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Omar A. S. Youssef, Member, IEEE

AbstractPower system disturbances are normally subjected to transients and nonperiodic components which present a problem to the overall performance of protective relays. The use of traditional discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) to extract the fundamental frequency components from the relaying signals is inappropriate to nonperiodic signals. A novel wavelet transform-based technique for power system relaying has been presented before [1][3], which has the ability to perform local analysis of relaying signals without loosing the time-frequency information in the signal. This technique is considered to be straight-forward, fast, and adequate for online applications. In this paper, the theoretical background of the technique is presented. Then, the proposed method is described in detail. Finally, the effect of different parameters on the algorithm are examined in order to highlight its performance. It is found that the DWT is an excellent online tool for protective relaying applications using short data windows. Index TermsDigital signal processors, Fourier transforms, protective relaying, transforms, transient analysis, wavelet transforms.

have been reported for modeling power system disturbances [8], fault detection [9], analysis for power quality problem solution [10], [11], power quality assessment [12], protection [13], and analysis of power system transients [14]. Wavelet transforms, with their ability to focus on short transients and high frequency components, can provide an effective solution to power system relaying algorithms. In this paper, wavelet transform concept is introduced. The property of multiresolution in time and frequency provided by wavelets is described, the new algorithm is presented with its mathematical background highlighted, and the effect of different parameters on its performance is investigated. A series of simulation studies [1][3] has shown that the DWT-based algorithm can be used as an effective online tool for protective relaying algorithms using a very short data windows as compared to DFT-based algorithms.

I. INTRODUCTION HE waveforms associated with fast electromagnetic transients are typically nonperiodic signals which contain both high-frequency oscillations and localized impulses superimposed on the power frequency and its harmonics. These characteristics present a problem for traditional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) because its use assumes a periodic signal. Consequently, the representation of a signal by the DFT is best reserved for periodic signals. To reduce the effect of nonperiodic signals on the DFT, the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) is used. It assumes local periodicity within a continuously translated time window. This however locates the start time of the transient only to the specified window. A wavelet transform (WT) expands a signal not in terms of a trigonometric polynomial but by wavelet, generated using the translation (shift in time) and dilation (compression in time) of a fixed wavelet function called the mother wavelet. The wavelet function is localized in time and frequency yielding wavelet coefficients at different scales (levels). This gives the wavelet transform much greater compact support for the analysis of signals with localized transient components. A wavelet-based signal processing technique [4][7] is considered to be an effective tool for power system transient analysis and feature extraction. Some applications of the technique

Manuscript received March 19, 2002. The author is with the Faculty of Industrial Education, Suez Canal University, Suez 43515, Egypt. Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TPWRD.2003.817487

II. DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM The low-frequency content in the signal is the most important part. The main objective of wavelet transform analysis is to remove the undesired high-frequency, and impulse components superimposed on the signal. The efficiency of wavelet analysis stems from its fast pyramid algorithm. The algorithm has two faces. The forward algorithm (decomposition phase) which is used to compute the wavelet transform (DWT), [i.e., to decompose the signal into component wavelets]. The backward algorithm (reconstruction phase) is used to compute the inverse transform (IDWT) (i.e., reconstructs the original signal from the component wavelets). This is illustrated in Fig. 1. The forward algorithm uses linear filters, low- and high-pass analog devicesto decompose the signal into low- and high-frequency components, and also combines these filters with down-sampling operations (which accounts for the algorithms speed). The backward algorithm simply inverts the process, by combining an upsampling process with linear filtering operations. The original signal , which may be the phase voltage or line current, passes through two complementary filters and emerges as two signals (low-pass and high-pass components). The decomposition process can be iterated, with successive low frequency components being decomposed in turn, so that one signal is broken down into many lower-resolution components, as shown in Fig. 2. The low- and high-pass decomposition filters (LD, HD), together with their associated reconstruction filters (LR, HR), form quadrature mirror filters. The filter W, which is called the scaling filter (non-normalized), is finite impulse response (FIR) of length 2N, of sum 1,

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Fig. 3. Typical voltage signal and its 4-levels low-frequency and high-frequency components- using db8 function. Fig. 1. Single level wavelet decomposition and reconstruction procedure.

Fig. 4. Voltage signal and its 4-levels DWT spectrum (time-frequency tiles).

Fig. 2. Four-levels wavelet decomposition of signal x , with data window 20 samples. Signal lengths are L(x ) = 20, L(x ) = 17, L(x ) = 16, L(x ) = 15, L(x ) = 15:. Length of coefficient vector at level 4 = [15 15 16 17 20].

of norm 1/sqrt(2), and is a low-pass filter. From filter W, we define four FIR filters, of length 2N and of norm 1, organized as follows:

where LR, HR are the low-pass and high-pass reconstruction filter coefficients, and LD, HD are the low-pass and high-pass decomposition filter coefficients, while REV stands for reversing the coefficients, and Q is the quadrature mirror filter.

Fig. 3 illustrates four-level wavelet analysis of a typical voltage signal during L-G fault on a transmission line, using Wavelet function db8. The DWT output can be represented in a two-dimensional (2-D) grid with very different divisions in time and frequency such that the windows are narrow at high frequencies and wide at low frequencies. The time-frequency picture of the analyzed signal is a 2-D space useful for idealizing a two properties of transient signals; localization in time of transient phenomena, and presence of specific frequencies. The signal is decomposed into segments called time-frequency tiles plotted on the plane. The position of the tiles indicate the nominal time and while the amplitude is indicated by shading. The DWT is represented by the time-frequency tiles, the mother wavelet function (db8) is dilated at low frequencies (level-4) and compressed at high frequencies (level-1), so that large windows are used to obtain the low frequency components of the signal, while small windows reflect discontinuities. Fig. 4 shows the DWT of the voltage with the time-frequency tiles indicated.

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III. ALGORITHM In this section, a specific DWT analysis procedure is explained using wavelet function db8 with 20 samples data window, based on 5-kHz sampling rate, and noting that the db8 filter (W) and its LF decomposition (LD), HF decomposition (HD), LF reconstruction (LR), and HF reconstruction (HR) filter coefficients are given by

Level-2 Decomposition: In the same way, the signal from level-1 is convolved with the (LD) filter coefficients, and then down sampled, that is

In the same way, level-2 HF component is convolved with the HF decomposition filter coefficients (HD), and then . down sampled, and where Level-3 Decomposition: Similarly, the signal from level-2 is convolved with the (LD) filter coefficients, then down sampled

The decomposition and reconstruction procedure for exis tracting level-4 low-frequency component of signal described in the following two phases. A. Decomposition Phase: (conv(x,LD)) Level-1 Decomposition: In reference to Fig. 1, the input is convolved with the low-frequency decomposition signal filter coefficients (LD), then down sampled (that is

In the same way, level-3 HF component is convolved with the HF decomposition filter coefficients (HD), and then . down sampled, and where from Level-4 Decomposition: Consequently, the signal level-3 is convolved with (LD) filter coefficients, and then down sampled, that is

where stands for down sampling (i.e., keep the even indexed elements and discard other elements). The previous procedure is by equivalent to multiplying a new matrix to get output matrix , that is

In the same way, level-4 HF component is convolved with the HF decomposition filter coefficients (HD), and then . down sampled, and where The previous 4-level decomposition procedure can be rewritten as follows:

Hence, In the same way, level-1 HF component is convolved with the HF decomposition filter coefficients (HD), and then, . down sampled, and where the length

where;

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B. Reconstruction Phase: conv( (x),LR) Keeping in mind that the length of the coefficient vector at level-4 is [15 15 16 17 20], the reconstruction process can be described as follows: Level-1 Reconstruction: In this stage, the output signal from is up sampled and convolved the decomposition stage with the low-frequency reconstruction filter coefficients (LR), that is

Then, the equivalent matrix that satisfies should be , then taking the central part with length, and noting that means taking the even columns 2, , 14, 32, these steps can be reduced to a single step, that is

Level-4 Reconstruction: The output signal from level-3 is up sampled and convolved with the (LR), filter coefficients, that is

where

where stands for up-sampling which means inserting zeros at that odd-indexed elements. Hence, the equivalent matrix should be 46 31, and by taking the satisfies central part with a convenient length (governed by the length of the coefficient vectors, which in this case equals 15), we can reduce the previous operations to a single matrix multiplication process, noting that means taking the even columns 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 30, that is

Then, the equivalent matrix that satisfies should be 50 35 then taking the central part with length , [20], and noting that means taking the even columns 2, 32, 34, that is

The previous four-level reconstruction procedure can be rewritten as follows: Level-2 Reconstruction: In the same way, the output signal is up sampled and convolved with the from level-1 (LR) filter coefficients, that is

where

where Then, the equivalent matrix that satisfies should be , and by taking the central part with the convenient length, the previous procedure can be reduced to a single matrix multiplication process, noting that means taking the even columns 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 30, that is

Hence, the level-4 low-frequency component, of signal with data window 20 samples and db8 wavelet function, based on 5-kHz sampling rate can be simply calculated as

Level-3 Reconstruction: Similarly, the output signal from is up sampled and convolved with the (LR) level-2 filter coefficients, that is

where

where is denoted in this paper as level-4 discrete . wavelet transform (DWT) matrix, and has dimensions Fig. 5 illustrates a typical voltage signal with its level-4 LF (with 20 samples data window), and component using when using wider data windows (200, 100, and 50 samples). Noting that in the 20 samples data window graph, the dotted matrix is used, while the solid line is the result when line is the result when using very large data window. A similar procedure can be carried out to reconstruct the HF components at different levels. This is accomplished by convolving the signal at the specified level with the HF reconstruction filter coefficients (HR) instead of LF reconstruction filter coefficients (LR).

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Fig. 5.

nent (DWT) using very large data window. It is clear that by using row 1, the DWT component is in phase with the original signal. On the other hand, when using row #10 in the calculation, the LF component has shifted ten samples, while using row #20, the component has shifted 20 samples, and so on. This justifies the concept of wavelet transform analysis regarding translation. Selecting the mean of the columns of the matrix (or alternatively row #10) and multiplying it by an appropriate correction factor to compensate for the effect of using a limited data window and shifting the result ten samples in the lagging direcmation, to compensate for using only a single row in the trix, a correct result will be reached. The correction factor is calculated according to the minimum sum square error between wavelet transform component calculated on the basis of very large data window, and the wavelet transform component calculated on the basis of using row #10 only (20 samples data window). This is explained as follows: 1) Using the mean (or alternatively the sum) of the DWT , where matrix

The correction factor for minimum SSE is 1.329 09. Consequently, the row matrix used in calculating level-4 LF component is

Fig. 6. Effect of different rows in the DWT matrix on the calculations of the LF component of a signal1/5 cycle data window.

The correction factor for minimum SSE is 1.1996. Hence, by multiplying row #10 by 1.1996, we get

The technique under consideration is based on the concept that a single row in the DWT matrix represents a single point on the low-frequency component of the signal; hence, by selecting this specific row and adjusting the phase shift with the signal will lead to the correct low-frequency component of that signal. matrix in The effect of using specific rows from the calculating the wavelet transform components (level-4) with the moving data window approach is illustrated in Fig. 6, in which the effect of using single row is compared with the LF compo-

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Fig. 10. Signal and its level-4 LF componentdata window 100 samples (one power frequency cycles).

Fig. 7. Sum square error when using row 10 of the DWT matrix and when using the mean of the DWT matrix.

Fig. 8. Signal and its level-4 LF componentdata window 500 samples (five power frequency cycles). Fig. 11. Signal and its level-4 analysisdata window 20 samples with wavelet function db8.

Fig. 9. Signal and its level-4 LF componentdata window 200 samples (two power frequency cycles).

Fig. 7 shows the sum square error (SSE) when using row #10 in the DWT matrix and when using the mean of the DWT matrix in the straight forward calculation of the level-4 low-frequency analysis of a signal with data window 20 samples (Fig. 8), and wavelet function db8. The effect of using both methods on the final wavelet component of a typical voltage signal is displayed in Fig. 9.

Fig. 12. Signal and its level-4 LF component using different wavelet functions with 20 samples data windows.

IV. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PARAMETERS ON THE ALGORITHM A. Effect of Data Window The effect of data window width is better illustrated in Figs. 9, 10, 11, and 12 using wavelet function db8.

B. Effect of Wavelet Function Using the Symlet(8) wavelet function, the correction factor at the min SSE is 0.9398 for row #10 method, and 1.1901 for the

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mean of DWT matrix (or equivalently .0595 for the sum of the columns).

Fig. 13. Correction factor values versus row number in the DWT matrix for different wavelet functions.

Using 10 Samples Data Window: a) Using symlet(4) wavelet function: It should be pointed level analout that for N samples data window, only ysis is practically possible; hence, for 10 samples data window, only two-level analysis is possible. When selecting row #5, the correction factor is 0.8979, and in case of using the mean of the matrix (10 10), the correction factor is 1.1021. level-2 b) Using bior(3.3) wavelet function: In case of using biorthogonal wavelet function of order(3.3), the correction factors are 0.8685, and 1.1148 for row #5, and for the mean of matrix, respectively. level-2 c) Using db4 wavelet function: In case of using this wavelet function, the correction factors are .8757, and 1.1055 matrix, for row #5, and for the mean of level-2 respectively. is the DWT matrix 10 10 for db4 and 10-samples data window, 5-kHz sampling rate. Only the fifth row is selected for computation

Fig. 14. Signal and its level-2 LF component using different wavelet functions with 10-samples data window. TABLE I FREQUENCY ALLOCATION IN DWT ANALYSIS. SAMPLING RATE 5 kHz

It should be pointed out that by using the center row in the matrix, it will lead to more accurate results. This is explained in Fig. 13 for different wavelet functions where the correction factor is minimum. Fig. 14 illustrates the level-2 LF component using different wavelet functions with 10-samples data window. C. Selection of the Level of Analysis Isolation of impulse and HF components can be performed according to the required level of decomposition and reconstruc-

tion. This is because the DWT analysis is based on the dyadic system, accordingly, it can split the frequency spectrum into specific frequency bands (levels), as shown in Table I for sampling rate 5 kHz, from which it is clear that the impulse and HF components can be computed and isolated from the signal at the lower levels. V. CONCLUSION Online applications of WT to power system relaying have been presented in this paper. The main features of the new technique are its ability to isolate the impulse and HF component and extract the fundamental frequency component using a small

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data window. The technique was successfully tested with data obtained through computer simulation with 10- and 20-samples data windows (based on 5-kHz sampling rate) which is equivalent to 1/10 and 1/5 power frequency cycle (based on 50-Hz power supply). The proposed technique can improve the operation of protective relays by making the calculations of fundamental frequency component more accurate and immune to frequency excursions, besides reducing the trip time more significantly. REFERENCES

[1] O. A. S. Youssef, New algorithm to phase selection based on wavelet transforms, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 17, pp. 908914, July 2002. [2] , A wavelet-based technique for discrimination between faults and magnetising inrush currents in transformers, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 18, pp. 170186, Jan. 2003. , Fault classification based on wavelet transforms, in Proc. IEEE [3] T&D Conf., Atlanta, GA, Oct. 28Nov. 2 2001, paper # 01TD069. [4] I. Daubechies, Ten Lectures on Wavelets: SIAM, 1992. [5] S. Mallat, A theory for multiresolution signal decomposition: the wavelet representation, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 11, pp. 674693, July 1989. [6] IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, I. Daubechies, S. Mallat, and A. S. Willsky, Eds., vol. 38, no. 2, Mar. 1992. [7] Y. Meyer, Ed., Wavelets and Applications. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1992. [8] P. Pillay and A. Bhattacharjee, Application of wavelets to model short-term power system disturbances, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 11, pp. 20312037, Nov. 1996.

[9] F. Jiang, Z. Q. Bo, and M. A. Redfern, A new generator fault detection scheme using wavelet transform, in Proc. 33rd Universities Power Eng. Conf., Edinburgh, U.K., Sept. 1998, pp. 360363. [10] S. Santoso, E. J. Powers, and W. M. Grady, Power quality disturbance data compression using wavelet transform methods, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 12, pp. 12501257, Apr. 1997. [11] T. B. Littler and D. J. Morrow, Wavelets for the analysis and compression of power system disturbances, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 14, pp. 358364, Apr. 1999. [12] S. Santoso, E. J. Powers, W. M. Grady, and P. Hofmann, Power quality assessment via wavelet transform analysis, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 924930, Apr. 1996. [13] O. Chaari, M. Meunier, and F. Brouaye, Wavelets: a new tool for the resonant grounded power distribution systems relaying, IEEE Trans. Power Delivery, vol. 11, pp. 13011308, July 1996. [14] W. A. Wilkinson and M. D. Cox, Discrete wavelet analysis of power system transients, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 11, pp. 20382044, Nov. 1996.

Omar A. S. Youssef (M92) was born in Cairo, Egypt, in 1945. He received the B.Sc., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of Cairo, Egypt, in 1966, 1976, and 1979, respectively. Currently, he is the Deputy Dean to Graduate Studies and Research, Faculty of Industrial Education, University of Suez Canal, Suez, Egypt. He has also undertaken lecturing or consulting assignments in Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Qatar, since 1966. In 1999, he was invited as a Visiting Research Fellow at the University of Bath, U.K.

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