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Waleed Hassan Sultan & Prof. Dr. Peter Woods, Multimedia University, Malaysia

Sultan,  W.,  Woods,  P.  (2007).  Instructional  design‐based  delivery  model  for  e‐learning  systems. 
Presented  at  e-Learning Africa 2007, the second International Conference on ICT for
Development, Education and Training in Africa (28th – 30th, May 2007), Nairobi, Kenya.   

Learning objects are elements of a new type of computer-based instruction grounded in the object-
oriented paradigm of computer science. Object-orientation highly values the creation of components
(called “objects”) that can be reused (Dahl & Nygaard, 1966). Todays LOs are in differend shapes
as learning depends on how designers can build different types of LOs that are
Instructional designers from other side, can build small (relative to the size of an entire course)
instructional components that can be reused a number of times in different contexts.
Additionally, learning objects are generally understood to be completely digital entities
deliverable over the Internet, meaning that any number of users can access and use them
simultaneously compared to the traditional learning media (Traditional instructional media), such
as video tapes or CDs), which can only exist in one place at a time.

Instructional design theories have been overviewed frequently in the literature (Dijkstra, Seel,
Schott, & Tennyson, 1997; Reigeluth 1983, 1999b; Tennyson, Schott, Seel, & Dijkstra, 1997).
Reigeluth (1999a) defines instructional design theory as follows: nstructional design theories
are design oriented, they describe methods of instruction and the situations in which those
methods should be used, the methods can be broken into simpler component methods, and the
methods are probabilistic.

Specifying reusable chunks of learning content and defining an abstract way for designing
different units (e.g. courses, lessons etc.) are two of the most important aspects of developing
an ideal strategy for Learning Objects that challenging current issues in the e-learning community.

In an era of lifelong learning, empowerment of the learner becomes fundamental. Hence, utilizing
the maximum potentiality of learning objects depends upon creation of an appropriate infrastructure
to promote applying instructional design strategy (Bendar P. and Welch C. 2005). Further, the
learner needs to be empowered because learning is a discovery process and thus must be under his
or her own control

The e-learning industry continues to upgrade every hour, and result in complexity of LOS types
(Multimedia content, Instructional content, simulations, charts and maps, interactive content),
methods and tools to maintain content and infrastructure applications. Enter e-learning standards.

Standards are important in terms of providing data structure and communication between different
e-learning objects and cross-system workflow. Different issue need to be considered starting
from organizations’ standards, metadata, content packaging, and learners’ profile. The issue here,
is how truly new learning objects could be developed lying on ID theory and result in a good
quality more than compatibility.

Taking the whole technological value, still the author agrees that; belief of learning is lying beyond
the real value of technology in education is the ability to enable unmet needs to be met and capable
to deny cost addition as well as to be flexible in terms of premium lifelong learning. The
technology itself is not likely to bring the benefits that LOS can achieve unless a good
consideration of smart application of instructional design methods can take place.

Most of corporations involved in developing technology-based training are tapping into the
potential of learning object systems to increase the efficiency in regard to training development or
consistency in design and development task while keeping track on effectiveness and
personalization of training. From other side, Pedagogical and Instructional Design mostly concerns
with LOS must participate in a principled partnership with instructional design theory to succeed
and facilitate learning and, mostly alarm useful instruction result of LOS combination with
instructional theory (Wiley, 2002)

To this point, the majority of literature and applications related to learning object systems have
focused primarily on technological attributes, metadata standards and system specifications issues
such as levels of granularity and ensuring interoperability (Wiley, 1998; Singh, 2000). While these
are important hurdles to overcome before wide-spread use of these systems can be obtained, it is
also crucial at this point to consider the implications of learning object use and implementation in
an instructional context prior to full-scale implementation of this technology (Brenda, Nada,
Murphy, 2005).

This paper is trying to focus on the importance of Instructional design theory integration in any
learning object’s implementation. One question that one might ask is whether there is one best
learning theory for instructional design using learning objects (LOs)? Depending on the learners
and situation, different learning theories may apply (David A. Wiley, 2000).

The authors does not recommend one particular theory for the design of instruction based on LOs,
but rather the adoption of an eclectic approach to learning theory in the design of instruction using

This work aims at proposing a selective approach to learning theories in the design of instruction for
e-learning modules. To this end, the author is trying to discuss possibility of develop a framework
that could be developed to consider the best utilization and proper usage of certain learning theories
and instructional design strategies as a infrastructure for the purpose of providing guidance to reuse/
repurpose Learning Objects.

This paper, in its conclusion, reflects the potentiality of learning objects as an instructional design in
different aspects starting from technological importance as Morries suggests; (information
technology makes these resources more reusable and links instructors and students (Morris, 1997).
Beside, required shift of educators from domain based approach to educational product approach,
and designers from oriented approach to components/ specialized approach.

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