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_

.

THE EFFECT

OF TRANSFORMER PHASING (1N WELD BEAD FORMATION

IN MULTI-ELECTRODE SUBMERGED-ARC WELDING

- Three-Electrode Submerged-Arc Welding of Line Pipe -

<

by Kazuo Agusa1t, Kozo Akahide1&dquo; and Junichiro Tsuboi**

ABSTRACT

This investigation deals with the relationships between

undercutting phenomena and transformer phasing from the stand

point of arc deflection during a-c

powered three-wire submerged-

arc welding ..

Twenty-two different phasing sequences are used so

as to furnish various deflections to the three arcs.

To evaluate

1,,

the arc deflections quantitatively, theoretical analyses are

,

carried out for the electromagnetic forces acting on each arc,

then the results are related to

the undercutting phenomena.

important.

The

trail arc jj
----

deflection of the

--------

__

___

fonn_d

--

--

__

partjcularly

.--

To produce high. quality welds free from undercutting, -

it

is necessary to choose, the phasing sequences which provide the

trail arc with the forward deflection predominantly: (1) the lead i

and the trail currents are

in phase, and the phase difference

,

between the middle and the other currents is

from 60 to 180 degs;

(2) the phase difference between

the lead and the middle currents

,

is 90 degs, and that between the trail and the lead currents is

60 degs;

currents

currents

(3) the phase difference between the middle and the trail

is 60 degs, and that between the lead and the middle

is also 60 degs; etc.

Although the deflection of the trail arc is mainly

determined by its electromagnetic interaction with the middle arc,.

the ground current also has not a little effect upon the deflection

of the trail arc.

Since too much deflection of any arc may inter-

rupt stable welding operations, the use of the in-phase sequences

should be avoided for the nearest two arcs.

-----.-

*

Senior Researcher of Welding Lab.

** Dr. Eng., Senior Researcher and Chief of Welding Lab. Research Laboratories, KAWASAKI STEEL CORPORATION

1, Kawasaki-cho, Chiba, Japan 260

(1)

1

./

·

,

,

, .. ft ’ , ’ . = ; , I ) :. i.’ j .
,
..
ft
,
.
=
;
,
I
)
:.
i.’
j
.
, i
’’&dquo;
.
v
I
1
.
,
.
,
Il
;
,
-
·
..
.
y1
v
..
p ..
...
risl,
...
; ,
....
’-.0 .: t :
.’
j
I.
INTRODUCTION
T .-/;’’ - _
.
..
Arc deflection has been known as one of the most impor-
&dquo;&dquo;
vI
....
-
..
,-
, L .v. 1
-
..
W
..
,.,-
..
.
_
;
-
,
tant factors which determine the final quality of welds 1).
With a
I
i
single-wire arc welding system, a forward deflecting arc allows
,
_
,
increased welding speeds before
undercutting occurs. The two-wire
)
three-phase power system connected in V-circuitry provides the
:
I:
trail arc with a longer duration of the forward deflection
by
-
producing a 60-degree phase shift between the lead and the’trail
<
!
currents, and results in travel speed increases much greater than
I
.
those achievable with a single wire.
These facts indicate that ‘
,
the interruption of the molten metal flow toward the rear of a
,
i
.
pool would be effective for preventing undercutting.
Three-wire submerged-arc welding systems are currently
being utilized at our pipe mill to
produce high quality UOE
pipes
,
at speeds beyond the capabilities of two-wire systems.
The
arc
.
&dquo;
deflections, or the metal flow phenomena in three-wire systems,
!
however, could be much more complicated because’of the
interac-
.
j
:
’’
’ ’
tion among three arcs.
&dquo;
&dquo; ..
i
,
,
’The purpose of this investigation is to’reveal the
i
,
;
relationships between the arc deflections and the trends of under-
-
cut formation
using three-wire submerged-arc welding systems. To
.
predict the arc deflections with all a-c transformers, electro-
magnetic forces were calculated for each of the currents phased
differently. Then the results
were compared with the propensities
I
>
to undercut formation for each of the phasing sequences.
,
I I . EXPERIFENTAL PROCEDURES
..
:
All welds used in this investigation were made with a
,
.
, I
.
J
three-wire submerged-arc welding system. The welder is furnished
with a 4-meter long boom carrying electrodes, cables
and wire-
,
.
feeders to
produce longitudinal welds on the inner and the outer
,
_
I
&dquo;
surface of UOE pipes.
The welding head of the system is shown
.
i
°
in Fig. 1.
,’
&dquo; ,
i
,
(2)

,

, .. 1 . , I .. _ i r , . 11 j . r
,
..
1
.
,
I
..
_
i
r
,
.
11
j
.
r
,
.
.
,
r
,
,
. y&dquo;:’y·.r ,
&dquo;
,
’I
l
i
;
The
use of
a-c, ,.j ,1 , ’.
-.,b·,&dquo;., .
&dquo;
..
:
.
: I
a‘.~
.
power for all of the three
I
y
.
&dquo;
,
.r
,
>(
.
-l
r :;,
electrodes
electrodes
was
was
a
a prerequi-
prerequi-
z
’j
r‘’
-S
a’1C ’ ’.&dquo; .> .2·Y I
__
i
I
site.
The lead electrode
’I’
Ja -
<
4
§
with a 2000A &dquo;.
1
·
,-, ·;, - f .,,
was
energized
[
s
r
drooping characteristic ,
=’ -
.
..
.:
1
’’x’ ‘
:
power supply, ,and both of :
;
x
,j
i
,.
,
_
j
r
z_
the middle and the trail
ay1
.
d
,
:z .
,,&dquo;&dquo;,
_
‘‘
;
were with 1500A power-
,
_
_
1 -
_
Fig.
Fig. 1
Three-Wire Submerged-Arc
Submerged-Arc
;
supplies.
supplies. There
There
are
are
many
many
1
--’Welder Used for
the
Experiments.
î-
t
possible ways to connect
.
....
’ ,
j
,
I
these power supplies to the primary three-phase power lines, and
J
’B
i
;
!
also to the
secondary welding circuitries. In
this e):periment,
1
j
,
,’
-
twenty-two particular combinations were chosen to provide the
welding currents with the phasing sequences shown
in Table 1.
/
j i
I,
I
:
..
,
Table 1 Phasing Sequences Used for the Experiments.’
,
j i
,
,
.
L -
M
M -
T
L - ’T! =
-M =
L
L -
M
M isc.
J
,
.
90
0
- 90’’ ..
-
o
f’ ’ , T&dquo; ’
in
in phase in phase
phase
in
phase
in
;
in phcise
phase
,
:
.
_
.
’.,
.
-
...
;&dquo;
B6060-
1
v
-
,
,
III
IS
ILL
19
,
1
L
M <
,
;
U M
T
M
T
110’
]
&dquo;
say
j( 5
i ..
£
T
%g 20
2
55
w 8
8
60
12
jz
T
r’
L
2
j6
16
20
’w°
7L
I,
.
4
zo
,
,
3 3
Tl
,-=:.
L-:=:::’:’
21
6
9
,,---=-T
13
B’lO-L
17
1. -
I
..
M
t
<
Mt&dquo;
--. -
j
_
T ,:0 7 ,ao
T
T 18
--
so
,/
L /
M £l 14
L
jL
22
22
l
L
4 4
7
10
10
14
18
M 160;T
T
L
......
;
60
I
T
,
,
.
The electrode alignment
Travel
I
,
used is shown’in Fig. 2.
Welding
,
_
L
.
!.
m
,
5
conditions for each electrode were
35°
T
- ’
,
identical
throughout the
.
,
experiments
,
;
of-’
IT
regardless the phasing methods
_’ j
,
I
&dquo; the pB
er
supplies:
1400A, 35V lea .
’,
arc; 1150A, 45V middle
:
arc; 700A,
-<
I&dquo;
,
45V tra-if arc.
1Jelding speed iJas _ ,
:
/ /// //
/I
11/
held at 300cm/min, and
ground
01f!J.1f!J.0.1f!J
////
%
j
j
1 20
2 5
.
connection was made ’ at the starting
°°
.’
’ .
Fig. 2 Electrode
Alignment
ena of a pipe, unless otherwise
/
Used for the Experiments.
,,noticed.
i
1

(3)

! , . , ’ ’ ’ Welds were deposited upon the internal surface of 20mm
!
,
.
,
Welds were deposited upon the internal surface of 20mm
.
I
I
°°
w.t. x 3m long pipes using KW-36 wires (O.I%C-2.0%Mn;4.8mm dia.)
and a fused-type flux (CaO-CaF2-SlO2 system). ’ - ’
-
-
-
’ &dquo;
; (
1
I
,
III.
CALCULATION OF ELECTROMAGNE1’1C FORCES
-
.
<
!
I
i
Quantitative determination of the arc deflections is
rather
difficult because of the high speed alternation of a-c
/
currents and the interaction between them. Therefore, theoretical
,
,
calculations
of electromagnetic forces were carried out for each of
j
to estimate their deflections. -
the three arcs
/
When
two current-carring conductors of semi-infinite
!
,
length are aligned in
parallel, the electromagnetic force acting
/
on the unit length of the conductors is given by the equation: &dquo;
.
,
, ’/’
. ·
.........
..
(1)
F u° ialh ,
,
/
-
where ia and ib are the currents through the conductors, 1 is the
li
.
spacing between. the conductors and p
is the magnetic permeability .
’j
of the atmosphere.
.
;’
.
,
,
.
.
_
,,For the three- wire system,
the most important force
,
.
acting on an arc-is caused by the interaction between the arc in <
question and’the nearest arc (or arcs).
On the assumption that
,
the three electrodes shown in Fig. 2 are aligned in parallel, the
of the electromagnetic force acting on each electrode ,
equations
/
_
,,
can be derived as follows:
i
.
,
fl=
0 iim
..............
(2)
&dquo;-
/
-
.
llm
,
=.[llm.-m]
-
f
jb-%1 ]
-
-
.(3)
-
..
;, -
M’ 4Ti
.............
:
-
_
f t= . u° imit
-
_
,
..
.
4
..
-
.
,
,
,
Imt
where ii i- and it are the currents through lead,
middle, and
.
trail
electrodes, respectively; llm and lmt are the electrode
,
i
spacings between lead and middle, and middle and trail electrode,
!
’respectively; the forces heading for the travel direction are
defined as positive. I
(4)
;
:
.

.

a I , j , ’ / . 1 . , . , v , ,
a
I
,
j
,
/
.
1
.
, .
,
v
, ,
. ,
,
,
,
, .
,
,.
,
t
,
,
,
,
,
Undercutting rate was’determined
.
by the’following equation: [ ’
.
Y
’-.-.-
-’
·A.
,
- ..
,’o’
5-^,’
.
_
1
I
I’
I’.’
U= -2 -X-C, x 100
(%).
................
(5)
;
;
I f
where 1 is the length of the bead subjected to the undercut inspec-
tion and lc is the length of an undercut, both in millimeters.
:
When
the lead and the middle arcs are
in phase (Fig. 3a),
.
the resulting welds are accompanied with severe undercutting, and
,
.
i
·
&dquo;i
stable arcs are sometimes difficult to be maintained.
Similar
I
,
unstable arcs and,erratic welds are also resulted as shown in
i
Fig. 3b by using the trail arc in phase with the middle one.
,
Figure 4, the’voltage wave
forms
with the No. 3 phasing sequence,
,
i
suggests that the arc instability, or the arc interruption of
&dquo;
,
I,
i
!
either the lead or
the middle arc could be attributed to the excess
attraction between
the
nearest two arcs.
As shown in ’Fig.
3c, under- I
i
cutting rates are greatly decreased by avoiding the use of
the in-
!
phase sequence for the nearest two arcs.
j
,
,
, As a general propensity . in Fig. 3, improper phasing
-
results in narrow and’peaked welds accompanied with undercutting. j
. -
,
p
...
;
&:
Appearances and cross-sections of welds obtained with three differ-
I
.
,
ent phasing sequences are shown in Fig. 5.
,
I
f
I
:.
..
.
Lead
,
i
A
v
.
f
BspA
SP
50 ’
.
.
0
RP -
.
1
>
[
50 B,/
J
¡
o0 -
.’
..
/
.
.- ’
RP R
P
- -
.
..
..
.
V
50- . Middte
#
?=
_,’
.
:
.,,_
___
,’
,
_
J I
-
50 -
&dquo; j
&dquo;
t_
_
,
,
.
_
I
-
50
-
0
,
,
J
--
:
.
/
,
,
...
.
._
_
__.
__
,
j
/
_
’ _
_
--v.·
’TFoM
_
.
_
.
-
.
-
.
I
.
&dquo;
50-
)
.B
<
.o
50 -
- /VJ
C
l 1
T
,
.
..
. <
,>
..
,
Fig. 4
Voltage Wave
Forms for Phasing ivo. 3 Showing Arc-
I
o
Interruptions Caused by Excessive Electromagnetic Forces.
.
!

,

(6)

’ l

,

&dquo; . I - ’ , ’Htminh)nt)nmt)tt)n . No. 12 T : . ,’ _ ____________.__.
&dquo;
.
I
-
,
’Htminh)nt)nmt)tt)n . No. 12
T
:
.
,’
_
____________.__.
!’L&horbar;
____
;
-
..
j
,
’’’-&dquo;S’
MM ’
!
l
.
;
..
_
_
No.18
_
’ ’,
,
,
,
,
,
.
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-
-
T
.
’K; ’’*’S’’ ’.’-’&horbar;t&horbar;’*’*!&horbar;’’*’
<
-
.-<’;
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;
’J ’.
!
T
.
.
,
#
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No. 20
SS?
tU’.’U on*)&horbar;&horbar;3-)
t
)2d’ I2CI
126*
L, ’
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12 ,
- 6 r
: 1
,i, B.4
1
-
.
,
.
-,
&horbar; . ,
j ;
,- ...
.
r
,
,
-
Fig. 5
Appearances and Cross-Sections of Welds
..
Obtained with Three Different Phasing Sequences.
I
IV-2
Arc Deflections
.
.
/.
When undercutting phenomena being discussed from an arc
defl6ction stand point, the behavior of the
trail arc is of
most
,
Concern, since this arc is’generally believed to determine the final
.
weld shape. ’The deflection of the trail arc can be regarded as the
results of its electromagnetic interactions with the nearest two
currents;
the middle arc current and the ground current.
Therefore,
,
to determine the trail arc deflection, the two forces created-by the
two electromagnetic interactions should be taken into account.
!
!
The effects of the nearest two currents upon the deflection
ojf the trail arc are shown in Fig. 6 in terms of undercutting rates.

Phase differences between the trail and

the ground currents, 0tg, and

(7)

-

.

.

, ’ , ’ 1 ’ < , {, ’!’
,
,
1
<
,
{,
’!’

,

_

,

  • - ;-’

.

middle

>

.

-- .’

those

those

between the

be tween

the

middle I ,1

,.

-

,

,

1

$o

)

No’? &dquo; ! )Nn9

T

(1«) I

32 ,%

Ne)8

Nctl8

o

&horbar;&horbar;

°’,B

18 Iv , G

m

I

,

&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;n&dquo;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar; ’o

o

&horbar;&horbar;

(IV)

<v>

0 tiMI2

  • (l) ’_i_ N&13 13 &horbar;&horbar;

..

’- .

c C

a)

a

.! QI

00

v

cu

u

u

- &dquo;

s0 Na

ISO

’5°

so &<)

^ 20 ,,zo _ ’G

51

-‘,-’

90

go

( <1,>

11

)

<&horbar;’-1

4

Naa 20

6060

60

- -

r,2i ,,ig M j G ,,e ,.22

’t-&horbar; )

  • -- ° o A.-’-- 2 0

3o

T

r-L.

fl c y6 ja§’

o

__

i

<

i

60

90

120

Nais

f

jN<t!5

22r

150

Between

Between

It ;

and the trail currents,

I

,

,

Omt, are represented with the

abscissa and with the

abscissa and with

the ordinate,

ordinatc,

ordinate,

-

.

respectively. With the phase

differences within the range

from 0 to 90 degrees,’

from 0 to 90

degrees,,the

the

attractive force is dominantly CD

exerted between each of the &dquo;

.

,~, a’-3’

Q

two sets of currents,

..

while

tn

with those within the range

.h

h

.h’

h

from 90 to 180

from

from

90 90

to 180

to

180 degrees,

degrees, tte

degrees,

the

the

repulsive force is dominantly

exerted.

Therefore, the for-

ward deflection of the trail

arc

arc

is to be

is to be

developed with

developed

with

the greater values of Otg and

the smaller values

the smaller

values of 0 tg

of

:

,

0-0 VI 30- --

r- CL c

0

0

° °

0

j

30

Phase

and

and

Fig.

.&horbar;&horbar;.

Na’

?-S3I

180 ’

.

Difference

Difference

i, =t- f 8tsl,

(deg )

Arc

  • 6 Effect-o

Trail

Deflec-

tion Upon Undercutting-Rate. Phasing

Numbers and

Undercutting Rates are in

the Top and in the Bottom of the

  • ,’- Squares, Respectively.

.

B

-

For the phasing Xos. -

,

  • - B

&dquo;

2 to 7 where the nearest two arcs are in phase,

are determined not by the deflection of the

instability, or the arc interruption, hence

..

in Fig. 6.·

  • - In the

subjected to

,

- . - ,. , and , J I -’ - < 4
-
.
-
,.
,
and
,
J
I -’
-
<
4

region

undercutting phenomena

trail arc, but by the arc

those data were not plotted

(I), where the trail arc is predominantly

the backward deflection by its interactions with both

rhe middle and the ground currents, undercutting occurs severely.

..

As for the region (II), only one phasing sequence was _

,

with the current ratio
1-

of

Since the

available throughout

I,/ im/

.,

the experiments

....

It= 1.0/ 0.8/ ,0.5

...

J ....

did not yield any defects ..

value of 0 for this phasing

&

sequence is almost 90 degrees, the

forward and the backward deflecting effects by the ground current

,

-

,

.

,

are almost comparable. Therefore,the resulting backward deflec-

<

tion of

,

,

the trail arc could be smaller than the forward deflection.

In the region (III), where the deflection of the trail arc

two predominant forces having opposite direc-

,

.

Yamauchi,

  • i is influenced by the

,

,

ti6ns to each other, no undercutting could be observed.

et al?) reported that the deflection of the trail arc with a three-

(8)

,.

. j i i , ’ i ’ ’ , , . ;. , . ,
.
j
i i
,
i ’
,
,
.
;.
,
.
,
,.
,
,
.,
,
j
,’:’,
.
f.’ ,
§
.
t
..
.
, ...
&dquo;
.
;
)
,
.
¡
I If
..
f ....
:
,
- _
,
’/
I
wire system is determined by the electromagnetic interaction
only
¡.
..
J
&dquo;
-
I
between the middle and the trail currents, and that the ground
current does not play an important role in determining the trail
arc deflection.
If this was true, undercutting should occur with
<
the phasing sequences in the region (III), because the trail arc
,
/
is deflected predominantly backward by the interaction
with the
&dquo;
middle arc.
Kitani, et al3), and Uttrachi,-et alf reported
,
that the phasing sequences which belong to
the,region (III) provided;
the best welding performances. Therefore,
the phenomena in the
;
.
region (III) suggest that the ground current may exert a favorable
.
influence upon the weld formation by cancelling out the backward
deflection of the trail arc caused by its interaction with the
middle arc.
In the region (IV), the trail arc is subjected to the
forward deflection by its interactions with both the middle and
the ground currents, therefore, satisfactory welds could be reason-
/
,
ably expected in the region.
But as seen in the figure, some of the i
.
:
phasing sequences result in undercutting welds.
for this I
The reason
will be discussed later,
°
)!
,
,
I
As mentioned above, the deflection of the trail arc
might be determined by its electromagnetic interactions not only
with the middle arc, but also with the ground current.
Therefore,
,
by taking the effect of the ground current into consideration, the
)
electromagnetic forces acting on each electrode were calculated for
each of the phasing sequences shown in Table 1 to evaluate the
,
,
effect of arc deflection upon the undercutting phenomena.
_
.
,
t
I
The forces acting on the lead and the middle
arcs were
calculated from Eqs. (2) and (3), respectively, on the assumption of I
no effect of the ground current exerted upon them.
The calculation
of
the forces acting on the trail arc was performed with Eq. (6) on
,
1
....
the assumption that the ground current, ig=il+im+it, interacts with ;/
B
,
the trail current apart a distance, ltg, of 20mm.
.
ft Fmt+Ftg 4[ + 1-T-.]
iiig]
(6) ,
mt tg
7T
mt
tg’
(9)
.
, i . 1 ,&dquo; When I is negative, , backward deflection predominates&dquo;’ .. ’ ’
,
i
.
1
,&dquo;
When I is negative,
,
backward deflection predominates&dquo;’
..
1
B ..
c
over forward deflection, so
;
,
,
___
B*&horbar;cn’-=&horbar;
undercutting
in this
,
undercutting
undercutting occurs in
occurs
occurs in
this
this
-
_._
B
60 D
&#xb7; - 60 ‘ - ,
,
’,,
,-.
,,-,
.
* 0
Q§g wO
o_
t,
.
range as seen in Fig. 8.
’When
-
4
ay,
,;
&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;
} ’
-
.
,
:
_
.
...
I is positive and smaller
than
4020
j
-
&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;
020
&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;’
,
about five, forward deflection
.--
0
0
-0
; ,
(t*wP _____
becomes comparable to or predomi-
t
t
I
I
>
.
-4
-2
2
8
nant over backward deflection, so
0
4
6
&dquo;
. 1=Cf(ft ·t)a (ft .t)bl
.
no
no undercutting
undercutting occurs in this
occurs
in
this
-
I
-
.
<
.
,
range.
When I is greater than
Fig. 8
Effect of Deflecting
i
Impulse of Trail Arc upon
about five,
about five,
°
the
the excessive
excessive forward
forward
°llfl
- nU d
Undercutting Rate.
ercut
t1ng . R
ate.
.
&dquo;
,
deflection of the trail arc
-
-- ,
,
deteriorates the welds,
and all the data which fall in this range
,
of I correspond to the phasing Nos. 1, 8, 11, and 15 of Fig. 7. i
/
Therefore, not only the trail arc deflection but also its stability
is an important factor to determine the final weld shapes.
,
.
IV-4
Effect of Ground Location
,
J’
-
1,
...
=_
.
;.
,
,
,
_
_
B
To confirm the effect- of the ground current upon weld
<
!
/
quality, further experiments were carried out by changing the S
.
ground location
...
,
’-
’’
Figure 9 represents the relationships
between the ground ;]
,
location and the undercutting rate for the
I,
phasing Nos. 9 and 17
which fall in the regions (III) and (I) of Fig. 6, respectively.
As for the phasing
No.
17,
the
ground
connection made at the start-
1
ing end provided
the trail arc with the backward deflection predomi-
nantly and affected the weld bead formation’adversely, as previously &dquo;
shown in Fig. 7e.’ The ground connection made at the finishing end,
.1
j
i
I
however,
improves the weld quality as shown’in
Fig. 9. As for the
phasing No. 9, with the
ground connection made at the starting end,.
*
the trail arc deflected only slightly and aided in maintaining stablei
.
welding operations, as
previously shown in Fig. 7c.
The ground
j
connection
made ’at the
finishing end, however, deteriorates the
&dquo;
quality of welds as shown in Fig.
9. These experiments suggests
that the ground current has not a
little effect upon the weld bead
I
formation.
(13)
:
,

t

/ 1 i / , , i . . > , ’ &dquo; I 100 -
/
1
i
/
,
,
i
.
.
>
,
&dquo; I
100 - Ground Locat i on &horbar;,-
,:
.
L
!
’. J
-*’
,
<
,
,,
·
.
,
I
..
-.-Start end.
)( l’
/
, /
>’
,
.
.
-
*
,&dquo;’
&dquo;
I ,
’,’ ’
&dquo;,.u .
0
&dquo;
>
/
,
j
§
-.
Finish end
,
-°&dquo;
,
.
Fi
n
i sh S
end
y&horbar;&horbar;&horbar;
_
.
&horbar;so
.
_ /
/ &#xb7;’ 1’i
, . n . / .‘,.f‘ .-
...
,
,
....
..
60
1
-
_
.
,
.
- ’
n
!
[
.i :;
,
. cz
No.1 7
.
/
i
-
j
-_
’40
&dquo;
>
_
_
_
/
2 i
i!
No.9
&dquo;
<
.<
.,
li 20 / °
4
j
.r&dquo;&dquo;&dquo; ’ ’ ’ -
&dquo;
·
1r
..
.
-
<
,
0-
i
4
,
_
..
_
;j
220’
300 - i
380
.
&dquo;
-TrQvel ( cm/min )
,
Fig. 9 Relationships between Ground Location and
,
Undercutting Rate for Phasing Nos. 9 and 17.
.-
V.
CONCLUSIONS
,
The following conclusions are drawn from the studies
l
-
on phasing sequences and undercutting phenomena in three-wire
;,
submerged-arc welding: .
....
,
._
,
,
_
(1) To make high quality welds free from undercutting, it is
.
necessary to choose the phasing sequences which provide the trail
!
.
arc with the forward deflection predominantly: (i) the lead and
,
_
the trail currents are in phase, and the phase difference between
,
the middle and the other currents is from 60 to 180 degs; (ii) the
!
phase difference between the lead and the middle currents
is 90
_
degs, and that between the trail and the lead currents is 60 degs;
_
_
(iii)
the,phase difference
between the middle
and the trail currents :i
,
is 60 degs, and that between the lead and the middle currents is
,,
&#xb7;F
,
;
&dquo;<
>
also 60 degs; etc.
.
,
,
,
(2) Although
the deflection of the trail arc is mainly determined
i
,
’j
by its
electromagnetic interaction with the middle arc, the ground
current also has not a little effect upon the deflection of the
trail arc. ,
,
(3) Since too much deflection of any arc may interrupt stable
i
welding operations, the use
of the in-phase sequences should be
.
/’
avoided for the nearest two arcs.
(14)
;
!

I

,!

.,

,

I

¡

-

:

t

REFERENCES

RE1;’ERENCES

r

r

1)

2)

Ando, K., and

Hasegawa, M., lJelding Arc Phenomena, Sanpo (1962)

Yamauchi, N., JIW Commission of Welding Arc Physics,

Doc. 70-100 (1970)

3)

Kitani, S., Toyooka, T., and Utaki, S., JIW commission of

~

Welding

Process,

Doc. SW-139-68 (1968)

4);ttrachi,

G.D., and Messina, J.E., Welding Journal, Vol.47,

No.6, pp. 475-481 (1968)

,/

:,5

,I

f

1

.

·

I

.

,

I

1 &dquo;

*A-

(

- ’If’ ,

p

I

I

!

F

.

i

t ¡

!

..

,

/

/

I

/

!

/

.

.

/

(15)

I

.

* B

-

I

:

II

f

4’

, . &dquo; c . ’ , ,
,
.
&dquo;
c
.
’ ,
,

°

J, > , a . / IIW IIW Doc. Doc. XII-A-/6,’-79 XII-A-/t-79 ’ , ’: ,
J,
>
,
a
.
/
IIW
IIW
Doc.
Doc. XII-A-/6,’-79
XII-A-/t-79
,
’:
,
_
I
.
-5
.
.
,
j
.
THE EFFECT OF TRANSFORMER PHASING ON WELD BEAD FORMATION
I
IN MULTI-ELECTRODE SUBMERGED-ARC WELDING
,
1
-I/
-
- Three-Electrode Submerged-Arc Welding of Line-Pipe -
!
j
I
.
I
>
t
_
-
)
by
by
.
i
Kazuo Agusa .
Kozo Akahide
Junichiro Tsuboi
/
-/1
)
1
i
i
/
January 1979
.
Research Laboratories
KAWASAKI STEEL CORPORATION
1
I, Kawasaki-cho, Chiba, Japan 260