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Effective Classroom Processes

at Elementary Stage
and
Quality Education Under SSA



Distance Education Programme Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
(DEP-SSA)
(An IGNOU MHRD, Government of India Project)
Maidan Garhi, e! De"hi ##$ $%&
IGNOU
Distance Education Programme (DEP-SSA) is a national component created by the
MHRD, o!t" o# $ndia #or distance education acti!ities under SSA, DEP caters to the
training needs o# elementary school teachers and other SSA #unctionaries"
Sar!a Shi%sha Abhiyan (SSA) is a nation &ide campaign to pro!ide eight years o#
elementary education to all children in the age group o# '-() years" *he ob+ecti!e o#
SSA mainly #ocus on increasing access, enrolment and retention o# all children and as
&ell as impro!ing the ,uality o# education" $nspite o# many e##orts o# go!ernment,
both at -entral and State le!el (mid-day meal, #ree boo%s, uni#orm and bicycles, etc")
more the ./ per cent children lea!e school be#ore completing elementary stage"
0eside many, one o# the ma+or in#luencing #actor is that children do not #ind school
interesting and enriching"
*hus, ,uality education is a crucial issue in elementary education &hich re!ol!e
around the a!ailability and ,uality o# in#rastructure, support ser!ices and instructional
time in the school teacher characteristics and teacher moti!ation, pre-ser!ice and in-
ser!ice education o# teachers curriculum and teaching 1 learning materials, classroom
processes, pupil e!aluation, monitoring and super!ision, etc" Moreo!er, the ,uality o#
teaching-learning process depends upon pro#essional competence o# a teacher" *he
#ast changing %no&ledge in all spheres o# li#e re,uires continuous updating o#
%no&ledge among teachers" 2o& the attainment o# %no&ledge does not restrict only
up to #our &alls o# classrooms" Students, due to e3pansion o# mass electronic media,
e!en in rural and remote areas4 come across a !ariety o# %no&ledge and are not
interested in te3t boo%s based %no&ledge only" *here#ore, elementary teachers ha!e
to enrich their %no&ledge continuously so that students can be pro!ided ,uality
education rele!ant to local as &ell as global needs and thus be retained in schools"
-lassroom processes includes maintenance o# discipline, organi5ing learning,
character building, con#lict resolution, counseling etc" $mpro!ing classroom practices
and school management, no doubt #orm the core o# the success o# educational
programmes" *he programme en!isages create local speci#ic #acilitating conditions to
teacher competences through #re,uent in-ser!ice training programmes and impro!ing
school management through training in planning and management o# educational
#unctionaries"
6eeping in !ie&, DEP-SSA organi5ed a t&o-day Regional Seminar on E##ecti!e
-lassroom Processes at Elementary Stage and 7uality Education under SSA during
March 8/-8(, 8//' at S-ER*, Pune, Maharashtra" *he underlying ob+ecti!es o# this
seminar &ere to share the e3periences o# states regarding e##orts9inno!ations in
impro!ing classroom processes at elementary stage, ma+or issues related to e##ecti!e
classroom processes and strategies to impro!e the teaching-learning processes" *he
ma+or themes o# the seminar included:
8
PREFAC
E
School as a system: $n#rastructural ;acilities and Support System
$nno!ati!e *eaching Practices
-urriculum *ransaction and *eaching-<earning Material
*eacher -haracteristics and Moti!ation
-ommunity Resources and Support System
-onte3tual $ssues: Speci#ic e##orts in education o# girls and S-9S*, minority
children and children &ith special needs"
*he present document consists o# (8 papers selected on the basis o# their academic
merit, content, presentation style and rele!ance o# the sub+ect"
$ &ould li%e to e3press my gratitude to Pro#" <" -" Singh and Pro#" 0"S"Dagar #or
selection o# good papers and content editing" $ e3press my gratitude to Pro#" Anand
Pra%ash #or language editing"
$ am than%#ul to Dr" (Mrs") 6iran Mathur, Programme =##icer, DEP-SSA and Dr"
Shobha Sa3ena -onsultant, &ho too% up the onerous responsibility to organi5ing this
seminar as a Programme -oordinator on behal# o# DEP-SSA" $ am also than%#ul to all
the participants &ithout &hose cooperation this publication &ould not ha!e been the
light o# the day"
$ hope this publication &ill be use#ul to all teachers and teacher educator to impro!e
the classroom processes and ,uality education at elementary stage"
>uly, 8//? Prof. M.L. Koul
2e& Delhi Pro+ect Director
DEP-SSA, $2=@
2e& Delhi 1 ((/ /'A
B
S. No. Title of the Paper Page
Nos.
Preface
. -ommunicati!e -lassroom through Reciprocal <earning Strategy
Dr. Vani Subramanyam.
8" ;rom *otal Physical Response to&ards the silent phase in
language ac,uisition
Dr. (Ms.) Sisirkarna Bhattacharya.
B" E##ecti!e $mplementation o# $nno!ati!e Strategies *o&ards
-omprehensi!e Achie!ement o# SSA
Ms. Preeti Lucas
)" Pro#essional De!elopment #or E##ecti!e $nclusi!e -lassroom"
Dr. Manoj Kumar Dash
." A Study on Calues, 7uality and 0eha!iour through =rientation
Practice o# Paripath in Std" C o# the Doganand Primary School,
0asmat and their e##ect
Smt S.M. Ingoe
'" A -ritical Study o# the <e!el o# Educational Standard o# Police
0oys o# >alna District and -onse,uent Remedies
Dr. P.!. Mante
?" E##icacy o# no cost *eaching aids #or de!elopment o#
-ommunication S%ills at @pper Primary <e!el"
Dr. L. ". Pan#ey an# Smt. $nita $%a#hoot
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CONTENTS
COMMUNICATI!E CLASSROOM T"ROUG" RECIPROCAL
LEARNING STRATEG#
Dr. Va! S"#ramayam$
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%&S'(%)'
&oo'erati(e earning strategies are base# on the 'sychoogy o) coo'eration an#
com'etition among the stu#ents in the cass. !eci'roca teaching metho# has 'ro(e#
to be use)u %ith %i#ey #i(erse 'o'uation o) stu#ents. *he reci'roca 'roce#ure
%as #esigne# to im'ro(e he com'rehension abiity o) the stu#ents %ho has 'oor
com'rehension. *he metho# is attracti(e )or its sim'icity o) )orm an# success in
reai+ing its goas. It,s 'otentia )or mutie(e an# cross #isci'ine a''ication
makes this metho# a (auabe too in a cassroom.
$n e-'erimenta stu#y %as con#ucte# on ./0 stu#ents o) VII gra#e incu#ing boys,
an# girs,. *he resut o) the stu#y 'ro(e# that e))ecti(eness o) reci'roca teaching
metho# in the terms o) high achie(ement by e-'erimenta grou' as com'are# to the
contro metho# grou' stu#ents. Se(era stu#ies con#ucte# on #i))erent grou's
re(eae# that the metho# #i# not 'ro(e goo#. It may be because o) the com'etitions
)or gra#es at higher e#ucation e(e.
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INTRO$UCTION
*he modern concept o# education tries to in!ol!e the students at the ma3imum e3tent"
*he role o# teachers is limited to including interest in their respecti!e sub+ects and let
the children do rest o# the &or%"
0esides the de!elopment o# reading, listening and obser!ational s%ills, the scope o#
learning is much more comprehensi!e" $t includes de!elopment o# s%ills o#
in#ormation retrie!al and processing, problem sol!ing, consulting and creating"
*he idea behind student participation is to pro!ide children #irst hand stimulating
e3periences" *he concept o# cooperati!e learning re#ers to instructional methods and
techni,ues in &hich students &or% in small groups" Many studies in &estern
countries re!eal that by using cooperati!e learning as instruction strategy teachers
could o!ercome many ma+or di##iculties" -ooperati!e learning strategy is based on
the psychology o# cooperation and competition among the students in the class" $n
cooperati!e learning, students are to &or% together #or a common goal, moti!ating
and encouraging each other in the tas% o# learning"
.
Cooperati%e lear&i&g strategies pro'ote
*eam &or%
Achie!ements =pportunities"
Relationship bet&een indi!iduals
Social s%ills"
Sel# esteem
Essential components o# co-operati!e learning
Positi!e interdependence
Positi!e interaction
$ndi!idual group accountability
$nterpersonal group s%ills
roup processing
Di##erence bet&een cooperati!e and competiti!e learning strategies"
)oo*era+!,e )om*e+!+!,e
High $nteraction <o& $nteraction
Mutual <i%ing Mutual disli%e
E##ecti!e -ommunication Misleading -ommunication
High trust <o& trust
High acceptance <o& acceptance
Emotional in!ol!ement 2o Emotional in!ol!ement
High coordination o# e##orts <o& coordination o# e##orts
Di!ision o# labor -entrali5ed &or%
$t is high time that as teachers &e reali5e that children learn in di##erent &ays and that
all are not amenable to a uni#orm approach" *he rele!ancy o# inno!ati!e instructional
strategies is #elt by the educators to o!ercome the indi!idual learning di##erences"
Re!ie& o# research literature re!ealed that cooperati!e learning strategies promote
sel# esteem, inter-ethnic relationship, collaborati!e &or%, inter group relations,
democratic !alues etc"
$denti#ied ma+or cooperati!e learning methods are student team learning, discussions,
learning together model, group in!estigation model, the >igsa& method, team assisted
indi!iduali5ation, reciprocal teaching method, peer tutoring etc"
$n a study based on the instructional method Mlearning together modelN, +ointly
conducted by 6umar and 0indu achie!ement scores are seen attached to the
e3perimental group"
An e3perimental study conducted by 0ro&n and Palins%ar ((EEA) &ho de!eloped the
reciprocal teaching method #or elementary schools o# Michigan State, Highland Par%
'
in (EA), sho&ed a positi!e achie!ement in all sub+ects &hen taught through
Reciprocal *eaching method"
Sig&ifi(a&(e of the Stu)*
Reciprocal *eaching method has pro!ed to be use#ul &ith &idely di!erse population
o# students" *he reciprocal procedure &as designed to impro!e the comprehension
ability o# the students &ho ha!e poor comprehension" Ho&e!er, modi#ication o# this
procedure has been used to teach second language learners" So, reciprocal method is
perhaps a uni,ue &ay o# learning a #oreign language using interacti!e techni,ue" As
a teacher, $ #ind the method attracti!e #or its simplicity o# #orm and success in
reali5ing its goals" $ts potential #or multile!el and cross discipline application ma%es
this method a !aluable tool in a classroom"
O+,ECTI!E
*o #ind out the e##ecti!eness o# Reciprocal <earning Strategy in the learning o#
English as a second language through comparing the di##erence in the mean
achie!ement bet&een e3perimental and control group o# class C$ grade"
"#POT"ESIS
Pupils taught through reciprocal teaching method &ill ha!e high mean achie!ement
than the pupils taught through traditional teaching method"
$es(riptio& of !aria-les
!eci'roca teaching metho# is an instructiona metho# that in(o(es gui#e# 'ractice
o) rea#ing1 com'rehension. In this metho#1 the teachers, roe is to 'ro(i#e mo#eing1
sca))o#ing1 )ee#back an# e-'anation )or the stu#ents. Both the teachers an#
stu#ents are coo'erati(e in making e))orts o) un#erstan#ing materia that are being
taught"
*he in!entors o# the method (Palini%ar and 0ro&n (EEA) ha!e suggested strategies to
conduct the method in classroom as summari5ing, ,uestioning, classi#ying, predicting
and !isuali5ing" *hey suggested that these #i!e strategies can be used in any order"
0ut, in the case o# $ndian classroom situation, the students ha!e so #ar not used to sel#
study methods o# reading comprehensions and &ill ta%e a long practice sessions to
adopt these strategies to be used on their o&n" So, $ ha!e #i3ed a systematic pattern
o# these strategies to be #ollo&ed in a se,uence as gi!en belo&:
(" Predicting
8" -lassi#ying
B" 7uestioning
)" Summari5ing
." Cisuali5ing
?
Pre)i(ti&g
Prediction o# general idea o# the te3t #rom title or heading"
Classif*i&g
A#ter detailed reading o# the te3t by the teacher, #ollo&ed by the students they ha!e to
classi#y and underline or note the di##icult parts o# the te3t li%e ne& &ords, terms,
phrases or sentences"
.uestio&i&g
*he class &ill be di!ided into groups" Each group &ill ha!e to prepare ob+ecti!e
,uestions on the matter they did not understand" Each group &ill pose ,uestions in
general and any group can ans&er the ,uestions" $n the case o# di##iculty in getting
the ans&er, the teacher &ill gi!e the ans&er by e3planation and some teaching aids"
OhyP And Ho&P 7uestions should be as%ed to create shared understandings o# the
paragraph or section" *hese ,uestions should lead to additional ,uestions and result
in a discussion &ith in the group" $# a disagreement arises bet&een students, the
passage may be re-read #or better understanding"
Su''ari/i&g
;inally the teacher &ill pro!ide a #e& ,uestions through &hich a summary o# the te3t
can be dra&n"
!isuali/i&g
*he group members &ith the help o# each other &ill dra& a picture on &hat
e3actly they ha!e learnt #rom the te3t matter"
*raditional rammar *ranslation Method
$ELIMITATIONS
*he study is underta%en #or the sub+ect o# English language"
*he study is conducted on C$$ grade students"
*he total sample ta%en #or the study is delimited to B'/ students"
*he study is conducted in Hindi medium schools in &hich the status o#
English is o# second language"
A
Sa'ple
Ta-le
E'(erimenta" Co&trol Total
0oys School '/ '/ (8/
irls School '/ '/ (8/
-o"Ed School '/ '/ (8/
)ota" (A/ (A/ B'/
Tools
-attles -ulture ;air (2on!erbal) $ntelligence *est (#orm 1 A) #or grouping"
Achie!ement test (sel# made) #or pre-post test analysis #or per#ormance bene#it"
Statisti(s Te(h&i0ues Applie)
QtF test
Analysis o# !ariance
A&al*sis a&) I&terpretatio&
Ta-le 1
E3perimental
group
Mea& S$
0oys 88"/' A".?
irls 8/"?' E"('
-o"Ed 8("BB E".'
Total 1.23 4.56
-ontrol
group
0oys ()"/( ?").
irls ()"?. ?"(8
-o"Ed (("./ .")(
)ota"
2.71 8.32
Ta-le 29 t : ta-le
$es(riptio& Mea& S$ T
RP* 0oys School 88"/' A".?
** 0oys School ()"/( ?"). (8".E
RP* irls School 8/"?' E"('
** irls School ()"?. ?"(8 (("/(
RP* -oEd school 8("BB E".'
** -oEd School ((". .")8 (B"B/
R Sig&ifi(a&t at 5.5 le%el
RP*: Reciprocal *eaching
**: *raditional *eaching
E
Ta-le 79 1 ; 2 A&al*sis of %aria&(e
Sour(e of !aria&(e SS )f Ms F
(" 0et&een (Methods) (A/"A. ( (A/"A. 8"A(
8" 0et&een (School *ypes) .?(8"( 8 8A.'"/. ))"8?
B" $nteraction 8(E"/ 8 (/E". ("?/
)" Oithin 88?(("( B.) ')"(.
Total 13312 2<4 - -
*he 8SB #actorial design sho&s that the ; !alue o# school types is 8"A( &hich is not
signi#icant at /"/. le!el and ; !alue o# teaching methods is ))"8? &hich is signi#icant
at /"/( le!el" Hence, the e##ect o# school type is not signi#icant on achie!ement but
the e##ect o# method o# is signi#icant"
CONCLUSION
Ohile discussing the abo!e study it is obser!ed that reciprocal teaching method is
e##ecti!e on students o# primary and secondary schools rather than on the post
secondary school students" $t may be because o# the competition and grade oriented
studies in adult groups, &hich #ail to yield the bene#it in cooperati!e learning
strategies li%e Reciprocal teaching"
INFERENCE
*here is an intimate and necessary relation bet&een the process o# actual e3perience
and education" E3perience is %ey to learning" E3perience muse be organi5ed and
students must deri!e meaning #rom e3periences" $n addition to e3perience, it is o#
utmost importance to integrate democracy into e!ery aspect o# education" Students
should be taught in a &ay that rein#orces the democratic ideas by &hich the country
pro#esses to li!e"
*he main ob+ecti!e o# the present study &as to e3periment a teaching method based
on democratic ideals in guiding the classroom process" *he result o# the study sho&s
that the reciprocal learning group in better in achie!ement than the traditional group"
Many studies in Oestern countries re!eal that using cooperati!e learning as
instructional strategy teachers can o!ercome the ma+or di##iculties such as di!erse
academic and non-academic interest o# the students, competition, lo& interpersonal
relations and minimum emotional in!ol!ement"
Ohile enry Hemit ((EE.) suggested that RP* is attracti!e #or its simplicity o# #orm
and success, Ci!ian -oo% ((EAE) agrees that it is perhaps a uni,ue &ay o# learning a
#oreign language"
*here are some e3periments, &hich indicated #ailure o# Reciprocal method in
practice" An e3periment in!ol!ing this method in technologies li%e $nternet, and
(/
!ideo con#erencing bet&een #our uni!ersities o# Scotland #ailed to pro!ide good
results" $n another study, this method conducted by 6ent (8///) to teach graduate
and under graduate students o# education #ailed to gi!e signi#icant results"
REFERENCES
-oo% Ci!ian: Mo#ern 2ngish teacher (',B9), ?)A-.B (Source-internet)
He&itt" ((EE.): >ournal o# $nnodata, (A) B), $0E Publication
>ournal o) I""3D$*$ M3"3 4!$P5S IB2 (2o" A)
6E2* (8///): Reciprocal teaching, htt'677%%%.ibe.unesco.org
Palins%ar et "at ((EA)-A'): Reciprocal teaching, reading #or comprehension
Palins%ar A"S T Ann 0ro&n ((EEA) -omprehension monitoring acti!ities,
cognition an# Instruction . (8), P 1((? 1 (?.


((
FROM TOTAL P"#SICAL RESPONSE TO=AR$S
T"E SILENT P"ASE IN LANGUAGE AC.UISITION
Dr. -Ms.. S!s!rkaa &ha++acharya$
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%&S'(%)'
*he most im'ortant thing in communication is hearing %hat isn,t sai#. $n eementary
earner is ca'abe o) absorbing anguage in'ut more easiy than 'u'is at a other
e(es. 8hie the teacher e-'ects the chi# to res'on# to each natura an# e-terna
stimuus1 the chi# is not a%ays e-'ressi(e an# res'onsi(e. Krashen regar#s the
'ro(ision o) com'rehensibe in'ut an# re#uction o) stress as keys to success)u
anguage ac9uisition. *his 'a'er is an attem't (i) to justi)y the roe o) motor
acti(ities in the sco'e o) a beginner:s te-t1 the 'ace o) egocentric s'eech an# the
'ossibiities o) #e(eo'ing a%areness or aertness in the chi# to%ar#s instruction
an# #emonstrations at cass room e(e (ii) to highight suggesti(e measures an#
materias in su''ort o) tota 'hysica res'onse %hie the earner 'asses through a
atent 'erio# o) earning an# (iii) to euci#ate the 'sychic simuations that )a(our
anguage ac9uisition 'ertaining to sient 'hases in earning that are )acie an#
creati(e.
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INTRO$UCTION
*he mind and its processes &or% in se!eral conte3ts o# language learning and its
#unctions in the society" Speech might not be the only dimension o# response in the
primary learners" 2onetheless, the directedness o# e3pected response is countered by
se!eral #actors that a##ect second language learning"
$magine a class o# #i#ty students meeting a#ter a &ee%end or a short !acation" As the
teacher as%s, MOell, ho& many o# you had been out o# stationPN Some hands instantly
pop-up" She points to someone and as%s, MOhere did you goNP Ohile a #e& en,uiries
are being made, others murmur to themsel!es4 some might be bold enough to stand
up and tell about something they en+oyed &hile many o# them pre#er to be silent"
Ho&e!er, silence doesnFt e!er mean that thereFs no response to the stimulus or that
the ,uestion hasnFt been understood" *he role o# a##ecti!e #actors and the reaction
that precedes !erbal response o#ten goes unrecogni5ed" *otal Physical Response is a
phenomenon in language teaching &hich in!ol!es a method built around the
coordination o# speech and action, attempting to process language learning through
physical (motor) acti!ity" >ames AsherFs *otal Physical Response is lin%ed to the
Qtrace theoryF o# memory in psychology (e"g" 6atona, (E)/), &hich holds that the
more intensi!ely a memory connection is traced, the stronger the memory association
&ill be and it is more li%ely that it &ill be recalled" Asher ad!ocates that success#ul
adult second language learning is a parallel process to the childFs #irst language
(8
ac,uisition" $n #act, &hen the child begins to comprehend #irst language, he decodes it
in the #orm o# speech consisting primarily o# commands to &hich he responds
physically" $# the childFs second language learning is a recapitulation o# the process,
he should be able to learn or ac,uire the target language through game-li%e acti!ities
that +usti#y the emotional #actor or the role o# the a##ecti!e domain in the learning o#
the second language" A lot o# the childFs egocentric speech could be help#ul in
directing the primary le!el learner to&ards the production o# English as second
language" Ho&e!er, since the Physical Response strategy is less demanding in terms
o# speech9&ritten production, the response to the stimuli is &ell-accepted i# it is #ed
&ith a proper motor acti!ity" Ohile the process o# cogniti!e mapping is on in the
learnerFs (primary le!el) ac,uiring o# English, the materials used in the classroom
acti!ities not only ha!e the responsibility o# allo&ing the child to respond to the
stimuli through physical 9 motor acti!ities through comprehension o# the target
language, but also re,uire to pro!ide the learner &ith ample input to initiate thin%ing
and production in the target language"
At the beginnerFs le!el, this output is e3pected in terms o# *otal Physical Response
(*PR) and imitation at the &ord9 phrase le!el" $n the light o# the teaching-learning
material de!eloped #or beginners (the learners o# -lass $ T $$ #or the state o#
-hhattisgarh), this paper attempts:
(i) to +usti#y the role o# motor acti!ities in the scope o# a te3t used #or the beginners,
the place o# egocentric speech and the possibilities o# de!eloping a&areness or
alertness in the child to&ards the instructions or demonstrations at classroom le!el (ii)
to highlight suggesti!e measures and materials in support o# the duration o# latency in
the primary le!el learner o# English" (*he latent phase is that period in &hich the
learner might not be able to produce or respond to the stimuli immediately, but
care#ully uses the in#ormation he collects in the course o# his motor responses o!er
and a#ter a period o# time) and (iii) to elucidate the psychic simulations that #a!our
language ac,uisition pertaining to silent phases in learning that are #acile and
creati!e" Hence, there is a need to identi#y the stages o# rein#orcement that sustain
positi!e learning o# the target language"
U&)ersta&)i&g the Co&(ept of Total Ph*si(al Respo&se
AsherFs *otal Physical Response (*PR) theory ((E??) in course o# ad!ocating itsel#
as a M2atural methodF aims at:
'he #!o-*ro/ramme9 *his includes internali5ing a cogniti!e map o# the target
language through listening e3ercises" Physical mo!ement should accompany
listening" Speech and other producti!e s%ills &ould come later" *he speech
production mechanism &ill begin to #unction spontaneously &hen the basic
#oundations o# language ha!e been established through listening" $n a particular
se,uence o# the brain Tthe ner!ous system, the speci#ic mode o# listening
#ollo&ed by spea%ing is to synchroni5e language &ith the indi!idualFs body"
(B
'he #ra! la+eral!0a+!o9 Asher sees *PR as directed to right brain learning"
Most second language teaching is related to le#t brain learning" Oith re#erence
to the &or% by >ean Piaget, it holds that the child as a language learner ac,uires
through motor mo!ement - a right hemisphere acti!ity" Right hemisphere
acti!ities must occur be#ore the le#t hemisphere can process language #or
production" *he process is initiated through right hemisphere motor acti!ities
&hile the le#t hemisphere &atches and learns" Ohen a su##icient amount o# right
hemisphere learning has ta%en place, the le#t hemisphere &ill be triggered to
produce language T to allo& more abstract language processes"
Ho&e!er, the abstractness o# language is a rather di##icult s&itcho!er #or the learners
o# English also at primary le!el because unli%e the #irst language, the e3posure to
listening o# English is rather less or poor" Hence, the t&o points mentioned abo!e
tend to support a silent phase in learning accumulated through e3perience (attegno)
because that gi!es meaning to the language" *he learner must get a #eel #or this aspect
o# learning though e!erything is not altogether clear" $t brings us bac% to 0en+amin
;ran%linFs &onder#ul gestures to the teacher M- $n!ol!e me and $ learn"N *he latent
duration is e3pected to dilute the %nots in the childFs inta%e and mani#est itsel# to an
independent, autonomous and responsible learner, e"g" the beginnerFs #irst language
boo% uses the picture o# a tap to label the letter Q"aF ;Se, "aF in his Hindi te3t and in
his English boo% the same picture is used #or the letter *: * #or *APF" $# in the
#ollo&ing pages o# his te3t, the same letter is used in a &ord li%e G*REEF, the child
being as%ed to recogni5e the letter Q*F #inds his o&n &ay o# responding to the
,uestion by turning the pages o# his boo% and pointing out the picture o# the tap,
though he might not spea% out at all" *he silent recognition as &ell as rein#orcement
is thence pre!alent in the latency period, &hich adults might need to recapitulate
*his interesting &ay o# learning in the child needs to be supported by proper e3ercises
or materials"
!e#uce# stress in earning: Physical sensiti!eness is en+oyable in its inter-relational
mode because it contains something that the child en+oys repeating and imitating his
elders #rom a state o# murmur to a state o# clear speech" *his could !ery much be
inter#aculty or inter-en!ironmental in nature e"g" &hen a child has been introduced to
the basic geometrical #igures, he might be encouraged to spell out his #riendly so#t
drin% #rom a pu55le li%e this:
Hal# a circle, #ull a circle, hal# a circle QAF
Hal# a circle, #ull a circle, right angle, QAF"
Ohen the teacher &rites the &ord Q-=-A-=<AF on the blac% board, as the child
murmurs the &ord and the lines to himsel#, it supports his personal system o#
identi#ication o# the sounds, the phonemes and surprasegmental elements o# the
language as re!ealed to him" PiagetFs concept o# egocentric thin%ing and egocentric
speech leading to role-plays T subtle imitations in language that ha!e been integrated
T accumulated during the silent phase helps in the de!elopment o# production s%ills"
()
My sister as a child o# #i!e, used to &ear a QchunriF li%e a saree, ta%e a ruler in her
hand T use the sur#ace o# a closed door as a blac%board &hile she instantly repeated
all that her teacher said both in Hindi and English in a stress-#ree en!ironment
E!idently, second language automatises itsel# along &ith the #irst in a !ery casual
shi#t" Ho&e!er, &hile &e e3pect abiding to instruction li%e, Qbring your copy here,F
Qs&itch on the lightF, Qclose the doorF, etc" as per#ect comprehension o# the child, &e
o#ten #orget that &e ha!e pro!ided the least opportunity to the child to spea% or
respond using language"
MA,OR AREAS OF CONCERN
-onsidering the situation spelled out abo!e it matters ho& the teaching-learning
material prepared ta%es care o# the beginners in learning English" *he issues may be
listed out as #ollo&s:
*he 2ational -urriculum #rame&or% #or School Education though underlines that
English is taught in $ndia in e3tremely heterogeneous conte3ts in comple3 T
multidimensional processes, it hardly ta%es notice o# the position o# English and its
status o# being taught as a second language in the multilingual society"
The 'a>or areas of (o&(er& for the tea(hi&g ? lear&i&g of E&glish are9
*he need to de!elop the learnerFs capacity to use the language in speech and
&riting through enough practice #or the producti!e s%ills"
$nsisting on oral- aural approach in -lass $ T $$ &ith minimal stress on reading
and &riting i"e" to pro!ide the teachers &ith more o# learner-centered materials
T situations that insist on a!oiding initiation o# English through the traditional
&riting o# the alphabet"
*he need #or underta%ing teaching-learning o# English %eeping the en!ironment
in #ocus i"e" a!oid using !ery alien or sophisticated e3amples &hich the
common learner &ouldnFt %no& e"g" he might &ell be ac,uainted &ith the
#ishing rod T the pond but not li%ely &ith the a,uarium"
6eeping in mind the entity o# national integration T cultural harmony it is
importance to present language items in local indigenous conte3ts, #ree #rom all
cultural bias so as to be able to cope &ith the poor e3posure to English"
$ncreasing teacher participation in the de!elopment o# instructional materials so
as to help the primary le!el teachers to thin% about the material they use #or
instructing children, thereby e,uipping the teachers to process the a##ecti!e
domain instead o# spoon #eeding the instructional material"
$ntegrating themes #rom En!ironmental studies &ith a !ie& to reduce the
curriculum load as &ell as to de!elop in the child a concern #or the en!ironment
T its preser!ation" *his &ill #acilitate learning English through an inter#aculty
approach or e!en &ithout a te3t &here oral aural practices can be emphasi5ed"
(.
POSSI+ILITIES FOR TPR AN$ SILENT LEARNING
Oith re#erence to the abo!e mentioned areas let us no& e3amine the te3t de!eloped
#or the children o# classes $ T $$ in -hhattisgarh"
(" *he State -ouncil o# Educational Research T *raining (S-ER*), -hhattisgarh
ad!ocated to strictly adhere to the aural- oral approach and has insisted on
helping students learn English at class $ T $$ by simple listening, recitation and
imitation" A te3tboo% o# pictures comprising o# (/ poems each #or classes $ T
$$, and the alphabet #or recognition has been prescribed #or the students"
8" *he ob+ecti!e o# de!eloping the #our s%ills o# language learning ha!e been ta%en
care o# &ith en!ironment-#riendly conte3ts #or the children in learning English
as names, places, ob+ects, action &ords and a #e& ad+ecti!es" Ample scope has
been pro!ided in the lessons #or melody in the spo%en #orm" *eachers are
e3pected to help the learners sing most o# the poems9 rhyme so that they could
remember the content T en+oy learning the ne& language" A cassette has also
been de!eloped to encourage the teacher and place a model be#ore him as &ell
as the learners"
B" <anguage #unctions9notions li%e greeting, re,uesting, see%ing and gi!ing
in#ormation (as%ing T responding to ,uestions) ha!e been included e"g"
Boatman1 boatman ho% #o you #o<
Boatman1 boatman1 May I join you< (greeting1 seeking 'ermission)
I am "i#hi= Mr. !atan Mishra is my )ather.
Mrs. >sha is my mother. $jit is my brother (gi(ing in)ormation)
*hese #unctions include se!eral occasions to include suggestopediac inputs as
&ell as in!ol!e total physical response in them" e"g" the poem M=nce $ caught a
#ish ali!eN"
;8hy #i# you et it go,<
?Because it bit my )inger so@. (&orres'on#ing res'onses to ;%h, 9uestionsA
8hy< 8hich< 8ho1 etc.)
?8hich )inger #i# it bite<@@
*his itte )inger on the right@.
)" $t does emphasi5e on language items o# e!eryday use T primary comprehension
e"g"
a) QHere comes the bulloc% cartF (introducing a person or thing)
b) Men are li!ing things &ith t&o legs and no #eathers" $s this correctP
(Des9no ,uestions)
('
Monu &aters the plant" $t gro&s" (@sing simple past)
c) Des%s, benches, tables, chairs Pictures, bags, boo%s there
Boys and girls in a pair
A teacher is there to care" ((@sing plurals))
d ) A big &hite crane
Sta&)i&g i& the rai&
"as a s'all @ish
*o eat a big #ish (=pposites)
." $nter#aculty approach- Poems li%e QHo& many &heelsF sho&s counting (not in
series)" *he cycle has t&o &heels9the auto has three9the car has #our &heels9the
truc% has si3 """*he cards9 pictures sho&n to the child allo&s him to thin% about
!ehicles, pets, #riends and things around him (2otionU language items)
'" Direct re#erence to days o# the &ee% and months, thematic contents concerning
moral education li%e punctuality, honesty dignity o# labour and e,uality o#
social status become an inbuilt part o# learning
T"E FUNCTION OF MEMOR#
*he perceptual accomplishment is not necessarily restricted to an indi!idual cognition
or Qrecognition Q as it is called" -omprehending a rose as a rose, o&es a considerable
part o# the essential character to memory along &ith the perceptual phenomena
(6o##%a)" *he achie!ements o# memory &ould be three #old"
(iA The parti(ipatio& of (o&s(ious&ess, &hich may be more or less de#inite, e"g" in
action songs" Ohile the child listens to the poem, the &ords, the commands
almost mechanically come into action, &hile the instructions li%e Qhands to the
sidesF, Qhands on &aistsF etc, being less used, &ould come on gradual imitation"
(ii) *he relation o# this (o&s(ious&ess to per(eptio&- i"e" &hether the memory is #ree
or tied e"g" the actions9 responses to the stimuli here are hence tried out in the
rhyme:

DiA#um1 #iA#um1 #iA#um1 goes the #rum roun#1
Le)tA right. Le)tA right on the 'ara#e groun#.
*his could be a #ree re#erence to his perception o# a parade ground and the &ords
Qle#t-rightF are an immediate re#lection to marching or the march- past the child has
seen or been a part o#"
(iii)-ertain %inds and )egrees of positio&al ? te'poral )efi&itio&B an ad+ustment
#or the spatial relationship in &ords e"g" the poem
(?
;3'en them1 shut them1 7 ca' ca' ca'. 7 o'en them shut them 7)o# them in your
a'.,
*he child might not #ollo& the instruction gi!en to him and the spatial relation in the
utterance,
e.g. (.) %hat 'osition is re)erre# to %hen %e say )o# them in your a'<
(/) 8hat #oes ;them, re)er to in the 'oem< ($n im'icit 9uestion).
Spatial )is(ri'i&atio&9 A cat sa& a rat sitting on a pot9*he rat sa& the cat sitting on
a mat9 9 *he cast ran #ast9 *he cat then +umped in to the little pot9 *he cat put its head
into the little pot9 *he cat could not ta%e his head out o# the potV9 *he rat on the pot
sat on the catFs head" *he !olume9 space re#erence response to the spatial stimuli is
generally in the #orm o# silent obser!ation" 7uestion arises ho& much o# the memory
intelligence o# the child does the teacher acti!ate in mo!ing to&ards learning o#
EnglishP $n the conte3t the teacher could as% #or response to some general ,uestions
li%e
(i) OhereFs the rat sittingP a. *he rat is sitting on the 'ot. (*7B)
(ii) OhereFs the cat sittingP b. *he rat jum'e# into the 'ot. (*7B)
(iii) Does any o# the #igures sho& that the rat +umped out o# the potP
(i!) Ho& did the catFs head go inside the potP
(!) Ohere is the rat in picture BP
Set thinking (4uess C say)6 (i) can you see a cat,s hea# insi#e a 'ot<
*he 'ot is ma#e o) cay7 gass7 meta< (ii) &an the cat eat the rat in )igure D<
(A
T"E LATENT $URATION
$t ma%es a remar%ably debatable issue e!en at this point4 that &hy should teachers
essentially need a te3tboo% #or the beginnersP *he teacherFs handboo% being pro!ided
to them, theyFre e3pected to act as role models #or the learners" 0ut many a times the
ES< situation is e,ually #lat on both sides and any one not #amiliar &ith the language
could demand a !isual support"
2ot &ithstanding the a##irmation silent phases in language ac,uisition, Oinit5Fs
((EA() belie#s about -omprehension Approach resist the actual happening o# the
latent duration" Hence it needs a decisi!e and pragmatic analysis o# the #act that i#
comprehension abilities precede producti!e s%ills in learning a language, can teaching
o# production s%ills be delayedP And &hether s%ills ac,uired through listening do get
trans#erred to other s%ills"
CONTINGENC# REINFORCEMENT
-hildren en+oy pictures" Picture cognition T the brain laterali5ation in them &or% in
uni,ue &ays" $n that case should the poem be a part o# the te3t the child has, i# at all
thereFs oneP Ho&e!er, the child needs the picture, because thatFs o#ten a clue to his
memory" *he crisis o# the material arises &hen the clue is not ade,uately
supplemented, e"g" the child automatically starts reciting the poem QHot -urryF on
seeing the picture -(<ong T thin ladyFs #inger9;at T round tomato9sitting together in a
bo&l9to ma%e a hot curry)" -ould the child substitute other !egetables #or curryP Does
the te3t o# the poem ma%e any sense to the childP Related pictures used in such
conte3ts &ould rather initiate chain learning"
Poi&ts to po&)er9 Classroo' a&) (urri(ular i'pli(atio&s
Ho& can materials help the silent child to reproduce &hat he has learntP
rading learning material #rom direct in#ormation to one that puts a thought#ul
,uestion (Cisuals used) - animals ha!e #our legs, birds ha!e t&o"""" etc" sho&s a
casual shi#t #rom mere counting to a thought#ul ,uestion" Ho& many legs does a
caterpillar4 an earth&orm or a sna%e ha!eP *he child can be similarly allo&ed
to thin% through ,uestions li%e these (using the picture o# a ship9aeroplane)
QDoes this ha!e &heelsP *hen ho& does it mo!eP
$tFs obser!ed that in classroom interactions li%e this, almost e!ery child spea%s
in his <
(
or mother tongue" Ho& then should materials be able to in!o%e the
spea%ing o# the second language or EnglishP Perhaps, simple ,uestions and
sentences could be repeatedly spo%en by the teacher in English only"
$s it then &ise, to attempt interrupting the childFs participation in the class &hen
he responds in <
(
P -ertainly not" 0ilingualism cannot be denied" 0ut then
&hen T &here is the shi#t to <
8
monitoredP Demanding a response in English
(E
&ould hinder the right hemisphereFs acti!e participation in the learning process
and reduce production later" *he same happens &hen the child is upgraded to
&ritten production, his motor s%ills (#ingers) not catching up &ith the
processing in his brain"
Ohat does the childFs physical response to recognition o# pictures, colours and
alphabet or number indicateP $s that all simultaneous in the duration o# latency
or is it one #unction at a timeP Most o# the material &e use is in the #orm o# a
totali5ed input" Does this help the child to reproduce or does it hinderP $#
meaning is more important than #orm, &ords li%e QbalanceF and QneedleF that
ha!e more than one #orm &ould al&ays need demonstrations" At &hat stage
then does the child begin to in#er content #rom conte3tsP
*o &hat e3tent are egocentric speech9 learning #urnishable in the classroomP
enerally the teacher attempts to help the children imitate the content &ith him
in the class T largely translates it into <
(
(Hindi)" *his immediate e##ort by the
teacher reduces the a##ecti!e e##ort in participation on the part o# the child"
Demanding English #rom him, ho&e!er, incessantly increases the an3iety T
stress #airly against the *PR theory"
Ho& do &e ensure correct pronunciation through oral9 &ritten e3posure #or the
childP Does he listen to English &hene!er he has a chance to do soP Does he
really comprehend &hen instructions are gi!en in EnglishP or does he simply
repeat the motor acti!ities o# the teacherP Perhaps demanding one &ord9 phrasal
response in English could help in this direction"
;inally, does the material help the teacher and child assess themsel!esP *he
role o# the material de!eloped in e!aluation needs to be loo%ed into e"g" the
poem QHo& many &heelsF- suggested (i) Oho helps to run a tongaP (ii) Ohich
#uel is used in a truc%P (iii) Ohat is the #uel #or a scooter9 carP *he ,uestions
ha!e been translated into <
(
" 0ut &hat #or a &ord li%e Q#uelFP
The Fee)-a(C D=hat the&E shoul) -e )o&eFA
Materials produced #or the beginners ha!e &idely been traced into psychological
approaches #or the child" *here#ore, pictures, illustrations, colours and interesting
e3amples ha!e been ta%en into account in preparing boo%s" <ots o# drillings T
practice e3ercises ha!e also been designed" 6eeping to the points (i) competence o#
the teacher (ii) the a!ailable resources in the remote !illages T rather di##icult
circumstances o# learning English at school T (iii) the ob+ecti!es o# continuous T
comprehensi!e e!aluation at the primary le!el, &e &ould need to emphasi5e on ho&
to use the a!ailable material" *he teacher cannot sit bac% and rela3 lea!ing the
children to thin%"
i) *PR is a natural conduct o# the child but it has to be an implicit part o# the
teacher" e"g" a poem might demand a teacher to be a good actor"
ii) TPR i&(lu)es supraseg'e&tal features of spee(h. *he suggestopediac
measures o# modulation in !oice &ould be needed to supplement the childFs
listening T retention, e"g" the anchorperson in Q>anata E3pressF in E*C 0angla
has a style &here the listener is bound to %eep pace &ith him"
8/
iii) Repetitio& @orCs for liste&ers of all ages a&) faster for -egi&&ers. $# the
lesson mo!es to the ob+ects that are used to cut, gestures #or a pair o# scissors, a
sa&, a-sharpener, and an a3e could help" Responses in <
(
come immediately"
*he teacher could stop a#ter responses in <
(
are o!er T repeat the gestures #or
the same &ords9 nouns in English"
i!) The sile&t phase of the (hil)Gs lear&i&g is refle(te) i& re(og&itio&. 0ut it
could create problems &hen thereFs a combination o# the concrete T the abstract
e"g" a small Q&ishF !ersus QOishF you a Happy 2e& Dear"
!) Cross 0uestio&s ? (rossBrefere&(es shoul) al@a*s -e -ili&gual for
-egi&&ers but the utterances should be controlled" =nly clues needed could be
used in mother tongue"
!i) RefleH a(tio&s shoul) -e e&(ourage) throughE pi(tures or real o->e(ts. ;irst,
the physical response is encountered, then the spo%en &ord #ollo&s almost
egocentrically"
!ii) e"g" *&o bo3es labeled H=* T -=<D can be used #or allo&ing the children to
select picture cards or &ord cards li%e a cup o# tea, an ice-cream bar, the sun, a
bloc% o# ice9a so#t drin%, the o!en, a glass o# &ater"
!iii) *he child &ould automatically spea% out G*his is hotF" Similar choice #or things
$ li%e T things $ donFt li%e: $ li%e tea" $ li%e mil%" 2o, $ donFt li%e mil%"
i3) $ li%e Pepsi" Des, $ also li%e Pepsi"
3) *his con!ersation is e!idently automatic"
3i) I&(e&ti%es i& lear&i&g tasCs liCe re@ar) for ho&est* are easil*
(o'prehe&si-le through a correct mode o# *PR" Picture dictation is a simple
yet thought#ul method e"g" there are t&o red apples on a plate and one green
apple on the table" Responses could be in!ited on the blac%board" Errors get
detected and the corrections properly responded to be re&arded"
3ii) SelfBa((ess to o&eGs o@& %oi(e ? spee(h (a& -e trai&e). $nstructing the
children in <
(
that a ,uestion and proper statements should be used #or ans&ers"
ames can be initiated and le#t to be carried o!er" -are#ul listening should end
in a response T not in lingering latency"
3iii) Re)u(e error (o&s(ious&ess -* allo@i&g the' to sCip to the (o&%e&ie&t
la&guage @he& the* &ee).
-i() *eacher6 ?!eeta1 run )ast C bring my bag. My bag is on the tabe. 8hich tabe<
Do you kno%<@ &hi# 6 ;Ees1 #oosra%aa, acce'te#= but say aou#1 ?Ees1 the
secon# tabe@1 on returning6 ;3n %hich tabe #i# you get the bag<, *he chi#
might begin to say ?#oosra7 nahi .. t%o,. *he teacher (no#s)6 ;"o1 the secon#
tabe., !eeta re'eats it again.
*he reduction o# stress T lo&ering o# an3iety in such simulated learning is al&ays
positi!e" *he latency in this case does not go unnoticed"
CONCLUSION
Oith all the help that can be gi!en to the child through motor acti!ities, the
processing o# the language and its conse,uent responses, mani#estation in terms o# a
8(
silent or latent phase needs to be patiently supported" Oe can then, perhaps, tal% o# a
sa#e mo!ement to&ards attainable goals" As teachers, &e need to remember"
Silence is not &ithdra&al" $t is not deterrence either4
*he latent period o# learning needs to be rein#orced and recogni5ed4 and
Physical response needs to be slo&ly transited to mental response and later to
speech or language production"
E!ery time &e spea%, &e are in!ol!ed in a per#ormance o# the sel#" Ho&e!er, the
!ulnerability to drudgery and spillo!ers cannot be denied T e!en #or this primary and
easy ac%no&ledgment, the teacher &ould need to #oster strict monitoring in all
learnable situations"

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88
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8B
EFFECTI!E IMPLEMENTATION OF INNO!ATI!E
STRATEGIES TO=AR$S COMPRE"ENSI!E AC"IE!EMENT
OF SSA
Ms. Pree+! 1"cas$

%&S'(%)'
Since In#e'en#ence1 In#ia has been making concerte# e))orts to%ar#s achie(ing the
goa o) e#ucation )or a. *he GD
r#
constitutiona $men#ment making com'usory
eementary e#ucation a )un#amenta right is yet another initiati(e that re)ects the
'oitica urgency o) achie(ing the goa. *he Sar(a Shiksha $bhiyan (SS$) is a
historic stri#e to%ar#s achie(ing the ong cherishe# goa o) >ni(ersai+ation o)
2ementary 2#ucation through a time boun# integrate# a''roach in 'artnershi' %ith
states. It aims at recogni+ing the nee# )or im'ro(ing the 'er)ormance o) the schoo
system by 'ro(i#ing 9uaity eementary e#ucation. *he "P2 .GHI an# .GG/
consi#ere# #ecentrai+ation o) 'anning an# management as a critica strategy )or
e-'ansion an# 9uaity im'ro(ement o) e#ucation in the country. *his stu#y has been
carrie# out in Durg Distt. an# its )in#ings are base# on obser(ations an# secon#ary
#ata anaysis.
INTRO$UCTION
lobali5ation has brought signi#icant change in the socio-economic arena" *he
$nternational *rade ($*) and Oorld *rade =rgani5ation (O*=) ha!e made the &orld
mar%et more and more competiti!e" $ndia is one o# the #astest de!eloping nation in
the $ndustrial, Economic, Agricultural and $* Sector gi!ing tough challenges to the
&orld mar%et" *his has also a##ected educational dynamics"
;acing ahead &ith the gro&ing global challenges on socio-economic and educational
#ronts and the need to sur!i!e to become strong competitor in the &orld mar%et,
education is a sine ,ua non" $t is imperati!e #or sustainable gro&th to&ards global
education that our education system should be o# !ery high pro#ile &hich could be
done by incorporating inno!ati!e strategies at the grassroot le!el o# our society"

*here#ore, it has become imperati!e to re!ie& and restructure our educational system
matching to socio-economic parameters and to ma%e the ,uality elementary education
possible and accessible to the poorest children o# the society" *o achie!e this
ob+ecti!e an attempt has been made by the o!ernment o# $ndia by adopting the
Sar!a Shi%sha Abhiyan (SSA) Scheme"
8)
Sar!a Shi%sha Abhiyan (SSA) is a historic stride to&ards achie!ing the long
cherished goal o# @ni!ersali5ation o# Elementary Education (@EE) through a time
bond integrated approach" *he basic ob+ecti!e o# this programme is to pro!ide an
opportunity #or de!eloping capabilities o# the poorest children through ,uality
education"
SSA is a diligent approach to pro!ide e##ecti!e, use#ul and rele!ant elementary
education #or all the children bet&een the age o# '-() by the year 8/(/" *his &ill also
enable to bridge the socio-economic and gender gaps in the society &ith the
comprehensi!e participation o# community members and other social groups"
An e##ecti!e and rele!ant education system signi#ies a ,uest #or an education that is
not alienating and that dra&s on community solidarity" *he aims o# SSA is to help
children to ac,uire education in a manner that allo&s the #ullest harnessing o# their
potential both physically and spiritually" *he ,uest must also be a process o# !alue
based learning that allo&s children an opportunity to &or% #or each otherFs &ell being
rather than to pursue mere sel#ish gains"
The SSA a&) eHisti&g pro-le's i& I&)ia
Dra&bac%s and 0arriers regarding Sar!a Shi%sha Abhiyan
i. $ra@-a(Cs
<ac% o# global !ision
<ac% o# strategic planning
$mproper implementation o# planning
Political inter#erence
0ureaucracy9 Red tapism
<ac% o# M&illN to do
-orruption
ii. A(tio& pla&
Accountable9 dedicated &or% #orce
Strategic planning &ith scienti#ic approach
Dedicated team &or%
Modular change in training process
Accountability to be #i3ed
@nderstanding the global concept
Regular #eedbac% programmes
Recognition T punishment on per#ormance
8.
Natio&al Pro-le's
i. Dra&bac%s
Rapid population gro&th
@ne,ual population density
Demographic di##erences
Religion and <inguistic parameters
ii. A(tio& Pla&
@nderstanding ground realities
Ma3imum co-ordination &ith state go!t", local
bodies, school Ad", parental group, religious group
Socio-economic #orecasting by stable education
system
Ra>i% Ga&)hi ShiCsha Missio& : !ie@ poi&t D$istt. $urgA
Ra+i! andhi Shi%sha Mission has been considered as one o# the most synergetic and
high pro#ile education mission underta%en #or achie!ing the MEducation #or allN
mission at shortest minimum time bound period"
EHisti&g S(e&ario of SSA DSo'e aspe(tsA
Drop out high turno!er o# the students (0oys and irls) #rom the schools
Recruitment and *raining o# *eacher- Poor per#ormance
-omputer training at schools 1 <ac% o# interest
-lassi#ication and analysis o# this study has been carried out &ith the reali5ation o#
the #act that the ob+ecti!es o# the mission ha!e not been #ul#illed as anticipated in the
SSA" *here#ore, there is need #or honest and holistic e##orts i# &e are desirous #or
substantial impro!ement in SSA"
Metho)olog*
*he contents o# this study and subse,uent analysis - interpretation are based on
Secondary in#ormation collected #rom di##erent SSA publications o# concerned
department o# Durg Distt" &hich represent a comprehensi!e picture o# success and
#ailures o# the programme" Hence there is su##icient ground &ith authentic
in#ormation by &hich all the elements can be easily de#ined, analy5ed and interpreted"
O+,ECTI!ES
*o #ind out the ma+or dra& bac%s and constraints #or pro!iding ,uality
education &ith special emphasis on DR=P =@* -H$<DRE2 and
REPEA*ERS at elementary and primary schools and &ays to retain them"
8'
*o restructure e##ecti!e classroom process at elementary stage &ith inno!ati!e
ideas at elementary stage #or strong and solid ,uality education"
*o #ind out &ays to bring ,ualitati!e change, personality change, beha!ioral
and attitudinal change o# the teachers through HRM - HRD practices and
e##ecti!e training method"
*o ma3imi5e the need and importance o# computers education amongst the
scholastic children"
INNO!ATI!E I$EAS
Mo)ular (ha&ge to 'aCe the (lassroo' pro(ess 'ore effe(ti%e : D(ha&ge i&
L.T.M.A
a) =pen and li!e classroom 1 =ld and traditional classroom system has become
ine##ecti!e" Ma+ority o# a!erage students in the class room #ind themsel!es
unreachable and mismatch their perception &ith the teacher due to une,ual
socio-economic and marital status" *here#ore, open classroom li%e Shanti
2i%etan or uru%ul *eaching System &ould be more pro#itable"
b) De!elop Eco #riendly attitude in the students"
c) *eam *eaching should be introduced to accelerate the interest and ,uality o# the
education pattern"
d) -reati!e classroom and cooperati!e learning are e##ecti!e &ays to inculcate
education among the students"
e) <ocal games, ;ol% dance, Music and ;ol% *ale must be incorporated in Hindi,
English to enable the student to ta%e more creati!e interest in learning"
So'e I)e&tifie) Co&strai&ts
S.No Aspe(ts Co&strai&ts
i"
Dropout and Repeater
-hildren
House hold responsibility
-hildren engaged in earning acti!ities
Socio-economic- Religious belie#s
Migration #or <i!elihood &ith parents"
Poor student 1 *eacher interaction
ii"
*eaching 7uality
<ac% o# interest
<ac% o# &ill to do
Political 1 bureaucratic pressure
-orruption
<ac% o# accountability
8?
$*&a'i( (ha&ges i& (lassroo' tea(hi&g te(h&i0ues @ith effe(ti%e parti(ipatio&
of stu)e&ts.
EFFECTI!E LEARNING =IT" INFORMAL TEC"NI.UES
*he result #rom in#ormal learning method can be obtained &ithin the shortest period
by dynamic change in learning process as mentioned abo!e" Drama, dance, puppet
sho& street play and educational tour are such de!ices &hich can pro!ide easy
learning o# maths, culture or general science to the children &ith high pro#ile sense o#
educational !alues"
*hese training de!ices are lo& cost de!ices and easily accessible as per change
scenario" *his &ill bring radical change in the beha!iour and attitude o# the teachers"
*hese programmes &ill be inno!ati!e ideas #or the parents and elders"
EBE)u(atio&
E-Education must be added in the classroom education system" *his &ill de!elop
interacti!e teaching" *eachers as &ell as the students can discuss &ith each other 1
Radio - ;or e##ecti!e listening
8A
I&&o%ati%e
Te(h&i0ues
A(hie%e'e&ts
2ational
-haracter
INFORMAL LEARNING
Drama ;ol%
Dance ;ol%
*ale
Magic
sho&
Historical
#ilm sho&
Puppet
sho&
Street play
role play
Educational
*our
-ultural
Calues
Maths Ethics en" Science
EBE$UCATION
Radio
(English
learning)
*ap
Recorder
($nteraction
)
*elephone
Mobile
($nteraction)
*ele-
communica
tion

($"*")
-omputer
*raining T
*eaching
(-ommunicatio
n)
I&&o%ati%e
Te(h&i0ues
A(hie%e'e&ts
*ape Recorder - ;or e##ecti!e tal%ing and listening
Mobile9*elephone - ;or e##ecti!e con!ersation &ith child parent teacher
-omputer - ;or e##ecti!e learning

$ROPOUT AN$ REPEATER C"IL$REN
Ta-le 9 $rop out )ata : 1557B5<B $istt. $urg
0oys BB?B )."A?I
irls BEA( ."(BI
*otal ?B.) (//I
Ta-le 19 Reaso& for $ropouts (hil)re&
DSur%e* (o&)u(te) -* ""S ? SSA : $istt. $urgA
Sl"2o" Reason 2o" o#
-hildren
Percentage
( Household Oor% 8'(? B.".AI
8" Migration (;or +ob) ()?E 8/"(8I
B" <ac% o# interest AE' (8"(AI
)" Earning -ompulsion A)) ((")AI
." ;ailure (in study) ?B. E"EEI
'" <ac% o# access (.E 8"(/I
?" Socio-culture reasons ()8 ("E)I
A" 2on #le3ibility in school timings BB /"))I
E" Miscellaneous reasons ))E '"(/I
*otal ?B.) (//I
CLASSIFICATION
$t has been obser!ed that the numbers o# dropout girls are higher (.)"(B) then boys" $t
sho&s that the social structure o# our society is still demanding girls #or household
&or%" *he SSA is still ine##ecti!e particularly #or girl students" *he dropouts #igure o#
boys and girls student ha!e di##erent type o# characteristics i# it is age-&ise classi#ied
as mentioned in the belo& table"
Ta-le 29 $rop Outs for the #ear 1557B5< DTotal 6E2<7A
Class #rs. +o*s I Girls I O%erall I
I '-A E.) 8A"8AI (/// 8."(( (E.) 8'".
II A-(( (/). B/-EA ((AB 8E-?( 888A B/"8E
IIIEI! ((-() (B?) )/"?B (?EA )."(' B(?8 )B"(B
2262 243 62<7 55
8E
Age &ise classi#ication o# dropout children ha!e signi#icant trend as mentioned in
*able B" *here is increasing trend o# droppers as the age increases" *he percent o#
drop out children start #rom 8. per cent on&ards and it goes up to ). per cent at the
age o# ((-() years" *here#ore, it is !ery much clear that children lea!e schools at
class $$$ or class $C le!el &ithin 8-B years o# study" $t means that SSA goes #or&ard
&ithout ./ per cent beginners students e!ery year, &hich is ,uite a serious matter"
$t is also important that the highest percent o# le#t out girls students are )."(' per cent
&ho are bet&een the age o# ((-() years" Reason #or #ailure o# SSA scheme (0et&een
((-() years) is mainly socio-economic" Religious and traditional barriers are prime
reason o# drop outs (*able 8)
INNO!ATI!E CLASSROOM I$EAS TO RETAIN SC"OOL GOING
C"IL$REN
(" -onducting parliamentary T Assembly sessions, Mar%et trend acti!ities &ith
acti!e participation (Role play)"
8" $nstallation o# computer at schools and teach the students #or career planning"
B" Mobile should be pro!ided to each drop out student so that regular interaction
could be done &ith the child-parents and school administration"
)" Earning through learning programme 1 E!ery child should be gi!en education
and !ocational training" Prepared materials should be sold and money should be
paid to the students"
I&&o%ati%e i)eas to pre%e&t "ousehol) @orCE Migratio&E Ear&i&g Co'pulsio&
pro-le's
DLear&i&g ha&)i(raft for ear&i&gA
For +o*s For Girls
0loc% Printing Embroidery 1 -rosier &or%
-eramic Oor% ;lo&er Ma%ing
Decorati!e Oor% *oy Ma%ing
Screen Printing >ute9 Pulp ma%ing
Oa3 and -andle Ma%ing -arry bag ma%ing
Tea(hi&g !alues through Fil's liCe9
Mougli (>ungle 0oo%), Arabian 2ight, Ceer Hanuman
B/
28.28%
30.98%
40.73%
0
10
20
30
40
50
'6-8 '8-11 '11-14
BOYS
25.11%
29.71%
45.16%
0
10
20
30
40
50
'6-8 '8-11 '11-14
GIRLS
26.57%
30.29%
43.13%
0
10
20
30
40
50
'6- 8 '8-11 '11-14
OVERALL
Hathi Mere Sathi, @p%ar, 2aya Daur, 0oot Polish
2ational Calues 1 0harat E% 6ho+
Ne@ Approa(h to a(hie%e (o'prehe&si%e result of SSA9
SSA S&arnim 0ha!ishya Pahchan Do+ana
Colour Cre)it Car) S*ste'
A" 0est *eacher : 0lue -ard : -ash a&ard o# Rs" (///"//
0est Parents : Dello& -ard : -ash a&ard o# Rs" (.//"//
0est -ommunity <eader : =range -ard : Honor by the o!t"
0" For Stu)e&t Do& su((essful passi&gA
;or '-A Drs (-lass-$) : Red -ard : Additional #ood grain9
%erosene oil to the #amily
;or A-(( Drs (-lass $$,$$$) : Pin% -ard : Purchase o# #ertili5ers,
seeds
;or ((-() Drs(-lass $C,C) :reen -ard : Agriculture loan
Medical *reatment at concessional rates
Li%e (lass roo' (o&(ept
MShantini%etanN pattern o# education in an open en!ironment is the most e##ecti!e
method o# teaching"
Fee) -a(C
Stu)* P*ra'i)
B(
FIN$INGS
$ncreasing number o# dropout students is a serious matter"
irls students cutting o## more #re,uently at the age o# ((-() than boys"
Socio-Economic condition o# the society is still unchanged"
*he impact o# SSA is negati!e"
<ac% o# &ill to do has been obser!ed in the school administration"
Some in#luence o# political pressure on SSA"
School condition and in#rastructure #acilities are poor"
Selection processes o# teachers, *eaching S%ill, 6no&ledge o# the teachers are
belo& a!erage"
2obody is accountable #or delay in #ul#illment o# SSA"
CONCLUSION
Mission SSA is pioneer e##ort to&ards composite and comprehensi!e achie!ement o#
Education #or all in the country, but some dra&bac%s are still to be recti#ied to ma%e
the mission a grand success"
*his study re!eals that there are number o# dra&bac%s in programming, planning and
implementation le!el o# the system &hich need genuine and holistic approach, also
there is need o# positi!e attitude and proacti!e characteristic &ith sincerity and
accountability in the SSA team to obtain positi!e result"
Politicians and bureaucrats should be more transparent as they can ma%e a the o#
signi#icant contribution to to&ards the success o# SSA"
*he SSA programmes, schedules and modules should be re!ie&ed and restructured
#ollo&ing the modern management system as gi!en in the HRD-HRM concepts" 0y
this the remaining and ongoing SSA plans can be easily achie!ed to ma%e the
education #or all mission success"
B8
PROFESSIONAL $E!ELOPMENT FOR EFFECTI!E
INCLUSI!E CLASSROOM
Dr. Maoj 2"mar Dash$
%&S'(%)'
2#ucation o) &hi#ren 8ith S'ecia "ee#s (&8S") is an integra 'art o) genera
system o) e#ucation. Incusi(e e#ucation mo#e is a means to achie(e the target o)
2#ucation Bor $ (2B$) an# >ni(ersai+ation o) 2ementary 2#ucation (>22). *he
aim o) incusi(e e#ucation is to 'ro(i#e e#ucation to the chi#ren in #i))erent abiities
in genera community at a e(es an# 're'are them )or norma gro%th an# enabe
them to )ace i)e %ith their norma counter'arts. In this regar# our teachers %orking
at #i))erent e(e o) eementary e#ucation must be rea#y to bear hea(ier res'onsibiity
to 'ro(i#e e#ucation to &8S"s in reguar schoos an# shou#ering the res'onsibiity
)or their a roun# #e(eo'ment through common system o) e#ucation an# through
common core o) curricuum. 5ence1 'ro)essiona com'etency o) teacher must be
im'ro(e# through recurrent training an# orientation 'rogrammes. $ccor#ingy our
trainers an# master trainers must )ee themse(es com'etent to 'ro(i#e 9uaity
training to our teachers. *he 'resent stu#y re)ect (arious as'ects o) 'ro)essiona
com'etency o) teachers %ith regar# to han#ing casses in incusi(e setting. *he
)in#ings o) the stu#y may he' aca#emics1 a#ministrators1 'oicy makers an# other
stake ho#ers o) eementary e#ucation to %ork e))ecti(ey to%ar#s the target o)
2#ucation Bor $ )or 'ro(i#ing 9uaity eementary e#ucation.
INTRO$UCTION
7uality impro!ement in elementary education is the prime concern o# o!t" o# $ndia
&ith a #ocus to pro!ide ,uality education to all" $t is high time to e!ol!e a strategy at
national le!el #or the e##ecti!e #unctioning o# elementary school system"
Accountability need to be #i3ed &ith regard to enhance the pro#essional e##iciency o#
teachers &or%ing at !arious le!el through recurrent ,uality, e##ecti!e
training9orientation" =ur e3isting system9structure9practice o# education must be
#le3ible to accommodate each and e!ery indi!iduals including children &ith disability
as &ell, #or achie!ing the millennium goal o# uni!ersali5ation o# elementary
education and education #or all" $t demand collaborati!e and cooperati!e e##ort #rom
all a round" Simply enrolling children in school &ill not be able to sol!e the purpose"
*raining o# teachers on inclusi!e education, de!elopment school and classroom
en!ironment, ensuring academic as &ell as administrati!e support #rom higher
authority is the prere,uisite o# ,uality education" Pro!iding minimum essential
#acilities to teachers to deal e##ecti!ely &ith children and community
o&nership9participation and e##ecti!e classroom process also #acilitate e##ecti!e
inclusion o# -hildren &ith Special 2eeds (-OS2s) in regular schools"
BB
RATIONALE OF T"E STU$#
*o pro!ide education to -OS2 &ithin the conte3t o# general educational setting is
not impossible but its e##ecti!e implementation needs a clear, de#inite and strict
policy &ith ade,uate #inancial support" An e3tensi!e programme o# orientation and
sta## training &ith necessary support ser!ices are necessary to mo!e in the &ay to
achie!e the success o# inclusi!e education" Still many o# us, including administrators,
teachers etc" do not ha!e a clear concept on Special Education, integrated education
and inclusi!e education" E!en in our teacher education programme ($n-ser!ice as
&ell as pre-ser!ice), there is no component o# inclusi!e education" $ntegrated
education and $nclusi!e education are t&o di##erent terms" *hough both ha!e the
similar ob+ecti!es but approach is completely di##erent" At national le!el as &ell as
state le!el, there is no inclusi!e education component under elementary education" $t
is un#ortunate that i&tegrate) e)u(atio& is being understood as i&(lusi%e e)u(atio&"
-oncept o# integrated education deals &ith pro!iding educational #acility to -OS2s
in Special Schools at the beginning and gradually ma%e them #it #or entering into the
general schools to get the educational opportunity li%e their normal counterparts i"e"
in integrated education, &e ma%e the child #it #or school" 0ut in inclusi!e education
&e ma%e the school9classroom #it #or the child #rom the beginning" *here is no
special school, special teacher and special inter!ention" 0ut the same
acti!ities9inter!entions are to be modi#ied according to the need o# all children" *here
is no training component on curriculum transaction under inclusi!e education #or
trainers, master trainers" *his perhaps re#lect lac% o# !ision #or ,uality elementary
education" -onsidering the abo!e aspects in mind, a study &as underta%en to assess
the pro#essional de!elopment o# teachers &or%ing at elementary schools &ith regard
to handling such issues &ithin conte3t o# their school and classroom in &hich
-OS2s are a part"
MET"O$OLOG#
Sa'ple
*he sample o# the study includes ?/ teachers #rom (/ elementary schools o# the
an+am district o# the state =rissa" ;i!e bloc%s &ere selected #rom the district
an+am" ;rom each 0loc%, t&o schools &ere ta%en as the sample school" =ut o# t&o
school one school belong to a 2A- (semi urban) and other school belong to a
Panchayat (rural)" School ha!ing ade,uate sta## &as selected as the sample school"
All teachers belongs to that school &ere ta%en as sample o# the study"
B)
NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAME=ORK D155<A
Incusi(e e#ucation #o not mean to bring &8S"s u'to the e(e to maintain their
gra#es at the same e(e as chi#ren %ithout S'ecia 2#ucationa "ee#s rather it
is to meet the in#i(i#uai+e# goas o) &hi#ren 8ith S'ecia 2#ucationa "ee#s
%ithin the conte-t o) genera e#ucationa settings an# acti(ities.
Purposi!e sampling techni,ue &as adopted #or collection o# rele!ant data" As all
schools are not e,uipped &ith ade,uate sta##" So the school &here there is no problem
&ith regard to number o# teachers &ere selected as the sample schools"
Tool
A structured ,uestionnaire &as de!eloped &here the ,uestionnaire &as di!ided into
#i!e sections" Each section #ocused on a particular aspect" Section i) $n#ormation
related to $n#rastructure4 Section ii) $n#ormation related to classroom management4
Section iii) $n#ormation related to transactional strategies4 Section i!) $n#ormation
related to assessment Process4 and !) $n#ormation related to o!erall pro#essional
de!elopment o# teachers"
Metho)
Data &as collected through Sur!ey method &ith the help o# pre-designed
,uestionnaire"
Statisti(al Te(h&i0ue
;or analysis and interpretation o# collected data, statistical techni,ues li%e percentage,
chi-s,uare &ere used"
Pro(e)ure
2ine M"Ed" students &ere gi!en ade,uate instruction and orientation #or collection o#
data #rom #i!e di##erent bloc%s (E schools)" $n!estigator personally collected data
#rom one school and discussed &ith teachers and other #unctionaries o# elementary
education comprehensi!ely on !arious aspects o# inclusi!e education" -ollection o#
data &as completed in one day" Attempt &as ta%en to analy5e and interpret the
collected data systematically"
ANAL#SIS AN$ INTERPRETATION
*he #ocus o# the study &as to obser!e the pro#essional de!elopment o# teachers to
#acilitate inclusi!e education in their school in &hich they are &or%ing and their
perception as &ell as readiness to&ards inclusi!e education" *he &hole analysis has
been di!ided into #i!e sections" *he #irst section (i) deals &ith analysis and
interpretation on in#rastructure #acility4 the second section (ii) deals &ith analysis and
interpretation on classroom management4 the third section4 (iii) deals &ith analysis
and interpretation on curricular transactional strategies4 Section (i!) deals &ith
analysis and interpretation on assessment process4 and Section (!) deals &ith analysis
and interpretation on o!erall pro#essional de!elopment o# teachers"
Se(tio& I9 A&al*sis a&) I&terpretatio& o& I&frastru(ture Fa(ilit*
S. Aspe(ts Respo&ses i& I
B.
No. Mostly 2ot At All
(" Does the school ha!e ramps #or =rthopaedically
handicapped children
E/
(2X/E)
(/
(2X/()
8" Does the school ha!e special room (Resource Room)P 8/
(2X/8)
A/
(2X/A)
B" Does the school ha!e ade,uate teachersP E/
(2X/E)
(/
(2X/()
)" Does the school ha!e teachers trained on inclusi!e education
P
8/
(2X/8)
A/
(2X/A)
." Does the school en!ironment conduci!e #or -OS2s" )/
(2X/))
'/
(2X/')
'" Does the school ha!e ade,uate e,uipment #or (H$, C$, MR
etc")
//
(2X//)
(//
(2X(/)
'a#le 34 Sho5s !forma+!o rela+ed +o read!ess of school +o accommoda+e
)h!ldre W!+h S*ec!al 6eeds
A perusal o# the abo!e *able 1$ re!ealed that E/ percent (2XE) o# the sample schools
ha!e ramps #or accommodating orthopaedically handicapped children but it is
surprised to note that only 8/ percent (2X8) schools ha!e resource room #or
pro!iding remedial measures to children &ith special needs" *hough almost in all
schools (2XE) ade,uate number o# teachers ha!e been appointed but only in t&o
schools (8/ percent) there is specially trained teachers on inclusi!e education" 2o
school is e,uipped &ith rele!ant e,uipment, materials and other necessary apparatus
#or pro!iding support to -OS2s" $t &as noticed that only )/ percent (2X)) o# the
sample schools ha!e conduci!e en!ironment to accommodate children &ith special
needs" *his re#lects the poor condition o# school en!ironment &hich in turn a##ects
the enrolment, retention o# -OS2s and classroom process #or curricular transaction
as &ell"
Se(tio& II9 A&al*sis a&) I&terpretatio& o& Effe(ti%e Classroo' Ma&age'e&t
'a#le 33 sho5s res*oses of +eachers rela+ed +o classroom Maa/eme+
;rom the abo!e table it is re!ealed that only ))"B percent o# sample teachers (2XB()
ha!e ade,uate %no&ledge on appropriate seating arrangement #or children &ith
special needs in classroom" Cery #e& teachers i"e" (."?I (2X(() are pro!iding
S.
6o.
%s*ec+s (es*ose ! 7
$gree Disagree >n#eci#e#
(" Ade,uate arrangement about seating arrangement
o# -OS2s"
JJ.D
("KD.)
D..J
("K//)
/J.D
("K.L)
8" Pro!iding indi!idual attention to -OS2s" .M.L
("K..)
JH.I
("KDJ)
DM.L
("K/M)
B" De!elop indi!iduali5ed instructional plan #or
-OS2s
/.G
("K0/)
IL..
("KJL)
D0.0
("K/.)
)" Mi3ing9grouping children &ith special needs &ith
normal counterparts
/M.L
("K.H)
MM.L
("KDG)
.H.I
("K.D)
." Pro!ide attention on childrenFs Readiness" .H.I
("K.D)
MH.I
("KJ.)
//.H
("K.I)
'" De!elop strategy to cope &ith all children /J.D
("K.L)
DH.I
("K/L)
DL..
("K/I)
B'
indi!idual attention to children &here as 8"E percent o# them (2X/8) are able to
de!elop indi!iduali5ed instructional plan9strategies to meet the need and demand o#
-OS2s in regular schools" (A sample teachers (8."? percent) are in a position to
#orm group constituting -OS2s and their normal counterparts #or curricular
transaction &hereas only (A"' percent teachers (2X(B) pro!ide attention on readiness
o# children #or curricular transaction and de!elop acti!ity accordingly" Again it &as
noted that more number o# teachers about ?. percent o# teachers are not in a position
to de!elop strategy #or -OS2s so as to bring them at par &ith their normal
counterparts" $t is a serious concern &ith regard to planning o# curricular transaction
and its e##ecti!e implementation in the light o# education #or all"
Se(tio& III9 A&al*sis a&) I&terpretatio& o& Curri(ular Tra&sa(tio&al Strategies
'a#le 333 sho5s res*oses of +eachers rela+ed +o )"rr!c"lar 'rasac+!o S+ra+e/y
An e3amination o# *able $$ re!ealed that teachers &or%ing at elementary le!el hardly
procured instructional material (."? percent teachers) and use *<Ms to satis#y the
desired need and re,uirement o# children" About .?"8 percent teachers rarely used
*<Ms #or curriculum transaction" Acti!ity based method though considered as most
suitable method #or curricular transaction, yet only 8"A percent sample teachers &ere
able to de!elop acti!ity #or e##ecti!e classroom process &hereas 8(") percent o# them
de!elop occasionally" *his clearly sho&s the lac% o# interest9enthusiasm o# teachers
#or ma%ing teaching-learning process realistic and e##ecti!e #or children" -lassroom
process can not be made attracti!e &ithout in!ol!ement o# all children but it is
surprising to obser!e that in our teachers, there is lac% o# pro#essional e##iciency and
commitment to&ards ma%ing the classroom process child-centered, acti!ity based and
more e##ecti!e" *eacher must be tact#ul in ma%ing the children learn #rom co-
S.
"o.
$s'ects !es'onse in N
Mosty Sometimes "ot at a
(" Procured instructional
materials #or -OS2s
."?
(2X/))
(?"(
(2X(8)
??"8
(2X.))
8" @se *<M according to need o#
children"
(."?
(2X(()
8?"(
(2X(E)
.?"8
(2X)/)
B" De!elop acti!ity #or e##ecti!e
classroom teaching
8"A
(2X/8)
8(")
(2X(.)
?."A
(2X.B)
)" $n!ol!e -OS2 in teaching-
learning process"
?8"A
(2X.()
(?"(
(2X(8)
(/"(
(2X/?)
." @se appropriate method #or
deli!ering lesson in
heterogeneous grouping
'A"'
(2X)A)
B/"/
(2X8()
(")
(2X/()
'" @se school
en!ironment9surrounding as
*<M"
A"'
(2X/')
(8"A
(2X/E)
?A"'
(2X..)
?" De!elop strategy to con!ert co-
curricular acti!ity as teaching
strategy"
)"B
(2X/B)
(."?
(2X(()
A/"/
(2X.')
B?
curricular acti!ity" 0ut only )"B percent (2XB) teachers could do it &here as others
are hardly ta%ing care o# it" *his re#lects the poor teacher education and orientation o#
teachers on inclusi!e education through 8/ days in-ser!ice teachers training
programme"
Se(tio& I!9 A&al*sis a&) I&terpretatio& o& Assess'e&t Pro(ess
'a#le 3V sho5s res*oses of +eachers rela+ed +o %ssessme+ Process
Abo!e table $C clearly indicate that only 8"A percent o# sample teachers are #amiliar
&ith !ariety o# assessment mechanism9process9strategies to be adopted in classroom"
$t is one o# the crucial aspect, on the basis o# &hich designing o# classroom process
depends" 2o sample teacher (e3cept ."? percent) is implementing speci#ic assessment
techni,ue #or curricular e!aluation" =nly (8"E percent teachers (2XE) use pre-
designed tool #or assessment, &hereas A?"( percent (2X'() teachers do not ha!e clear
idea9concept and pre-planning on assessment techni,ue and strategies to be adopted"
$t is obser!ed that )"B percent teachers mostly assess per#ormance o# children
periodically in schools but ()"? percent sometimes assess" A/ percent o# sample
teachers do not at all use any assessment strategy #or e!aluation childrenFs
per#ormance and their teaching strategies as &ell" $t is not an healthy indication on
the part o# teacherFs pro#essional gro&th and sound classroom process" More than E/
percent teachers do not ha!e any training9orientation on assessment
process9method9techni,ue"
S.
"o.
$s'ects !es'onse in N
Mosty Sometime
s
"ot at a
(" ;amiliarity &ith !ariety o#
assessment strategies
/.H
("K0/)
/..J
("K.M)
LM.H
("KMD)
8" De!eloped any speci#ic
assessment techni,ue #or
curricular e!aluation"
A
M.L
("K0J)
G0.D
("KII)
B" ;ollo& pre-designed tool #or
assessment" A
./.G
("K0G)
HL..
("KI.)
)" Assess per#ormance o# children at
periodic inter!als"
J.D
("K0D)
.M.L
("K..)
H0.0
("KMI)
." De!elop remedy on the basis o#
assessment result"
..J
("K0.)
.0.0
("K0L)
HH.I
("KI/)
'" @ndergone training9orientation on
assessment techni,ue A
L..
("K0M)
G/.G
("KIM)
BA
Se(tio& !9 A&al*sis a&) I&terpretatio& o& O%erall Professio&al $e%elop'e&t of
Tea(hers
*abe V sho%s res'onses o) teachers reate# to assessment 'rocess
;rom the abo!e *able C it is #ound that there is signi#icant di##erence in responses o#
teachers belonging to elementary le!el &ith regard to their pro#essional de!elopment
e3cept in Sl" 2o" ' i"e" impro!ement in academic s%ill" *his sho&s that teachers
&or%ing at elementary le!el possesses enough academic %no&ledge but there is lac%
o# pro#essionalism to put it into practice #or educating children &ith special needs
together &ith their normal counterparts" $t is really a matter o# concern that only (."?
percent teachers sho&s #a!ourable perception &ith regard to clarity o# concept o#
inclusi!e education and )/ percent o# sample teacher sho&s perception that is not
#a!ourable" About 8"A percent o# teachers possess pro#essional ,uali#ication on
educating -OS2 and )"B teachers re#erred S<Ms9modules #or e##ecti!e classroom
transaction" *hough .8"A percent (2XB?) o# sample teachers e3hibit
positi!e9#a!ourable perception to&ards inclusi!e setting, they need
orientation9training to clari#y their concept and de!elop commitment to put it into
S.
"o.
$s'ects !es'onse in N
Mosty Sometime
s
"ot at
a
&hiAS9
Vaue
$%areness7kno%e#ge on
the conce't o) incusi(e
e#ucation.
.M.L
("K..)
J0.0
("K/H)
JJ.D
("KD.) G.GLOO
Pro)essiona
9uai)ication i) any
/.H
("K0/)
L0.0
("KJG)
/L./
("K.G)
JH.MJO
O
SLMs 7 SIMs 7 mo#ue
re)erre# )or e))ecti(e
cassroom 'rocess.
J.D
("KD)
JJ.D
("KD.)
./.L
("KDI)
/L../O
O
>n#ergone training on
the use o) SLMs7
SIMs7Mo#ue
A I0.0
("KJ/)
J0.0
("K/H)
DG./OO
.. Positi!e perception
to&ards inclusi!e setting"
.8"A
(2XB?)
B)"B
(2X8))
(8"E
(2X/E)
('"AB
RR
8"
$mpro!ement in
academic s%ill
8(")
(2X(.)
BA"'
(2X8?)
)/"/
(2X8A)
)")A
B"
@ndergone training on
inclusi!e education"
8?"(
(2X(E)
)?"(
(2XBB)
8."A
(2X(A)
'"/B
R
)"
;amiliarity &ith the use
o# technology #or
classroom transaction"
?"(
(2X/.)
BA"'
(2X8?)
.)"B
(2XBA)
8)"8
RR
."
Ad+ustment &ith disabled
T non-disable children in
class"
B(")
(2X88)
.A"'
(2X)()
(/"/
(2X/?)
8)"?'
RR
BE
practice in real classroom situation" About B(") percent teachers only &ere able to
ad+ust their teaching strategies #or accommodating -OS2 along &ith normal
counterpart"
CRITICAL $ISCUSSION
-urricular Adaptation #or e##ecti!e inclusi!e education though di##icult but not
impossible" $t re,uire &ill9commitment9dedication o# teachers on the one hand and
positi!e attitude o# administrators (higher authority) support o# community and other
sta%eholders including parents on the other hand" *he important concern is to build
the in#rastructure9#oundation accordingly so as to #acilitate education o# children &ith
special needs and teaching o# teachers in the conte3t o# general education and acti!ity
#or accommodating -OS2s suitably" Se!eral ,uestions are to be ans&ered be#ore
discussing the classroom process and its e##ecti!eness" Does the -OS2 really
participate &ith their normal counterparts in the classroomP Does the school and
classroom en!ironment need any modi#icationsP Does our teachers ha!e ade,uate
potential to handle -OS2s along &ith normal counterpartsP Does the school
e,uipped &ith essential e,uipments, materials #or #acilitating education o# -OS2s
along&ith normal counterpartsP Does the administration sho& #a!ourable attitude
to&ards this disad!antaged groupP Does the 8/-days in-ser!ice training programme
ade,uately co!er inclusi!e educationP Does the trainers and master trainers
(0R--s9-R--s, D$E* #unctionaries) ha!e enough potential to train our teachers to
handle inclusi!e situationP E3isting system o# our elementary education need to
ans&er the abo!e ,uestions &ith a !ie& to encourage our teacher to empo&er them on
!arious aspects o# inclusi!e education"
=ur system o# elementary education must #ocus #irst o# all in pro!iding training to
trainers and master trainers (those &ho are so called resource person) during 8/-days
teachers training programme" *he capacity o# the trainers9master trainers must be
strengthen at Jonal <e!el, State <e!el, Regional <e!el and 2ational <e!el through
pro#essionally trained educationists" *here is no such training9orientation #or
resource group &or%ing &ith o!t" Sector and 2on-o!ernment Sector as &ell"
E!en in many cases members o# resource group at State, Regional and 2ational le!el
are not pro#essionally trained" Ohat ,uality do &e e3pectP Maintaining o# #ormality
&ith regard to completion o# training duration seems to be a healthy competition only"
*his problem can be tac%led by setting 2ational, Regional, State, District and 0loc%
<e!el core training group &ith pro#essionally competent indi!idual" $ntegration o#
technology in this regard can pa!e a path #or pro!iding training to large target group"
@nless the trainers and master trainers are trained ade,uately and build up their
capacity, the in-ser!ice teachers training programme &ill ser!e no purpose"
Accountability need to be #i3ed on D$E* #unctionaries to train in-ser!ice teachers"
Accordingly, each and e!ery D$E* must be &ell e,uipped &ith regard to
in#rastructure as &ell as manpo&er" $t is surprising to %no& that e!en today many
D$E*s are not #unctioning properly" *here is lac% o# co-ordination bet&een State
Pro+ect =##ice (SP=), S-ER* and D$E*" *here is no training9orientation #or D$E*
)/
#unctionaries" *he ob+ecti!e &ith &hich D$E*s &ere established remain as a dream
to be achie!edP $t is high time to change our strategies9mechanism &ith regard to
e##ecti!e implementation o# in-ser!ice teachers training programme" $t is essential to
create a 2ational and State Support Ser!ice e3clusi!ely #or inclusi!e education"
-apacity building o# teachers and other SSA #unctionaries is crucial #or ,uality
elementary education and inclusi!e education practices" *raining o# teachers to build
their con#idence in the &ay o# pro#essional de!elopment is the %ey issue o# inclusi!e
education" Oith pro#essionally trained and competent teachers, it is not impossible to
modi#y the curriculum and de!elop suitable transactional strategy to suit the needs o#
-OS2s and their normal counterpart &ith the same classrooms" $t is essential to
pro!ide orientation to administrators &or%ing in the #ield o# elementary education on
&hat is inclusion and &hy it is essential and ho& to implement it in school #or the
bene#it o# all" Appropriate assessment and e!aluation mechanism is a pre-re,uisite #or
de!eloping indi!iduali5ed instruction plan9programme" $t helps in #i3ing ob+ecti!es
o# teaching #or curricular transaction and in identi#ying suitable acti!ity #or optimal
de!elopment o# learners as &ell"
Attitudinal barrier is a great hurdle in the &ay o# education o# -OS2s in regular
classroom" Multi#arious acti!ities o# teachers is able to remo!e such barrier #rom the
mind o# one and all" Parents, -ommunity and other #unctionaries need to de!elop
positi!e attitude, perception to&ards optimum de!elopment o# -OS2" -lassmates
and Peers also need to do a lot through in!ol!ing -OS2s in co-curricular acti!ity
li%e games and sports" -OS2s must not #eel neglected or re+ected" *hey must #eel
themsel!es a part o# the team and an acti!e member o# the group " $t depends upon
ho& tact#ully our teachers handle the situation in and around the classroom, so
teacher must be pro#essionally competent and psychologically sound #or bearing the
hea!ier responsibility o# education o# children &ith special needs in general school"
CONCLUSION
$t is the appropriate time to thin% #or bringing re#orms at !arious le!el o# in-ser!ice
teacher training programe &ith regard to e##ecti!e implementation o# inclusi!e
education" -urricular and co-curricular aspects must be accessible to all children, not
#or a speci#ic group" E##ecti!eness o# school depends upon pro#essional impro!ement
o# teachers and its implementation in classroom situation" At the same time, school
must be pro!ided &ith ade,uate learning materials (teaching-learning materials) and
assisti!e de!ices #or the education o# -OS2s and e##ecti!e classroom processes as
&ell" $nclusi!e society i"e" Special *eachers, 2=s, CE-s, Parents and general
schools must collaborate &ith each other and e3tent their support to one another #or
ma%ing the goal o# inclusi!e education a real success" -hallenges related to inclusi!e
education should be discussed at a common plat#orm to #ind out its solution #or
uni#orm ,uality input" *his society must &or% to empo&er our teachers &ith a
mission" -urrently it needs a mind setup on the part o# our teachers, administrators
and other #unctionaries" Success o# inclusion demand right perception o# one and all
associated in the achie!ement o# the historic goal o# Education ;or All"
)(
A STU$# OF !ALUESE .UALIT# AN$ +E"A!IOR T"ROUG"
ORIENTATION PRACTICE OF PARIPAT" IN ST$. ! OF T"E
#OGANAN$ PRIMAR# SC"OOLE +ASMAT AN$ T"EIR
EFFECT
Sm+. S.M. 3/ole$
INTRO$UCTION
Calue education has become a challenging concern in the modern conte3t" $ts scope
becomes all the more articulate &hen !ie&ed in terms o# the roles and role perception
o# a teacher" *he present e3position is de!oted to enumerating the !alues and
associated ,ualities o# beha!iour &ith an intent o# grooming the teacher"
Since the middle o# the last century, concern has been e3pressed by !arious sections
o# the society about the progressi!e erosion in the morality o# the ne& generation and
a general decline in character among a large section o# the people" Oith the passage
o# time the !oice o# concern has become louder despite the #acts that many attempts
ha!e been made simultaneously to chec% this deterioration in the moral de!elopment
o# the citi5ens" *his seems to be the general trend, in the de!eloped as &ell as
de!eloping &orlds" Re#erring to this global trend, Education -ommission ((E')-'')
obser!ed that the &ea%ening o# social and moral !alues in the younger generation is
creating many serious social and ethical con#licts in &estern societies and there is
already a desire among great &estern, thin%ers to balance the %no&ledge and s%ills
&hich science and technology bring &ith the !alues and insights associated &ith
ethics and religion at itFs best !ia a search #or the %no&ledge o# the sel#, the meaning
o# li#e, the relationship o# man to other human beings and to the ultimate reality"
*hus, the situation that is de!eloping is important to gi!e a proper !alue orientation to
our educational system" *here is a the need to pay attention to the inculcation o# right
!alues among the students at all stage o# education" $t is heartening to note that the
a&areness o# this responsibly has been gro&ing since independence" Ho&e!er it has
become necessary and urgent to adopt acti!e measures to gi!e a proper !alue
orientation to education"
E$UCATION AN$ NEE$ FOR INCULCATION OF !ALUES
6othari -ommission has rightly obser!ed the e3panding %no&ledge and the gro&ing
po&er that it places at the disposal o# modern society must, there#ore, be combined
&ith strengthening and deepening o# the sense o# social responsibility and %eener
appreciation o# moral and spiritual !alues"
$nculcation o# obser!able !alues in the people is #elt essential #or meeting the crisis o#
the character" $n the rapidly de!eloping situation it is e,ually important #or us to gi!e
proper !alues orientation to our education system"
)8
Dr" 2"*" Ram+i in his boo% MCalue =riented School EducationN has mentioned that
the #ollo&ing !alues should #rom an integral part o# our entire school program:
i) -ourage ii) *ruth iii) @ni!ersal <o!e i!) Respect #or all religions !) Dignity o#
manual &or% !i) Social ser!ice !ii) Purity and !iii) Peace o# +oy"
*he 2ational Policy o# Education ((EA') also has clearly recommended
MRead+ustment in the curriculum in order to ma%e education a #orce#ul tool #or the
culti!ation o# social and moral !alues education being an attempt to e##ect all round
de!elopment o# the young #uture citi5en o# the society o##ers best opportunity #or
inculcation o# !alues in them and #or de!eloping them in to men o# characterN" As
also stressed by Ramamurthy -ommittee 1 (EE/, Education must pro!ide a climate
#or the nature o# !alues both as a personali5ed set o# !alues #orming oneFs character
and including necessarily social cultural and national !alues so as to ha!e to conte3t
and meaning #or actions and decisions and in order to enable the present to act &ith
con!iction and commitment" $t &as perhaps the deep concern #or de!elopment o#
!alues in the learners that made the committee to title its report as Q*o&ards an
Enlightened and Human SocietyF and argue that true education must humani5e the
person"
7uality in human terms has also been emphasi5ed by 6ornhouser ((EE') &ho
stresses that %no&ledge inter&o!en &ith !alues creates &isdom &hich should be the
ultimate aim o# education and this aim should not be allo&ed to be carried a&ay by
the more !isible material &ell being goal o# education"
IMPLEMENTATION OF !ALUE E$UCATION
*he primary responsibility o# creating a conducti!e en!ironment rests on the shoulder
o# teacher, &ho is the %ingpin in any educational system as it is &ho directly comes
in contact &ith students and translates the curriculum in to action" Re#erring to the
signi#icance o# teachers in this endea!or the Mudaliar -ommission ((E.B)
emphasi5ed that school teachers can be in#used &ith a high sense about their destiny
only &hen they are made to reali5e that they are engaged in the ma%ing o# better
human beings and creating a better social order and not merely teaching a dull
prescribed syllabus" $t &ould not be &rong to say that a nation is made great by its
teacher" *his happens &hen besides beings masters in their o&n disciplines and
competent in communication s%ills, they should posses and display ,ualities o#
leadership and the accepted norms o# beha!iour" *hese !ie&s are also echoed in the
Delores -ommission ((EE') &hich asserted M $t is the teacher &hose role can help
immensely in the inculcation o# !alues and that teachers great strength lies in the
e3ample they set o# curiosity, open mindedness, &illingness to put their assumption to
test and to ac%no&ledge mista%es and most o# all they must transmit lo!e o# learning"
=ur HonFable President Dr" A"P">" Abdul 6alam addressing the nation on the
occasion o# *eacherFs day recalled some o# his most memorable encounters &ith his
teachers &hich later on pro!ed !ital turning points in the li#e" He paid rich tributes to
)B
those teachers in primary school as &ell as in higher education that had
unmitigatingly and untiringly tried to sol!e students learning problems and had
al&ays encouraged their spirit o# in,uiry and in,uisiti!eness to remain ali!e" He says
that one o# the uni,ue characteristics #or creating enlightened human being is that the
teacher becomes not only role model #or the students in respect o# learning but also
#or shaping his li#e &ith great dreams and aims"
*here#ore, teacher is the most !ital and appropriate person in the entire #ormal
educational settings #or inculcating !alues in young learners"
Calues are o# !arious %inds and named according to their speci#ication
Aesthetic Calue: -oncerning Arts, Dancing, Painting, Dramati5ation, Music
etc"
Spiritual !alues: -oncerning &ith spirit
Moral !alues: Related &ith ethics
Social !alues: -oncerning &ith society
T*pes of !alues
*o be a role model #or students the teacher should imbibe and practice the #ollo&ing
!alues and ,ualities o# beha!iour" *he list ho&e!er is not e3hausti!e and may be
#urther e3tended"
Calues are categori5ed in di##erent types" *he three ma+or types o# !alues are as
#ollo&ing:
I&)i%i)ual %alues So(ial %alues Natio&al %alue
-leanliness E,uality Patriotism
Sel# employment
sense
0rotherhood 2ational
$ntegrati
on
Responsibility -haracter
Dignity o# labour *han%#ulness
Scienti#ic outloo% Humanity
Positi!e thin%ing -o-operation
Sympathy 2on-!iolence
;earlessness Respect #or others
Sel# discipline
*olerance
Researches has established that once a teacher is oriented to these !alues then during
the teaching-learning process in the classroom, his !alue orientation &ill get
transmitted to his students"
))
S(hool Progra''es for $e%elopi&g !alues
;ollo&ing are some o# the important acti!ities to be underta%en in the school in this
regard
(" School Paripath
8" Health and -leanliness programmes"
B" Social @se#ul Producti!e Oor% Programme
)" -iti5enship *raining Programme
." -elebration o# 2ational ;esti!al
'" -ultural Programmes
?" Social Ser!ice Programme"
Relatio& -et@ee& E)u(atio& a&) !alues
%ccord!/ +o 2!l*a+r!ck
(" M*hat out o# manFs capacity #or goal see%ing beha!iour arise his &ants and e##orts
and out o# these, come consciously chosen ends (goals) and meansN
8" MCalues relate to the aims o# human li#e" ;or the achie!ement o# the aims men
#rame certain notions and these notions are called !aluesN"
$n the &ords o# Reid MEducation is a part o# li#e and clearly our ,uestion about !alues
and education are inseparable #rom longer ,uestion o# !alues o# li#e" Calues are
embodied in educational practiceN"
Education de!elops the sense o# discrimination bet&een good and bad" *his
discrimination is based on !alues and these !alues are tested in schools" $t has been
rightly remar%ed MAims are an end by themsel!es and !alues are the productN"
Calues o# education are the same as li#e" *hese !alues are indi!idual as &ell as social
and play signi#icant role in li#e"
O+,ECTI!ES
*o prepare pre test on !alue education #or the Std" .
th
"
*o prepare e##ecti!e paripath #or the students"
$mplementation o# the prepared tas%"
*o arrange post test on guided paripath"
Assu'ptio&s
Daily paripath ruled in the school"
-o-curricular acti!ities arranged in the school"
).
"#POT"ESIS
Oith purpose#ul preplanning and e##ecti!e paripath ruled on .
th
Std" &e #ound
positi!e e##ect:
Operatio&al $efi&itio&
School paripath in order to ma%e education a #orce#ul tool #or the
culti!ation o# social and moral !alues"
Li'itatio&
*his research is only #or 8' students o# .
th
Std" in Doganand Primary School,
0asmath"
Metho)
E3perimental and obser!ation methods &ere used #or e!aluation"
Tools
*o get the in#ormation an attitude scale &as used on Paripath pre and post test mar%s
obtained are indicated by mean, medium, mode and co-relation"
A&al*sis of $ata
Mar%s obtained #rom pre and post-test are as belo&"
S.No. Na'e of the Stu)e&ts Pre test
DJA
Post
test D*A
J
1
#
1
J#
(" Manmath Ranrao Dharmale E (B A( ('E ((?
8" Sharda Anant 0husare A (B ') ('E (/)
B" 2itin autam >ondhale ? (( )E (8( ??
)" 6a!ita Can%at 0arat (8 () ()) (E' ('A
." 0ha!ana o!ind *hote E () A( (E' (8'
'" Pu+a Ramrao 0humare A (( ') (8( AA
?" 6omal Marotrao Dangale (/ () (// (E' ()/
A" Shri" Shai%h 6ha+amiyan . A 8. ') )/
E" 2ita @ttam 6ar!ande ' (/ B' (// '/
(/" Cadi%a =n%ar -ha!an (( (B (8( ('E ()B
((" Prinata Cish!anath
<o%hande
E (( A( (8( EE
(8" Sangita 0humare Sa!rote ' (/ B' (// '/
(B" A!inash anesh Dhandage B A E ') 8)
()" <imba+i Maroti -hilgar E (/ A( (// E/
(." @mesh Ramrao a!ali A (/ ') (// A/
)'
S.No. Na'e of the Stu)e&ts Pre test
DJA
Post
test D*A
J
1
#
1
J#
('" Dayanand Dharma+i a!ali E (( A( (8( EE
(?" 6ailash Ramrao Pa&ar E (( A( (8( EE
(A" ;alu+i anpat a!ali (( (B (8( ('E ()B
(E" San+am 2agrao Degrase A (( ') (8( AA
8/" Abdul Moin Abd" Hamid ( ) ( (' )
8(" Ashi% Abdul Ra#i% ) A (' ') B8
88" Amol 0aburao 6ote (8 (B ()) ('E (.'
8B" Ra+%umar Pra%ash 0hisle A (/ ') (// A/
8)" Madha! Mum+eri
6isiSha#er
A (/ ') (// A/
8." >ondhale 2itin (/ (. (// 88. (./
8'" Padole Sa!ita (8 (' ()) 8.' (E8
Total numbers 11 14 422 278< 1<24
Statisti(al a&al*sis of )ata (olle(tio&9
3 X 8(8
y X 8E(
3
8
X (EBB
y
8
X B)'.
3y X 8.BE
2 X 8'
() ;or pre test :- A!" Mar%s X M( X 3
2
3 X *otal mar%s obtain
2 X 2o" o# students
M( X 3 M( X 8(8 M X A"(.
2 8'
8) ;or post test A!erage mar%s X M8 X y
2
y X *otal Mar%s =btain
2 X 2o" o# Students
M8 X y M8 X 8E( X (("(E
2 8'
Sta&)ar) $e%iatio& of preBtest
Pre test Std" De!iation X
(
X Y
8

2

(
X (EBB
8'

(
X ?)"B)
8'

(
X A"'8
)?
Sta&)ar) )e%iatio& of postest

8
X y
8

2

8
X B)'.
8'

8
X (BB"8?
X ((".)
$iffere&(e i& a%erage
X D X 9 m
8
1 m
(
9
X (("(E-A"(.
X B")
CoB relatio& of t@o tests
X 2 3 D 1 ( 3) ( y)
Z2 3
8
1 ( 3)
8
[3 Z2 y
8
-( y)
8
[
X 8' 3 8.BE - 8(8 3 8E(
Z 8' 3 (EBB - (8(8)
8
[1 Z8' 3 B)'.- (8E()
8
[
X ''/()-'('E8
X ( ./8.A - ))E))) 3 ( E//E/ 1A)'A( )
X )B88
X .B.) 3 .)/E
X )B88
8A?)B)8'
X )B88
.B'("8E
X /"A/'(.
X /"A/
)A
Graph sho@i&g the )iffere&(e -et@ee& Pre tests a&) Post Test
()
(B
(8
((
(/
/E
/A
/?
/'
/.
/)
/B
/8
/(
FIN$INGS
*he pre test mar%s obtained in M X A"(. and post test mar%s M X (("(E" *he
increasing di##erence in post test indicates positi!e response is there"
Pre test standard de!iation is
(
X A"'8 and Post test standard de!iation is
8
X

((".) $mpro!ements is true in
8"
A!erage in pre test MXA"(.
o A!erage in post test M X ((".)
o *he conclusion is that there is impro!ement in post test"
*he di##erence in a!erage is B"/) by &hich it appears that the orientation
practice has been e##ecti!e"
*he achie!ement mar%s X /"A
$t is near about X (
*he correlation is in plus"
*he graphical analysis sho&s impro!ement in post test"
*hus the orientation practice &as e##ecti!e
CONCLUSION
2o& the ,uestion as to ho& these !alues can be inculcated in the students themsel!es
and ho& they can be stimulated to obser!e them in their personal and pro#essional li#e
as a part o# their daily beha!iour" *he tas% is not an easy one, particularly in the #ace
o# a general climate o# deterioration pre!ailing in the society all around" *o begin
&ith, one ob!ious method &ould be to such de!elop an ambience in the teacher
training institutions &hich are conduci!e to the inculcation o# these !alues among the
)E
Pre Test Post Test
prospecti!e teachers" $# trainee teachers are groomed in an institutional setting and
climate &hich does not #acilitate orientation and practice o# these !alues or does not
&eigh these !alues as important ingredients o# the entire teacher preparation
programme and o# the teaching learning process, not many ,ualities o# character
&ould be imbibed by the #uture teachers in the course o# their training" =b!iously,
teacher educator &ould themsel!es be re,uired to li!e by these !alues and present a
role model so that they are able to e3ert desired in#luence on the trainee teachers" $n
the e3isting scenario, particularly at the elementary education stage, in an e##ort to
achie!e targets o# enrolment, retention and scholastic training a large number o# such
teachers are beings appointed in school &ho ha!e ne!er undergone proper training in
any teacher education institution and ha!e not been duly e3posed to an ambience that
is conduci!e to !alue inculcation" $n these circumstances the process o# !alue
education is li%ely to be ad!ersely a##ected and one needs to be conscious o# this ris%
&hich is being created by such a system" *he indi!idual teacher is not to be blamed i#
proper !alues inculcation in his students does not ta%e place" *his call #or the need o#
a proper training o# teachers #or su##icient duration &here the desired !alue
orientation can ta%e place be#ore their entry is the pro#ession"
ROLE OF T"E TEAC"ER
*eacher must play an important role in such a programme" *he most important aspect
is that they should set good e3amples o# conduct and beha!ior &hich the students
may imbibe themsel!es"
$t may be #urther stressed that the teacher, the educational &or%ers, the educators, the
super!isors, administrator all must try their best to produce !alues oriented education"
$n order to ensure that teachers play their role in !alue inculcations in students, one
has also to thin% more realistically and consider them as human beings li!ing in the
same social conditions as other and &ho are #aced &ith many such problems as are
con#ronted by others" *he teachers &ho #or !arious administrati!e and personal
reasons are #acing a state o# #rustration and loss o# interest in their &or% need to be
dealt &ith care#ully by the administration so that their physical, intellectual, social,
emotional and spiritual aspects o# personality are sa!ed #rom getting a##ected and
burnt out" Oe may #ind many such teachers &ho till recently &ould ha!e been
enthusiastic, passionate and dedicated to their tas% and &ere role models #or their
students, but no& they su##er #rom disillusionment, despair and detachment due to
lac% o# recognition and re&ard #or their hard &or%, enthusiasm and educational
accomplishments" $n this situation they &ould #eel physically e3hausted, intellectually
slo&, un#ocussed and con#used, socially irritable to others, &ithdra&n, aloo# and less
sympathetic to students problems, emotionally de#ensi!e, distrust#ul and rigid and
spiritually dissatis#ied &ith their &or% so much so that sometimes e!en their personal
and spiritual !alues may also be sha%en" Such teacher &ill no longer be able to
present themsel!es as role models to their students and hardly help to generate an
en!ironment conduci!e to !alues inculcation" $n these circumstances the role o# the
head master becomes !ery important" *hrough his interpersonal s%ills he can pro!ide
./
social support, e3trinsic and intrinsic moti!ation and autonomy to teachers and thus
help in reducing substantially their disillusionment and stress and in bringing +ob
satis#action to them" (0roc% and rady 8///)"
*eacher &ho en+oys the support and con#idence o# the head master and recognition
and +ob satis#action are more li%ely to li!e by their !alues and stri!e #or their
inculcation in their students"
REFERENCES
Dan, R"-" ((EEA)" *eacher preparation #or education is !alues Col" 2o" ("
6alam Abdul AP> (8//B)" a5ette Col" )"
Ministry o# education ((EE')" Report o# the education commission"
Report o# the @ni!ersity -ommission ((E)A-)E) 2e& Delhi"
Pandey >"<" ((EEE)" Calue Education--hallenges #or the ;uture" 2-ER*, 2e&
Delhi"
2ational Policy o# Education, MHRD ((EA') and ((EE/) Report o#
Ramamurthy -ommittee on Re!ie& o# the 2PE (EA'"
Singh 0"0" and *ha%ur (8//8) Calue Education 2e&s"
.(
A CRITICAL STU$# OF T"E LE!EL OF E$UCATIONAL
STAN$AR$ OF POLICE +O#S OF ,ALNA $ISTRICT AN$
CONSE.UENT REME$IES
Dr. P. (. Ma+e$

INTRO$UCTION
Education touches li#e o# an indi!idual at e!ery point o# his li#e" =ne may actually
ne!er go to school but educati!e in#luence o# the en!ironment in &hich he is brought
up is inescapable" $t may be #ormal or in#ormal education but it is education, &hich
determines a larger measure the %ind o# li#e he leads"
E!ery e3perience ma%es an indi!idual to learn, and there#ore, it is rightly said that
e3perience is the best teacher" 0ut le#t to itsel# learning &hich ta%es place may be at
!ariance &ith societal demands" *here can be a con#lict bet&een &hat one may ha!e
learnt and &hate!er is socially appro!ed" *his con#lict may land him into trouble, his
beha!ior can at times becomes antisocial or against the la& o# the land as the ideas or
concepts, &hich are built up during #ormati!e year o# li#e, are strong and internali5ed"
*his criminality because o# #i3ation o# &rong concept becomes a ma+or problem" $t is
e3tremely di##icult to get rid o## &hate!er is learnt and that &hich is against standards
or norms o# society" *here#ore, &hat is needed is that during the younger years o# li#e
e!ery child must learn good habits o# conduct, rules o# personal hygiene, &ays o#
getting along &ith others4 !alues &hich are held by the society in high esteem4 and
the #undamental s%ills o# reading, &riting and arithmetic so that he becomes a
contributing member o# the society o# &hich he is a part" *his is possible &hen
learning ta%es place &ith predetermined aim and &ith a &ell de#ined ob+ecti!e"
School and colleges are the #ormal institutions o# learning" $t is here that education
comes in" $n general terms education re#ers to the process o# educating a being as &ell
as the product at the end o# process" $t ta%es into account #ormal syllabus, a prescribed
course o# studies and the stamp o# ha!ing completed a course o# learning"
*he products o# education are ob!ious #rom the brand o# !ocation one pursues" Oe
re#er to a doctor, an engineer, an ad!ocate a scientist, a diplomat, a +ournalist or a
policeman" ;rom this brand name one can early understand the %ind o# education the
concerned person has recei!ed" ;urther there is a common principle that Mo##ice
ma%es the manN" *he o##ice &here he &or%s largely #rames manFs ideas, &ays o#
beha!ior attitude to&ards li#e"
*he +ob pro#ile o# police pro!ides an analytical insight into the nature and the
philosophy o# this pro#ession &hich basically is to maintain la& and order in the
society"
$n the processes o# li!ing certain amount o# #reedom is en+oyed by e!ery li!ing being"
*he only condition in its practice is that, this should not in#ringe upon the #reedom o#
.8
beha!ior o# other persons" Here it is &orth&hile to ,uote the motto o# policeman" $n
Sans%rit, it reads as Miii ilnrii N $t means the +ob ensures protection o# &ell
beha!ed people those people &ho are la& 1abiding citi5ens o# the state, as also
punishing the culprits &ho are the anti social element o# the society" *he aim is
beauti#ully enshrined in the abo!e &ords" *he aim is indeed high, !ery lo#ty and
seems beauti#ully many times to be unattainable" =ne may ,uestion that i# aim is the
+ust unattainable &hy should one aim at it P >usti#ication o# high aim lies in %eeping
onesel# on the trac% and pre!ents us #rom being o##-trac%" $t disallo&s de!iation #rom
the right path and in the process achie!es certain intermediate goals called as
ob+ecti!es" *here is thus a great responsibility on the policemen &hich the society has
entrusted to them" Policeman has al&ays to be alert, cautious and attenti!e"
SIGNIFICANCE OF T"E STU$#
Soldiers guard or protect our #rontiers, but internal security is in the hands o# police"
*he enormous number o# $ndian people lead a happy and secure li#e because o# the
police" *he re,uirements o# the +ob re,uire the policeman to be al&ays on duty,
ha!ing no #i3ed timings" <a& and order and the peace o# the community depends on
the sincerity and dedication o# the police in carrying out its duties, Day in and day
out, the policemen, o#ten than not, are out o# the precincts o# their homes" $n !ie& o#
the long and uncertain duty hours and pressure o# &or%, the ,uestion arises that in the
discharge o# their o##icial duties, are the policeman able to discharge their obligations
to&ards their #amiliesP Are they able to pro!ide proper care to their #amilies,
particularly to the education o# their childrenP *he ans&er is an emphatic Q2oF"

Dar%ness under the light seems to be pro!ed" *he ones &ho are engaged in ta%ing
care o# the society, neglect their o&n %ith and %in" *he researcher himsel# is the son
o# a policeman and he has consistently obser!ed that children o# policemen #all belo&
the standard e3pected by a normal pupil" $n order to con#irm his obser!ation the
researcher sought documentary e!idence" Mar%s obtained #rom the school records o#
the policemen children &ere a testimony to their lo& achie!ement"
$n society it is a common obser!ation that the sons generally #ollo& the !acation o#
their #ather" *hus the son o# a #armer aspires to become a progressi!e #armer, the son
o# an engineer hopes to become an e3pert technician" Ho&e!er, in case o# the police
pro#ession direction seems to ta%e a di##erent &ay" *he children are not interested to
become to policemen" *he conse,uence is re#lected in the indi##erent attitude o# boys
to&ards school studies" ;urther this neglect results in children mo!ing a&ay #rom the
serious business o# schooling" *here are many e3amples in the society &here the
children o# policemen instead o# occupying higher posts in the police department turn
to crime
ResearcherFs personal %no&ledge, as an o##spring o# a policeman, about the poor and
pathetic standard o# police &ardsF education, prompted him a to ma%e an empirical
in,uiry into the problem" Oith this !ie& he decided to study the ,uality o#
educational standard o# the boys o# the police personnel" ;or this purpose he selected
.B
district >alna in Maharasthtra State" Oor%ing conditions in all other districts o#
Maharashtra are more or less the same, and it appears that there are little recogni5able
di##erences in the geographical and social en!ironment o# the other districts" As such,
the researcher #eels that this study and its #indings &ill ha!e a larger applicability"

STATEMENT OF T"E PRO+LEM
A -ritical Study o# the le!el o# the Educational Standard o# the Police 0oys o# >alna
District and Remedies there upon"
De#inition o# Related *erms
i) -ritical Study: A critical study in!ol!es e!aluati!e study o# any situation,
person, ideas or +udgment"
ii) Educational standard o# student :
a) Ability to understand and apply %no&ledge gained &ith in the speci#ic
age group"
b) *o recall ans&ers o# certain ,uestions related to his general
%no&ledge"
c) Mastery o!er certain mathematical operations li%e multiplication,
di!ision in!ol!ing decimals"
d) Ability to ans&er ,uestions based on common sense"
iii) Remedies: Measures to correct the de#iciencies o# problems"
i!) Police boys: *he o##spring or the adopted child o# the police man o#
Maharashtra State"
!) =ther 0oys: =ther boys include &ards o# parents &ho are not policemen"
*his &ill naturally include such parents &ho are shop%eepers, businessmen,
doctors, engineers, lecturers, ad!ocates, o##icers and #armers" *his is, there#ore,
actually a heterogeneous assortment o# &ards o# parents belonging to pro#ession
other than police personnel"
!i) District: An area o# land mar%ed o## #or administrati!e purposes"
!ii) >alna District: >alna district is the district &ith its Head,uarter at >alna city
in Marath&ada di!ision o# Maharashtra State"
>alna, Ambad, hansa!angi, Partur, Mantha, >a#rabad, 0ho%ardan, 0adnapur,
constitute >alna District, Head,uarter is at >alna &hich is one o# the districts o#
Maharashtra State"
O+,ECTI!ES
*o study the educational standard o# the police boys"
*o #ind out the #acilities pro!ided to police boys #rom the police department
*o %no& the study habits o# police boys"
*o study the home condition o# the policemen #amilies"
*o test the stated hypotheses"
.)
"#POT"ESES
Parents ignore the studies o# their children due to lac% o# time"
Educated mothers o# police boys ta%e more care in the education o# their
children as compare to uneducated mothers
*he #amily en!ironment o# police boys a##ects their studies ad!ersely"
Absence o# the #ather o# the police boys #rom home a##ects the studies o# police
boys negati!ely"
*he police boys donFt aspire high #or their #uture li#e"
*he police boys ac,uire the bad habit li%e drin%ing, smo%ing and che&ing
tobacco #rom their #athers"
Li'itatio&s
*he researcher has selected >alna District #or his intensi!e study o# the status o#
education o# police boys - ob!iously the conclusion dra&n is applicable to the
geographical area limited to >alna district" Ho&e!er the condition o# ser!ice o#
the police #orce all o!er Maharastra State is more or less the same" *here#ore the
in#erences dra&n on the basic o# this region should be applicable to all police
personnel situated all o!er the state4 &hich actually can be meaning#ully
designated as the uni!ersal set" *he changes i# any are attributable to the special
characteristics speci#ic to a district"
*he human beha!ior is largely based on the %ind o# +ob one is engaged, the
ser!ice, a!ailability o# time4 as also on the interaction o# the concerned persons
&ith the community as a &hole "the boys are representing the o##springs o# the
police, &ho are circumscribed and under the go!ernance o# same set o# e3ternal
social en!ironment" *he di##erences i# any ha!e their origin in the di##erences in
the le!el o# education o# police personnelFs, the culture o# the surrounding and
the general psyche o# the community #ramed by the e,ui!alent social condition"
*he in#erence cannot ha!e that uni!ersal applicability &hich is generally
e3pected"
*he responses o# the respondents are s&ayed by the cultural upbringing and the
situation in &hich they are placed" *here#ore the responses o# other parent, other
than those belonging to >alna District shall necessarily di##er"
*he same arguments is largely true in case o# other district and there#ore the
!ariation in these responses may occurs"
Stu)* of Relate) Literature
$n order to ha!e historical bac%ground #or study o# the %ind the researcher scanned all
the educational e3tracts e!en remotely concerning the per#ormance o# police boys and
other boys in comparati!e terms but he disco!ered no &or% ha!ing been done on this
sub+ect" $n this respect researches done be#ore in all uni!ersities in $ndia &ere
searched #or but no such &or% has e!er been done on this particular research topic"
..
*here#ore, the researcher claims that this research represents the #irst such attempt to
#ind out the comparison bet&een per#ormances o# police boys and other boys"
Pro(e)ure
7uestionnaire #or police boys, police parents, teachers o# police boys and police
o##icers &ere prepared" >usti#ication #or including the di##erent ,uestion has been
described" *he content !alidity o# e!ery ,uestion item has been gi!en, results are
tabulated" ;or comparison purposes the police boys and boys other than police boys
are speci#ically chosen"
Analysis and $nterpretation
*his includes all tables o# obser!ation along &ith the analysis" *he results are then
interpreted"
CONCLUSION
Description o# conclusions, ma+or #indings and suggestions #or #urther research are
gi!en"
*he !alue o# means #or the t&o groups is denoted by M( T M8" /( T =8 are SDS o#
t&o groups"
The& SE' K Sta&)ar) error of )iffere&(e is gi%e& -* the for'ula
SEm X 8 9 ) /( ( ( 9 ) /( (
8 8
" " +
Ohere 2( T 28 are the 2umber o# student in each group"
Substituting the !alues in the abo!e #ormula
SEm X o D X ?"''

*he actual di##erence bet&een means is M(\M8X?'"E.
-R X
oD
M m 8 (
-R X
'' " ?
E. " ?'

-RX (/" /)
@nder the null hypothesis there is actually no di##erence in the per#ormances o# the
t&o groups and &hate!er di##erence at /. le!el o# signi#icance i"e"("E' (/), is because
o# chance"
Signi#icance sho&ing the mean per#ormance o# police boys is genuinely poor in
comparison to mean per#ormance o# other boys" *his ma%es the researcher to
.'
accept the hypothesis set up at the beginning o# the researcher" $n other &ords
the hypothesis is con#irmed"
Another ma+or #inding upholds hypothesis number three M*he #amily
en!ironment o# police a##ect their studies ad!erselyN" *he researcher is o# the
!ie& that the attitude o# police parent to&ards education has been estimated"
Attitude in general is bipolar" *he conclusion in regards to attitude though not
negati!e is not positi!e either there#ore signi#icant conclusion is that attitude o#
police parent to&ards education is not supporti!e o# a good #amily en!ironment
#or the police boys"
*his also con#irms the about stated hypothesis"
=ne o# the ,uestions included in the ,uestionnaire #or police boys has a
re#erence to education o# mother, &ithout e3ception mothers are uneducated in
the sense o# being only literate" *here#ore the second hypothesis is also
con#irmed the researcher can claim that MEducated mother o# police boys ta%e
more care in the education o# their children as compared to uneducated
motherN"
2inety t&o percent o# police o##icer ha!e responded positi!ely to the ,uestion
in the ,uestionnaire directly sho&ing lac% o# time &ith the policemen #or the
studies o# their children" Since such a large percentage o# police o##icer directly
accept the #act that they ignore the studies o# their children due to lac% o# time,
the #irst hypothesis is acceptable"
*he #ourth hypothesis seems to be a repetition o# the hypothesis =ne, there#ore
its con#irmation mean the upholding o# the #irst hypothesis"
7uestion number t&enty in the ,uestionnaire meant #or police boys has been
responded to in such a #ashion &hich only pro!es that M*he police boys donFt
aspire high #or their #uture li#eN" *he actual percentage is ninety #i!e percent"
*his con#irms hypothesis number #i!e"
7uestion numbers thirteen T #ourteen ((B, ()) in the ,uestionnaire (meant #or
teachers) ha!e been ans&ered a##irmati!ely about the e3istence o# bad habits
among the police boys" *he actual percentage (the last hypothesis) namely M*he
police boys ac,uire the bad habit li%e drin%ing, smo%ing T che&ing tobacco
#rom their #athersN, is upheld"
*he purpose o# this research, the researcher claims thus achie!ed" *he purpose is
analy5ed in term o# #our ob+ecti!es" *he #irst ob+ecti!e is to study educational
standard o# police boys &hich is abundantly seen to be poor #rom the ,uestionnaire
administered to teachers" *here#ore the educational standard o# police boys has been
su##iciently studied"
About the second ob+ecti!e !i5, M*o #ind out the #acility pro!ided to police boys #rom
the police departmentN, there is no speci#ic ,uestionnaire addressed to police o##icer
or to teacher" Ho&e!er, #rom the in#ormal inter!ie&s &hich the researcher had &ith
police o##icers it is seen that the #acility pro!ided to police boys #rom the police
department are not large in number" *he notable #acilities in this respect are as
#ollo&s:-
.?
A small amount pro!ided to police boys to enable them to purchase boo%s" *his
#acility is limited only to those &ho earn si3ty percent ('/I) and abo!e mar%s
in school e3amination" *he researcher #eels that condition o# percentage need
not be applied" *he bene#it o# money should be a!ailable to all the boys
irrespecti!e o# their percentages in the pre!ious e3amination"
*he school bus #acility is a!ailable only at district le!el cities" *he researcher
&ants this #acility to be e3tended to all the boys and at all places"
$n the recruitment o# policemen, boys o# policemen are gi!en pre#erences" *here
&ere some concessions in the minimum re,uirement in the height and in chest
measurement, these concessions &ere later on &ithdra&n" *he researcher is o#
the !ie& that these concessions need be restored" *he concessions should also
be gi!en in the recruitment at the le!el o# Police Sub $nspector and Deputy
Superintendent o# police"
*he coaching classes &hich are being held at the district le!el should also be
started at *alu%a le!el"
*he #acilities regarding reading rooms and health ser!ices &hich are a!ailable at
the district le!el should also be made a!ailable at talu%a le!el"
*he third ob+ecti!e namely, M*o %no& the study habit o# police boysN, is co!ered in
the ,uestionnaire meant #or police boys, police o##icers as &ell as teachers" *he
researcher modestly but asserti!ely claims that the third ob+ecti!e is achie!ed"
<astly the ob+ecti!e o# M*o study the home condition o# PolicemenFs #amiliesN is
almost thoroughly achie!ed"
*he category Q-F &hich tries to e!aluate atmosphere at home by ,uestion numbers
E,((,(?, T 88 #rom the ,uestionnaire #or police boys, is specially planned to achie!e
the ob+ecti!e M)N (#our)"
REME$IAL SUGGESTIONS
*he basic attitude o# policemen to&ards education has already been e3tensi!ely
studied" *he negati!e !ie& as &as disco!ered by researcher is attributed to the lac% o#
such training o# police personnel in their training school" Some o# the basic ,ualities
re,uired in them to ma%e them more sympathetic and predisposed to compassionate
approaches can be inculcate and #ostered in these men" *he researcher #eels that
change o# attitude in organi5ational culture and role is not an easy tas% but intensi!e
training and e3amples #rom e!ery day li#e can probably help in trans#orming their
attitude #a!orable to education" *he researcher has #ollo&ing suggestions in this
respect"
*he #irst and #oremost remedy is to trans#orm en!ironment o# children o#
policemen into an educationally rich atmosphere"
Some o# the basic uni!ersal and eternal !alues can be emphasi5ed" *hey are
li%ely to promote belie# in education as an agency o# social change" *his may
.A
probably lead to changing their attitude to&ards education #or the better, this
&ill result in responsible parenthood a conscious guide o# their children and
understanding the importance o# education in general" As a conse,uence, police
can be made more responsi!e to the demands o# the school and children" *he
neglect by the persons to&ards the education o# the &ards a##ects negati!ely
the promotion o# healthy study habits in their children" *hese men are !ery
much part o# society"
*he duty hours o# these men are not property de#ined" $n accordance &ith the
need o# situation and introducing some ad+ustment in their &or%ing, the duty
hours can be appropriately limited" *his is necessary to gi!e them a little more
#reedom in attending to educational progress o# their &ards"
School can be started especially #or children o# police" *hese shall be !ery
much li%e others schools but &ith a special emphasis on pro!iding them
emotional learning e3periences in #a!or o# schooling"
$n case i# it is not possible to establish separate schools as it may not be
administrati!ely and #inancially !iable, special periods can be instituted"
A special allo&ance &hich must be commensurate &ith their needs be gi!en to
the police" $t can be made mandatory on them to pro!ide in depth ho& and #or
&hat they are planning to spend the money"
A ,uarter comprising o# #our rooms should be allotted to them &hich shall be o#
help to them in pro!iding to children an independent and a separate room in the
pursuit o# their studies"
*here is a ban on #orming police-organi5ation" Police durbar is held once in t&o
or three months" *his ban should be remo!ed, it can be regulated" ;urther
police durbar should be held e!ery month and should be held *alu%a &ise T
not district &ise"
Police &el#are committees should ha!e &i!es and gro&nup children o#
policemen as a members" *he researcher #eels that such an arrangement shall be
use#ul because these members ha!e #irst-hand %no&ledge o# the problems"
State &ise police &el#are committee should be established T district chairman
should be members" DP should conduct monthly meetings"
*he number o# policemen should be increased mani#old" *his &ill result in
limited duty hours o# their &or%"
*he policemen should be reoriented through need based-short-term-courses on
!alues and importance o# parents to attend to educational needs o# their &ards"
Such courses should be organi5ed #or mothers o# children as &ell" *his shall
impress on them &hy and ho& changes in attitude o# children to&ards
schooling ta%e place"
REFERENCES
0est >ohn O", 6ahn >ames C"((EE')"!esearch in 2#ucation1 Prentice Hall o#
$ndia P!t" <td", 2e& Delhi, pp-B?B-)/B
0handar%ar 6"M" ((EEA)" 2#ucationa Statistics, (
st
ed", 2utan Publication,
Pune, pp-
.E
0uch M"0"((EAB-(EAA)" Sur(ey o) !esearch in 2#ucation, $C Sur!ey, (Col"()
Secretary, 2"-"E"R"*", 2e& Delhi, pp-(B', ('.
-ommissioner o# Police ((EAE), Sou(enir1 0ombay Police, 0ombay, pp-8-(8)
Dande%ar O"2" ((EA.)" 2#ucationa 2(auation C Statistics1 $$ ed" Shri!idhya
Publication, Pune" pp-)/'
arret Henny E" ((E'.)" Statistics in 2#ucation C Psychoogy,$$$ ed", Allied4
Amerind P!t" <td" pp-)'.
Patil eeta, ((EEA)" 2#ucationa Statistics1 $ ed", Mangesh Pra%ashan
2agpur,
Muley R"S" C @mate C" ((EA?)" 2ements o) 2#ucationa !esearch, 8
nd
ed",
Casant Pimpalpure, Cidhya 0oo%s, Aurangabad"
Shastri Abhay (8//8)" Ins'ector *imes, )E
th
ed", pp-B(
Soman D"S" ((EE')" $a'a Poice1 (st ed", Ra+hans Publication, pp-('.
*i##in >oseph T Mc-ormic% Ernest >"((E?$)" In#ustria Psychoogy, Ced",
Prentice Hall o# lndia P!t" <td", 2e& Delhi, pp-$8?, (8A
Ohitheny E"<"((E)?)" *he 2ements o) !esearch, Prentice Hall o# lndia P!t"
<td", 2e& Delhi,
'/
EFFICAC# OF NO COST TEAC"ING AI$S FOR
$E!ELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATI!E SKILLS AT UPPER
PRIMAR# LE!EL
Dr. 1.6. Padey ad Sm+. %!+a %5adhoo+$
INTRO$UCTION
Human beings interact through language" Oe con!erse #ormally or in#ormally both
according to the demand and need o# situations" <anguage is basically a code" Ohen
a spea%er uses this code, the listener or the recei!er decodes the message #rom the
spea%erFs code" -ommunication is the most important and basic aspect o# any
language spo%en or &ritten by any community" $n order to con!erse
communicati!ely, &e use language and pass messages sometimes through &ords only
and sometimes through #ull, hal# or bro%en sentences" *hus, the primary #unction o#
the language is communication &ith a (//I comprehension"
Man is born &ith a natural capacity #or ac,uiring language" =ne learns oneFs #irst
language unconsciously at home or in society" =ne is constantly e3posed to it and
'(
%&S'(%)'
&ommunicati(e skis are basicay the skis o) the anguage use. Language use
ea#s to ac9uire those skis1 %hich )aciitate the communication. I) anguage an#
communicati(e skis are ac9uire# %ith mastery e(e1 there %ou# be no
communication oss an# a meaning)u ra''ort %ou# be 'ossibe bet%een the
s'eaker an# the istener1 or bet%een the %riter an# the rea#er.
3ne earns one,s )irst anguage at home or in society unconsciousy as one is
constanty e-'ose# to it an# begins to soak it u' ike a s'onge. But e-'osure to a
secon# anguage is much more imite#. In the case o) 2ngish1 %hich our 'u'is
#o not o)ten hear outsi#e the cassroom1 the teacher may be the ony source o)
e-'osure. $s ony ?*ak an# &hak@ is not consi#ere# enough these #ays1 more
an# more teaching ai#s are being use# in the cassroom to make teachingA
earning more interesting an# e))ecti(e.
*he e))icacy o) noAcost teaching ai#s )or #e(eo'ment o) anguage an#
communicati(e skis as %e as inno(ati(e 'ractice 'er)orme# %as teste# %ith the
he' o) three se)A're'are# toos (i+. S'eaking $biity *est= !ea#ing $biity *est
an# 8riting $biity *est. >tii+ation o) noAcost teaching ai#s an# cassroom
situations ha(e been )oun# highy interesting1 easy a''roachabe an# 'racticabe
)or #e(eo'ing communicati(e skis in chi#ren. Learning by #oing ensures
earner 'artici'ation an# has been )oun# as one o) the best a''roaches o)
#e(eo'ing con)i#ence )or 2ngish con(ersation in stu#ents.
begins to soa% it up li%e a sponge" 0ut e3posure to a secUond language is much more
limited, mostly being con#ined to the #our &alls o# the classroom" $n such a situation
undoubtedly the teacher has an important role to play" Ho&e!er to #acilitate
e##ecti!e learning o# the language, he has not to restrict himsel# only to Q*al% and
-hal%F rather he has to utili5e other resources too"
2o&-a-days more and more teaching aids are a!ailable &hich can be used in the
classroom to ma%e taching-learning more interesting and e##ecti!e" 0ut &hile using
these aids, the teacher should ensure that they are instructional ob+ecti!es" A
resource#ul teacher de!elops s%ill #or preparing instructional aids &ith a!ailable
resources" 0eing an international and lin% language, English has become an
una!oidable part o# our li#e" As all the educational schemes and inno!ations are
reali5ed, acti!ated and accelerated by the teachers, &e as teachers should try our best
to de!elop the attitudinal change to&ards English and accept its undebatable utility
and signi#icance"
,ustifi(atio& of the Stu)*
-onsidering the impact o# English language, the o!t" o# $ndia and state go!ernments
ha!e made English learning obligatory in the schools at !arious le!els" Recently, the
o!t" o# Madhyar Pradesh has introduced English language at the entry le!el itsel#
i"e" standard $ on&ards" *e3tboo%s o# English MEnglish 0haratiN, and MEnglish
ReaderN ha!e been prepared #or primary, and upper primary classes respecti!ely by
the S-ER*, 0hopal" *hese boo%s are competency based as &ell as acti!ity-oriented
and thus pro!ide ample opportunity #or de!elopment o# linguistic and communicati!e
s%ills to the learners"
During academic monitoring o# schools and interaction &ith the teachers, it &as
obser!ed that in spite o# attending a number o# in-ser!ice teacher training
programmes, ,uite a large ma+ority o# teachers pre#erred the least troublesome
approach and too% easy going route to accomplish their pro#essional duty" $n this
process the child is !ery o#ten helpless in the #ace o# a style o# teaching that is #or
#rom being interacti!e, and thus the !ery ob+ecti!es o# English language teaching i"e"
de!elopment o# linguistic and communicati!e s%ills, are lost" $n spite o# learning a
number o# &ords, their meanings and grammatical items by heart, children are unable
to use these &ords in sentences and communicate their #eelings" A lot is taught, but
little is learnt or understood" As rightly obser!ed Pro#" Dashpal about teaching and
achie!ements o# children that MCery little, #ully comprehended is #ar better than a
great deal, poorly comprehended"N *he methods o# teaching used by ma+ority o#
teachers are de!oid o# any type o# challenge #or the students" *ransmission o#
in#ormation rather than e3perimentation or e3ploration or obser!ation characteri5es
the teaching-learning process in most o# the classes" *he practitioners, there#ore,
carried out an inno!ati!e practice on children o# class C$$$ utili5ing no (5ero) cost
teaching aids #or de!elopment o# linguistic and communicati!e s%ills &ith the !ie& to
disseminate its #indings and suggest the teachers to adopt similar acti!ities and
approach o# teaching"
'8
O+,ECTI!ES
*he inno!ati!e practice &as per#ormed &ith the #ollo&ing ob+ecti!es in !ie&:
(" to enable the learners to understand the basic linguistic and
communicati!e purposes o# English language in li#e"
8" to de!elop necessary recepti!e as &ell as e3pressi!e s%ills"
B" to enable them to interact meaning#ully (orally as &ell as in &riting) in
!arious li#e situations"
)" to enable them to communicate through pictures, posters, tables,
ad!ertisements, rail&ay tic%ets, greeting cards, in!itation cards, !isiting
cards and such materials use#ul in learning English"
." to de!elop con#idence and competence in students to per#orm
e##ecti!ely and e##iciently in real li#e situations"
'" to de!elop necessary !ocabulary to use right &ords at the right time and
in right conte3ts"
"#POT"ESES
*he #ollo&ing hypotheses &ere set:
H
(
*here is lac% o# teaching-learning as &ell as moti!ational acti!ities in the
classroom o# English language teaching"
H
8
*eachers are not ade,uately resource#ul, trained and moti!ated to utili5e li#e
li%e situations #or de!elopment o# communicati!e s%ills"
H
B
2o-cost teaching aids li%e pictures, posters, ad!ertisements in ne&spapers,
greeting cards, !isiting cards, and in!itation cards etc" can be utili5ed #or
ma%ing class interesting and interacti!e de!eloping linguistic s%ills"
H
)
*here e3ists a signi#icant di##erence bet&een pre test and post test mean scores
o# the learners &hen taught through traditional lecture method (by their regular
teachers) and acti!ity-centred approach (by the practitioners)"
$eli'itatio&
*he inno!ati!e practice &as delimited to o!t" >unior High School 6oshta (0loc%
Re&a, District - Re&a, M"P" ) and its students o# class 1 C$$$" 7uite a good ma+ority
o# children enrolled in this school are #rom poor socio-economic status" Most o# the
parents o# &ell to do #amilies ha!e enrolled their children at pri!ate, especially,
English medium schools in neighbouring to&n or district head,uarters, Re&a city"
English language teaching especially de!elopment o# language and communicati!e
s%ills (<SRO)
Tea(hi&g : Lear&i&g Pro(e)ure 9 Since practice ma%es man per#ect and language is
learnt through imitation and e3posure, it demands more and more o# the learnersF
acti!e participation and interaction in the target language" *he practitioners,
there#ore, made use o# no cost teaching aids !i5" pictures, posters, ad!ertisements in
'B
ne&spapers, rail&ay reser!ation tic%ets, !isiting cards, greeting cards, in!itation
cards, classroom situations etc" and utili5ed #or de!elopment o# language s%ills" *he
main thrust &as on the de!elopment o# interaction and communicati!e s%ills through
direct method o# -ommunicati!e <anguage *eaching (-<*) approach"
During the teaching-learning process, children &ere moti!ated and encouraged to
communicate &ith others in English &ithout #eeling shy or hesitations" Acti!ity-
oriented demonstration lessons &ere presented by the practitioners to #acilitate the
learners to communicate &ith the help o# teaching aids" *he Practitioners tried to
e3plore the situations, &hich pro!ide ma3imum con!ersational opportunities to the
learners" $ndi!idual pair and group acti!ities on the teaching aids, and language
games &ere organi5ed #or de!elopment o# language s%ills" Moreo!er, incorrect
pronunciation and &ay o# spea%ing o# the learners &ere corrected and modi#ied by the
practitioners themsel!es and ma%ing use o# sel# prepared audio cassettes" $nitially
many mista%es occurred during such interaction, but &ith gradual increase o#
practice, percentage o# mista%es decreased noticeably"
MET"O$OLOG#
*he practitioners applied e3perimental method o# research to sol!e the problem o#
children regarding inability to communicate in English and pro!ide an insight to the
teachers #or ma3imum utili5ation o# no cost teaching-learning materials in the
classroom"
Sa'ple
$n all, B' children studying in class C$$$ in o!t" >unior High School, 6oshta (0loc%
1 Re&a, District 1 Re&a, M"P" ) &ere selected as sample #or the study" A#ter pretest,
these children &ere treated as e3perimental group and pro!ided &ith inno!ati!e
practice"
Tools
Oith the !ie& to test the e##icacy o# no cost teaching aids #or de!elopment o#
language and communicati!e s%ills as &ell as inno!ati!e practice per#ormed, the tools
prepared &ere as under :
DiA SpeaCi&g A-ilit* Tests9 Speech is the primary" Oe spea% &hen &e &ant to
e3press our ideas, opinions, desires and to establish social relationships and
#riendship" *he ma3imum use o# the language in li#e is oral, but communication does
not mean oral alone" -on!ersational ability o# children &as tested &ith the help o#
Spea%ing Ability *est (*ool-() &hich consisted o# (/ items related to di##erent
situations #or practice (*<M)" *he pictures o# these situations &ere pasted on the tool
itsel# and children &ere as%ed to tell about the acti!ity in a sentence"
')
DiiA Rea)i&g A-ilit* Test 9 Reading is a !ery important part o# the
communication" Oe read !arious %inds o# things and pas messages to others" $#
reading is not done &ith care and comprehension, the reader &ill not be able to
communicate the message to" $n order to test the reading ability o# children including
correctness o# pronunciation, speed and time ta%en, a reading Ability *est (*ool-8)
consisted o# (/ test items (simple sentences) &as de!eloped" Space &as gi!en belo&
the sentence to record the obser!ations"
DiiiA =riti&g A-ilit* Test 9 Oriting is the most di##icult o# the language abilities
to ac,uire" $t is a producti!e s%ill &hich in!ol!es manipulating, structuring and
communicating" $# &riting is not grammatically correct, clumsy &ith a number o#
bro%en or incomplete e3pressions, i# spellings are not correct, the communication
through &riting &ill not ta%e place" *here#ore, a Oriting Ability *est (*ool 1B) &as
de!eloped to test the de!elopment o# the s%ill in children" *he tool consisted o# (/
test items related to di##erent li#e situations and in#ormation on teaching learning
materials" Space &as gi!en belo& the ,uestions to &rite the ans&er"
Each tool &as o# (. minutes duration and had &eightage o# 8/ mar%s" =ne tool &as
administered on a day" *he same tools &ere used #or pre test and post test" Separate
tools &ere administered on a day"
ANAL#SIS AN$ INTERPRETATION OF $ATA
Data collected #rom oral and &ritten responses o# children &ere analysed and
presented in terms o# mar%s and percentage" S%ill&ise learning achie!ements o#
children in pre test and post test are gi!en belo& :
Ta-le 9 SCill@ise Lear&i&g A(hie%e'e&ts of Chil)re& i& Pre a&) Post Tests.
(Ma-. Marks 6 /0)
SCill Test N Mea& DIA S$ t %alue I&fere&(e
Spea%ing Pre test
Post test
B'
B'
. (8.)
()"B (?(".)
("?A
8"AA
('"8' P]8"'. (d#:?/)
Reading Pre test
Post test
B)
BB
?"(? (B."A.)
(. (?.)
(".(
8")B
(.".E P]/"/((d#:'.)
Oriting Pre test
Post test
B)
BB
' (B/)
(B"( ('.".)
("8'
8"B(
(."B' P]/"/((d#:'.)
=!erall Pre test
Post test
B.
B)
'"/B (B/"(.)
()"(' (?/"A)
(".B
8".'
(."?' P]/"/((d#:'?)
Assessing the s%ill&ise achie!ement o# children, it &as #ound that their a!erage
achie!ement in spea%ing s%ill &as . (8.I) and ()"B (?(".I)4 in reading s%ill ?"(?
(B."A.I) and (. (?.I)4 and in &riting s%ill ' (B/I) and (B"( ('.".I) as mean scores
in pretest and post test respecti!ely" *hus, highly signi#icant di##erence &as obser!ed
in learning achie!ement o# children in all the three s%ills" *he o!erall achie!ement o#
children in post test (()"(' as mean score i"e ?/"AI) &as obser!ed #ar better &ith
highly signi#icant di##erence #rom that o# the pretest ('"/B as mean score i"e" B/"(.I)
along&ith the calculated QtF !alue o# (."?' &hich is signi#icantly higher than the table
QtF !alue o# 8"'. at /"/( le!el #or d#:'?"
'.
FIN$INGS AN$ CONCLUSION
Ma+or #indings o# the study are as #ollo&s:
(" *here has been #ound a highly signi#icant di##erence in the achie!ements o#
children in all the s%ills i"e" spea%ing, reading and &riting #rom pre test to post
test"
8" $t &as obser!ed that not only students but teachers too &ere highly encouraged,
moti!ated and co-operati!e to learn more and more utili5ing such teaching aids"
*hey pro!ed themsel!es as acti!e participators and %een learners to
communicate in English"
B" 2o cost teaching aids li%e pictures, posters, greeting cards, !isiting cards,
in!itation cards, ad!ertisements in ne&spapers, rail&ay tic%ets and classroom
situations &ere #ound highly interesting, easy approachable and practicable #or
de!eloping communicati!e s%ills in children"
)" -hildren &ea% in reading and &riting s%ills &ere #ound poor in spea%ing s%ill as
&ell"
." *he practice has been #ound ,uite success#ul in decreasing shy and hesitant
nature o# children de!eloping con#idence #or communication in them"
'" $n a nutshell, the practice &as remar%ably success#ul in ma%ing the teaching and
learning o# English interesting and +oy#ul enhancing more and more learner
participation e!en the slo& learners too"
<earning by doing ensures learner participation and has been #ound as one o# the best
approaches o# de!eloping con#idence #or English con!ersation in students" <ac% o#
curricular and co-curricular acti!ities, uninteresting reading out o# lessons by teachers
&ere #ound as the stumbling bloc%s in learning" Most o# the teachers &ere obser!ed
teaching &ithout teaching aids in spite o# its a!ailability &ith them &hich made their
teaching monotonous and #ormal &ithout any learning o# the children" *hey ha!e
limited their duty +ust to read and e3plain the te3t, tell &ord-meanings and ans&er the
te3tual ,uestions and sol!e a #e& grammatical e3ercises #or the students" 2o #ruit#ul
e##orts are done #or the de!elopment o# language and communicati!e s%ills in the
class9school"
$t &as obser!ed that initially children &ere !ery shy and hesitant by nature to
respond, so they made a number o# mista%es, but &ith the de!elopment o#
interpersonal relationship and prolonged con!ersational practice, they came closer
decreasing their hesitation and mista%es" *hus, the #indings +usti#y the practice that
de!elopment o# communicati!e s%ills utili5ing no cost teaching aids is much more
e##ecti!e than the traditional lecture method"
E$UCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS
$t is imperati!e that the learners do ac,uire #our basic s%ills o# language learning,
namely 1 (i) learning, (ii) spea%ing, (iii) reading, and (i!) &riting" $# the learners
ac,uire mastery le!el o!er these s%ills, they &ill be competent enough to per#orm
''
orally as &ell as in &riting" $n order to ac,uire these s%ills, rigorous oral and &ritten
practice, and language s%ills are necessary #or teachers, and learners both" *he
teaching-learning strategy, there#ore, needs to be changed and those &ho ha!e been
using the traditional methods and approaches need to accept this shi#t in methodology
o# the English <anguage *eaching"
REFERENCE
=$, ((EEB) Learning %ithout Bur#en= !e'ort o) the "ationa
$#(isory &ommittee1 MHRD, 2e& Delhi"
Haseen, *a+" (8//)) Enhancing the Per#ormance and Sel#
-on#idence o# Slo& <earners through Acti!ities and Multimedia Pac%age" *he
Primary *eacher, Col" YY$Y (2o"(), 2-ER*, 2e& Delhi"
Pandey, <"2" (8//.) *eaching &ithout <ecturing MAn approach
#or *eaching English PronunciationN" Puaity Dimension Initiati(es6 $ction
!esearch an# Inno(ati(e 'ractices" DEP-SSA, $2=@, 2e& Delhi"
Cen%ates&aran, S" (8//.) Princi'es o) *eaching o) 2ngish,
Ci%as Publishing House P!t" <td", 2e& Delhi"
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nri iifn+ fi+ii n i^in fi +i
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nri lni i- i| i li ni ii| ii ; liii |ln
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Ohen learning #rom doing and sel# disco!ery combines &ith #ormal school learning,
you get thin%ers, poets, in!entors and philosophers" Oe depri!e oursel!es o# this
possibility by decoupling the obser!ations and e3periences o# most o# our societies
#rom the #ormal education system" $ thin% this is the biggest tragedy that has
happened, all round the &orld but primarily in our country"
|, ssr - iin i za i i| liii |ln - ln | iiiii ||
i ssc - i | liii |ln in || | |ln s s.s
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i-| i i-- ii - -i ii - liii liin i sss
ssa | iil- -n | ii $ C n i--i i liii li
l- ii ( ii C i-- i sss - liiln l n| ;- li
ini i i r-i ;i; . n - r-ii li i- ii ni|
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ini -n lii; n;| ill- i inni ri| ;| | -i -
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-ln, i|ln, lin, -r-i ln, , ii, |n il i
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r; li ii ri li ini i | ii -in ri n;|
?/
i zaaa - -.. - i-- -|ii iii i i - ri| ;
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li i|i -i i- i lii ii | n; l r -
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iii r; i| l ii nnn li ini i | -ni
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/ - n lr, lr ni n ii r iii | n; l sii
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n-i -i - ii| i| -n inii | i -i i|
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i i - lii- i l - iii i li| iiii
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(8) ii $Y iii si
(B) l,||i-, |,
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n sii l aa - sr -i|ii i n il ;r |ii
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i | ii| ri in| i|| s lnilii i |ii -i -
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i -il i in r| n lnilni rn -i|ii ra i n i|
; r iii l n; i| l ;r l | in ii| r ;ri in
- li r| l ini i iiii ni in r|
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(8- Pro#" Dashpal (;ormer chairman, @""-") conte3uali5ing Education 1 #rom
&hom, #or &hat and ho& (%ey note address) E3panding hori5ons #or reaching
the unreached"
s. lii - /rrss |s| i i . zas iii
ii li s -; sss|
()- i-- (ii r) .|.i.-|. . r/ ca, l za/ss, iii|
-n - r-ii ni i- nnn ni iil l-ii i li--
i nii r-ii li i- - l ini i i ii lli
-i- li ni (li i. l. ii s -.. i. . ln- . /a ss,
iii sss)
(.- -. . i iili ii l .,|.-|.,sz,ssrssr iii, l.
zssz| ;| i sss - -ln i.l. ii s i iii -i s
ni| li i. l. ii s . z iii sr|
('- ii, .|.i.-|., . |.-|.,i.,z,sr,/as,
iii, l. zr.s.sr
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(E- ii ii $$$ i- / r-ii li . sasr i liii ,
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iii) -ri-riii i. r. l. l| (-i-i) i. i| lr
(- i) i |. . lii (-|-i) i iliin i-- (-
i)
8(- C"S" -hand, "A" -houdhary, Samir >oshi 1 M@ni!ersali5ation has to be #rom
the !illage up &ardsN (Primary school *eachers $nno!ations: ;irst Dear 0oo%)
P" (B' Ra!i > Matthai -entre #or Educational $nno!ation T $ndian $nstitute o#
Management, Ahmedabad 8//."
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i, - ii r| irn r| ; l r- ilr
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fi+ii fii+ +
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ii r|
; lnln -i ii i|
i | i i- - -nni ri (rcI) |
i i ii|| l ni i | l- i-- |
nni (aI U szI)
i ii i- iiii r- n r ii r l rn
-inilni i i i i iii r| in i (sI)
lin r n r l l-i ssI iil- liii i r|
iii si n r| ;i ii iil- liii | l-ni r nii i
l | -lin riii r| i i ri - r i i r|
l-ni r i r lnii - in r| n i i - ii i
l~ r| rni r i i - i - n in r| i - i
ii; i - i rn -nni r, i r| - i ni r l r
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ii - iii -in| ii i liii | - iii i l
,ii | i i| iii | ii| in | n;|
; ii| i iii-in| i l-llin lii irn r |
+ni+ friiv ifuiu
. iil liii | -in /z
z. ii- i in i i
s. n iii | -in r
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ni
; i-il --i ~ in - l l- ni l i
n r
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ai +nii i+i +i i+ ni+ i^
; l - ii| i l-in li ii ilr| i l- sii
l i -ii ii i -~i ;r iiii ii iiii
- in li, l- sii ,ii l n -i i li in
i i r| - i-i i ; iili --i iiii ili
--i i i| -iii rini|
; i -r-i ni n n-i rin i r| ;
i-il --i lii l n i| n-i i rin li
ii ilr| n i| n-i ,ii ; --i ln l
inni i i| iiii i ii i ii li i
ni - - ;i ii r ni rini l li ili-i ii -
; i i r| in|
ri ziini +i i-i

; iii i - ii- r i c rii ilr| l i l i i-
i ii- i i i |
?E
fi ziini +i i-i

; ii nnn - li i iii i ii li ini |
;- l-in ri i sii i i -i i ii i| li
in si nir i ini l | -i | iln
l si - li iii - l-in rin|
fnin, ia+n, v fi+i+ -friu ni
) n-i liii ii| - i l- sii | i-ni i n
i-- ni li ii ilr l- iil liii iii i i|
i-- - l--ln li i| ; i i -ini - rini l-
n||
z) iil- liii i i i ii i l iil- iii -
iii -in| i - -| i | i-- | -lin rii ilr,
nil si ii| -n | lnii - i li i li
li in li ii ilr|
s) sii - |ii i i lii i r| liii ii| -
-~i i iii |ii r| rii ilr| |ii - nln iii
-~i li ii ilr l l| i i | ii -
i |
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ilr|
r) i l- l| ii; | - r| s- n; r | - i liii -
ni- i i l n i-- i ii i ilr| n
i-- ,ii ; i | s-| r; ii; i i ;r liii |
- iii - ii i ni r|
c) i l- lnii ii| iiii - liii | ll- -
lii iii| i| ilr| lii si i i -i i il l-ini
rini r n i i lilin rii ilr|
/) n|i ii l-i i ii ri ni r| l n| l-ni
i l-ii rini r| i i ; i i lln l nii -
r| | liii | -ii | ilr l r - - ri|
A/
s) l- l-ni - -- nil-i i i-i i ii
; - inni i; i n| r|
s) iii - ili -i i i li~ liii i-n| i
i; i sil-n i| i | i| ii r| ii; - -i i
l lnln liii l li~ -i | i| -ii | i|
ilr| ; iii -in| i | - -| in| i i l-
- i| lni- in||
a) i liii -i- -inilni i lilin li i, l lii
liii -r- i -n i i i iii i |
) i| ii i - l. -|. | iil- lni
| -iii i ii ni r l iil- liii in
i i i iii ii ri liii - ii - rini r|
; l -il- liii | -ii i| - i - ri| ilr|
z) -i - liii ln in l-ii - ln ii i r| n-i
liii i ini -i ii i nilliii ln-
in|i li i -i- |
s) iii -in| i lii - l- | --i i -iii i
i | lii i r il- i ilr l | ii i i; i|
si i iin ii - l-in r ni - | --i i ni
ni i i |
) ni l-ii -r-i in r r l ii | ili
--i i r i li i r i -, ni iii -in|
ii | --i i - i| ri ri n r|
+ii ^i
i - |li (ssc) i l-i | i-il ili ii
n l i -
i|ii l-ni (sss) iin - i l- ii i| |ln i liii
| il-i
-i (ss) i iin i, l- ll-|
A(
-i (ss)i l-i | lini | -iln, -i;- i
;li, li r.az.s.
- i . -.(s/z)n| l-ni i ir| --ii i , i-
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-i|i i. (s/c)i l-i | li liii, - . zs, -i
~ii, i;
ilni |.(ss/)i - ii ii ; l~|, ii
| i (ssr)ll i i;~ ; ;li -i-i ;l----
i i i;, -;
A8
f+i-n+ +rii+
~ + ni S
n+i fi+i+ fiii+ rii +i qa ++ + i
n+i +i
+c+i liii lnii - lii i liii
| - -i i r| r| ;| r ili
ni-ni i| iiln rin| r |
r
. lii liii ii i -n i i iii| ; l-
lni| liii, -iiri - liiii | l ii|
z. lni| inii i ii i i i - liiii i
rin in i|
s. iii - inn lni i --i i nii lni -n
iiln -iir - -i | iin|i| lln i |
fn+
--i i in i| lii in li i
ni- ri lni -i .-i.ii,i i.ii.,i i.ii.,i.ii.
iriii-i liiii n |l-n ii ini|
n+i + iifu +ii
+.
.
iifu +ii i+ -i,
+ni+
f+i
. lii i liii
- rii |
i| iii-,
lii
z. -iil -|ii - i
ii (- -
liiii i in|
i - -n ri |)
lni|
lii
iii-,
lii
s. lni -iir -
liiii i i-ln
i |
i| iii-,
lii
. lni| inii ii
- liii rin
i| iii-,
lii
AB
LLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLLL
S +n iu + i in f.i. i^, fni i, u-u^a
+.
.
iifu +ii i+ -i,
+ni+
f+i
i |
r. liiii ,ii lni
i -i n -ii|
i| iii-,
lii
c. liiii i lilin
rii |
i| iii-,
lii
/. lii i ii -
rii |
- i l.i.li.
lii|
ni n+i lni - - lii liii | l rii|
i+-+i a. i ili inii i iii i ni |
az. liiliii | irii inii i l-ii ri
ni|
f+i+ni
+o
o
f+i+ni +i f+i fri
. lni| lii i
i (- |,
iir| |
i |)
ls i ii |
ii|
i
l
z. liii lii
iii-i
i|
liii ii
z lnilii
,ii i|
iii|
lii
- ,ii
i| iii
|
.--ii i
liliiln
r |, i
|
z.iii -
l i i
liiii i
liliii i |
nir
s. - ili i
ii i ii
-i--i -iir
(iii)
-ii| -i
i n|n, lni,
ri| - i
lni i
i-ln i
--i i|
(iii-,lii
,ii llin
l
A)
+o
o
f+i+ni +i f+i fri
lnnn i
- i |)
. li -iir -
iiii i
llin i-i

ni- -i
iiri
iii i |
li
i- --i
li ni |
l
r. -sni lii iiln ii
i;
- i i
ni - i
i; lii
ii |
l
c. ri iiii -, ni- -
ni ri
- i | (n-n
- |
- l
i i ri
- iii
| -i l--i|
liii,i
i i |)
ln-
-
/. -ilri liii
i-
-ii -| -- -i -| -- -
lli i-ln
i- i
i ii
(-ii|
-ii)
l
s. liii lii
-il -
- liii
i llin
i-i
- -ii|
-ii
i l
-~i i -ir in lni -n lli i- (-i-|
-i, li -iir, ri il) lii liii i -i r r|
A.
f++i
. i zaaz, zaas zaa - lni - - ar i ac - r|
l-in rin i i - - iin|i| i -i | i ra sa
n r n; r |
z. liiii ii-- rin in ri r r |
s. lni ili inii - ii ri r |
. lni si-|si-| --ii i r i -iii r r |
ni c nni ni- ri i| i- - -i-| -i i
ii nn ac n zaar i ri | ni- ri nn iiri
|, riii - liii lii | nlni, n ln lii - -ini nii ln
i nii - l-i lni ini - -i-| -i l r; | -i-|
-i - |-n| -|i -r -i i in in, - iln
|-n| |ni ir ii in in ini - lii lnli |-n|
ii in li in - i, | ii n| - ii lii|
in, | |.|. ii l. i. liii lii| in, | |. . i-i |. i. |.
in i ni i-i ni - i l-in i|
; - lnli -|i -r -i ri l i i in iln |
iiii r r| -lri in|i | lii - - i r r | ; in
-i-| -i i| ini i r ii l-n| r l l-i i in i - i;
si| ; nr - lii i liii | i n|
|-n| |ni ir -lri iini i n r ri l iini i--
iin|i| i rlii r |
-ii - - i - nii l i-- iiln r ii
+ iii - lli | r, | i-in li | rri- ni-i
li, r ni ii - ln r-i ni i iini r| ili i
ri ` -inii i | l-i - - i i r ri ii | ri
in nii l - - -i-| ii l lli nin lnilnni iiln |
n; r| i l-i l li lnilnni ni | i -inii |
ni| lnilnni| ni i in -in-| r l-i | ;iini i! l-i
rii - iini i | n -inii rii - ;| i in| li -i
i -r ; iini lin| i l in| nn | i |
l-i i ni -i i |s r ` l riii ; - iini ii rini, i
-ini iri r| i| | i| - in| n ln i| n; ni -
i| r i i nin| r n; l ii i | l ini i l-i
rii - ini n -ini in r i i - ini nii
A'
nn | i | ;ni r| r| i i ni -ini i in| -
i r i li rii ni -r -i iinn| lii i |
^un + i r| i ; i i i | n|n n r|
~|~| | -n| -inii -......... |s r|, |s r| i i
ir| li i-n| n; li | i n| n; | i |nni ` |n i
ri sn| ilii | -i i i- ii l-i l~in| i|
-i i|....-i n; -|, -| n; -i |
nc+i i i| -inii i i in r| rini n i i
ir lii - - r| i| | i- --i, --| ii -ini rii - i
i i|i| n in| r r| nn | i|
i| r; i-ln i- | r|r| ili il lii - l
i | -i| l -i - i ii -i;, ii;, li; l-i; ii r|
ii ilii -in lii i| i l~n li| i -
i|ili r| lii - r lin i -i | ii ii -i |
i, l i-i rii - ni ri |, i| i i - ii n -|
- - in lnlli , , liii lii i - i.ii.
-i.ii. lii,lilii lrn nin zaa -i l-i iin li |
+iiii n-n n | - l i sisiii i ii; i
ri - l n| lii lni i r i - l
ii; i in i i - l i ii; i i liii i
lni i l i-ln n i| - |-i i i r| liii |
lii i lni| - in i | lii i i liiii |
l-iln - ri n i| r| i| ni ir - l -,
in | - || | -i ii | l--i| liii,i | i||
+ii+ ni n fi++ niir i ii - i i i
ini l li -iir i ii ni- -i iiri li ni
| iii i | li i- --iln li ni | ii r|
i iii ,ii ii i- i| -nn li ni | i- - ni-
in lnlli ni-i inl lrn -| i| iil- r |
A?
fiii+ + fnv +in
. iii-i i liii,-ini, lni i i-
z. li - (a i i)
iil- iii - i -il- iii - i
s. i| lil i i i i n|n ,li , -lni,
-ini lni ii i|
. i| iil- liii ri r;`
r. i i i-ii-|, |i -|, i| - -| - r | ri, r| |
c. i - in r`
/. i i iii i| nlnllii r i i r` ri, r| |
s. i i i i lii i| i l-n r` ri, r| |
s. l ri ni i - ln i `
a. i i in r iii li l-ln | - ln -ir rin| r` ri, r| |
. i i i| - - iin li r` ri, r| |
z. i i ii-, i -i il - iin n r` ri, r| |
s. i i i i n|n, ri| in r` ri, r| |
. i i ii n|n, ri| in r` ri, r| |
r. i i - - i; --i i| r` ri, r| |
c. i lii i n|-iri - iin n r` ri, r| |
/. i lii i l in - r r` ri, r| |
s. i lii -sni n r` ri, r| |
s. i| i - - | s| in i r`
za. - i| i ii r`
fi+i+ + fnv +in
. lii i i- ...................................................................................................
z. i| lil i i i . i n|n ,z. li,s. -lni,.
s. i i ri liii lii i i n- ri r | ri, r| |
. i i ri iii li l-ln | - ln -ir rin| r` ri, r| |
AA
r. - l i in r ` llin , lnnn -
c. i i liiii - n r ` ri, r| |
l ri, ni i - ln i |
/. i i| iii - i-rni-| liii i ii rini r` ri, r| |
(ilr-, i-ln, i--, i)
l ri, ni lnn i - ii| nlnllii i ii li ni ii`
s. i i i| - - iin li r` ri, r| |
s. i i| iii - i -i iiln rini r` ri, r| |
a. i i ii - i i n|n, ri| in r` ri, r| |
. i i iii - liii, i l i i ii li r` ri, r| |
z. i i ni- n|-iri - iin n r`
s. i i i| liiii | --i i i i r ` ri, r| |
l ri, ni i | --i r`
. i ii r r - n rini r l - i i - r | ri, r| |
r. i lni | -n n r | ri, r| |
l ri, ni ls nir i i | -n | `
c. i i i| ri i-n| l-ii l liiii rin li r |ri, r|
/. ii ln- | i | in s| r| nn| |
s. i| i - - | s| in i r`
s. liii i| i ii r`
za. i liiii i ii i i liiii ii l| ili
--i li l-i li r| l ri, ni r --i i i| ` ri, r| |
AE
++ii^u f+ifzi+i+ uii ui + nr + +i +n +
rn f+ +i ziini n ii ri +u r
~ fi +ii ziniS
-nii
i | | n li rin| r| ii l-in li i |
in r | ; i - i | | -n rin| r | li rin
r, rin r| | iii-ii r| i ; li i ii
-n nni r| r lni ini r, ni i ii
ln -n rin| r |
i rn lni i| rini r| r ~i i| ni r | ; i| |i ii
s n ri l rini r, ; l i i ir, lni nri
i s l-ni r, | i i i- - i i ni
r |
liii li i i l r- i lii, nlnllii
ii ln | ini rin| r| ; - i-n| l ni n|
r, ii r| ; ii inii li - i | riilnni i i|
i rini r i lni, -i li l lrn rini |
| liii li l i r l -i- | | ii - lii i
-i n-ni | il-i - i | l-in ri ilr nii i i
-lin- ,ii ini in l ln i ilr| lii i| i
-i i in r - i -~i nii i i rn
li l i-ilrn | ln i-nlni r r l i| iii -
lii i in r| ri ii liii iiii - rii liii lli
i ii r s i r| ri ini r|
i+ui
liisi - | - ri|
z si l iii i li l ri|
s sii i ii i iii - ilil -iri in ri l - i
r|
lii ; iiii l r nni si ni| r|
E/
n inii | ln l-llin lni i; i n| r
. lii ,ii ri - ni i ii|
z. i | si-|si-| ini i i|
s. i i ii - iii -nni i|
+i
n inii lni i - - i- i i -
| - | i i li| i i | ii -n iii lli
ii iili i-i in r;| ; i-i i ii s-i|n ii |
ii nnn li ni ii l- ii s - r in -
li i lii i ; i-i rn i i
li ii| r i-i -.r|. ii ,ii i l i r i
iiiln ii i iii ir r i lr l| i| nr -
ii| lii i r n i-- ,l i, -i-
i i li ini r| ; - lii z i- i
ii rn r nii | - nlnlli, ii i i in r| ;
- i i liii ,ii ilil -iri l i i i
li ini r| ; nr lii si - | rn r| - i i l-||
ziini n u i
; i-i in - - - r li ii l i r| ii
s-i|n - r -ii in i l - - ;i s i i| |
iii - i nii sii l- r ni ii -ini|
| iii - i i i l-ni -iiln - l
li l - lnnn - - s - i i nii l-
i i i |
- i | ;si i ii - s s|
i r s l i - ln -i in r`
s i ri - -i li | i -i ii-- ii|
r s l -i l ln-ir ln n r`
s i aa, s zr i s ra -il nii|
i r si l l n-r li l -i ii i ni ln
i irn`
n li ni r s si li l i ini`
E(
r i-n li ni l li l i; i r| l~ - - i+ni|
; nin i| i ni ri n|
i - si ni ni li i r s ssa i
- nii s i i - i| nii|
li i | ;sii r in saa assa n i i
li li ni| ; l -ii - iii i i r| li
ni| ; iii - i | ii / i - r l r| sa
-i ; lii ii - l-in r| r | i-ni i n ii
ni| i|i| i | i n||
- i ii l ll-n ii i| ii ; lii ii - i
n ii l s iiii i| -i in
i, -i si -| lnln ii - i n|
-i ni ii l-ni -iiln i| ; l si
l-llin n| i n|
. ii i-i ri ii r| nin a l-- n i lnnn
li, i, -r~, ni i - i | n; l- | nr
iin n nii | r ilil i-il in n i| r
si-|si-| --i i - i-n i|
z. ii - - li i l i i | -nni i
i li, iin l li i li i irn i, r
lin --i ni i i li ini ; in
li | --i ni; in||
s. l l| ,ii i| l| li | i; --i i- in| ni i|
;i lii i i li ini ii|
. l -r~ - iii r, r rn r| lsi ;ii r, n| n -|
iii - n r| ; i i i|, il i|
r| rin r| liii lii nrn iii - lii - i ili
in rin| i| i i| l r| i| n r iii |
i - i-n| i i; in| i||
r. lii ii | | liini r rn| r l ; i i -
i i rini r| | -| li i- i n r| |
;sii r i ii ini r| l i| i | ;si |
r| rin| r n r ii - l ri|, lni, nii| li ii
| lii | in| i|| i-- i li i i r| rni r|
c. lii ii - i l | -nni i|| ir r|-i i
i; lnnn in s| ii - i i inii ii|
E8
/. ; ii - i | -ni in r| n| i|| -n | i;
in lr r n r| ii - i| ii i|
s. ; ii r in ri l ; ii - i s i| n r r
i| r n -n - i ini| ;i |ii lii- i| i|
i ii i lii- si ri|
s. ls s ii - iii | i ii i |ii lii- ln ii r i
i ; i r
l-n-i|i i-i| - -i|i
zaaz /r / za
zaas z as
zaa ra ra r
zaar s as
zaac / s s
; in i i - - | | i - ii liii i
s r n ii| ii i ni r|
EB
n fn n fzi+ii +^ f+iu ii iifn+ ziini +
++ii 1 s u+ + uiuiii + fn ic fzi+ii +fu
1sac + u^u +un fri^n +u i+i +i +ii+
n-i++ v ni
i. (~nu) fnni i S
- ii
-nn iii - liii lii nnn zaa n i (in lnin)
iini | iln l i-| liii |ln ssc iin s i-|
liii -ii -i s./ - ii i i l liii -
ni-ni i | l- i - lli inii iii li l
i n- lin- -n liiln l n i, r| i iii r
li ni r |
-i ii li -i liii liin ,ii n- lin- -n
(-...) liii i - iiin| ,ii iil- lnii | -il-ln
in r i li ni l l ii r n - -n -
li | -- inii i li i ln liii ,ii li i ni
lln ; iii lii- liii nii-- - li i
ii i i n|
+ui+i
-i liii r i| ln i r i n r l sisii
ii r| n i i| i i- ii -| n r| li
in r, r| nlin | i liiii-ii, niiiin i r r| in
r | ;i ii r r lnii - iiiin inii -lin
l-i;i i in i i r| li ini | lii-- ln
i si i in i i | l-iln - l
iil | - r| ri in r | n i-| liii |ln -i s./
r.r iii r ri i ni r l liii - ni-ni
-ni rn iil- -n n- lin- -n ,ii liii in| l, rini|
-n ; ii li i - -nn r iii -r-i, ii
i in| i | r r |
E)
S i+ (n+ifni+), fni fzi+ii v fzi+ii +ii+, n (n..) i+ ezc1zcz+cea (O)

r+ + z
i ii s r n si siii - iiii nlin |
inii li - (n- lin- -n | iln i) inn liii
lli lln -r iln liii lli ini-- -r -i-
iii|ni i ni-- i |
ii ii s r n si siii - iiii nlin lii |
s | r; -i inii i li -~i i |
i++-+i
. iiii nlin lii | inii li (n- lin- -n |
iln) - -inn i ln liii (ini iiiln) - n r|
ii ini r |
z. ii s, r ini-- lln -r sisiii
iiii nlin lii | inii li - |ii |ii
lii-i - n r| ii ini r |
s. ii s, r l- -il ini ini--
lln -r sisiii iiii nlin lii | inii
li (li) - ii n r| ii ini r |
. ii s, r ini-- -r sisiii iiii nlin
lii | inii | li (ini lnin) - |ii
- n r| ii ini r n- lin- -n | iln - i
ln liii lli (ini iiiln) iii| r| i; in| r |

. -n ini ni+f+ iui (fq).
z. n uni+ r+ n f+ i +i ii ii
i^i r zif+i+ nfri (+iui nfri),
i^u v in+fu fzi+ii (+iui iriifu)
zif+i+ nfri (+iui nfri)
i-| liii |ln (ssc) i - n- lin- -n | | iiii
i ini i i-ni -i, iil- -n - li - llrn
- ini | iln liii l - si /a sa lnin
in | i | ii | in| r |
E.
+iuiv
ini, n- lin- -ni i - lin- i r| i; lnii|
lin lli- i - i- ri ini r, - ri i ni r l
lnii| - lin ini lln ri n; r | ini ni- r ii
| iriii iiii nnn lii, i, nii nlin li i,
i-ii, nii, iin | lii - ini in i |
i^u fzi+ii
; liii lli - lii i i -n| ni -i- liii i
ni r|
in +fu fzi+ii
; liii lli ,ii i ln, | r ilni li i
-n -l-n lln ri i l-ni r| lii
n-ni - i ni r |
izi
ru+ (Purposi!) fu+ + u^u +n n+i -+i
friu fui r -+ f+i iui r ( uv, +uu ziiri izi
+ + + fnv ru+ fu+ f+i ^i(
izi uifn+i
++ii f+fu nr i^i-n+ nr +ni^
ui uiiv i^ ui uiiv i^
u
ii
i
zs
zs
zs
zs
zs
zs
1se
1se
1se
zs
zs
zs
zs
zs
zs
1se
1se
1se
aee
aee
aee
i^ zzs zzs +se zzs zzs +se see
i-i -il ini iii i -r i ini-- lln -r
i ni i - li ni i -i iii - i
l- -n| -r ll-n l n r |
+i
. +iini ni+f+ iui +ii (General Mental Ability Test)
-nn |ii i l-ii i. i.|. |i-n li i (ssr) ,ii
ll-n / i i si- i l iil nii iil |iii
- rara i i iil- ni li ni r |
E'
z. +iuiv
ini lin- i ili li - liilin | in| r|
i - l| ini lii lln ri r ini lin
lli- i - |i ri ini r | inii | |ini (i- ri)
ni- lin- liiln -ni | iln r |
iiii + +iuiv
n||, ii| i| ii - iiii li | liiln inii -
s -i inii i ini-- -ri sisiii - i ln
(ini iiiln) liii ,ii li rn i ni r| ini
l-llin r
1. ++i z. in+i a. a+i +. fni+i s. ++ v a+ (fii +i iri+) c.
irif+ i+i z. +fri^n s. ziin f+i (
^fiu + +iuiv
n||, ii| i| ii ini-- -ri - nlin li |
liiln inii - l -i inii i i ln (ini
iiiln) liii ,ii li (li) l i ni, l-iln r

nlin | ini (ii s)


. i ii ii i -ni |
z. i ii i i, i-i, nii iin | ini
|
s. -i;, ii () | ;i;i (-i -i) i
in | ini |
nlin | ini (ii r)
1. i ii ii i -ni|
*- i ii i i, i-i, nii iin
| ini|
+- -i, -i;, ii (), iilni, i - |
;i;i i in ; lin l | |
iiii --ii i r | ini|
,- li i- i in | ini |
E?
-- il-n| iii -iil -ii i -n
| ini |
a. +ii
n||, ii| i| ii sisiii - iii i
lln inii | li (iln) i nin l iiii
nlin lii - iii rn | n; inii iii zaza i
nn (- ii l) |iii i l-ii li ni |
. z +ii
n||, ii| i| ii sisiii - in i | -iln
i inii | iln i l - ii - iiii nlin lii
- iii rn | n; inii iii nn zaza i
|iii i ll-n li ni
i+i +i +n+
ii rn i- i-i ii s ii r n c ni i|
lnilii i -il ini |ii li ni | ii i| iii -
i i i l- ri i|i| -i n|i iii (s, r)
sisiii i |ii li ni|
; i i| sisiii | l, i -i -n| -il ini
l--n| -il ini i (-i iii ) sisiii i
nn n|n li ni |
-i iii -n| l--n| -il ini i -
ii sisiii ii -r () ini-- (z) lln -r i
n|
ii i l iiin| ,ii - ini-- -r i
iln liii lli ,ii i li ni lln -r i r|
iilii,iililii ,ii inn lli iin i ii ni |
in | li - ini-- -ri ii in | i| i
iiili n| n; |
; i ini-- -r lln -r - -i iln (ini
iiiln) inn liii i ii inii | iln - i l
l-llin - - |ii i ln l n
EA
ini-- -r lln -r iln l n ili |ii r
. |ii (n-n -ir)
z. cc ;i; |ii (ln- |, - -ir si)
s. |ii (-i -ir)
ili li (inii | iln) ii (i) i in
i lii ii | n; |
fznii v f+
l- -il ini iii ini-- lln -r i
-ri lli i| -ii i li ni n -ri
sisiii - i ln liii lli (ini iiiln) nii -inn lli
ii i iiii nlin li | inii li (n- lin- -n |
li) i ni-- li ni |
il| lii l --i, -i, ri, -i l, -i l-,
li-ni, ni i in li ni iln in ,ii -ri n |
iini nin | n;|
uifn+i 1 u ++ii + i^i-n+ nr + uiuiii + iiii
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