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MASSCOMM

COMMUNICATION REVIEW

2013

Volume 7 Number 1 May 2013 A Journal of The Department of Mass Communication, University Of Lagos.

MASSCOMM

Contents
Daniel O. Awodiya Superior - Subordinate Communication In The House Journal: An Analysis Of Content Source, Emphasis, Placement, And Direction Luqman Ayodele YUSUFF Sources And Uses Of Yoruba Language On Nigerian Television: A Critique Abdulrasheed Afolabi The Printing Press In The Service Of Journalism In Nigeria: The Past, The Present And The Future Soji Alabi Assessment Of The Awareness And Exposure Of Poultry Farmers To Media Campaigns In The Control Of Avian Influenza In Lagos State, Nigeria. Oyewo Olusola Oyeyinka Group Communication And Adoption Of Natural Family Planning Techniques Among Catholics In Ibadan, South Western Nigeria Bukola Christiana Atunbi Ifeoma T. Amobi & Shaibu Husseini Boko Haram, the Media and National Security Azeez & Awobamise Influence Of Foreign Television Programmes On Nigerian Youths: A Reassessment Of Cultural Imperialism Theses. O. Soyombo & Franca Attoh Communication, Victimology And Victimization In Nigeria 1
THE PRINTING PRESS IN THE SERVICE OF JOURNALISM IN NIGERIA: THE PAST, THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

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Abstract Gutenberg's revolutionary printing press blazed the trial of mass communication. One of the products of this revolution is the newspaper. However, yet another revolution the digital technology poses a threat to the survival of newspapers. Much as digital technology is the threat, it is, ironically, also the survival strategy that must be adopted by the newspaper industry. This paper examines the vital role and survival of printing technology within the context of print journalism. A cursory look at the emergence of printing in Nigeria's media landscape is undertaken while a critical review of the state of printing technology in Nigeria's contemporary print journalism industry is also carried out. Lastly, a projection is made to chart a way into the future of print production for journalism in Nigeria Introduction The story of print journalism can never complete without a fair share of space on the contribution of the printing press. The printing press is the tool for the mass production of the collection of stories,
Abdulrasheed Afolabi, is a lecturer at the Department of Printing Technology, School of Art, Design and Printing Technology,Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos

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editorials, news and advertisement that make up the newspaper or magazine. McQuail (2005:26) notes that the successful application of print technology to the reproduction of text in place of handwriting in the mid-fifteenth century was the first step in the emergence of a media institution. This, according to the scholar, made printing to achieve an enviable position in trade and commerce. Significantly, as McQuail submits, many of the early printers transformed from tradespeople into publishers publishing books and newspapers. In addition to these two, other print products that emerged include: plays, prospectuses, maps, posters, handbills, magazines etc. The printing press, in the words of Hanson (2004:64), led to the invention of mass culture as it became the source of massive cultural changes. Unarguably, the printing press remains one of the most revolutionary technologies of communication. Johannes Gutenberg's invention transformed the world from a rudimentary society into the enlightened society of today by introducing a method of mass communication. The printing press has affected nearly every aspect of humanity because of its ability to extensively spread knowledge (cited in Afolabi, 2006). Johannes Gutenberg established the first printing press in Mainz, Germany around 1450. At that time only a small number of men in Mainz knew the secrets behind the technology. Between 1450 and 1500, skilled printer-entrepreneurs set out from Mainz to establish presses across Europe (cited in Dittmar 2009).The development of printing technology contributed immensely to the growth and blossoming of the newspaper industry. Hanson (2004:116) records that the incorporation of the steam engine to printing presses was a milestone in the history of the newspaper industry. As the author puts it, the handpowered presses which hadn't changed much since Guternberg's time, could print no more than 350 pages a day, but a
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steam powered rotary press could print as many as 16000 sections (not just pages) in the same amount of time. The advent of the electronic, some pundits aver, signaled the demise of the printing press. Have digital technologies truly sounded the death knell of the printing press? How can the printing press be relevant even in the midst of emerging digital technologies? Several questions like these have been raised and they deserve more than a passing attention. Arguing that the printing press is not under threat is futile; adopting digital technologies to save the printing press from going under is the smart way to go. Conceptual Framework The Public Sphere The public sphere refers to a forum of public communication. It is a forum in which individual citizens can come together as a public and confer freely about matters of general interest Mckenna (1995:5). The concept of the public sphere was propounded by Jurgen Habermas in the early 1960s. In the words of Habermas, the public sphere is a realm of social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed (cited in McKenna, 1995:5). McKenna (emphasizes that the location of the public sphere is a social sphere rather than a physical place. To the scholar, the 'location' of the public sphere is not physically fixed. His words: the physical location of such conversations (held in the public sphere) is, in principle, immaterial. As long as individual citizens can freely assemble and confer they do not have to be in a specific place in order to 'enter' the public sphere (McKenna 1995:5).
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The concept of public sphere can be better understood by highlighting its key characteristics. These, as cited in McKenna (1995:5), include: ? All citizens are guaranteed access to the public sphere. ? Within the public sphere all citizens are, in principle, considered equal-social hierarchies and privileges being (in principle) subservient to the rule of rational discourse and democratic debate. ? All citizens are free to engage in dialogue without coercion or constraint and to express their opinion on any subject of interest or importance. ? The public sphere is also autonomous in that it is distinct from both the state and the market and free from interference and control by either. Additionally, it is free from the interests of individual citizens in civil society. ? Politically, the concept of the public sphere embodies a democratic ideal, in that through it, all citizens have the same opportunity to participate in political debate and are able freely and openly to discuss and criticize the policies and activities of those who govern them. In a nutshell, Peters (cited in McKenna, 1995:6) describes the public sphere as a site governed neither by the intimacy of the family, the authority of the state, nor the exchange of the market but by the public reason of private citizens. The Press And Freedom Of Speech McQuail (2005:24) reiterates that telling the history of mass media involves reckoning with four elements that produce distinctive
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configurations of application and significance in the wider society. These are: Certain communicative purposes, needs, or uses; technologies for communicating publicly to many at a distance; forms of social organizations that provide the skills and framework for production and distribution; organized forms of governance in the 'public interest'. Examining the relevance of communication technology to the societal need, McQuail (2005:25) affirms that the more open the society, the more the inclination towards utilizing communication technology to its fullest potential. This explains the restriction on the use of communication technology by repressive authorities. A reference point is Russia where printing was not introduced until the early seventeenth century. The Newspaper As A Mass Medium Newspapers appeared on the media landscape after the invention of the movable type by Johannes Gutenberg. Hanson (2004:115) records that the first real newspaper appeared in England in the 1620s, although church reformers like Martin Luther and John Calvin had published newspapers like broadsheets in the 1500s. Publick Occurences is the most cited first newspaper in the history of American colonies. Its first and only issue was published in 1690 (Hanson, 2004:115). Going by McQuail's (2005:27) account, the prototype newspaper emerged almost two hundred years after the invention of printing. Furthermore, McQuail (2005:29) states that newspapers did not really become a true mass medium until the twentieth century.
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A Brief History Of Printing In Nigeria Daramola (2006: 11) relates that the 19th century marked the beginning of the evolution of printing in Nigeria. Precisely in 1846, two missionaries Hope Waddel and Samuel Edgerly established the first printing press at Calabar, South Eastern Nigeria. The Hope Waddel Press was used for the mass production of religious tracts and booklets. In 1854, the Missionary, Rev. Henry Townsend established another press in the Western part of the country. Sequel to this he started a school of printing where he trained pupils at Abeokuta. In 1859, Townsend started Iwe Irohin, the first newspaper in Nigeria. Following the trail of this pioneer newspaper were others like The Lagos Times, The Lagos Observers etc Afolabi's (in press) account of the development of printing in Nigeria reveals that the colonial government and business investors contributed to the further growth of the printing industry in the country. In 1914 the first Government Printing House was established at Broad Street, Lagos. There were several privately owned printing presses that catered to the printing needs of the populace, particularly the newspaper industry. These include: Tika-Tore Press (set up in 1910), Awoboh Press (established in 1920), Ajibade's Hope Rising Press (founded in 1923). Other presses that existed during the era are: Washington Osilaja's Ife Olu Press, P.C. Thomas' Ekabo Press and Babamuboni's Tanimola Press (Echeruo 1976:7). At this point in the print media history of Nigeria, journalism boosted the development of printing technology in the country. The year 1925 witnessed the inauguration of the Nigerian Printing and Publishing Company. The company, with the availability of sufficient funds, was able to purchase a printing plant that had enough capacity for printing the Nigerian Daily Times and the African Messenger and
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other local jobs. Some of the ground-breaking innovation introduced by the newspaper publishing company included: the purchase of a second-hand Demy Wharfadale Printing machine in September 1925; the introduction of the mechanical composing machine (Intertype) in 1939; the deployment of the first rotary printing press in Nigeria (The Story of the Daily Times 1926-1976:13). Soon, the letterpress process of printing gave way to offset lithographic printing. By the late 1970s many printing presses had adopted the offset printing process. The offset process gained ground like a wild fire. Afolabi (in press), explains that offset became popular in newspaper production because printing could be done using photosensitive plates rather than metal types. This made print production faster and news could reach the populace faster. The late 1980 and the early 1990s came with computers and various types of hitech printing equipment in Nigeria's printing industry. Afolabi's (2008) analysis of the effect of technology on the print media industry in Nigeria shows that technological changes in the industry have been spurred by print buyers' demand for high quality colour reproduction, shorter print runs and shrinking production cycle times. According to him: Today, the industry is hugely driven by computer technology, resulting in better print quality, faster production and higher profit for print investors. Technology has served print production in various ways. Computers have made page layout and printing faster and more accurate, helping to control production cost and give better print quality. Easy-to-use, and inexpensive computer hardware and software can now be combined for desktop publishing, small - scale print design, layout and production. Specifically, the hi-tech printing technologies that have birthed so far on the shores of the Nigeria's printing industry include;
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Computer to Film Technology (CTF): this is a print workflow involving printing from a computer straight to film which is then burned onto a lithographic plate, using a plate burner. The plate is then put on an offset printing press to make a product, usually thousands of copies (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_to_film). Kipphan (2001:593) explains that the ctf system made the workflow in the prepress stage become shorter, since it is no longer necessary to cut, assemble, and glue individual pieces of film as required in the conventional process. Computer to plate Technology: this print technology is a step ahead of the ctf system. With this technology an image created in a Desktop Publishing (DTP) application is output directly to a printing plate. Kipphan (2001:593) notes the elimination of several intermediate filmhandling stages in the production of the printing plates makes it easier to meet the quality requirements of print jobs. Punch Newspapers made the pioneer effort of using the CTP (computer-to-plate) in newspaper production in Nigeria in 2003. Direct Imaging (DI): with the DI machine a printing plate is produced directly in the printing press. It is a print technology involving the imaging of fixed image carriers directly on the press. There is the total elimination of the printing plate. By virtue of the fact that printing takes place with the elimination of films and plates, high quality print is assured. Since the introduction of this cutting-edge technology in Nigeria in 2001, printing has taken a stunning dimension. Gone are the days when majority of high quality printing had to be done abroad. The wide array of printing firms that have adopted the DI Press (and other similar print technologies like computer-to plate Ctp) is a glowing testimony to the great heights that the Nigerian printing industry has attained - an enviable feat that has assured printing firms' operational
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efficiency with the resultant effect of increased profitability (Afolabi, 2008). Digital transmission in Newspaper Production: advancements in digital technology has integrated networking solutions for the fast digital transfer of files from the newsroom to the printing plants sited in different parts of the country. The digital transmission of data files is done through high band-width lines that make it possible for newspaper houses to send their files to their printing plants instantaneously. This technology saves time and the cost of distributing newspapers to the nook and cranny of the country. Newspaper houses like The Sun and The Nation have already tapped into this technology. The Economics Of Print Production In Print Journalism The media has a constitutional role to play in the maintenance of a democracy. In the words of a media law expert, Tony Momoh, democracy works because there is consultation. Momoh (2004:109) states; There is only one open medium for the consultation with the people and that medium is the press. The truth is that there can be no democracy without the press. The success of a democracy, therefore, is easily identifiable from the measure of freedom of the press in the polity, that freedom itself is ascertainable from how much the press can control, professionally, its own internal operation of generating information, processing it and disseminating it. Any attempt by anyone to interfere with any of the three stages of collection, processing and dissemination amount to censorship.

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Print Media Houses as Business Concerns In spite of being social institutions, media houses are nonetheless business concerns that must be run profitably. As averred by Momoh (2004:67), The owners of newspapers and magazines are in business and they must meet and cope with the demands of the business environment in the country. The rules that bind them are the rules of commerce. They must provide materials to run their businesses, and pay wages that are competitive. Oso (1991:50) had earlier affirmed the commercialization of the Nigerian press. Oso's analysis of the Nigerian press from inception led to his conclusion that: No newspaper could survive without a large capital outlay or base. In other words, only those who have access to large capital could hope to successfully launch a newspaper. There is no gainsaying the fact that all business concerns have goals and objectives. Nonetheless, one of the most crucial ones is making profits and this is a prerequisite for business survival. Certainly, profitability in business can not be hyped. For a business concern to stay in business it has to satisfy its customers' needs at a profit. A good reference point is Punch Newspaper. The Punch newspaper ranks as the highest selling newspaper in Nigeria in recent time. According to the Advertisers Association of Nigeria's (ADVAN) 2009 Report, the newspaper sales/daily circulation figures are in this order: Punch 34,264; Sun 25,632; Vanguard 25,241; Guardian 25,222; Thisday 21,703; and Daily Trust 11,672. The oldest surviving
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newspaper in Nigeria, Tribune, sells 8,314 copies per day (cited in Ekeng & Durojaiye, 2010) In response to the question of what makes Punch tick in Nigeria's turbulent business climate, Osinubi (2006) says The answer to this question is complex, but it may be summarized in the words: 'clarity, focus and commitment'." Osinubi outlines one of Punch's secrets of success: Another secret of the company's capacity to "defy the odds", especially in the last decade, has been its foresight and courage in investing massively in new technology. When colour printing began making its debut in Nigerian newspapers about 10 years ago, Punch carefully studied the trend and recognized its future potential to attract more advert revenue and higher circulation figures. The company resolved to get the colour right, however, unlike the quality of colour its competitors, who were the early starters, were offering to readers and advertisers. Punch eventually installed an ultra-modern press with inbuilt colour units in 1998. The company has since then expanded its in-house capacity for colour production to 64 pages at one run, in its present press. Newspaper Production: Not Business as Usual Thottam (1999) affirms that though the predictions of some pundits that newspapers will go the way of the dinosaurs may be somewhat exaggerated, the reality to be reckoned with is that media industries, especially newspapers, must either prepare themselves for a radical transformation or face disasters. Why is this so? The simple reason, as Thottam points out, is that print is only one of the delivery system of journalism. Further, the scholar observes that newspapers producers have not acknowledged the reality that the news breaking function on which
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they pride themselves has been taken over by radio. Specifically, Jon Katz (cited in Thottam, 1999) summarizes the plight of newspapers in the following words: Newspapers have been floundering for decades, their readers aging, their revenues declining, their circulation sinking. Television has stolen much of their news, magazines their advertisers and best writers, cable their young readers. And the digital revolution has pushed them still closer to the wall, unleashing a vigorous flow of news, commentary, and commerce to millions and millions of people. The plus for newspapers, Thottam reveals, is that there is still a generation of loyal followers who see newspapers as an integral part of their lives. Many people may still use the Internet for instant information but quite a number still regress to the comfort zone of newspapers for credible and in-dept information. In Thottam's views, the addiction of this set of readers to linear literary is likely to last for their lifetime. In a developing country like Nigeria, limited internet access is another plus for the newspaper industry. The population of internet users in Nigeria in 2003 was 1.61 million. By 2004, the figure had risen to 1.77 million (Nigerian Internet user survey). As at 2010, only 16% of Nigerians have access to the Internet (www.234next.com). With a population of 150 million, it means that the number of people having access to the Internet is still meager. This translates to the newspaper industry in Nigeria having a large enough market for some time to come. Besides, the popular expectation is that for a few more years, online papers are not likely to become economically self-sufficient in order to be a viable alternative to print newspapers (Thottam, 1999).
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With this assurance what survival tips are available for newspapers to thrive on? Thottam (1999) offers one of such: The press lords of today must accept the fact that journalism is not a delivery system like the newspaper. The newspaper is content. The term journalism is derived from a French word daily. Newspaper is only one of the delivery system of news. News has become a moment to moment phenomenon rather than a daily routine. Newspaper must acknowledge the fact that while some vehicles for providing information will die, some modified and new vehicles will be born. Digital Printing: Infusing Dynamism Into Print Journalism Mejtoft (2006:53) acknowledges the fact that at present, the Internet has taken a position as a dynamic and inexpensive way of publishing and distributing information. Consequently, printing houses are rapidly losing content ownership as print is now seen as just an output channel among others in reaching an audience with messages. Print, suddenly, has found itself struggling to remain relevant. To achieve this struggle for relevance, certain weaknesses of the print medium must be worked on to make them become areas of strength. Key among the weaknesses or drawbacks of print is the difficulty of achieving cost efficiency in smaller production volumes. Besides, the setting-up of a print run and the start-up of the printing press before quality copies can be produced take a lot of effort and time (Mejtoft, 2006:54). In 1993, two unsung companies (Indigo and Xeikon) introduced digital printing - a new print technology that changed the face of print media production. Mejtoft explains digital printing as a more flexible and easy to use technology than the traditional printing technology (such as offset). With digital printing every single printed
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copy from a digital press can be unique since there is no need for printing plates. Technically, the term digital printing is used to refer to totally electronic printing. In simple terms, digital presses are computer-to-press systems that do not require a printing plate. However, digital printing is often used in a broad sense. A lot of times it is used to loosely refer to the adoption of digital technology in driving the printing press. But, in the strict technical sense, digital printing refers to an aspect of print technology where digital presses are used. Digital printing allows for on-demand printing, short turn around and modification of the image through variable data with each impression (Clem and Link, 2005). The possibilities of the digital press systems have strengthened the power of print in the following regards; On-demand printing: digital printing offers productions options that were not possible in the past. Producing to suit the quantity required by clients helps to reduce quantities of printed materials and by extension reducing production cost, warehousing and transportation costs. Applied to newspaper production, it means that newspaper publishers, working on segmentation, may produce publications to satisfy a highly segmented audience which may not be economically feasible using the conventional offset printing process. Short turn around: speed is a crucial factor in newspaper production. With digital printing, faster production is a possibility. Variable data impression: digital printing offers one of the greatest possibilities of hi-tech image reproduction; personalization. According to Mejtoft (2006:54), digital printing is a more flexible and easy-to-use technology than the traditional printing technology (such as offset). With this
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unique since there is an electronic generation on the image carrier for each impression. Mejtoft sums up the unique selling point of digital printing as follows; Digital printing affects several segments of the media industry by offering the possibility to output small editions at a competitive cost. This can be done for obvious applications like advertisements and direct mail, but also for traditional large editions items like newspapers and books. The digital age has witnessed profound changes in all the aspects of newspaper journalism. As Obijiofor (2003:38) affirms, the emergence of new technologies in news reporting and production has brought forth the era of new methods of journalism practice. The Future Of Newspaper Production In Nigeria The key to the survival of newspapers is making them news product that are as fresh as the internet but much more convenient. Owen (n.d) observes: It is a beguiling thought for editorial colleagues that they can communicate so immediately with their audience wherever they may be in the world. We have even seen examples of papers printed on digital machines at sporting events with reports of the action handed out to spectators on their way home, literally hot off the press. The option of deploying digital printing in newspaper production seems attractive enough. However, that this is yet to gain
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popularity is due to a variety of factors chief among which is economics. While there are certainly issues with format, colour and speed the primary drawback to digital production remains the high cost of production (Owen, n.d). Owens explains: While this (high cost of production) may vary from method to method the price per page is expensive precisely because of the low volume nature of the exercise. Capital and setup costs are spread over fewer copies and economies of scale are lower. Toner based solutions are the most expensive because these machines are using plastic for printing rather than coloured water but essentially they are all shades of the same economic effect. There were very high expectations when some newspaper houses experimented with digital printing. Vendors like Xerox, Oce, Scitex and IBM, had hopes of high patronage from the industry. However, this has not been exactly so; the main reason being cost considerations. The issue of cost notwithstanding, adoption of digital printing promises publishers entry into remote markets. Examples abound. Owen (n,d) cites the case of The Guardian and The FT from the UK who have been pioneers in large volume digital printing with sites opening up new markets in Australia and South Africa respectively. The idea of publishing an edition in Australia, according to Owen, would have been unthinkable before the growth of digital because the volumes are too small to economically utilise traditional offset printers and flying copies in from London takes two days. Under the current deal The Guardian is able to print 600 copies per day in Sydney and have the copies on sale down under before their readers in Europe have
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even woken up. ICE-press, a Hamburg newspaper presents another reference point for the adoption of digital printing in newspaper production. Print Process, a publication of Heidelberg, describes the newspaper as written in Hamburg, printed on the train; up-to-date information at the speed of light. In essence, the editorial aspect of newspaper publishing is done in the newsroom in Hamburg but the production and circulation takes place on a moving train. The project a joint product of the Spiegel press and German Rail was launched in 1998. The production of the ICE-press is completely digital. Soon after the contents of the paper are ready, its four-page paper stored in Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) is transmitted via ISDN link to a central server at IBM in Heidelberg. From this point, German Rail relays the data by radio to its high-speed trains, where the information is processed by the head conductor's PC. Thereafter, printing begins. Printing takes place via a Hewlett-Packard laser printer. As Print Process explains, The contents are printed unto pre-produced sheets that already contain the header, weathermap, ads and column borders in colour. All that's missing is the news itself, which arrives by radio and is printed in black. Each set of ready-made page format is used for a week before a new layout replaces it The two instances cited above shows the paradigm shift in newspaper journalism. At present the contents of conventional newspapers are first printed then distributed. The future newspapers will take the reverse pattern; the contents would first be distributed electronically, then printed locally. Dieter Degler, one of the brains behind the ICE-press project, says it is a successful combination of Guternberg and Gates, bristling with wonderful possibilities, and with the prospect of making a really big killing (Print Process, 1998:26)
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Digital printing, no doubt, is an attractive technology and it has a strong perceived industry demand but the issue of cost remains a serious concern. Owen (n.d) believes there is much hope as digital printing, apparently, is in its infancy and all issues such as speed, binding and cost effective colour will eventually be resolved. Conclusion And Recommendation Newspapers have come a long way from the Gutenberg era to the present Bill Gates era. Apparently, the future of print lies in digital technology. For newspapers to survive in the printed form, investors in the industry must start thinking digital as a viable option in producing newspapers of the future. It is therefore imperative for newspaper houses to explore the possibilities of undertaking print production with digital printing presses. Without any choice, digital technology has permeated every aspect of our lives. Therefore, digital workflows must be incorporated into newspaper printing. Printing must go digital.

References
Afolabi, A. (2006). The emerging trends in print publishing in Nigeria. A research project submitted for the award of a Post graduate diploma in communication studies at the Lagos State University School of Communication, Lagos. Afolabi, A. ( June 3, 2008). ICT: Driving the print media industry in Nigeria. Technology Times. Afolabi, A. (in press). The history and development of printing in Nigeria. Print Media Journal (A publication of the Department of Printing Technology, Yaba College of Technology) Clem, C. & Link, W. (2005). Prepress for Digital printing: An Introduction to prepress methods for the digital age. United States: Xerox Corporation. Daramola, Ifedayo. (2006). History and development of mass media in Nigeria. Lagos: Rothan Press Ltd. Dittmar, Jeremiah (2009) Ideas, Technology, and Economic Change: The Impact of the Printing Press. Retrieved November 27, 2010 from http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic607832.files/dittmar_printing.pdf Echeruo, M (1976). History of the Nigerian press. In The Story of the Daily Times 19261976. Lagos: Daily Times of Nigeria Ltd. p.7. Ekeng ,Joseph & Durojaiye, Seeni (Tuesday, March 9, 2010) Travails of the Print Media. M2 Magazine. Kipphan, H. (2001) Handbook of print media: Technologies and production methods. Berlin: Springer. McKenna, J. (1995). Politics, Participation and the Public Sphere. Leicester: Leicester University. Mejtoft, T. (2006) Strategies for successful digital printing. Journal of Media Business Studies. 3(1): 53-54. Retrieved August 20, 2011 from

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http://www.jombs.com/articles/2006314.pdf Momoh, T (2004). Nigerian Media Laws and Ethics. Lagos: Efua Media Associates. The Story of the Daily Times 1926-1976. Lagos: Daily Times of Nigeria Ltd. Obijiofor, L. (2003). New technologies and Journalism practice in Nigeria and Ghana. Asia Pacific Educator, 14, pp 36-56. Accessed March 12, 2011 from http://ro.uow.edu.au/apme/vol1/iss14/4 Osinubi, Ademola (2006). "The Punch Philosophy of Business" A speech by the Managing Director/Editor-in-Chief, Punch Nigeria Limited, Mr. Ademola Osinubi, at the launch of the book, Defying the odds: Case studies of Nigerian organisations that have survived generations, by LEAP Africa, on Tuesday, April 4, 2006, at the MUSON Centre, Lagos, Nigeria. Oso, L. (1991). The commercialization of the Nigerian Press: Development and implications. African Media Review. Vol 5, No 3, pp 41-51. Owen, D. (n.d). Digital newspaper printing the missing link. Retrieved 25th March, 2011 from Http://www.inpublishing.co.uk/kb/articles/digital_newspaper_print ing_the_missin g_link.aspx Print Process, (1998). The world's fastest newspaper. A publication of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG. No 1. pp 24-27 Thottam, George (1999). Future of Newspapers; Survival or extinction? In AMIC Annual conference, Asia: Information poor to information rich - strategies for the 21st century, Chennai, July 1-3, 1999. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from DR-NTU, Nanyang Technological University library, Singapore.

Websites Nigerian Internet user survey. Retrieved 2 n d April 2011 from w w w. r e s e a r c h a n d m a r k e t s . c o m / r e p o r t s / 3 1 8 7 2 / n i g e r i a n _internet_user_survey.pdf Next Newspaper. Nigeria only has 16% internet coverage. Retrieved 2nd April 2011 from 234next.com/csp//Nigeria_only_has_internet_coverage.csp

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