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LAYOUT : In this project we explain about vacuum pump industry layout, working & applications for Ex. Shaft is one of the component, for preparing shaft mainly use Lathe machine & Grinding machine. All the required operations (turning, threading, tapering & grinding) for preparing shaft done by using these machines. Before starting operations on iron rod testing (Hardness test, Porosity in cast iron etc.) the material it is suitable or not for design a shaft. The layout for preparing shaft is 1.Testing material 2.Cleaning 3.Lathe machine (turning, facing, threading & tapering) 4.Grinding. In plant layout also include :-

Location, with respect to the marketing area Raw material supply Transport facilities Availability of labor Availability of suitable land Environmental impact and effluent disposal Local community consideration Climate Political and strategic consideration

WORKING PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION : Liquid ring vacuum pumps and compressors are rotary machines in which liquid is made to act as piston. This liquid is generally water for most of the applications. Hence these are known as water ring. Water ring or liquid piston rotary pumps and compressors. A balanced rotor with fixed radial blades having slight curvature at the tips and a hollow hub revolves in a circular casing containing the liquid. The axis of rotor is placed eccentric with the axis of casing. At the operation speed the liquid rotates in the casing forming a circular hollow ring whose internal surface is at varying distance from the axis of rotor. Starting at A the liquid ring is nearest to the rotor axis & completely fills the space between the

two adjacent rotor blades and the moving liquid ring now act as piston on its suction stroke. This continues till the rotor chamber moves to the point B. During their travel from A to B all the chambers formed by the blades are connected to the inlet branch of the pump through specially designed ports in the cones and end covers. While traveling from B to A the chamber formed by any two adjacent blades decrease in volume as the liquid ring is moving towards the center and act as piston on its compression stroke.

At the end of this part of their travel the chamber are connected to the outlet branch of the pump through the specially designed ports in the end covers and the air is discharged into this branch. This completes one cycle operation and one such cycle is completed by every chamber formed by any two adjacent blades for one revolution of rotor. APPLICATIONS : Power generation equipment Petrochemical Seawater deaeration Pharmaceutical Ground water remediation/vapor extraction Food production