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Technical service memo

VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
Delphi Diesel Systems / Launch Team Common Rail PAGE 1/13



DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."











NAME SIGNATURE
Author Benoit COSSON
Christophe GARNIER
Olivier LEDRU
Olivier BENOIT

Approved by Frdric DAVID


High Pressure Diagnostics
Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
Delphi Diesel Systems / Launch Team Common Rail PAGE 2/13



DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."

DOCUMENT HISTORY


Issue Date Type of modification Author Approved by
1.0 04/05/02 Creation. Benoit COSSON
Christophe GARNIER
Olivier LEDRU
Olivier BENOIT
Frederic DAVID


2.0 11/10/02 ModiIication:
- Principle oI the double check Ior
the pipes method
- Values Ior the leak volumes Ior
both methods (pipes and
containers) Ior diIIerent
applications
Frederic DAVID Herve
DUCOLOMBIER


2.1 26/11/03 ModiIication:
- Add values Ior SSang yong, the
leak volumes Ior both methods
(pipes and containers) Ior
diIIerent applications
Benoit COSSON Frederic DAVID


2.2 01/12/03 ModiIication:
- Add timing values Ior dynamic
injector back leak method
- Add timing values Ior static
injector back leak method
Benoit COSSON Frederic DAVID


2.3 20/10/04 ModiIication:
- Add TATA SaIari timing values
Ior dynamic injector back leak
method
- Add timing values Ior static
injector back leak method
Christophe GARNIER Frederic DAVID





Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
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DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."




CONTENTS



1. Introduction................................................................................................... 4.

2. Symptoms ..................................................................................................... 4.

3. Hydraulic system status analysis................................................................ 5.

4. Diagnostics ................................................................................................... 7.
4.1 Preliminary checks...........................................................................................................................................
4.2 Hydraulic system status analysis.....................................................................................................................
4.3 Static injector backleak test .............................................................................................................................
4.4 Dynamic injector backleak test ........................................................................................................................
4.5 Pump pressure generation capability ..............................................................................................................
4.6 Detailed diagnostic flow chart ..........................................................................................................................

5. Values by applications....13.




Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
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DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."
1- INTRODUCTION :

When it is necessary to check the rail pressure function on a faulty vehicle due to the
observed customer effect, it is often difficult to decide which component of the system has
really failed.

It is essential to keep in mind the principles of the function of the Common Rail system:
1- Pressure production : the pump compresses the fuel at high pressure.
2- Pressure regulation : the pressure thus produced is accumulated in a rail and
measured and regulated (the rail pressure sensor, the ECU and the IMV function in a
closed loop).
3- Pressure consumption : this pressure is finally consumed by the injectors (injection
into the engine cylinders and injector management).

This means that a pressure fault may come from the producer, the regulator or the
consumers.
Simply studying the physical parameters of the rail pressure does not allow the
disassociation of producer and consumer.

2 - SYMPTOMS :

The engine wont start or is difficult to start
The engine stalls while running.
Lack of power and dashboard warning lamps light : the recovery mode may lead to engine
stop.




















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DATE 20/10/04
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DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."
3 Hydraulic system status analysis :


In order to properly understand the fault codes linked to pressure control, it is necessary to
analyse the hydraulic system status:
Pressure potential Consumption
Pressure reserve necessary for
correct functioning of the system
Pressure
demand
Capacity of the pump to
supply a flow at a given
pressure
Backleak flow
Injec ted flow


Hydraulic flow balance is established as follows :

Injected flow + Backleak flow
(Flow consumed)
=
Capacity of the HP pump to supply the flow requested for a given Diesel fuel temperature and
pump inlet depression.

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DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."
The hydraulic flow balance is upset if :


consumption production
Injected flow
Backleak flow
Pump capacity
Pressure deficit
Increased backleak flow




consumption production
Injected flow
Backleak flow
Reduction in HP pump capacity
Pressure deficit
Pump capacity


The Injector backleak flow increases
sharply, exceeding the pump capacity.
This can happen when particles disturb the internal
injector sealing, increasing the backleak flow from one
or more injectors.
Examples :
Heavy contamination of the fuel
Wear and tear on the pump leads to the
production of metallic particles that will seriously
disturb the injector function
Mechanical wear in the injector.

The capacity of the pump to supply the required
pressure is reduced due to internal pump wear
or a fuel feed problem.

Example :
Presence of air in the low pressure circuit.
Excessive negative pressure at the pump inlet
(<-300mBar)
Mechanical wear in the pump
Excessive pump inlet temperature (>65C)

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DATE 20/10/04
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DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."
4 - DIAGNOSIS :

The following diagnostic flow chart summarises the various successive injection system
checks for the isolation of faulty components.

Logical order for diagnostic operations


























4-1 Preliminary checks :

Check that: the fuel feed circuit is in good condition,
there is diesel fuel present in the system,
there is no air (no bubbles or emulsion in the pipes),
there are no high pressure circuit leaks,
there is diesel fuel of the correct quality and type.

Carry out the Diesel filter test described in the technical service memos DT306_3 (Renault)
or DT324_2 (Kia-Hyunda) or DT326 (Ford),


PRELIMINARY CHECKS
(engine environement)
See paragraph 4.1 for details
SYSTEM HYDRAULIC STATUS
(engine cranking)
See paragraph 4.2 for details
IN1ECTOR BACKLEAK
STATIC TEST
See paragraph 4.3 for details

PUMP PRESSURECAPACITY TEST
See paragraph 4.2 for details
IN1ECTOR BACKLEAK
DYNAMIC TEST
See paragraph 4.4 for details
Engine starts Engine doesnt start
Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
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DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."
The following operations require a diagnostic tool capable of reading the rail pressure and
the engine cycle speed (ERPM).

4-2 System hydraulic status test:

The following paragraphs explain the System Hydraulic Status test and describe how the test is
carried out.

The test allows the generation of a snapshot of the CURRENT capacity of the entire system to
generate the high pressure required.

There are 2 possible cases :
- The pressure measured is adequate and therefore the search for a system high-
pressure build problem can be abandoned.

- The pressure measured is inadequate and complementary tests must be carried out to
determine the cause.


The on-vehicle System Hydraulic Status test :

- The system must prepared for the test as follows :
Disconnect the IMV electrically by disconnecting the BROWN connector on the High
Pressure pump and disconnect the injector electrical connections so that they are no
longer managed by the ECU. This will allow the maximum pressure to be reached.

- Turn the engine over on the starter for five seconds only : the five second period is
critical, nothing is gained from exceeding the five second limit and it is dangerous
to do so!
NB : during test cranking, the engine cycle speed must exceed 200 RPM.
Perform this test in cold conditions, coolant temperature < 30c.

The minimum pressure reached must be 1050 bars for all applications.


If the rail pressure is below 1050 bars
Use the following paragraphs (4-3 to 4-5) to isolate the faulty component(s)
at this stage, the system capacity can be regarded as insufficient

If the rail test pressure is above 1050 bars
the root cause of the problem lies outside the capacity of the system to produce
pressure
use the routine diagnostic documents




Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
Delphi Diesel Systems / Launch Team Common Rail PAGE 9/13



DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."


4-3 Static injector backleak test :

The backleak flow volumes must be measured. If the engine will not start, it is only possible to
measure the static flows (i.e. unmanaged closed injectors under high pressure).

- Connect clear, 4mm internal diameter plastic tubes to all the injector backleak ears.
(the 4mm internal diameter is critical)

- Plug the pump venturi connection.
(to prevent airlocks in the low pressure circuit)

- Disconnect the brown IMV electrical connector and the injector electrical connectors.

- Read the rail pressure and the engine cycle speed (RPM) while cranking the engine on
the starter for 5 seconds. Do not exceed the 5second limit under any circumstances.
NB : the engine speed during test cranking must be higher than 200 RPM

- Measure the quantity of diesel fuel obtained in 5 seconds in cms. Refer to the table
(appendix n1 5) and replace any injectors whose backleak exceeds the value given in
the reference table. (See appendix n1 for the particular case of contro lled starters)
-
- Empty the plastic tubes, reconnect them and do the measure again with the new injector(s)
(after 5 second on the starter) and replace any injectors whose backleak now exceeds
the value given in the reference table (appendix n1 5) .



Values
measured
in cm
Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
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"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."


4-4 Dynamic backleak injector test :

In cases where the engine will run, the leak detection cycle allows the dynamic backleak
flow to be checked ( while the engine is running) from 230 to 1400 bars.

- Connect the containers to the injector backleak pipes.

- Plug the pump venturi connection.
- (to prevent airlocks in the low pressure circuit).

- Set up the diagnostic tool for the HP leak detection test.

- Run the engine at idle for X seconds and launch Y consecutive leak detection cycles
(see reference table for X and Y values).

- Measure the volume of diesel fuel collected and refer to the tables in appendix n1 5

- Replace any injectors whose backleak volume exceeds the reference table values (see
the Container method technical service memo for further details).



Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
Delphi Diesel Systems / Launch Team Common Rail PAGE 11/13



DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."


4-5 Pump pressure generation capability :

This test is designed to check the pressure generated by the pump when isolated from the pressure
consuming elements of the system (see technical service memo plugged rail/ rail bouch"). The
"plugged rail/rail bouch" tool is required in order to carry out this test.
- Connect the plugged rail to the pump HP outlet and the rail pressure sensor connector to the
plugged rail pressure sensor.

- Plug the engine rail inlet during the test to keep it clean for subsequent re-connection after
the test.

- Disconnect the IMV flow actuator (brown electrical connector).

- Read the rail pressure and the engine cycle speed (RPM) while cranking the engine on
the starter motor for five seconds. Do not exceed the five-second limit under any
circumstances nothing is gained from exceeding the five-second limit and it is
dangerous to do so!
NB : the engine cycle speed must be greater than 200 RPM during the test.

- If the pressure reached during the test is less than 1050 bars, the HP pump must be
replaced.

Plugged rail :





Pressure
regulator
Rail discharge
return connector
Bleed screw
HP pipe
Pressure
sensor
Connect plugged
rail pressure sensor
Connect HP pipe
Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
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DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."


4-6 Detailed diagnostic flow chart











































Replace injector(s) with backleak
Ilow above the limit
see appendix n1 5

PRELIMINARY CHECKS (4.1)
- Check the Low Pressure circuit (air in feed circuit + injector return)
- Check the fuel type
- Check for external diesel fuel leaks
- Carry out the filter test. See tecnical service memo "DT 306_3 (Renault) or DT 324-2 (KIA-
Hyunda) or DT 326 (Ford)"
HYDRAULIC SYSTEM STATUS (4.2)
Read the pressure while cranking for 5 seconds, IMV and
injectors disconnected in cold conditions (coolant temperature < 30c).
Pressure reading greater than 1050 bars ?
Carry out repairs
Bad preliminary check
results
Check the injector backleak Ilow
Engine
Environment
correct ?
Check the low pressure circuit :
Check the fuel guage pickup in the tank (air
locks or blocked orifice). Carry out a test with
a clean test tank and filter.
II engine won`t start
STATIC INJECTOR BACKLEAK TEST (4.3)
Carry out the "tube test" :
Connect transparent tubes to the injector backleak ears, plug the
venturi and measure the quantity of diesel fuel produced after 5
seconds cranking on the starter motor
Backleak flow excessive ?
(Permissible flow level table available in appendix n1 5 )

Yes
No
PUMP PRESSURE BUILD CAPACITY (4.5)
Carry out the plugged rail test See technical service memo. 'Plugged rail
test/" Rail bouche"
La pression lue est suprieure 1050 bars ?
Yes
No
II engine runs
DYNAMIC INJECTOR BACKLEAK TEST(4.4)
Use the ISO leak detection test.
see. Technical service memo Containers method".
Is the backleak flow excessive ?
(Permissible flow level table available in appendix n1 5 )
No
Yes
Replace HP pump
No
Yes
No
Yes

Replace injector(s) with backleak
Ilow above the limit
see appendix n1 5
Connect backleak
return
Technical service memo
VERSION 2.3

DATE 20/10/04
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DELPHI conIidential DELPHI DIESEL SYSTEMS
"All rights reserved. No part oI this publication may be reproduced in any material Iorm (including photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means
and whether or not transiently or incidentally Ior some other use oI this publication) without the written permission oI Delphi."


5. Values by applications for pipes and containers methods

Annexe 1 :


Pipes method Containers method
APPLICATIONS
Pipe length
(values in cm)
Cranking
time
Containers
volume
(values in ml)
Idle time
Number of leak
detection cycle

Renault K9K700
(C4G26 only)
Renault K9K700
(C4G26 execpt)
Renault K9K704
Renault K9K702
Renault K9K722
Renault K9K728
10 cm

10 cm

10 cm
10 cm
8 cm
8 cm
5 s

5 s

5 s
5 s
1 action (1)
1 action (1)
20 ml

35ml

35ml
35ml
35 ml
35 ml
2 min

2 min

2 min
2 min
2 min
2 min
2 cycles

2 cycles

2 cycles
2 cycles
2 cycles
2 cycles
(1) : 1 starter button action with coolant temperature > 20c.

Ford Lynx
Ford Puma
20 cm
21 cm
5 s
5 s
/ / /

KIA/HUYNDAI
KJ29L
20 cm 5 s 25 ml 2 min 2 cycles

PSA DV4TED4 18 cm 5 s 37 ml 1 min 1 cycle



Ssang Yong
D27DT
20 cm 5 s 38 ml 30 s 1 cycle
TATA
Safari 3 Liters (BSII)
20 cm 5 s 50 ml 30 s 1 cycle