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Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing

Action action Responsibilities

The antacid action Chloride loss due to Hyperacidity, severe Rebound 1.hypertonic
is due to vomiting or from diarrhea, alkalization hyperacidity, milk, solutions must be
Generic Name: Alkalinizing neutralization of continous GI of the urine to treat alkali syndrome, administered by
agent, HCL by forming
Sodium suction. With drug toxicity, hypercalcemia, trained personel.
Antacid, NaCl and Co2.
Bicarbonate Provides temporary diuretics known to treatment of acute metabolic alkalosis,
Electrolyte 2.deteremind IV
relief of peptic produce a mild to moderate tetany, diminished
dose by arterial
ulcer pain and of hypochloremic metabolic acidosis breathing, renal
blood ph,
Brand name: discomfort alkalosis. Metabolic due to shock severe dysfunction, systemic
associated with and respiratory dehydration, anoxia, alkalosis after 3.administer
Arm and indigestion. alkalosis. uncontrolled diabetes, prolonged use, isotonic solutions
Hammer Pure Although widely
Hypocalcemia in renal disease, cardiac hypernatremia, lowly
Baking Soda used by the public,
sodiumbicarbonate which alkalosis may arrest, extracorporeal alkalosis,
4.note reasons for
is rarely prescribed cause tetany. HPN, circulation of blood, hyperirritability, fluid
therapy, any history
as antacid because convulsions, CHF, severe primary lactic or solute overload
Route of of its high of renal impairment
and other situations acidosis, prophylaxis
Administration: sodiumcontent, or CHF
where of renal calculi in
short duration of administration of gout, during
PO, IV 5.assess for edema,
action, and ability
sodium can be sulfonamide therapy which may indicate
to cause alkalosis.
Is also a systemic dangerous. As a to prevent renal inability to utilize
Dosage: and urinary systemic alkalinizer calculi and sodium bicarbonate
alkalinizer by when used as a nephrotoxicity,
½ tsp in glass increasing plasma neutralizing additive neutralizing solution 6. record input and
of water q 2 hr and urinary solution. As an to decrease chemical output
bicarbonate, antidote for strong phlebitis and client
respectively 7. do not exceed a
mineral acids bec. discomfort due to rate of
0.325-2 grams CO2 is formed, vein irritation at or administration of 8
1-4 times per which may cause near the site of Meq/kg/day in
day discomfort and even infusion of IV acid infants with cardiac
perforation. solutions. arrest to guard
against
hypernatremia

Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing


Action action Responsibilities
Morphine is the Post-biliary tract Relief of moderate to Lightheadedness, 1. Do not confuse
prototype for opiate surgery or surgical severe pain not dizziness, sedation, morphine with
Generic Name: Analgesics analgesics. anastomosis. responsive to non- nausea, vomiting, hydromorphone
Morphine Morphine combines Comatose. Resp narcotic analgesics. constipation & 2. 2. The contents of
Sulfate with specific
receptors located in depression & Premed. Analgesic sweating. the immediate
the CNS to produce obstructive airways adjunct in general release capsule
various effects. The disease, acute anesth esp in pain may be delivered
Brand Name: mechanism is bronchial asthma, associated w/ cancer, through an NG or
Morin believed to involve heart failure MI & surgery. a gastric tube
decreased secondary to chronic Alleviates anxiety 3. Give intrathecally
permeability of the
pulmonary disease, associated w/ severe only in the
cell membrane to
Route of sodium, which acute alcoholism, pain. Hypnotic for lumbar region,
Administration: results in head injuries, raised pain-related 4. To reduce chance
diminished intracranial pressure sleeplessness. of side effects
IM, IV, Oral, transmission of & convulsive states with intrathecal
SC pain impulses and ie status epilepticus, administration ,
therefore analgesia tetanus or strychnine do not give more
poisoning. than 2 ml of the 1
Dosage: Lactation. mg/ml product
5. For infumorph,
duramorph, and
5-20 mg astromorph PF
IM/SC q 4 hr use epidural
doses of 20 mg or
more
2-10 mg/70 kg
IV

5-30 mg oral
Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing
Action action Responsibilities

Do not dissolve Hypersensitivity. Treatment & Hemorrhage, local 1.do not administer
previously formed Severe prophylaxis of irritation, erythema, IM
Generic Name: Anticoagulant clots bu they do mild pain, hematoma
thrombocytopenia. thromboembolic
forestall their or ulceration. 2. administer by deep
Heparin NA disorders.
enlargement and Generalized SC through the Z-
prevent new clots hypersensitivity, track method
from forming. It chills, fever,
Brand Name: potentiates the urticaria, asthma, 3. do not massage
inhibitory action of rhinitis, lacrimation site
Britton antithrombin ill on & anaphylactoid
Heparin Na® various coagulation reactions. 4. may be diluted in
[vial] factors including Osteoporosis, dextrose
factors IIa, IXa, Xa, aldosterone synthesis
Xia and XIIa. This suppression, delayed 5. note reasons for
occurs due to the transient alopecia, & therapy. Identify any
Route of formation of a priapism & rebound bleeding incidents
administration: complex with hyperlipidemia on
antithrombin III discontinuation. 6. perform test dose
SC, IV
and causing a 1000 units SC on
conformational clients with multiple
change in the allergies or asthma
Dosage: antighrombin III history
molecule, inhibiton
IV inj 5,000 u of factor Xa tesults 3. review drug profile
followed by SC in interference with to ensure one interact
conc soln thrombin unfavorably
10,000-20,000 generation thus the
action of thrombin otherwise anticipate
u heparin dosage
in coagulation is
inhibited. adjustment
4. assess for defects
in clotting
mechanism or any
capillary fragility:
obtain baseline
coagulation values.

Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing


Action action Responsibilities
paracetamol reduces the Hypersensitivity. Mild to moderate Hypersensitivity 1. note reasons for
production of pain eg headache, reactions eg skin therapy, signs and
Generic Name: Analgesic, prostaglandins (pro- symptoms
toothache, myalgias. rashes, drug fever.
Antipyretic inflammatory 2. review drug
Paracetamol chemicals). Aspirin also Fever. As alternative Acute overdosage
profile to determine
inhibits the production of to aspirin in patients produce a dose- if the patient takes
prostaglandins, but, w/ viral infection, dependent potentially any drugs that could
unlike aspirin, peptic ulcer disease, fatal hepatocellular
Brand name: interact with
paracetamol has little
bronchial asthma & damage. paracetamol
Acet® [-ES anti-inflammatory
bleeding disorders. 3. monitor vital
action. Likewise,
tab] signs
whereas aspirin inhibits
the production of the
pro-clotting chemicals
Route of thromboxanes,
administration: paracetamol does not.
Aspirin is known to
oral inhibit the
cyclooxygenase (COX)
family of enzymes, and,
because of paracetamol's
Dosage: partial similarity of
aspirin's action, much
325-1000 mg research has focused on
4-6 hrly.for less whether paracetamol
than 12 y/o also inhibits COX. It is
now clear that
paracetamol acts via at
least two pathways.[
10-20 mg/kg 4-
6 hrly. For
children
Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing
Action action Responsibilities

Omeprazole is Lactation, use as Conditions where Headache, diarrhea 1.efficacy for more
rapidly but variably maintenance therapy inhibition of gastric and skin rashes; they than 8 weeks has not
Generic Name: Proton pump absorbed following for duodenal ulcer acid secretion may have sometimes been been determined.
inhibitor oral administration.
Omeprazole disease. OTC use in be beneficial severe enough to However, if a client
It is acid-labile and
pharmacokinetics those who have including aspiration require does not respond to 8
may vary between trouble or pain syndromes, discontinuation of weeks of therapy, an
Brand Name: the various swallowing food, dyspepsia, GERD, treatment. Other additional 4 weeks
formulations are vomiting blood peptic ulcer disease, effects rarely include may help.
Acifre® [cap developed to or excreting bloody Zollinger-Ellison athralgia and
improve oral 2. consider dosage
or black stools syndrome. myalgia, paresthesia,
bioavailability. The adjustment in those
aggression, blurred
Route of absorption of with impaired hepatic
omeprazole also vision, taste,
administration: function especially
appears to be dose- disturbance,
when used for
Oral dependent. peripheral edema,
maintaining clients
Increasing the hyponatremia, blood
dosage >40 mg has with erosive
disorders including
been reported to esophagitis.
Dosage: agranulocytosis,
increase the plasma
leucopenia and 3. can repeat OTC
concentration in a
non-linear fashion thrombocytopenia, therapy once ever 4
10-20 mg daily because of interstitial nephritis months
for 2-4 wk saturable first and hepatotoxicity.
hepatic metabolism. 4. store capsules and
powder for oral
suspension packets in
a tight container
protected from light
and moisture.
Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing
Action action Responsibilities

Bronchodilator. Patients with a Treatment of acute A small increase in 1. Note reasons for
history of severe asthma and in heart rate may occur therapy, signs
Generic Name: Anti-asthma Salbutamol is a β-
hypersensitivity to routine management in patients who and symptoms
Salbutamol adrenergic any of the of chronic inhale a large dosage indicating the
sulfate stimulant which has components of bronchospasm of salbutamol. This is need for therapy
a highly selective Aero-Vent. unresponsive to not usually 2. Monitor vital
conventional accompanied by any signs
action on the
Brand Name: therapy. changes in the 3. Review drugs
receptors in electrocardiogram. that interact with
Aero-Vent bronchial muscle Other side effects the nebule
and in therapeutic which occur with 4. Assess for any
doses, it has little or very high doses of allergies
Route of salbutamol by regarding the
Administration: no action on the
inhalation are content of the
cardiac receptors. peripheral drug
nasal,
parenteral vasodilatation and
the fine tremor of
skeletal muscle.
Dosage:
2.5-5 mg. May
repeat qid by
nebuliser.
Delivery of
aerosol may be
by face mask of
"T" piece. Use
undiluted. For
prolonged
delivery time,
dilute w/ sterile
water or normal
saline for inj.

Drug General Mechanism of Contraindication Indications Side Effects Nursing


Action action s Responsibilities
Moderate Lower resp tract Allergy, allergic Constipation, 1. Note indications
anticholinergic and disease. Newborn rhinitis, bronchial diarrhea, dizziness, for therapy, other
Generic Name: Antihistamine
low sedative or premature asthma, vasomotor drowsiness, dry agents trialed and
s and
Chlorpherinamin activity: no infants. rhinitis, dermatoses mouth/nose/throat, outcome. Attempt
antiallegies
e maleate antiemetic activity of allergic etiology, headache, anorexia, to identify
urticaria, drug anxiety, insomnia, triggers/
sensitization, serum asthenia, GI upset causative agents.
Brand name: sickness, 2. Perform/documen
anaphylactic shock, t ENT findings;
Antamin insect bites. note any drainage
in pharynx
3. Take as directed
Route of with a full glass
Administration: of water. Food
Parenteral, IV, delays absorption
Oral 4. Report any
mental status
changes, adverse
Dosage: effects or lack of
response. May
Tab 1 tab tid. Syr cause drowsiness;
Adult 2 tsp tid. use caution
Childn >12 yr 1 5. Avoid alcohol in
tsp tid. Inj 1/3-1 any form
mL IM or IV
daily.

Drug General Mechanism of Contraindication Indications Side Effects Nursing


Action action s Responsibilities
Short-acting about Viral infections of Topical treatment of Stinging, burning, 1.check label of
80-118 min. topical the skin, TB & fungal & candidal edema, vesication, parenteral injection
Generic Name: Topical anti-
products are acne rosacea. infections, when desquamation, because IM and I
infectives
Hydrocortisone available without a these are pruritus & urticaria. preparations are not
prescription in accompanied by necessarily
strengths of 0.5 and pronounced interchangeable
Brand Name: 1 percent inflammatory
2. give reconstituted
symptoms & itching.
Candacort direc IV solution at a
rate of 100 mg over
30 sec.
Route of 3. note reasons for
administration:
Oral, Topical, therapy, type,
Parenteral location, onset
characteristics of
Dosage: signs and symptoms
20-240 mg/day
in tablet 4. descrive clinical
presentation: use
Cream: apply photographs to
sparingly document as
indicated
IM, IV, SC
15-240 mg/day 5. identify any
medical conditions
that may preclude
therapy
6 assess weight and
VS
Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing
Action action Responsibilities
Diazepam is a symptomatic relief of The most commonly 1.mix intensol
Anxiolytics Tablet: Known history
member of the anxiety, tension and reported adverse solution with
Generic Name: of hypersensitivity to
group of other somatic or reactions are fatigue, beverages such as
benzodiazepine benzodiazepines, severe psychological drowsiness and water, soda, and
Diazepam
tranquilizers which respiratory and hepatic complaints associated muscle weakness; juices or soft foods
exert anxiolytic, insufficiency, sleep with the anxiety they are usually dose- such as applesauce
Brand Name: apnea syndrome,
sedative, muscle- syndrome. It can also related. These or uddings.
relaxant, myasthenia gravis. be useful as an phenomena occur
Valium
Benzodiazepines are not 2. except for the
anticonvulsant and adjunct to the predominantly at the
recommended for the deltoid muscle,
amnesic effects. treatment of anxiety start of therapy and
primary treatment of absorption from IM
Route of This is known to be or excitation usually disappear
psychotic illness. site is slow, erratic
administration: the result of associated with with prolonged
Benzodiazepines should and painful and not
facilitating the psychiatric disorders. administration :
Oral, not be used alone to
generally
action of γ- is a useful adjunct for Ataxia, dysarthria,
parenteral, IV treat depression or
recommended
aminobutyric acid the relief of reflex slurred speech,
(GABA), the most anxiety associated with muscle spasm due to headache, tremor, 3. IV route is
important depression as suicide local trauma dizziness. preferred in the
Dosage: inhibitory may occur in such (injury,inflammation). Anterograde amnesia convulsing client;
Tab Adult 5-20 neurotransmitter in patients. Ampoule: It can also be used to may occur using eeg monitoring of
mg daily. the brain. Known history of combat spasticity therapeutic dosages, seizure may be
Elderly Half hypersensitivity to arising from damage the risk increasing at helpful
the usual adult benzodiazepines to spinal and higher dosages.
4. parenteral
dose. Childn supraspinal Amnestic effects may
administration may
0.1-0.3 mg/kg interneurons eg, be associated with
cause bradycardia,
body wt daily. cerebral palsy and inappropriate
respiratory/cardiac
Inj paraplegia, as well as behavior.
arrest; have
Individualised in athetosis and stiff-
emergency
dosage. man syndrome.
equipment available
Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing
Action action Responsibilities

Acts in the motor History of Tonic-clonic & GI disturbances; 1.full effectiveness of


cortex of the brain hypersensitivity to complex partial ataxia, slurred PO administered
Generic Name: Anticonvulsant
to reduce the phenytoin or other (psychomotor, speech; diplopia, hydantoins is delayed
Phenytoin spread of electrical hydantoins. temporal lobe), nystagmus & and may take 6-9
discharges from the prevention & mental confusion days to be fully
rapidly firing treatment of seizures w/ headache, established
Brand Name: epileptic foci in occurring during or dizziness, gingival
2. when hydantoins
this area. This is following hyperplasia,
Dilantin are substituted for or
accomplished by neurosurgery. hirsutism,
added to another
stabilizing hyperglycemia,
antivconvulsant
hyperexcitable osteomalacia.
Route of medication, their
cells possibly
administration: dosage is gradually
affecting sodium
increased, while
Oral, efflux. Also,
dosage of the other
phenytoin
drug isdecreased
decreases activity
Dosage: of centers in the 3. avoid IM, SC or
brain stem pervascular
100 mg tid. responsible for the injections
<6 yr 30 mg tonic phase of
4. list reasons for
bid, may be grand mal seizures.
theray, onset,
increased to 30 Has few sedative
characteristics of
mg tid or qid. effects.
signs and symptoms
Pedia 5
mg/kg/day 5.note history and
Initially in 2-3 nature of seizures,
equally divided addressing location,
doses. frequency and
duration
Drug General Mechanism of Contraindications Indications Side Effects Nursing
Action action Responsibilities

Shortens the Hypersensitivity to Acute ventricular N&V, nervousness, 1.list reasons for
refractory period amide-type local arrhythmia. anxiety, dizziness, therapy, any
Generic Name: Anti- and suppresses the anesthetics. Stokes- Ineffective against drowsiness, sensation hypersensitivity to
arrhythmic automaticity of
Lidocaine adams syndrome, atrial arrhythmias. of heat or cold amide-type local
ectopic foci without
Hydochloride affecting wolff-parkinson numbness, injection anesthetics
conduction of white syndrome, site pain, malignant
2. those with hepatic
impulses through severe SA, Av, or hyperthermia,
or renal disease or
Brand Name: cardiac tissue. intraventricular euphoria, light-
Increases the who weigh less than
block headedness,
Cathejel eldctrical 45.5 kg will need to
nervousness, anxiety,
stimulation be watched closely
drowsiness,
threshold of the for adverse side
ventricle during confusion, changes in
Route of effects; adjust dosage
diastole. It doesn’t mood
administration: as directed.
affect BP, CO, or
IV, IM myocardial 3. Note CNS status.
contractility. Since Report sudden
lidocaine has little changes in mental
effect on
Dosage: conduction at status, dizziness
normal visual disturbances
50-100 mg at a antiarrhythmic doses, twitching, tremors,
rate of 25-50 use in acute situations may precede
mg/min (instead of convulsions
procainamide) in
instances in w/c heart 4. view monitor
block might occur
strips for myocardial
depression, variations
of rhythm
5. IM use may
increase CPR level