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Lesson: 21

Career & Succession Planning:

Contents:
• Definition of Competency
• Competency Mapping
• Career –Processes and life stages
• Career Planning – Meaning, need, process, prerequisites,
advantages and limitations
• Tips for effective Career Development
• Succession Planning
• Case Study

Competency

Competency is defined as behaviors that describe excellent performance in a particular


work context (e.g. job, role or group of jobs, function, or whole organisation). In other
words competency means actual application of knowledge. skill and
motives/attitude/temperament in carrying out assigned tasks. A manager may be
knowledgeable and skilled but he hardly applies his/her knowledge and skill on assigned
tasks, the said manager cannot be rated as a competent person.

Competency Mapping

Competency mapping is a process of identify key competencies for an organisation and/


or a job and incorporate those competencies through the various process (i.e. job
evaluation, training, recruitment, career and succession planning) of the organisation.
COMPETENCIES - HR - LEADERSHIP CLUSTER

Business Strategy/ Vision


Oriented

Leadership
Continuous Customer
Competencies
Improvement Service

Team/ Negotiations
Relationship
Building

COMPETENCIES - HR - MANAGEMENT

MANAGING CONSULTING
WITH
RESPECT

MANAGEMENT PLANNING /
EXECUTION PRIORITY
COMPETENCIE
IMPLEMENTATI SETTING
S
ON

ANALYTICAL
COMMUNICATI SKILLS / SECISION

MANAGING
DEVELOPING
PEOPLE
COMPETENCIES - HR - FUNCTIONAL

INFORMATIO STAFFING
COMPENSATI
NMANAGME

CARRER MANAGEMENT BENEFITS


PLANNING & COMPETENCIE
DEVELOPMENT S

EMPLOYEE
EDUCATION & RELATIONS
TRANNING
LABOUR
RELATIONS

HUMAN RESOURCES COMPETENCY MIX


Benchmar
k
position Specialist Manager Director
( sample )

60
Leadership
Management
Mix of Competencies Demonstrated

50

40

30

20

10

Functional Management Leadership


C A R E E R PL AN N IN G & G R O WT H O PP OR T U N I TI E S

M a np ow er plan nin g is a n imp or tant ad jun ct of b u sin es s p lann ing or co rp or ate plan nin g. T her e can no t
b e effe ctive ma np ow er plan nin g if th ere is inef fectiv e care er plan ni ng in th e or gan is ation . C ar eer
p la nn ing is an i nteg ral par t of m anp o w er pla nn ing . Ca reer p lan nin g is c ho os ing an o ccu patio n,
k eepin g in view o ne' s re so ur ces a nd e nv ir on me ntal co nd ition s. Car eer p lan ning is n ot an even t or an
en d in its elf, bu t a pr oce ss w hich req uir es co ntin uo u s ex amin atio n of th e go al; the s trateg ies to b e
ch os en ; th e re sou r ces a nd lim itation s o n th e par t of th e in div idu al; th e o rga nis atio n an d th e
en vir on men t. Th is i s aim ed at -

to i mpr ov e the p erf orm an ce of s u bor di nates in th eir pr es ent jo b in ter ms of re su lts to be
ac com plis he d;
to p rep ar e e mpl oy ees to accep t in crea s in g r es po ns ibility i n their pr es en t job ;
to h elp s u bor d in ates to g row an d d eve lop f or h igh er lev el job s .

C are er plan nin g is bas ically an in div idua l's r es po n sib il it y. H ow ev er, in th e o rg anis atio nal co nte xt, i t
is the o rga nis ation 's res p on sib ility to g uid e and dir ect the em plo ye es to d ev elop a nd u tilize their
k no w led ge, a bilities an d res ou r ces to w ard s o rg anis atio n d evel opm en t a nd e ffectiv en es s. E mp loy ee' s
g oals hav e to b e a pp ro pr ia tely in tegra ted w ith org an isatio na l g oa ls. T he o rg anis atio n mu s t p ro vid e
car eer co un s elling ser vice s.

LIFE STAGES & PROCESSES OF CAREER


PEOPLE CHANGE CONSTANTLY & THUS VIEW THEIR CAREERS DIFFERENT AT VARIOUS
STAGES OF THEIR LIVES.SOME OF THESE CHANGES RESULT FROM AGING PROCESS &
OTHERS FROM OPPOPTUNITIES FOR GROWTH & STATUS .

BASIC STAGES :-
EXPLORATION INDIVIDUAL EXPLORES CAREER
1. ESTABLISHING
ALTERNATIVES & BEGINS TO
MOVE INTO THE ADULT WORLD
/IDENTITY(10-20)

GROWTH & GETTING PERSON CHOOSES AN


2. ESTABLISHED(20-40) OCCUPATION.ESTABLISHED CAREER PATH

MAINTENANCE & PEOPLE SERIOUSLY QUESTION


3. ADJUSTMENT TO THE QUALITY OF THEIR LIVES
SELF(40-50)

PERSON MAY HAVE LOWER ASPIRATIONS &


4. DECLINE LESS MOTIVATION RESULTING ADDITIONAL
CAREER ADJUSTMENT
CAREER PLANNING IMPLIES HELPING THE EMPLOYEES TO PLAN HIS OR HER
CAREER IN TERMS OF HIS OR HER CAPABILITIES WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF
ORG. NEEDS
CAREER PLANNING DOES NOT IMPLY:
PREDICTING / ENVISAGING / ENSURING HIGHER POSITIONS FOR EACH
EMPLOYEE
ORAGANISATIONAL REALITIES GROWTH OR PROGRESSION
OPPORTUNITIES AT DIFFERENT PLACE IS DIFFERENT
- SOME PLATEAUS
- PYRAMIDAL HIERARCHY CAN NOT CREATE MANY POSITIONS
UNIFORM RATE OF PROGRESSION NOT POSSIBLE IN ALL DEPTTS / UNITS

COMPETENCE

INDIVIDUAL ORG. KNOWS BOTH DON’T


KNOWS ORG. INDIVIDUAL KNOW
DOES NOT DOES NOT
KNOW KNOW

CAREER PLANNING SYSTEM


INDIVIDUAL CP ORGANISATIONAL CP

PERFORMANCE FORECASTING

POTENTIAL ORGANISATIONAL MANPOWER


PLANNING PLANNING

PREFERENCE

ORGANISATIONAL PERSONAL
PERSONAL ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENT

INDIVIDUAL ORGANISATION
ABILITIES PERSONNEL NEEDS
DESIRES CAREER PATHS
POSSIBILITIES POSSIBILITIES
MATCHING
COMPONENTS OF CAREER
PLANNING
ORGANISATION DESIGN /
HR PLANS

CORPORATE PLAN CAREER PATHS / ROLE


REQUIREMENT

CAREER PLANNING

DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL /
OPPORTUNITIES PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

PROMOTION POLICY

So, dear students there is every need of learning about the meaning of Career Planning
and Development. So let us try to familiarize ourselves with the meaning of Career
Planning and Development

Meaning:

Career planning is the process by which one selects career goals and the path to these
goals. Career development is those personal improvements one undertakes to achieve a
personal career plan. Career management is the process of designing and implementing
goals, plans and strategies to enable the organization to satisfy employee needs while
allowing individuals to achieve their career goals. So, due to this career planning and
development is necessary to each and every employee in an organization. The need of
career planning and development is felt in each and every organization of today’s global
world.

So, in today’s session let us discuss the need for career planning in depth

Need for Career Planning: -

Career Planning is necessary due to the following reasons:

1. To attract competent persons and to retain them in the organization.


2. To provide suitable promotional opportunities.
3. To enable the employees to develop and take them ready to meet the future
challenges.
4. To increase the utilization of managerial reserves within an organization.
5. To correct employee placement.
6. To reduce employee dissatisfaction and turnover.
7. To improve motivation and morale.

Today’s class is intended for discussing the process of career planning and development.
Why in today’s modern global organizations’ the need for career planning and
development is given much importance? The process of career planning and development
is discussed below. So, after discussion of the process of career planning and
development, you all can know the importance of it.

Process of Career Planning and Development: -

The following are the steps in Career Planning and Development:

1. Analysis of individual skills, knowledge, abilities, aptitudes etc.


2. Analysis of career opportunities both within and outside the organization.
3. Analysis of career demands on the incumbent in terms of skills, knowledge,
abilities, aptitude etc., and in terms of qualifications, experience and training
received etc.
4. Relating specific jobs to different career opportunities.
5. Establishing realistic goals both short-term and long-term.
6. Formulating career strategy covering areas of change and adjustment.
7. Preparing and implementing action plan including acquiring resources for
achieving goals.

I hope that every one is well versed with the career planning and development and it’s
importance. Now, you have to know what are the steps involved in career development
system.

Steps involved in Career Development System: -

There are four steps in establishing a career development system. They are:

1. Needs: -Defining the present system i.e. this step involves in the conducting a needs
assessment as in a training programme.

2. Vision: -The needs of the career system must be linked with the interventions. An
ideal career development system known as the vision links the needs with the
interventions.
3. Action Plan: -An action plan should be formulated in order to achieve the vision. The
support of the top management should be obtained in this process.

4. Results: -Career development programme should be integrated with the


organization’s on-going employee training and management development
programmes. The programme should be evaluated from time to time in order to revise
the programme.

The above points can further elaborated in the following way: -

Steps and Tasks in establishing a career development system

Step 1: Needs: Defining the present system

Establish roles and responsibilities of employees, managers, and the organization.


Identify needs; establish target groups.
Establish cultural parameters; determine organizational receptivity, support, and
commitment to career development.
Assess existing HR Programme or structure; consider possible links to a career
development programme.
Determine prior attempts at solving the problem or need.
Establish the mission or philosophy of the programme.
Design and implement needs assessment to confirm the data or collect more data.
Establish indicators or criteria of success.

Step 2: Vision: Determining New Directions and Possibilities

Create a long-term philosophy.


Establish the vision or objectives of the programme.
Design interventions for employees, managers, and the organization.
Organize and make available career information needed to support the
programme.

Step 3: Action Plan: Deciding on practical first steps

Assess the plan and obtain support from top management


Create a pilot programme
Assess resources and competencies.
Establish an advisory group.
Involve advisory group in data gathering, programme design, implementation,
evaluation and monitoring
Step 4: Results: Maintaining the change

Create long-term formalized approaches.


Publicize the programme.
Evaluate and redesign the programme and its components.
Consider future trends and directions for the programme.

Career development is essential to implement career plan. Career development consists of


personal improvements undertaken by the individual employee, training, development
and educational programmes provided by the organization and various institutes. The
most important aspect of career development is that every employee must accept his/her
responsibility for development. Various career development actions prove useful if an
employee is committed to career development.

I think and hope that everybody is well versed with career planning and development.
Now let us try to explore the pre-requisites for the success of career planning.

Pre-requisites for the success of career planning.

1. Strong commitment of the top management in career planning, succession planning


and development.
2. Organization should develop, expand and diversify its activities at a phased manner.
3. Organization should frame clear corporate goals.
4. Organization should have self-motivated, committed and hard working employees.
5. Organization’s goal in selection should be selecting the most suitable man and place
him in the right job.
6. Organization should take care of the proper age composition in manpower planning
and in selection.
7. Organization should take steps to minimize career stress.
8. Organization should have fair promotion policy.
9. Organization should publicize widely the career planning and development
programmes.

Advantages of Career Planning and Development

After learning about all the above things, we have to have a look on advantages of career
planning and development. Following are the advantages of career planning and
development:

Infact both individuals and the organization are going to benefit from career planning and
development. So the advantages are described below:

For Individuals:
1. The process of career planning helps the individual to have the knowledge of
various career opportunities, his priorities etc.
2. This knowledge helps him select the career that is suitable to his life styles,
preferences, family environment, scope for self-development etc.
3. It helps the organization identify internal employees who can be promoted.
4. Internal promotions, upgradation and transfers motivate the employees, boost up
their morale and also result in increased job satisfaction.
5. Increased job satisfaction enhances employee commitment and creates a sense of
belongingness and loyalty to the organization.
6. Employee will await his turn of promotion rather than changing to another
organization. This will lower employee turnover.
7. It improves employee’s performance on the job by taping their potential abilities
and further employee turnover.
8. It satisfies employee esteem needs.

For Organizations: -

A long-term focus of career planning and development will increase the effectiveness
of human resource management. More specifically, the advantages of career planning and
development for an organization include:

i. Efficient career planning and development ensures the availability of human


resources with required skill, knowledge and talent.
ii. The efficient policies and practices improve the organization’s ability to attract and
retain highly skilled and talent employees.
iii. The proper career planning ensures that the women and people belong to backward
communities get opportunities for growth and development.
iv. The career plan continuously tries to satisfy the employee expectations and as such
minimizes employee frustration.
v. By attracting and retaining the people from different cultures, enhances cultural
diversity.
vi. Protecting employees’ interest results in promoting organizational goodwill.

Limitations of career planning

Apart from advantages, there are some limitations. So, let us have a look at the
limitations of career planning?

Despite planning the career, employees face certain career problems. They are:

1. Dual Career Families: - With the increase in career orientation


among women, number of female employees in on increase.
With this, the dual career families have also been on increase.
Consequently, one of those family members might face the
problem of transfer. This has become a complicated problem to
organizations. Consequently other employees may be at
disadvantage.
2. Low ceiling careers: -Some careers do not have scope for much
advancement. Employees cannot get promotions despite their
career plans and development in such jobs.
3. Declining Career Opportunities: -Career opportunities for
certain categories reach the declining stage due to the influence
of the technological or economic factors. Solution for such
problem is career shift.
4. Downsizing/Delayering and careers: - Business process
reengineering, technological changes and business environmental
factors force the business firms to restructure the organizations
by delayering and downsizing. Downsizing activities result in
fixing some employees, and degrading some other employees.

There are some suggestions for effective career development. They are: -

• Challenging Initial Job Assignments: - There is an evidence indicating that


employees who take up initial challenging jobs perform better at later stages.
• Dissemination of Career Option Information: - Mostly employees lack
information about career choices/options. The managers identify career paths and
succession paths. This information should be made available to all.
• Job Positioning: - Management should provide job information to employees
through job positioning. For posting the jobs organizations can use bulletin board
displays, company publications, electronic billboards and similar means.
• Assessment Centres: - The assessment centers evaluate the people regarding
their ability to certain jobs. This technique helps to identify the available skills,
abilities and knowledge.
• Career Counseling: - Career Counseling helps employees in setting directions,
reviewing performance, identifying areas for professional growth.

Succession Planning

Succession may be from internal employees or external people. Succession from


internal employees is advantageous to the organization as well as to the internal
employees. Organization can buy the employees loyalty and commitment, belongingness,
shared feeling of development along with the organization by promoting the internal
employees. Employees get the benefits of growth in the organization. The organization
mostly prefers to encourage the growth and development of its employees and as such
tends to prefer succession from within. Organizations, appraise employee’s potentialities,
identify training gaps for future vacancies, and develop them for higher and varied jobs.
The scope of succession plan would be more when the organization grows steadily and
employees have potentialities to take up higher responsibilities.

Professionally run organizations ask their managers to identify the internal employees
having potentialities and develop them in order to occupy their positions as and when
they feel vacant. However, it is necessary to allow the inflow of new blood also. Hence,
organizations should also search for outside talent in certain cases like when competent
internal people are not available, when major expansion, diversification and growth plans
are in offing, complete dependence on either internal source or external source not
advisable to any organization.
The following two articles can know the importance of succession planning. These
articles highlight the importance of succession planning and highlights the challenges of
succession planning. ((GGooooggllee..ccoom m— —
hhttttpp::////ww w . b u s i n e s s . c o m/ d i r e c t o r y / ma n a g e me n t / c o
www.business.com/directory/management/corporate_governance/succession_plannn r p o r a t e _ g o v e r n a n c e / s u c c e s s i o n _ p l a n
iinngg// aanndd hhttp://w
ttp://ww ww .familybizz.net/article_sp.asp))
w.familybizz.net/article_sp.asp

Case:

“In the Dark”


Could you come to my office for a minute, Rao” asked Mehta, the plant manager. “Sure,
be right there,” said Rao. Rao was the plant’s control director. He had been with the
company for four years. After completing his degree in mechanical engineering, he
worked as a production supervisor and then as maintenance supervisor, prior to moving
to his present job. Rao thought he knew what the call was about.

“Your letter of resignation catches me by surprise,” began Mehta. “I know that Malhotra
products will be getting a good person, but we sure need you here, too.” “I thought about
it a lot,” said Rao, “but there doesn’t seem to be a future for me here.” “Why do you say
that?” asked Mehta. “Well,” replied Rao, “the next position above mine is yours. With
you being only 39, I don’t think it slightly that you’ll be leaving soon,” said Mehta.
“That’s why it’s even more of a shock to learn that you are resigning. I think I’ll be
moving to the corporate office in June of next year. Besides, the company has several
plants that are larger than this one, and we need good people in those plants from time to
time, both in quality control and in general management.” “Well, I heard about an
opening in the Daruhera plant last year,’ said Rao, but by the time I checked, the job had
already been filled. We never know about opportunities in other plants until we read
about incumbent in the company paper.”

“All this is beside the point now. What would it take to get you to change your mind?”
asked Mehta. “I don’t think I will change my mind now,” replied Rao, “because I have
given my word that I am going to join them.”

Questions

1. Evaluate the career planning and the development programme at this company.

2. What actions might have prevented Rao’s resignation?


Career & Succession
Planning

Competency

Competency is defined as a behaviour that


describes excellent performance in a
particular work context (e.g. job, role or
group of jobs, function, or whole
organisation).
Competency Mapping
• Competency Mapping is a process of
identifying key competencies for an
organisation and or a job and incorporate
those competencies through the various
process of the organisation

Life Stages of Career


• Establishing Identity
• Growth and Getting Established
• Maintenance & Adjustment to Self
• Decline
Career Planning

“Career planning is the process by which one


select career goals and the path to these
goals.”

Career Development
“Career Development is those personal
improvements one undertakes to achieve a
personal career plan.”
Steps involved in Career
Development System
• Needs
• Vision
• Action Plan
• Results

• Pre-requisites for the success of career


planning.
• Advantages of Career Planning and
Development
• Limitations of career planning
• Suggestions for effective career
development
Succession Planning
“Succession may be from internal employees
external people. Succession from internal
employees is advantageous to the
organisation as well as to the internal
employees. Organisation can by the
employees loyalty and commitment,
belongingness, shared feeling or
development along with the organisation
by promoting the internal employees”