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To what extent was Khrushchev successful in his political and economic reforms?

Khrushchev's main reforms were to increase agriculture and make it more efficient and in industry he wanted to turn focus from heavy industry to consumer good, making the workers life better. He tried to reform the political party, government and the economy by cutting down bureaucracy, fear and an increasing investment in science and technology. His success in all areas was limited due to the nature of ussia and the government at the time. Khrushchev tried to reform the political party by shifting away from the traditional bureaucrats to the 'technically minded' !"ainsod#. This was to tackle problems of production, organisation and administration. $t was achieved to a certain extent as the number of white collar members grew from %&' in ()*+ to ,%.*' by ()+*. "urthermore under -talin the .entral .ommittee had not met for (, years, but with Khrushchev's reforms the .entral .ommittee was underway again and meetings were more fre/uent0 + in (),1 alone. However the .entral .ommittee and party congress had little success as it was still ritualistic and the institutionalised structure was hardly changed. He also tried to reform the government. He introduced the 2on3party 4loc to give the -upreme -oviet a more popular image. 5lso deliberations were conducted in private which meant that members could now air their views without incurring sanctions for infringing party influence. This mean he created a more liberated party that could discus what it wanted without fear. However law was still used to party control and Khrushchev was still a dictator 3 if the -upreme -oviet was called on to speak it would have to reflect the party image. This shows that even though they could air their grievances in the end everyone had to follow the party line, limiting the effect of the reforms. 6ecentralisation was a ma7or reform across the whole of the economy. He believed that this would reduce bureaucracy and that the economy would be better with the replacement of regular government with self3administration of the population. $n trying to do this Khrushchev asked that 8every -oviet person must become an active participant in the administration'. This led to many unpaid volunteers in parks, library and cinemas. However his reforms failed as there was an increase in bureaucracy between ()*1 and ()+9 as central government organisations increased by +&,&&&. This really led to the opposite of what Khrushchev tried to achieve. $n agriculture Khrushchev offered far greater autonomy to local party administrators and in industry Khrushchev abolished the :oscow based ministry in ()*; and replaced them with -ovarkho<y, which was an economic council responsible for industrial plans in their area. This was to avoid red tape and coordinate branches of production better. However it was not successful in doing so and created another branch of bureaucrats with offices, making the problem worse. "urthermore Khrushchev wanted to move away from heavy industry that -talin has focused on and put more of an emphasis on consumer goods in the ;th five year plan. This was successful as consumer goods increased by +&'. 5lso by ()+1 *&' of ussia's had T=s and washing machines as well as (&' had a vacuum

farmers taxes where reduced as prices increasing. Khrushchev failed to tackle the problem of storage. This continued to ()+& with a 9+. @verall Khrushchev's reforms had some successes. Khrushchev's main pro7ect to reform agriculture was the 'virgin land' scheme.onse/uently it did not matter how much the farmers produced as only a certain amount would be accepted. The yield in Tselinny Krai was half that in the ?kraine. This was revolutionary for the ussian people.1' of grain harvest. However reform was not successful for all. Aolitically his reforms were a step in a good direction.. the crops were unsuitable for the climate and there was not enough fertiliser.3 ()+9 3 even if you owned a car there was poor road work and the (9&&km from :oscow to . therefore the amount that was stored was controlled by the agencies that managed storage and if they were full they refused to accept more perishable goods. 5nother way that Khrushchev tried to reform agriculture was by urging the peasants to adopt more efficient technology and increasing incentives for them to do so.onse/uently in ()+& dust storms damaged over (. . "or vegetables the price increased by %*39&'. as well as car production only being ( million between ()*. This would mean that wheat could be grown in vast /uantities and feed the growing cities. with a better image. @ver this period grain cost %&' more than the national average to produce in Ka<akhstan and in ()+(39 it was twice as high. He tried to cultivate vast amounts of land of north Ka<akhstan and western -iberia with the aid of volunteers. However ussia was still behind the >eston world.otton growers hardly benefited as well as all prices were fixed according to official estimates.&&& s/uare hectares of land.rimea had only (. livestock rose **&' and milk and butter over (&&'. $n industry. However both the economy and political reforms had limited success. . The virgin land scheme had good intentions. However the scheme was poorly managed. but they were not listened to. $t was successful at the beginning as by ()+& 9(. His political reforms were restricted simply due to the regime and nature of the political party. making some of his reforms futile as ussia was not as advanced enough for the facilities that came with the increase in consumer goods. . There were even warnings from the scientists who said there would be high soil erosion. $n 5ugust ()*. Khrushchev's economy reforms did lead to some success as the rate of growth was higher. .1million hectares were ploughed.onsumer goods also worked as incentives for workers to work harder with the promise of material rewards. 4etween ()*% and ()*1 farm workers income more then doubled and prospects of real economic advances was great as well as basic agriculture operations became nearly all machinated. .1' contribution. and in ()*+ the virgin lands contributed *&.cleaner. -pare parts and repair facilities were in short supply. but that was not enough as short3sightedness led to the erosion of soil and early success. production in the ()*&'s increased more rapidly in the ?-5 and this was also seen in agriculture with the early success of the =irgin lands scheme. petrol stations. but a lot more failures. coupled with simplistic ideas about industry showed his lack of understanding. The failing of not only the virgin land scheme but also the 'mai<e mania' which refused to grow.