woul primar' ata sources for research.

(e more (eneficial to se #2/$

ASSI*NMENT No8 &


(Tota/ Mar1s) ,++" This assignment is re4uire to (e presente after completion of classes expecte to (e hel at the en of semester prior to 'our final examination at 'our allocate stu ' centre. 0uring the workshop presentation& 'ou can (ring supporting material like transparencies an )isual ai s. 5our atten ance an presentation of this assignment is compulsor' without which 'ou will fail in course& although 'ou might (e allowe to appear in the final examination& (ut re4uire to pass the presentation in an' case. 5ou are also a )ise to prepare two copies of this paper. 1u(mit one cop' to 'our teacher an use secon cop' for presentation in the class. 6lace (elow are topics of which 'ou shoul select onl' one for writing a paper consisting of 3/ t'pe pages. 5ou 2

are also re4uire to prepare a report t'pe pages an present it with the help of transparencies7 ata show& for effecti)e presentation. 5ou are re4uire to select one of the following topics accor ing to the last igit of 'our roll num(er. "or example& if 'our roll num(er is 0*3!28193 then 'ou will select topic num(er 3 #the last igit$: The report shoul inclu e:* i. %ntro uction to the topic ii. %mportant su(*topics iii. 6ractical stu ' of the organi-ation with respect to the topic i). :e)iew of theoretical an practical situations ). ;erits& emerits& eficiencies or strengths of the organi-ation with respect to topic un er stu ' )i. Conclusions an recommen ations )ii. Annex& if an' 5ou ma' use transparencies& charts or an' other material for effecti)e presentation. 5ou are re4uire to select topic accor ing to the last igit of 'our roll num(er. Theoreticall' anal'sis the topic an later appl' those concepts on a (usiness an commercial organi-ation. Top 0s 1. 0esign an e)elopment of sur)e' instruments 2. "iel proce ures of ata collection in research 3. , iting an Co ing of ata in research !. 1olicite an unsolicite proposals in (usiness research. 3. 0ata collection through experimentation an simulation. <. 2se o(ser)ation metho for ata collection. 8. ,lements of ata anal'sis with appropriate examples. 9. ;anager research relationship in a (usiness research pro=ect. >. 1cale construction techni4ues. 1/. 1teps of report writing in Business :esearch

BUSINESS RESEAR#$ MET$ODS


#OURSE OUTLINE (MBA:M8S0 (E0o"2%&'" UNIT ,) INTRODU#TION 1.1 :esearch a$ 0efining :esearch ($ Nee an %mportance of :esearch 1.2 :esearch in Business a$ :esearch an 0ecision ;aking ($ Classification of :esearch c$ :esearch O(=ecti)es $ :esearch in functional Areas of (usiness e$ The ;anager :esearch :elationship f$ ?h' 1tu ' :esearch. g$ 1tate of 1cientific 0e)elopment 3

1.3

1cientific Thinking * Nature of 1cience * 1cientific @ersus 2nscientific ;etho s * "oun ation of 1cientific ;etho a$ Concepts ($ 0efinitions c$ A'pothesis $ Theor' * The %nference 6rocess a$ 1ources of Belief ($ Argument Anal'sis c$ 0e uction $ %n uction e$ %n uction * 0e uction 1e4uence

UNIT &) RESEAR#$ DESI*N 2.1 The :esearch 6rocess 2.1.1 1tep of :esearch 6rocess a$ ,xploration ($ 0ata Collection c$ Anal'sis an %nterpretation 2.1.2 The Origin of a :esearch Nee 2.1.3 The Beneral 0ecision 6rocess a$ 0ecision Components ($ Nee for research assistance 2.1.! The )alue of :esearch %nformation a$ The 6ro(lems of %nformation @aluation ($ ,x*6ost "acto ,)aluation c$ 0ecision Theor' Approach 2.1.3 The 0elineation of the :esearch Task a$ 6ro(lems of Client :elations ($ :esearch +uestion 0e)elopment 2.2 :esearch 0esign 2.2.1 ?hat is :esearch 0esign. 2.2.2 Classification of 0esigns a$ 0egree of 6ro(lem Cr'stalli-ation ($ The Topical 1cope c$ The :esearch ,n)ironment $ The Time 0imension e$ The Communication ;o es f$ :esearcher Control of @aria(les g$ Nature of :elationships among @aria(les 2.2.3 ,xplorator' :esearch a$ ;etho s of ,xploration ($ ,xperience 1ur)e' c$ The ,n of ,xploration $ 0escripti)e 1tu ies 2.2.! Causal %nference a$ %n ucti)e logic ($ Cinkage :elationship !

c$ $ e$ f$

6ositional :elationships Testing Casual A'pothesis. Casual %nference an ,xperimental 0esign Casual %nference an ,x*6ost "acto 0esign

UNIT @) SAMPLIN* DESI*N 3.1 The Nature of 1ampling 3.1.1 ?h' 1ample. 3.1.2 ?hat is Boo 1ample. 3.1.3 T'pes of 1ample 0esign 3.1.! A )antages of 1ampling 3.1.3 Cimitation of 1ampling 3.2 6ro(a(ilit' 1ampling 3.2.1 1ampling 6roce ure 3.2.2 1teps in 1ampling 0esign 3.2.3 1ampling Concepts 3.2.! 1ample 1i-e 0ecision 3.2.3 1ampling of Attri(utes 3.3 Complex 6ro(a(ilit' 1ampling 3.3.1 1'stematic 1ampling 3.3.2 1tratifie 1ampling 3.3.3 Cluster 1ampling 3.3.! , use of Non*6ro(a(ilit' 1ampling 3.!.1 Con itions of 2se 3.!.2 1ampling ;etho UNIT ') MEASUREMENT AND S#ALIN* !.1 ;easurement !.1.1 The Nature of ;easurement a$ ?hat is measurement. ($ ;easurement 0efine !.1.2 ;easurement 1cales a$ Nominal 1cales ($ Or inal 1cales c$ %nter)al 1cales $ :atio 1cales !.1.3 The Characteristics of 1oun ;easurement a$ @ali it' ($ :elia(ilit' c$ 6ractica(ilit' !.1.! The 0e)elopment of ;easurement Tools !.2 1caling !.2.1 The Nature of 1caling a$ 1caling 0efine ($ 1cale Classification !.2.2 :esponse ;etho s a$ :ating 1cales ($ Attitu e 1cales !.2.3 1cale Construction Techni4ues a$ Ar(itrar' 1cales ($ Consensus 1caling 3

c$ $ e$

%tem Anal'sis Cumulati)e 1cales "actor 1cales

UNIT %) USE O9 SE#ONDARY DATA 3.1 The Nature of 1econ ar' 0ata 1ources 3.2 The 2se of 1econ ar' 0ata 3.3 T'pes of 1econ ar' 0ata 1ources 3.! 1tatistical 1ources 3.3 0ata 1earch 6roce ures 3.3.1 2se of Ci(rar' a$ Car Catalogue ($ %n ex an Bi(liographies * 6erio ical %n exes * Bi(liographies * National D Tra e Bi(liographies * 1u(=ect Bi(liographies * Ci(rar' Catalogues c$ :eference Books * 0ictionaries an ,nc'clopae ia * 0irectories * Bi(liographical 0ictionaries 3.3.2 ,)aluating 1econ ar' 0ata a$ 0ata 6ertinence ($ 0ata +ualit' UNIT A) DATA #OLLE#TION2I SURVEY INSTRUMENTS AND 9IELD PRO#EDURES <.1 1ur)e' %nstrument 0esign <.1.1 The 1ur)e' 1ituation a$ The Nee to 1ur)e' ($ Communication Aol s i$ 6ersonal ;o e ii$ %mpersonal ;o e iii$ ;ixe ;o e c$ 6rocess 1tructure i$ +uestioning 1tructure ii$ :esponse 1tructure $ O(=ecti)e 0isguise <.1.2 The %nstrument 0e)elopment 6rocess a$ +uestion Aierarch' ($ 1che ule 0esign 6rocess * %nformation Nee 0etermination * 0ata Bathering 6rocess 0ecisions * %nstrument 0rafting * %nstrument Testing * 1pecification of 6roce ures <.1.3 +uestion Construction a$ +uestion Context ($ +uestion ?or ing c$ :esponse 1tructure <

<.2

<.3

i$ Two ?a' +uestions ii$ ;ultiple Choice +uestions $ +uestion 1e4uence <.1.! :eason Anal'sis "iel 6roce ures <.2.1 6ersonal %nter)iewing a$ The @alue of 6ersonal %nter)iewing ($ :e4uirement for %nter)iew 1uccess c$ %nter)iewing Techni4ue * %ncreasing :espon ents :ecepti)eness * The %ntro uction $ 6ersonal %nter)iew 6ro(lems * Non*:esponse ,rror * :esponse ,rror e$ %nter)iewer 1election an Training <.2.2 Telephone %nter)iewing <.2.3 %nter)iewing (' ;ail a$ ,)aluation of ;ail 1ur)e's i$ A )antages an 0isa )antages ($ ;ail 1ur)e' 6roce ures c$ %mpro)ing the :eturns from a ;ail 1ur)e' O(ser)ation <.3.1 1trength <.3.2 ?eaknesses

UNIT B) DATA #OLLE#TION2II OBSERVATION, ECPERIMENTATION AND SIMMULATION 8.1 ,xperimentation an 1imulation 8.1.1 The Nature of ,xperimentation a$ @ali it' an ,xperimentation 1$ %nternal @ali it' 2$ ,xternal @ali it' 8.1.2 ,xperimental :esearch 0esign 1$ 6re*,xperimental 0esigns 2$ True ,xperimental 0esigns 3$ +uasi*,xperiments 8.1.3 1imulation a$ ?hat is 1imulation. ($ Business Application of 1imulation 8.2 O(ser)ation 8.2.1 The use of O(ser)ation a$ Non*Beha)iour O(ser)ation ($ Beha)iour O(ser)ation 8.2.2 The O(ser)er 1u(=ect :elationship a$ 0irectness of O(ser)ation ($ O(ser)er Concealment 8.2.3 O(ser)ation 0esign a$ The Content of O(ser)ation ($ :ewar ing O(ser)ation c$ %ncreasing the relia(ilit' of o(ser)ation 8

$ The relation of o(ser)e an o(ser)e UNIT 3) DATA ANALYSIS 9.1 ,lements of Anal'sis 9.1.1 0ata 6reparation a$ , iting ($ Co ing 9.1.2 1pecial ata pro(lem a$ 0onEt know responses ($ The use of percentages 9.1.3 Ta(ulation a$ Aan ta(ulation ($ Computer ta(ulation 9.1.! 0ata presentation 0ata re uction 9.1.3 0ata Anal'sis a$ 0escripti)e anal'sis ($ Casual anal'sis c$ Computeri-e anal'sis $ Cross ta(ulation e$ As'mmetrical relationships UNIT D) REPORT 7RITIN* >.1 The :esearch 6roposal >.2 The :esearch :eport >.2.1 :eports T'pes >.2.2 1hort :eports >.2.3 Cong :eports >.2.! Technical :eports >.2.3 6opular :eports >.2.< Other :eports :esearch :eport "ormat >.3.1 Cogical >.3.2 6s'chological >.3.3 Chronological >.3.! :eport "ormat 0etails >.3.3 6opular :eport "ormat >.3.< Other "ormat >.! ?riting the :eport

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6re*writing Consi eration >.!.2 Briefing

RE#OMMENDED BOO(S) 1. Business :esearch ;etho s #re)ise e ition$ (' ,mor'. 2. :esearch ;etho olog' for Business D 1ocial 6ro(lems (' 0r. ;atin A. Fhan. 3. ;etho s in 1ocial :esearch (' Boo e D Aatt. 9