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General Design Considerations for Marine Wor s

Ci!il Engineering Offi"e Ci!il Engineering De#art$ent T%e Go!ern$ent of t%e &ong Kong S#e"ial Ad$inistrati!e Region


© The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region First published, Ma !""! #repared b $ %ivil &ngineering 'ffice, %ivil &ngineering (epartment, )") #rincess Margaret Road, Homantin, Ko*loon, Hong Kong+

This publication is available from $ Government #ublications %entre, Ground Floor, ,o* -loc., /ueens*a Government 'ffices, 00 /ueens*a , Hong Kong+ 'verseas orders should be placed *ith $ #ublications Sales Section, 1nformation Services (epartment, Room 2"!, 23F, Murra -uilding, Garden Road, Hong Kong+ #rice in Hong Kong $ HK40! #rice overseas $ 5S4)6 7including surface postage8 An additional ban. charge of HK49" or 5S40+9 is re:uired per che:ue made in currencies other than Hong Kong dollars+ %he:ues, ban. drafts or mone orders must be made pa able to T%e Go!ern$ent of t%e &ong Kong S#e"ial Ad$inistrati!e Region



The #ort ;or.s (esign Manual presents recommended standards and methodologies for the design of marine *or.s in Hong Kong+ 1t consists of five separate volumes, namel , #art ) to #art 9+ #art ) mainl covers design considerations and re:uirements that are generall applicable to various t pes of marine *or.s+ #art ! to #art 9 are concerned *ith specific design aspects of individual t pes of *or.s including piers, dolphins, reclamation, sea*alls, brea.*aters and beaches+ This Manual supersedes the #ort ;or.s Manual, of *hich the contents *ere prepared in the <"=s+ This document, #ort ;or.s (esign Manual $ #art ), gives guidance and recommendations on the general environmental, operational, geotechnical, loading, material, durabilit , maintenance and aesthetic considerations and criteria related to the design of marine *or.s+ 1t *as prepared b a * committee comprising staff of the %ivil &ngineering 'ffice and Special (uties 'ffice *ith reference to the latest international and local marine *or.s design standards, manuals and research findings in consultation *ith Government departments, engineering practitioners and professional bodies+ Man individuals and organi>ations made ver useful comments, *hich have been ta.en into account in drafting the document+ An independent revie* *as also underta.en b e?perts in relevant fields before the document *as finali>ed+ All contributions are gratefull*ledged+ #ractitioners are encouraged to comment at an time to the %ivil &ngineering 'ffice on the contents of this document, so that improvements can be made to future editions+

% % %han Head, %ivil &ngineering 'ffice March !""!

ee .@hung. 5nited Kingdom 7Tel D22 !" <CC0 C"")8+ Figures in Appendi? A are reproduced from ERandom Seas and (esign of Maritime StructuresF *ith the permission of #rofessor Aoshimi Goda+ .@fan.i Auen@*ing The document *as revie*ed b $ #rofessor Aoshimi Goda.a* Man@chin 1r .ai@ping 1r .am %hi@. the 5niversit of Hong Kong 7before )! September !"")8 7before 6 (ecember !"")8 &?tracts from -ritish Standards are reproduced *ith the permission of -ritish Standards 1nstitution 7-S18 under licence number !"")3SK"6)0+ -ritish Standards can be obtained from -S1 %ustomer Services.. 6<C %his*ic.@man 1r Anthon .uen 1r .ondon .i Kam@sang 1r . .ohama Bational 5niversit #rofessor %hac. Ao.u. High Road. Fu.@ho 1r .oo The document *as drafted b the follo*ing staff of the %ivil &ngineering 'ffice $ 1r .2 Wor ing Co$$ittee of Port Wor s Design Man(al ) Part 1 The preparation of the document *as overseen b %hief &ngineer3Technical Services $ 1r .eung 1r .2 2A. the 5niversit of Hong Kong (r K*an K* %hi@pan Assistance and advice *ere provided b the follo*ing staff of the %ivil &ngineering 'ffice and Special (uties 'ffice $ 1r %hiu Mau@fat 1r Ko .ai %heu.


CONTENTS #age Bo+ T1T,& #AG& F'R&;'R( %'BT&BTS )+ 1BTR'(5%T1'B )+) )+! #urpose and Scope (efinitions, S mbols and References ) 6 9 C C )" )) )) )) )) )) )! )! )6 )6 )6 )2 )9 )9 )9 )0 )< !) !! !2 !0 !0

!+ &BG1R'BM&BTA, %'BS1(&RAT1'BS !+) !+! General Tide and ;ater ,evels !+!+) (atum !+!+! Tidal %haracteristics in Hong Kong !+!+6 Mean ;ater ,evels !+!+2 &?treme ;ater ,evels -ath metr ;ind !+2+) ;ind Stations in and around Hong Kong !+2+! &?treme ;ind Speeds !+2+6 (irectional (istribution of ;ind ;aves Generated b ;inds !+9+) General !+9+! ;ave %haracteristics !+9+6 ;ave #arameters !+9+2 ;ave %onditions in Hong Kong !+9+9 ;ave (ata and (ata Sources !+9+0 ;ind (ata for ;ave #rediction !+9+H ;ave #rediction from ;ave Measurement !+9+< ;ave #rediction b Mathematical Modelling

!+6 !+2




!+9+C ;ave in Surf Ione !+9+)" 5se of #h sical ;ave Modelling !+9+)) ;ave 'vertopping Ship ;aves in Harbour

!< !C !C !C #age Bo+



%urrents !+H+) General !+H+! Field Measurements !+H+6 %urrent #rediction b Mathematical Modelling !+H+2 5se of #h sical Flo* Modelling Sediments

6" 6" 6" 6! 62 69 6H 6H 6H 6< 6< 6C 6C 6C 2" 26 26 26 20 2C 9) 9) 9) 9)

6+ '#&RAT1'BA, %'BS1(&RAT1'BS 6+) 6+! 6+6 6+2 6+9 6+0 6+H 6+< General (esign ,ife Ship (ata %urrent %onditions -erth %onditions T phoon Shelters Approach %hannels Bavigation Aids

2+ G&'T&%HB1%A, %'BS1(&RAT1'BS 2+) 2+! 2+6 2+2 General Marine Geolog and %haracteristics (etermination of Soil #roperties (etermination of Roc. #roperties

9+ ,'A(1BG %'BS1(&RAT1'BS 9+) 9+! General ,oading %onditions and %ombinations 9+!+) Bormal ,oading %onditions


9+6 9+2 9+9

9+0 9+H

9+!+! &?treme ,oading %onditions 9+!+6 Temporar ,oading %onditions 9+!+2 Accident ,oading %onditions (ead ,oads Superimposed (ead ,oads ,ive ,oads 9+9+) ,ive ,oads on (ifferent T pes of Structures 9+9+! (etermination of %ontinuous ,ive ,oads Tides and ;ater ,evel Gariations H drostatic ,oads

9! 96 96 92 92 92 92 90 9H 9< #age Bo+ 9< 9C 0" 0" 0" 0! 06 02 09 09 00 00 00 0H 0H 0H 0< H) H) H! H6 H9 H9

9+< Soil #ressure and Ground ;ater #rofiles 9+C ;ind ,oads 9+)" ;ave ,oads 9+)"+) General 9+)"+! ;ave %onditions 9+)"+6 ;ave Forces on Gertical Structures 9+)"+2 ;ave Forces on #iles 9+)"+9 ;ave Forces on #ile@supported (ec. Structures 9+)"+0 ;ave 5plift 9+)"+H ;aves on Rubble Mound Structures 9+)) %urrent ,oads 9+))+) General 9+))+! Stead (rag Forces 9+))+6 Flo* 1nduced 'scillations 9+)! -erthing ,oads 9+)!+) General 9+)!+! Assessment of -erthing &nerg 9+)!+6 -erthing Reactions 9+)6 Mooring ,oads 9+)2 Temperature Gariation 9+)9 &, Movements and Gibrations 0+ %'BSTR5%T1'B MAT&R1A,S AB( (5RA-1,1TA 0+) General

0+)" Fill H+ MA1BT&BAB%& H+) H+! H+6 H+2 General (esign %onsiderations Maintenance Facilities (esign Memorandum and Maintenance Manual <+ A&STH&T1%S <+) <+! General #rinciples R&F&R&B%&S .< 0+! 0+6 0+2 0+9 0+0 0+H 0+< Reinforced %oncrete 5nreinforced %oncrete 5nder*ater %oncrete Steel 0+9+) Structural Steel in General 0+9+! %orrosion #rotection 0+9+6 5se of Stainless Steel 0+9+2 General Guidance Timber Rubber #rotective Measures 0+<+) General 0+<+! #rotective %oatings for Steel 0+<+6 #rotective %oatings for %oncrete 0+<+2 %athodic #rotection for Reinforced %oncrete H9 H0 H0 HH HH HH HH H< H< HC HC HC HC <" <) #age Bo+ <) <! <6 <2 <2 <H <H <H << << C) C) C) C6 0+<+9 %orrosion #rotection of Steel Tubular #iles 0+<+0 %orrosion Monitoring 0+<+H 1mportant #oints to be %onsidered 0+C Armour Roc.

'RK&( & of Tables Tables F1G5R&S .'SSARA 'F T&RMS AB( SAM-'.ist of Figures Figures A##&B(1J A A##&B(1J &ST1MAT1'B 'F .AG& H&1GHT 1B S5RF I'B& R&%'MM&B(&( S#&%1F1%AT1'B F'R R&1BF'R%&( %'B%R&T& 1B MAR1B& &BG1R'BM&BT .&S CC )") )"9 )!9 )!H )!C )9) )0H A##&B(1J % )H6 )CH G.C TA-.&S .S .

dolphins. material.*aters #art 9 K Guide to (esign of -eaches The recommendations in the Manual are for guidance onl and should not be ta.ols and Referen"es .or.s and structures relies particularl on the use of sound engineering Ludgement and e?perience+ #ractitioners should be a*are of the limitations of the assumptions emplo ed in a particular theoretical or computational method+ Since the marine environment is a field *here active research and development are continuing.or. operational.)" 1* 1*1 INTRODUCTION P(r#ose and S"o#e The purpose of the #ort .*aters. reclamation. it is be ond the scope of the Manual to cover all anal sis and design methods+ #ractitioners should be prepared to e?plore other methods to suit a particular problem and should also reali>e that man of the methods *ill continue to evolve as more data and research findings are available+ This part 7#art )8 of the Manual is arranged on a topical basis+ 1t gives guidance and recommendations on the general environmental. sea*alls.ed e?amples are provided in Appendi? % to illustrate the application of recommended design methods+ Readers should refer to other parts of the Manual on particular aspects as necessar + 1*+ Definitions.en as mandator + %ompliance *ith these recommendations does not confer immunit from relevant statutor and legal re:uirements+ -ecause of the variable nature of the marine environment. it ma also provide a source of useful data and design reference for other marine *or. loading. the design of marine *or.s and structures include public piers.s and structures constructed b other organi>ations or parties in Hong Kong+ The Manual is issued in five separate parts+ The titles of these parts are $      #art ) K General (esign %onsiderations for Marine . geotechnical. pumphouses. beaches and associated marine facilities+ The Manual has been *ritten *ith reference to the local conditions and e?perience+ Therefore. maintenance and aesthetic considerations and criteria relevant to the design of those marine *or. brea. ferr piers.or.s #art ! K Guide to (esign of #iers and (olphins #art 6 K Guide to (esign of Reclamation #art 2 K Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea.s and structures mentioned previousl + . S-$. durabilit .s and structures normall constructed b the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region+ Such *or.s (esign Manual 7the Manual8 is to offer guidance on the design of marine *or.

s -ureau Technical %irculars 7. reference should be made to their latest issues+ .)) The definitions of terms and meanings of s mbols for the purpose of this part of the Manual are given in the Glossar of Terms and Glossar of S mbols at the end of this document+ The titles of publications referred to in this part of the Manual are listed in the reference section+ Readers should consult these original publications for more detailed coverage of particular aspects+ For .or.-T%8 *hich are updated regularl .

)! +* +*1 EN/IRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS General This chapter gives guidance on the investigation and assessment of the environmental data on sea*n as the Admiralt (atum. *aves and currents relevant to the design of marine *or. of bench mar. Moon and Sun+ Tides in Hong Kong are mi?ed and mainl semi@diurnalM on most da s in a month. tidal ranges become small and sometimes diurnal tides *ith onl one high tide and one lo* tide are observed+ 1n general.s and structures+ Records of these data available for Hong Kong conditions are also given+ The five@da means of meteorological elements for Hong Kong from )C0) to )CC" are given in Table )+ These have been ta. ho*ever.arge tidal range occurs t*ice a month during spring tides *hen the moon is ne* or full+ 'n da s around neap tides *hen the moon is at its first or last :uarter. the t*o high tides and the t*o lo* tides *hich . there are t*o high tides and t*o lo* tides+ . on Admiralt %harts are based.o*est Astronomical Tide in the Hong Kong harbour+ The %( is "+)20 m belo* the #( and can be converted to the #( b this relationship+ +*+*+ Tidal C%ara"teristi"s in &ong Kong Tides are generated b the gravitational attractions bet*een the &arth.s should refer to the Hong Kong #rincipal (atum 7#(8+ The #( is the vertical or height datum used for land surve ing in Hong Kong and is referenced to the net*or. the %( is the datum on *hich all heights belo* mean higher high *ater mar.en at the automatic tide gauge at Borth #oint+ Another datum commonl used in navigation is the %hart (atum 7%(8+ Formerl .orld Meteorological 'rgani>ation+ +*+ +*+*1 Tide and Water Le!els Dat($ All levels for marine *or.en from Surface 'bservations in Hong Kong b the Hong Kong 'bservator + The period of )C0) to )CC" is the 6"@ ear period used for the computation of climatological standard normals b the . *inds. and is ver close to the .s established b the Surve and Mapping 'ffice+ 1t is appro?imatel )+!6 m belo* the mean sea level derived from )C ears 7)C09@)C<68 of tidal observations ta.

)6 occur each da are une:ual in height+ These tidal characteristics are summari>ed in Figure )+ Tides at various locations in Hong Kong displa a gradual change in tidal range and in the time of occurrence of high and lo* tides from the southeast to the north*est across the territor + 1n a tidal c cle. /uarr -a 3Borth #oint.aglan 1sland and the Gictoria Harbour+ The locations of tide stations under the control of the Hong Kong 'bservator are sho*n in Figure !+ These tide stations provide long term measured *ater level data over ears+ General *ater level information at the tide stations can be found in the Tide Tables published each ear b the Hong Kong 'bservator + 1n the tide tables. 9. onl the times and heights of high and lo* tides *hich occur each da are sho*n+ For more detailed predictions on hourl tide levels at these .o. . %hi Ma . the assessment *as carried out b fitting a . Tsim -ei Tsui.aglan 1sland is t picall the first to e?perience the high tide and lo* tide *hile Tsim -ei Tsui is generall the last+ The mean dela is about ) hour and 6" minutes for high tides and around ! hours 6" minutes for lo* tides+ The tidal range is largest at Tsim -ei Tsui and smallest at . Tai #o Kau. 'n #ai+ &?treme sea levels for return periods of !. )". )"" and !"" ears for these seven locations are given in Tables 6 to C+ The period of records used in each case is given in these tables+ At each location. .aglan 1sland. the Hong Kong 'bservator should be consulted+ 1t should be noted that the *ater level information given in the Tide Tables of the Hong Kong 'bservator are based on normal meteorological conditions+ The observed *ater levels ma differ from those given in the Tide Tables due to storm surges during tropical c clones+ The *ater level information given in Tables ! to C described in Sections !+!+6 and !+!+2 is derived from observed *ater levels and has account for the effect of storm surges+ +*+*0 Mean Water Le!els The mean sea level.aglan 1sland+ The mean tidal range is )+2 m at Tsim -ei Tsui and about ) m at .an and . 9". mean lo*er lo* *ater level at the eight tidal stations together *ith the period of data are sho*n in Table !+ The mean higher high *ater level is the average of the measured higher high levels and the mean lo*er lo* *ater level is the average of the measured lo*er lo* levels+ The meaning of the higher high *ater level and lo*er lo* *ater level are sho*n in Figure )+ +*+*1 E2tre$e Water Le!els 5pdated e?treme sea level anal ses have been carried out b the Hong Kong 'bservator for Ko . !". mean higher high *ater level.

iedao. care should be ta. apart from the information given in the nautical and adLacent approaches 5rmston Road Approaches in south eastern part of Hong Kong *aters These nautical charts provide the *ater depths belo* the %hart (atum+ 1f other *ater level data are used to calculate the *ater depth. Beilingding and . Tuoning .en to ensure that both the bath metr and *ater level data refer to a common datum+ 1t should be noted that.ailingding have also been installed in cooperation *ith the .amma %hannels Ma . detailed bath metr surve s are normall re:uired to determine the latest seabed levels and to supplement information at and around the site area of a proLect+ +*1 +*1*1 Wind Wind Stations in and aro(nd &ong Kong A number of meteorological stations are operated b the Hong Kong 'bservator that measures *ind data in different areas of Hong Kong+ Four stations in Huangmao Ihou.)2 Gumbel distribution to the annual ma?imum sea levels and using the method of moments in parameter estimation+ Minimum sea levels observed at the < tide stations in Figure ! are sho*n in Table )"+ #robable minimum sea levels at /uarr -a 3Borth #oint have been estimated b the Hong Kong 'bservator using Gumbel=s method and are sho*n in Table ))+ +*0 3at%-$etr- General information on the bath metr of Hong Kong *aters can be found in the nautical charts for the follo*ing areas published b the Hong Kong H drographic 'ffice $        Gictoria Harbour K eastern part Gictoria Harbour K central part Gictoria Harbour K *estern part .

!". 6. )"" and !"" ears for three of the main stations.ed *ith the Hong Kong 'bservator + +*1*+ E2tre$e Wind S#eeds Mean hourl *ind speeds for return periods of 9. )". users are advised to consult *ith meteorological e?perts for the latest information on e?treme *ind speeds+ &?treme *ind speeds for other *ind stations are not sho*n because of the relativel short period of data collection+ For conversion of the mean hourl *ind speeds to mean speeds *ith durations of less than one hour. !". %heung %hau Station and . Kai Ta. 9".ind data at this station should not be used for locations outside the inner Gictoria Harbour area+  The mean *ind speeds given in Tables )! to 6" have been corrected to the standard height of )" m above mean sea level+ Bevertheless. 9". )". )"" and !"" for Kai Ta. %heung %hau Station and . 0 and )" hours and return periods of 9.aglan 1sland Station are also given in Tables )9 to 6"+ The assessment *as carried out b the Hong Kong 'bservator b appl ing GumbelNs method to the annual ma?imum mean *ind speeds for each duration and direction+ The period of records used for each station is also given in the tables+ The follo*ing points about these stations should be noted *hen appl ing their mean *ind speed data $  -oth the %heung %hau and . the follo*ing conversion factors ma be cited $ . 2.aglan Stations are better e?posed geographicall and not directl affected b urbani>ation+ Their *ind data are generall more representative of the *ind conditions over Hong Kong+ The *ind data at Kai Ta.)9 Guangdong Meteorological -ureau+ Figure 6 sho*s the locations of these stations+ (etails of the *ind data collected at these stations should be chec. Airport Southeast Station.aglan 1sland Station are given in Tables )! to )2+ Mean *ind speeds for durations of !. Airport Southeast Station are subLect to the shelter effect of the mountains surrounding the harbour+ . namel . Airport Southeast Station.

and the need for records covering a suitabl long period 7more than several ears8 to enable sufficientl reliable e?trapolation.Winds General &stimates of e?treme *ave conditions at a site should ideall be obtained b e?trapolating a series of *ave measurements made at or close to the site+ Ho*ever.el to be transformed b processes such as refraction.s or structures+ 1n Hong Kong *aters.)0 Duration ) minute 9 minutes !" minutes ) hour Conversion Factor )+)C )+)) )+"9 )+"" %aution should be ta.en *hen using the above values. %heung %hau Station and . in the absence of *ave records.en into account during design+ -ecause of the comple? geographical features in Hong Kong *aters. the most severe *ave conditions are usuall associated *ith storm *aves and.(tion of Wind #ictorial summaries of the fre:uenc distribution of *ind direction and speed measurements at Kai and seabed friction+ These processes ma have significant influence on the *ave climate in the area to be studied+ The designer has to assess these factors at an earl stage to .aglan 1sland Station are given for an annual basis in the form of *ind roses in Figure 2+ +*4 +*4*1 Wa!es Generated . Airport Southeast Station. *ave forecasting from *ind records can be used to predict such conditions. reflection. particularl *here there is direct e?posure to the South %hina Sea and longer period *aves are therefore considered important. brea. as the conversion factors are greatl affected b the surface roughness and topograph around a site of interest+ +*1*0 Dire"tional Distri. s*ell *aves from distant storms should be ta. diffraction. *aves propagating into such *aters are li. as outlined in later sections+ 1n some situations. because of the relativel high cost of setting up a *ave recording s stem. direct *ave record ma not be available for the design of marine *or..

also . and are less steep than *ind *aves+ A sea state ma consist of Lust *ind *aves or Lust s*ells or ma be a combination of both+ .aves can also be broadl classified as deep *ater and shallo* *ater *aves according to the *ater depth to *avelength ratio as follo*s $    (eep *ater *aves 1ntermediate@depth *ater *aves Shallo* *ater *aves . long crest appearance. headland or obstacles during their propagation. the most important processes in the development of the *ave field are usuall energ gro*th from the *ind. and therefore s*ells graduall deca due to various energ dissipating and transformation processes.ind .aves and S*ells . deep *ater *ave propagation and eventual deca of *ave energ + The seabed generall does not have an influence on the *ave field in deep *ater+ .aves can be broadl classified as *ind *aves and s*ells+ . are those under the influence of *ind in a generating area+ 1n general.ater depth3*avelength ratio bet*een "+"2 and "+9 .e sure that the are suitable for that particular stud area+ +*4*+ Wa!e C%ara"teristi"s be considered in design are given in the %haracteristics of *aves that should normall follo*ing paragraphs+ 7)8 .ater depth3*avelength ratio greater than "+9 .no*n as seas. are *ind@ generated *aves that have travelled out of the region of their generating area+ 'utside the generating area.ater depth3*avelength ratio less than "+"2 7!8 For deep *ater *aves. *ind *aves are highl irregular in appearance and tend to be short@crested+ S*ells. the diffract through these obstructions and such phenomenon should be account for in *ave anal sis+ .hen *aves encounter an island. no energ is supplied from the *ind. but their periods are elongated during propagation+ S*ells have regular.ave #ropagation . on the other hand.ind *aves.)H ascertain *hether more sophisticated anal sis has to be carried out+ %omputer models are available for such anal sis and are recommended for use in stud ing the *ave transformation in comple? areas+ These models have to be calibrated to ma.

)< .aves entering into *ater areas *ith *ater depth generall less than about one@half of the *avelength.ave #ropagation Three classic cases of *ave propagation describe most situations found in coastal engineering $  %ase ) $ Sea state *ith *ind *aves and s*ells K A storm generates deep*ater *aves that propagate across shallo*er *ater *hile the *aves continue to gro* due to *ind+ %ase ! $ Sea state *ith *ind *aves onl K . the *aves brea. the propagate to the site as s*ells+   All cases ma happen at a site. in design if the structures *ill be subLect to brea. is called the surf >one+ -rea. are subLect to the influence of the seabed+ These *aves undergo refraction b *hich the *ave height and direction of propagation var according to the topograph + The *ave height also changes as a result of the change in the rate of energ flu? due to the reduction in *ater depth. the *avelength decreases and the *ave height ma increase.ave attenuation *ill occur due to bottom friction and should not be neglected in an area of relativel shallo* *ater that e?tends over a great distance *ith ver gentle inclination in the sea bottom+ For *ave conditions inside tidal basins or t phoon shelters. even if no refraction ta. but the first and the second cases are relativel comple? and .ind blo*s over the *ater areas around the site of interest and generates *aves that propagate to the site+ 1n this case.+ 1n the *ater shallo*er than ! to 6 times the offshore *ave height. causing the *ave steepness 7*ave height3*avelength8 to increase until a limiting steepness is reached+ At this limiting steepness. and *ave heights decrease graduall + The region *here man *aves *aves e?ert greater loading effects on the structures and it is therefore necessar to place+ This is the phenomenon of *ave shoaling+ . there is no propagation of *aves as s*ells from a remote area+ %ase 6 $ Sea state *ith s*ells onl K A storm generates *inds in an area remote from the site of interest and as *aves cross shallo*er *ater *ith negligible *ind. ho* *aves+ 768 T pes of . *aves begin to brea. the effect of diffraction through the entrance and reflection inside the boundar of the basins or t phoon shelters should also be considered+ As *aves approach the shore in shallo* *ater.

these manual procedures have the dra*bac. ho*ever.s of ra crossing and bath metr inade:uac on ra paths that *ill result in inaccurate *ave estimate.ave Train Method The *ave train anal sis determines the *ave properties b finding the average statistical :uantities of individual *ave components present in a *ave record+ T*o of the most important parameters necessar for ade:uatel :uantif ing a given sea state are the *ave height and the *ave period+ The most commonl used characteristic *ave height parameter to represent the *ave condition of a sea state is the significant *ave height+ The significant *ave height has been found to be ver similar to the estimated visual *ave height b an e?perienced observer+ The definitions of t pical *ave parameters are given as follo*s $  Significant *ave height K The average of the highest one@third of the *ave heights in a *ave record is called the significant *ave height 7H)36 or Hs8+ From one *ave record at a point *ith B measured *ave heights. the *ave train method and the spectral method+ 7)8 . the significant *ave height can be estimated b ordering *aves from the largest to the smallest and assigning to them a number from ) to B+ The average of the first highest B36 *aves is the significant *ave height+ Significant *ave period K 1t is the average of the periods of the highest one@third of the *ave heights in the *ave record 7T)36 or Ts8+ Mean *ave period K 1t is the average of all the *ave periods in the *ave record+   .)C re:uire mathematical model for reasonable treatment in particular *hen variable shoreline and seabed topograph are present+ The use of mathematical model for *ave estimation is given in Section !+9+<+ The third case ma be handled b appro?imating the s*ell as a monochromatic *ave. namel . and manual refraction and shoaling calculation methods ma be used to estimate the nearshore *ave climate+ 1n variable seabed bath metr . and the use of mathematical model is still recommended+ +*4*0 Wa!e Para$eters There are t*o approaches to describe the *aves in the natural sea state.

!" The mean *ave period obtained b averaging the periods of all the *aves *ith troughs belo* and crests above the mean *ater level is also called the >ero@ crossing period T>+ . small@amplitude *avelets *ith different fre:uencies travelling independentl of one another+ The representation of the *aves in the form of *ave spectrum is sho*n in Figure 9+ The directional spreading function e?presses the degree of *ave energ spreading in the a>imuth from the principal direction of *ave propagation+ .ithin the surf >one.ind *aves sho*s a large directional spreading. *hich is called the directional *ave spectrum+ The directional spectrum is e?pressed as the product of the fre:uenc spectrum and the directional spreading function+ The *ave fre:uenc spectrum ma be obtained from a continuous time series of the sea surface elevation *ith the aid of the Fourier anal sis b considering the *aves as a linear superposition of a large number of simple.ave height measurements in deep *ater have been found to closel obe a Ra leigh distribution+ For Ra leigh distributed *ave heights. the Ra leigh distribution should not be applied and the method described in Section !+9+C ma be used to estimate the relationship bet*een H)36 and Hma?+ The *ave period does not e?hibit a universal distribution la* but the relationship of the significant *ave period and the >ero crossing *ave period ma be appro?imatel related in a general *a as follo*s $ T)36 O )+!T> The periods of other larger *ave heights 7see Table 6)8 ma significant *ave period+ 7!8 Spectral Method be ta.e the *ave train method.en as e:ual to the process and the *ave height distribution becomes narro*er than the Ra leigh distribution+ Thus. in the surf >one region. the ma?imum *ave height H ma? in a *ave record can range from )+0H)36 to !H)36 $ a larger Hma? tends to appear as the number of *aves in a record increases+ The relationship of other higher *ave heights *ith H )36 is sho*n in Table 6)+ The Ra leigh distribution is generall ade:uate e?cept for shallo* *ater *here no universall accepted distribution for *aves e?ists+ . *hile s*ells have a narro* spreading+ . larger *aves are graduall eliminated b the depth@limited brea. the spectral anal sis method determines the distribution of *ave energ *ith respect to the fre:uenc and direction b converting time series of the *ave record into a form of energ spectral densit function.

the effect of different pea. period. it is necessar to understand the relationships bet*een the *ave parameters derived from the *ave train and spectral methods+ . period can onl be obtained through the spectral anal sis+ For *ind *aves in deep *ater.ed+ 'ne pea.ed spectrum. the pea. defined as the period associated *ith the largest *ave energ 7see Figure 98+ An appro?imation of the >ero crossing *ave period ma be obtained from the *ave spectrum b the follo*ing relationship $ T> ≈ m" m! *here and m! is the second moment of the *ave spectrum in fre:uenc time domain as indicated in Figure 9+ T> is the >ero crossing period+ The >ero@crossing period from the spectral method is onl an appro?imation and the pea. ma correspond to s*ells occurring at lo*er fre:uencies 7longer periods8 and one or sometimes more pea. the significant *ave height H )36 is commonl used to characteri>e the *ave condition and therefore. periods and the >ero crossing period calculated from such a spectrum should be investigated in the design+ 768 Relationships of H)36 and Hm" The principles of modern *ave forecast mathematical models and *ave recorders are generall based on the spectral method providing outputs on the above spectral *ave parameters+ Ho*ever.s are associated *ith local *ind *aves at comparativel higher fre:uencies 7shorter periods8+ The direction of s*ells ma also differ from those of *ind *aves+ 1n a multi@pea. period Tp ma be appro?imated b Tp P )+)T)36 in the absence of realistic information+ The fre:uenc spectra for storm *aves ma sometimes be multi@pea.!) The *ave spectrum gives an estimate of the spectral significant *ave height H m" b the follo*ing relationship $ H m" = 2 m " *here m" is >ero@th moment or the total area of the *ave spectrum+ The period parameter that can be obtained from a *ave spectrum is the pea.hile H)36 determined from the *ave train method is a direct measure of the significant *ave .

*aves due to northeasterl monsoon are generall higher than those generated b the south*esterl monsoon+ &?treme *ave conditions in Hong Kong are due to tropical c clones+ % clone is an area of lo* atmospheric pressure surrounded b a circular *ind s stem attaining ma?imum *ind speed near its center+ . the estimation of H)36 based on Hm" should be made in deep to relativel shallo* *ater onl + . higher *aves can be e?perienced at the more e?posed locations and ma last for a fe* da s or even longer in the presence of the monsoon *ind+ According to the Hong Kong 'bservator .hen the *ave information *ithin the surf >one is re:uired.hen *aves further travel into ver shallo* *ater and begin to brea.ocal *ind *aves are generall insignificant+ There could be a noticeable increase in the offshore s*ells from the southerl and southeasterl directions travelling a long distance from the c clone+ As the c clone moves closer to Hong Kong. ho*ever. *aves e?hibit nonlinear characteristics and H)36 becomes e:ual to or even slightl greater than Hm"+ . northeasterl monsoon occurs from September to Ma *hile south*esterl monsoon blo*s from Qune to August.hen the c clone is far a*a . s*ells in Hong Kong *aters become stronger and the local *ind speeds also increase at the same time+ (epending on the location of the c clone and its distance from Hong Kong. the s*ells and the local *ind *aves are not necessaril approaching from the same direction+  . as described belo* $  .. Hm" from the spectral method provides an estimate of the significant *ave height+ A number of field measurements over the *orld have ielded the average relationship of H )36 P "+C9 Hm" in deep *ater+ As *aves propagate into shallo* * as given in Section !+9+C+ +*4*1 Wa!e Conditions in &ong Kong 5nder normal *eather conditions.inds due to tropical c clones are characteri>ed b their high speed and rapidl changing direction and the *ind field normall covers a large region+ The *ave climate in Hong Kong *aters changes *hen a tropical c clone encroaches upon Hong Kong. the spectral anal sis loses its effectiveness because *aves cannot be considered as a linear superposition of small@ amplitude *avelets+ Thus. and the northeasterl monsoon is usuall stronger than the south*esterl monsoon+ Hence. it is recommended to begin *ith the spectral data in the offshore and to evaluate the *ave transformation b brea. *aves are usuall mild in most parts of Hong Kong *aters+ .hen strong monsoon *ind prevails. its *ind s stem has little or minor effect on the *ave climate in Hong Kong+ .!! height.

hen the c clone passes over or in the close vicinit of Hong Kong. *ave period Tp + Iero crossing *ave period T> + Mean *ave direction+ Average *ater depth+ The average recorded *ater depths at Kau Ai %hau and . !"""8+ T*o bed@mounted *ave recorders have been installed near Kau Ai %hau and .amma %hannel as sho*n in Figure 0 since )CC2 as part of %ivil &ngineering (epartment=s long term *ave monitoring programme in Hong Kong *aters+ The follo*ing parameters are provided from the outputs of the recorders $       Spectral significant *ave height Hm" + Ma?imum recorded *ave height Hma? + #ea.ave information can be obtained directl from field measurement+ For general information on *ave recording and anal sis. resulting in high local *ind *aves+ At the same time.!6  . *ave prediction using mathematical *ave models capable of handling time var ing non@uniform *ind field is regarded as the most realistic *ave prediction method in principle+ Ho*ever.amma %hannel *ave stations are respectivel about C m and )" m+ . reference ma be made to Section !0 of -S062C$#art ) 7-S1.est . this involves significant calibration effort and difficult in getting comprehensive *ind data over large area coverage throughout the period of t phoon development and propagation+ The use of constant uniform *ind fields using the e?treme *ind speed data corresponding to various incoming *ave directions given in Tables )! to 6" ma be considered acceptable as a pragmatic alternative in *ave prediction for engineering design+ +*4*4 7)8 Wa!e Data and Data So(r"es Measurement (ata .est . the use of a constant uniform *ind field is considered appropriate for *ave prediction+ 1n e?treme condition during tropical c clones. offshore s*ells continue to contribute to the local *ave climate for areas e?posed to the southerl or southeasterl direction+ 5nder normal *eather condition. ver strong *inds can prevail.

! πH)3637gT)36!8. it ma be assumed that the *aves are travelling from directions approaching to*ards Hong Kong *aters and the critical direction relevant to the site of interest should then be adopted in *ave anal sis+ For storm *aves.hen using the *ave information. and e?treme *ave heights are generall aligned *ith the presence of tropical c clone events+ 1t should be noted that the recorded spectral significant *ave height H m" at these t*o *ave stations ma be ta. but the users are advised to see. including trac.!2 A summar of the *ave measurement bet*een )CC2 and !""" is given in Tables 6! and 66. such as the full set of *ave output files.s and pressure distribution.en to be appro?imatel the same as the significant *ave height H)36 for design purpose+ More details of these data. for the latest information on storm *ave prediction results+ 1t should be noted that no specific direction and period information are given in Table 62 due to data limitation in the hindcasting stud + . )CC9 R !"""8+ For each ear. the *ave steepness. the t phoon that most probabl generates the annual ma?imum *ave height in Hong Kong *as chosen and its characteristics. is generall in the range of "+"6 to "+"0+ The range of period of the *aves given in the table ma be estimated b e:uating the *ave steepness to e:ual "+"6 to "+"0+ The *ave period most critical for the safet . and *ave roses on annual basis are sho*n in Figure H+ The *ave measurement over these periods reflect that the prevailing *ave directions in the measurement locations are the south and southeast.en to estimate the significant *ave heights at t*o offshore locations as sho*n in Figure < b means of a mathematical t phoon model *ith reference to 2H t phoons occurred in Hong Kong bet*een )C2< to )CC2 7HK#5. it is possible to estimate the e?treme *ave heights based on the hindcast *ave heights of each storm events b means of e?treme value anal sis+ A hindcasting stud had been underta. can be obtained from %ivil &ngineering (epartment if re:uired+ 7!8 . an e?treme value anal sis based on .ave (ata from Storm Hindcasting Storm hindcasting is based on the estimation of the *ave height at a particular location associated *ith past storm events+ 1f there is a sufficientl long period of storm records.eibull distribution *as performed to determine the significant *ave heights of different return periods+ The results are sho*n in Table 62+ The estimated significant *ave height for given return periods ma be considered for design purposes as the offshore *ave condition from *hich the nearshore *ave conditions in Hong Kong can be calculated after due consideraton of various *ave transformations. *ere input to the model to estimate the significant *ave height+ -ased on the significant *ave height computed each ear.

an open area should therefore be considered *hen approaching the Hong Kong 'bservator for details of records held+ Ship observation *ave data of the South %hina Sea can also be obtained from the Global . )C<08+ The statistics provides compiled information on the fre:uenc of Loint occurrence of *ave heights and periods for different directions in various ocean areas of the *orld+ 1t should be noted that these data are ver scattered in time and space.l *ith position.!9 of structure under design should be selected *ithin the above range+ 768 Ship 'bservation (ata Gisual observations of *ave conditions are reported from ships in normal service all over the *orld. measurements at a nearb location *ill be useful+ Attention should be paid to the follo*ing aspects before appl ing the measured *ind speeds in *ave prediction $  . and sometimes these data are used to estimate the *ave conditions *hen *ave information is absent+ 1n offshore area *here the *ave climate does not var :uic. observations from a *ide area based on a large number of observations can be gathered together and give a general indication of the *ave climate of the area+ Records of ship observed *ave data *ithin the area of the South %hina Sea bounded b longitudes )""S& and )!"S& and b latitudes "SB and 6"SB are .ave Statistics 7Hogben et al.ept b the Hong Kong 'bservator + The areas covered b these ship observations ma include some relativel protected inshore region+ 1f information on *aves is re:uired from ship observations for a particular proLect. and ship navigation *ill generall avoid passage through storm locations+ Gisual observations from ships b their nature are unable to produce a complete and reliable description of *aves+ %aution should be e?ercised if these data are used+ +*4*5 Wind Data for Wa!e Predi"tion A common approach to predict the *ave conditions is to use *ind data in *ave prediction if *ave data are not available+ Actual *ind records from the site of interest are preferred so that local effects are included+ 1f *ind measurements at the site are not available and cannot be collected.ind speed at the level of )" m above mean sea level should generall be used in *ave prediction formulae or mathematical *ave model+ The *ind speeds given in Tables )! to 6" can be considered to have been corrected to )" m above .

the respective *ind speed information is given in Tables )9 to 6"+ 1f the *ind data are collected inland. *hich is )" to )0 m above mean sea level. the measured *ind speeds ma not be able to represent the *ind speeds over *ater+ Bo simple method can accuratel represent the comple? relationship of inland and over@*ater *ind speeds+ Ho*ever. the applicabilit of these conversion factors to a site of interest should be chec.!0 mean sea level for this purpose+ Among the three *ind stations given in this #art of the Manual. a stabilit correction factor of )+) ma be assumed for fetch length greater than )0 .aglan 1sland and %heung %hau *ind stations *hich have recording heights of H9 m 7<! m after )CC68 and C! m above mean sea level respectivel + The correction *as made using a relationship derived from measured *ind speeds at . including the one@seventh po*er la* and the Hellman formula.aglan 1sland and the measured *ind speeds close to the standard height of )" m at Hong Kong 'bservator in the 9"=s 7%hin R . are not recommended for use in Hong Kong conditions+  The *ind speed should be adLusted from the duration of the observation to an averaging time appropriate for *ave prediction+ 1n general. Airport Southeast Station as the recording height. correction has been applied to the *ind data measured at . several different averaging times should be considered for *ave prediction to ensure that the critical *ave condition can be identified+ %onversion factors for duration of *ind speeds less than one hour are given in Section !+2+!+ Ho*ever. )CH<8+ Bo correction *as made for the *ind data at Kai Ta.m for the purpose of *ave assessment+   . if a *ind measurement station on land is adLacent to the *ater bod .ed b the users of this Manual because the conversion factors listed there are not universall applicable+ For duration greater than one hour. the measured *ind speeds ma be considered e:uivalent to those over *ater+ This applies to the *ind speeds given in this Manual as the *ind stations are located adLacent to the sea+ An adLustment for the effect of the stabilit of the boundar la er of the atmosphere on the *ind speeds due to air@sea temperature difference should be made b means of a stabilit correction factor for fetch length e?ceeding a certain distance+ 1n the absence of local information.eong. is close to the standard height of )" m+ 1t should be noted that the normal *ind@height adLustment formulae.

procedures and results. and should include the follo*ing information $ 7)8 . using an appropriate probabilit function+ The obLective is to achieve a graph *hich ma then be e?tended to give an estimate of the e?treme conditions+ An e?ample of such method can be found in Section !H of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1.ave Models The t pe of models and their principles.!H +*4*6 Wa!e Predi"tion fro$ Wa!e Meas(re$ent &stimates of e?treme *ave conditions b e?trapolation of measured *ave data are onl reliable if the original data are derived from a large number of ears+ The method of prediction consists of plotting the initial *ave heights against the cumulative probabilities of occurrence. of the anal sis can be made after*ard+ 7!8 T pes of . straight depth contours for *hich monochromatic *ave anal sis ma ield reliable results+ -ecause transformations of irregular *aves depend on the functional shapes of directional *ave spectrum. *ave propagation models ma not be able to give detailed description of the *ave climate in a tidal basin.ave transformation anal sis should be made for irregular *aves e?cept for special cases such as long@travelled s*ells approaching a coast *ith nearl parallel.ave Spectrum .here mathematical *ave modelling is applied. assumptions and limitations should be specified because each t pe of model has its range of applications reflecting its theoretical basis+ For e?ample. the fre:uenc spectrum and directional spreading function emplo ed should be stated so that a chec. harbour or t phoon shelter due to diffraction and reflection and .. !"""8+ +*4*7 Wa!e Predi"tion .Mat%e$ati"al Modelling The use of mathematical models to estimate the *ave conditions is recommended for *ater areas *ith variable bottom topograph and shoreline configuration and subLect to the effect of s*ells and *ind *aves+ (etails of the input re:uirements var among various t pes of models developed b different organi>ations and therefore reference should be made to the user=s manuals of these models accordingl *hen the models are used+ &?pert advice or input should be sought *here appropriate as specialist soft*are and e?perience are usuall re:uired in *ave modelling+ . a modelling report should be prepared to describe the *ave spectrum emplo ed and the modelling approach.

navigation channels.ave height. *ave inde? or direction spread of *aves. *hich should include the follo*ing $         .!< therefore separate diffraction and reflection models ma be used in combination *ith the *ave propagation models under such condition+ &?planations should be given on *h the chosen models are suitable for the proLect and the re:uired accurac of the *ave results+ 768 Site Anal sis A general description of the ph sical characteristics of the site should be given as the *ould be important in the selection of the model boundar .ind speed. the location of the model boundaries should be set as far a*a from the areas of interest as possible. seabed irregularit . islands and structures+ -ath metr + .ocations *here there are sheltering of *aves or oddness of bath metr that *ould ma. depending on the t pe of models adopted+ An e?planation of *h the chosen model boundar and boundar conditions are appropriate for the proLect should also be given+ As an indication. *ater depth and the e?posures of the site to different incoming *ind or *ave directions+ Special features such as presence of shoals. duration and direction+ .ater level+ . period and direction+ Model boundar and boundar conditions+ %omputational grid and time steps+ 'ther modelling parameters such as bottom friction. islands.e the input site inappropriate as model boundar should be avoided+ .a out of shoreline. applicabilit of the t pe of *ave models to be used and understanding the problems that ma arise in the anal sis+ This should include the la out of shorelines. seabed depressions. but *ithout covering too large an area that *ill affect the computational efficienc + . headlands and structures should be highlighted+ 728 Model Set@up The report should provide the input information in the *ave models.

the slope of seabed and the relative *ater depth is sho*n in Figure A) of Appendi? A+ The dotted lines in the figure for the seabed slope demarcate the regions of *ave *ave region or the surf >one do not follo* a Ra leigh distribution as larger *ave heights brea. such as comparison of modelled results *ith measured and *ill occur+ This procedure ma be used to chec.!C 798 %alibration The purpose of the calibration is to ensure that the computed results can realisticall represent the *ave climate and is achieved b tuning the *ave model to reproduce the .ing *ave region or not+ The *ave heights in the*n or measured *ave conditions for a particular situation+ 1n this connection. evidence of calibration for a particular chosen model. sufficient difference e?ists in models bet*een results *ith random *aves and results *ith individual *aves to indicate that the above figure is not an ade:uate estimate of the brea.hen the intersecting point of the relative *ater depth and e:uivalent deep*ater *ave steepness falls in the region above the dotted should also be made if the values of the computed *ave conditions are consistent and reasonable *ith respect to the shoreline or bath metr configuration in the area being e?amined+ A summar of the computed *ave conditions at the site of interest for various chosen design scenarios should be given at the end of the report+ +*4*8 Wa!e 3rea ing in S(rf 9one The often :uoted figure of the ma?imum *ave height being e:ual to "+H< times the still *ater depth can be derived from the theor describing individual *aves+ Ho*ever. under the limited *ater depth+ 1f a structure is found to be inside a surf >one. *ave brea. *hether the structure lies in the brea. sensitivit tests on variation of input parameters and accurac height in all situations+ A method b Goda in Appendi? A ma be used to estimate the *ave heights in the surf >one+ A design chart that relates the shoaling coefficient *ith the e:uivalent deep*ater *ave steepness. the Goda formulae or the corresponding design charts in Figure A! in .ing+ . should be presented in the report+ 708 %omputation Results The results should be plotted and e?amined for an signs of computational instabilit or unreasonable variations in *ave height or direction over short distances+ %hec.

has the follo*ing characteristics $    The *ave climate is dominated b the ship *aves *hich are highl irregular in nature+ The period of the ship *aves so generated tends to be short and is in the range of about ! to 9 seconds+ .ed in the design to determine *hich condition is more critical to the structure+ +*4*1: Use of P%-si"al Wa!e Modelling #h sical *ave models can be used as a predictive scale model for the protot pe or as a verification model for a mathematical one+ As the present state of the art of mathematical *ave modelling is often sufficient for general design and brea. toe scour or roc. )CCH8. it *as concluded that the *ave climate in the Gictoria Harbour.aves in the *estern portion of the harbour area are stronger than those in the . it is suggested that both the non@brea.6" Appendi? A ma be used to estimate the significant *ave height and the ma?imum *ave height in the surf >one+ 1n the event that the *ave condition is found to be marginal bet*een non@brea.o(r The *ave climate in the Gictoria Harbour is dominated b ship *aves due to the movement of marine traffic+ According to an inner harbour *ave stud and brea. ph sical modelling is mainl applied *hen a complicated bath metr in front of a structure causes significant variations in the near@structure sea state or *hen detailed structural design aspects related to run@up.*aters+ +*5 S%i# Wa!es in & *ave conditions be chec. movements have to be clarified+ 1t is mainl due to this capacit to deal *ith comple? interactions that leads to ph sical models being selected to obtain the necessar design data+ For man of the t pical design problems. based on field ho*ever. mathematical model ma be the more economical and efficient option+ Therefore. e?pected accurac must be balanced against the cost of both mathematical and ph sical modelling+ +*4*11 Wa!e O!erto##ing 1nformation of the amount of *ave overtopping is needed to determine the crest level of marine structures+ The methods for assessing the amount of *ave overtopping are given in #art 2 of the Manual K Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea. overtopping.

it ma be necessar to carr out measurements on site+ Field measurements give realistic local and time@specific information on flo* conditions and can provide surve ed data for the calibration of mathematical flo* models+ Ho*ever.s *ill lead to deterioration of the e?isting *ave climate+ +*6 +*6*1 C(rrents General %urrents are the movement of *ater in the sea and can be generated b the effect of tide. for e?ample. tide. chec.aves in bus navigation area are stronger than those in open areas *ith less marine activities+ . about <"T of the *ave energ *ithin the Gictoria Harbour in the da time is due to marine traffic and the balance is due to other sources such as *inds+ A description of the effect of *aves on harbour activities in various *ave regions is summari>ed in Table 69+ . to see if the *or. the :ualit of the field data ma be affected b the variabilit of the forcing conditions such as river flo*.here ne* reclamation and marine structures are constructed in the Gictoria Harbour. *aves. river discharge and densit difference and are described b their velocities 7speed and direction8+ 1nformation on currents in specific locations ma be obtained from reports prepared b consultants for various Government departments in the past+ The %ivil &ngineering (epartment. &nvironmental #rotection (epartment. *ind and *aves acting along and .aves during da time are stronger than those at night+ The distribution of *ave regions and the observed significant *ave height corresponding to each *ave region are sho*n in Figure C and Table 69+ A t pical dail *ave height variation is also sho*n in )"+ According to the inner harbour *ave stud . Territor (evelopment (epartment and Marine (epartment should be consulted in the first instance for details of studies carried out in an areas for *hich information on currents is re:uired+ +*6*+ 'ield Meas(re$ents For locations *here no information on e?isting currents is available.6)    eastern portion+ .aves in the region off the north*est shore of Hong Kong 1sland are generall the strongest in the harbour area+ . *ind. b mathematical *ave modelling. should be made.

6! over the *ater area+ Hence. *hich is about !9 hours for t*o high tides and t*o lo* tides in the semi@diurnal tidal regime in Hong Kong+ Stratification in some areas ma be significant+ Field measurement should be made in such a *a as to provide full information on the velocit and salinit profile at the monitoring point+    The flo* conditions can be determined on site b means of the &ulerian and .ed and heav marine traffic ma ma. each seasonal field measurement should be conducted to cover a spring and neap tide+ The minimum observation period should be a complete tidal c cle. the amount of fresh*ater discharged into the estuar varies significantl in these t*o seasons+ As a result. the current velocities measured in these t*o seasons *ill also var significantl + Gariation of tide in the region is characteri>ed b the spring and neap tides according to the relative positions of astronomical bodies+ Since tidal flo* is one of the essential forcing conditions to the estuarine behaviour. a number of floats or drogues are usuall used and are released at pre@determined release point+ The paths of movement of the drogues are then measured regularl until the are recovered+ This method enables the tracing of the actual paths of the currents+ 1ts limitation is that onl the surface *ater movement is trac. and aspects of the stud for *hich the current data are into account the follo*ing points $  T*o meteorological seasons prevail in the region of the #earl River &stuar $ the dr season lasts appro?imatel from 'ctober to April in *hich the northeast monsoon in the South %hina Sea dominates and the *et season lasts from appro?imatel Qune to August in *hich the south*est monsoon prevails+ These t*o maLor seasons are separated b a transitional period *hich generall e?tends over the month of Ma and September+ (epending on the amount of rainfall received *ithin the drainage basin of the #earl River.e the method not feasible+ A combination of these t*o methods can be emplo ed in a current surve for mathematical modelling to provide . ta. the planning of the field measurement *or.agrangian method.agrangian methods+ The &ulerian method is a measurement of *ater flo*ing through an instrument *ith fi?ed spatial coordinates such as a current meter or an acoustic doppler current profiler+ The resultant current speed and direction at a specific point at different *ater depths can be obtained b this method+ 1n the . and the period of measurement should consider the meteorological and tidal characteristics of the area of interest.

66 measurements for calibration of a h draulic flo* model and to provide information on the path of the current for chec. the use of three@dimensional models is essential *hen the vertical distribution of currents is an important aspect of the stud + 7!8 Model Set@up The setting up of a mathematical flo* model involves the establishment of the shoreline. model boundar and boundar flo* conditions. and e?pert advice and input are re:uired as these models are normall not eas to appl + General principles on mathematical flo* modelling are given in the follo*ing paragraphs+ 7)8 Model %ategor 1n coastal or estuarine situations. the follo*ing aspects should be noted $  The shoreline in the model should ta.. *ind.Mat%e$ati"al Models Mathematical modelling is necessar to provide realistic estimation of the characteristics of the flo* field in the coastal *aters as the flo* s stems in these *ater areas are usuall ver comple? due to irregular shoreline. *ind field. bath metr .no*n and foreseeable reclamation or marine structures constructed along the shore+ The model boundaries should be set as far a*a from the areas of interest as  . variable bath metr and a number of interacting tidal. computational grid and values of other ph sical parameters such as river discharges and bottom friction of the seabed+ (etails of the input re:uirement should be consistent *ith the particular notation and format adopted b the models+ 1n general. t*o@dimensional or three@dimensional models should normall be used+ T*o@dimensional flo* models for use in coastal or estuarine situations are generall depth@integrated+ The provide a single velocit vector representing the flo* condition over the *hole *ater column in each hori>ontal cell of the modelled area+ These models are generall used in situations *here the currents are appro?imatel uniform throughout the *ater column or for studies in *hich the surface elevation are the primar concern+ Three@dimensional models are used *hen the vertical structure of currents is not uniform+ For Hong Kong *aters *hich is subLect to the effect of monsoon *inds and the discharge from the #earl River.e into account . pressure and densit gradient forcing conditions+ (etails of model application depend on the t pes of models to be emplo the level of confidence of the modelling results+ +*6*0 C(rrent Predi"tion .

the performance of the calibrated model in an alternate time period *ith another set of field data. but *ithout covering too large an area that *ill affect the computational efficienc as inaccuracies and uncertainties in the boundar conditions *ill immediatel affect the model performance+ 1f the e?tent is too small. model parameters such as seabed bottom friction or depth resolution are adLusted to optimi>e the comparison of computed data to field data+ %omparisons are generall made to *ater levels and velocities. channels and sensitive receivers. the phenomena in the modelled area *ill be dominated b the boundar conditions+ The natural effects of the geometr . bath metr and to ield the re:uired resolution of the current vectors in the area of interest+ As a general rule. ph sical and numerical parameters+ 1t is also necessar to chec. and a relativel coarse grid ma be acceptable in remote areas and the open sea+ The seabed bath metr should be accuratel schemati>ed in the model as the *ater depth is an important parameters that determine the global and local current distribution+ An overall picture should be in mind from a preliminar stud of bath metric records before starting the schemati>ation+ %alibration  728 The application of a mathematical flo* model should involve a calibration procedure in *hich the model is run to compare *ith the h drod namic flo* field of a specific period in *hich field data have been collected+ 1n calibration. small grids should usuall be used around the harbour. b a verification process+ The verification procedure ma result in some fine@tuning of the model input parameters+ 798 Simulation %onditions The flo* conditions to be simulated should ta. depth and friction on the flo* *ill not be able to be reflected in the computation+  The computational grid should be established in such a *a to reflect the details of the shoreline configuration. *hich are collected independentl from the set used for calibration. and ma include reproduction of temperature and salinit + (iscrepancies ma be progressivel minimi>ed through a number of simulation runs based on sensitivit anal sis of the boundar conditions.62 possible.e into account the variabilit under different seasons and tidal periods+ 1n general. the follo*ing situations should be considered in a mathematical flo* modelling for Hong Kong *aters $ .

despite their comple?it . *ind speed and verification of or comparison *ith a mathematical model is re:uired+ .here the ph sical model can be built and operated at a competitive cost in relation to other options+ . although mathematical models have been developed to cover this situation+ . limitations and range of applicabilit + Model boundar and computational grid+ -ath metr of the modelled area+ 1nput data. including boundar conditions. and should include the follo*ing details $       T pe of flo* model emplo ed and the principle. river discharge and other ph sical parameters+ %alibration results and accurac achieved+ %omputation results of various simulation scenarios+ Use of P%-si"al 'lo.69    Flo* during flood and ebb tides+ Flo* in spring and neap tides+ Flo* in *et and dr seasons+ Modelling Report 708 A mathematical modelling report should be prepared to summari>e the modelling approach. comple? bath metr and unconventional structure geometr + #h sical modelling ma be useful in the follo*ing situations $     . the boundar conditions can be reproduced *ell in the laborator + &?amples are structures e?posed to combined current and *ave interference of currents and *aves is concerned. Modelling +*6*1 #h sical modelling is an option for complicated current patterns for *hich. assumptions. procedures and the computation the influence of vortices generated from the edges of structures or the sharp corners of topograph needs to be studied+ .

+ . the natural long@term sedimentation rate is governed primaril b the amount of sediments originating from the river discharges and tidal currents+ Since the transport and deposition processes of sediments are ver comple?. other ph sical and control parameters are used as input to simulate the ph sical processes involved+ The results of a sediment model stud are Lust as good as the calibration of these parameters+ Hence.60 +*7 Sedi$ents 1n general. ph sical parameters such as settling velocit of the sediments and critical stresses for resuspension and sedimentation have to be calibrated before the models can be reliabl used in an sedimentation studies+ To calibrate the above ph sical parameters. sediment models use a h drod namic database that is generated b a flo* model similar to that mentioned in Section !+H+6 as the basic input+ To minimi>e computational effort *ithout compromising on accurac .no*n h drod namic condition+ 1t should be noted that details of the model application and re:uired input data depend on the t pes of sediment models to be emplo ed and e?pert advice should be sought *here necessar + A sedimentation modelling report. the sedimentation rate at estuaries and coastal regions is dependent on river discharge. should be prepared after completion of the modelling *or. *ind. land erosion. it is generall agreed that the follo*ing field data *ill be ver useful in the calibration of a sediment model for sedimentation studies $     (ata on maintenance dredging in the vicinit of the area of interest+ Amount of sediment discharged from river+ . *ith details similar to those described in Section !+H+6. the computational grid of a sediment model is normall an optimum aggregation of the flo* computational grid+ .ong@term data on suspended sediment concentration of the area+ Short duration time series of suspended sediment concentration under a .ith the h drod namic database in the bac. resuspension and random turbulent processes+ 1n most cases. tidal current as *ell as the prevailing storm and *ave climate+ 1n Hong Kong *aters.ground. anal tical prediction of the suspended sediment concentrations and the prevailing sedimentation rate at a given area of interest is difficult+ Mathematical modelling is therefore used to simulate and assist in predicting the outcome of such comple? processes+ Sediment models simulate the transport of sediments b advection. settling.

6H .

repair are re:uired under competent direction to ensure the stabilit and serviceabilit of the structure+ 1n vie* of the variable and often unpredictable character of the forces to *hich marine structures are subLected. ship data. including an assessment of the .e into account the follo*ing aspects $     Bature and purpose of the proLect+ &ffects of factors *hich act against the stabilit and functions of the structure.6< 0* 0*1 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS General This chapter gives guidance on general aspects such as the design life of structures. corrosion. marine gro*th and soil strength reductions. other concerned government departments and parties as appropriate on all operational matters+ 0*+ Design Life The design life of a structure is ta. (irector of Marine. greater overall econom *ill be achieved b choosing simple robust concepts and appropriate reliable construction procedures+ .here special circumstances appl .en to be 9" ears for all permanent marine structures covered b this Manual+ This does not necessaril mean that the structure *ill continue to be serviceable for that length of time *ithout ade:uate inspection and maintenance+ Rather. the determination of the design life should ta. including fatigue loading.s and structures are specific to their particular functions+ Appropriate advice should be obtained from the client or the operator. and *ill depend on the purpose for *hich it is used+ The choice of design life is a matter to be decided in relation to each proLect+ 5nless special circumstances appl . re:uirements of approach channel and other operational considerations+ Man of the operational re:uirements of marine *or.en to be its intended useful life. the design life should be ta. and the corresponding maintenance effort re:uired to ensure that the stabilit and functional re:uirements of the structure can still be met+ #robabilit level that particular limit states or e?treme events *ill occur during the design life+ %ost benefit of the design life being considered. it is fre:uentl unrealistic to e?pect substantial cost savings to result from attempting to design them for short lives+ Generall . *here necessar . regular inspection and. %ommissioner of Transport.


capital cost and overall maintenance cost of the structure together *ith an associated replacement cost re:uired+ 1mpact on the design life due to future developments, changes in operational practices and demands+

The probabilit level that an e?treme event *ill occur is related to the design life and return period+ (esign life and return period are not the same and should not be confused+ An event *ith a return period of TR ears or longer is li.el to occur on average once in T R ears+ The relationship among the probabilit level, design life and return period is given in Figure ))+ Recommended return periods are covered in other sections or parts of this Manual+


S%i# Data

;here possible, details and dimensions should be obtained from the (irector of Marine, the client, o*ners and operators of the vessels to be accommodated, and those li.el in the anticipated lifetime of the structure+ Gessel characteristics *hich should be considered include t pe, si>e and shape, ship handling re:uirements, cargo or passenger handling re:uirements, and vessel servicing re:uirements+ A definition s.etch of the t pical dimensions of the vessels is given in Figure )!+ -asic characteristics of local vessels ta.en from the ,ocal %raft Registr provided b the (irector of Marine are given in Table 60+ -asic characteristics of the vessels o*ned b maLor ferr operators are given in Table 6H+ All values should be chec.ed *ith the (irector of Marine, concerned government departments and the ferr operators as appropriate before being used for design purposes+ 1nformation on other vessels using Hong Kong as a port of call should be sought from the appropriate authorities *hen re:uired+


C(rrent Conditions

Reclamation, dredging *or.s and maLor sea defense such as brea.*aters ma cause changes in the pattern of tidal flo* and conse:uentl affect navigation, mooring and berthing forces, siltation and *ater :ualit in the vicinit of these marine *or.s, and possibl some distance a*a from the site+ (uring planning of the proLect, advice should be sought from the %ivil &ngineering (epartment and &nvironmental #rotection (epartment on *hether detailed mathematical modelling studies *ill be necessar , and Marine (epartment on the current conditions for navigation and other vessel operations such as berthing and mooring+



3ert% Conditions

Acceptable *ave conditions at berths for ferries and public vessels or *ithin cargo handling basins and t phoon shelters can onl be determined after consultation *ith the (irector of Marine and ferr or other vessel operators+ Guidance on acceptable *ave conditions for moored vessels is given in Sections 6" and 6) of -S 062C$ #art ) 7-S1, !"""8+


T-#%oon S%elters

T phoon shelters in Hong Kong are to provide shelter for vessels not e?ceeding 9" m in length under e?treme *ave conditions in t phoons+ The recommended *ave heights under e?treme *ave conditions should not e?ceed the follo*ing criteria $ Vessel Length ,ess than 6" m 6" m to 9" m Significant Wave Height ,ess than "+0 m ,ess than "+C m

1t should be noted that the recommended design criteria should be ta.en onl as the target design values instead of the absolute allo*able values+ ,ocali>ed e?ceedance of the design values ma be permitted *ith due consideration of the site condition and the la out of the mooring areas *ithin the t phoon shelter in consultation *ith the Marine (epartment+


A##roa"% C%annels

The depth and *idth of approach channels should be specified or approved b the (irector of Marine+ The re:uired depth of channels can be calculated into account the follo*ing factors $
   

,oaded draft of design vessel+ Tidal variations+ ;ave induced motions of the vessel+ Gessel s:uat and trim+


An empirical factor giving an under@.eel clearance to facilitate manoeuvrabilit , economic propeller efficienc and a factor of safet +

The *idth of the channel, defined as the *idth at the dredged level, should be determined according to the follo*ing factors $
      

-eam, speed and manoeuvrabilit of the design vessel+ ;hether the vessel is to pass another vessel+ %hannel depth+ %hannel alignment+ Stabilit of the channel ban.s+ ;inds, *aves, currents and cross currents in the channel+ Availabilit of navigational aids+

The above factors are covered in detail b #1AB% 7)CCH8+ ;here the bottom of the channel consists of mud, it is usual in international ports to define the depth for navigation as being that bet*een lo* *ater level and the level at *hich the densit of the bottom sediment is e:ual to or greater than )!"" .g3m 6, since research else*here has sho*n that the mud la ers of lo*er densit do not significantl impede the passage of a ship+ The general practice to determine such a level in local port condition is to use an echo sounder of !"" .H> to !!" .H> *hich, b e?perience, is able to identif the seabed of densit of )!"" .g3m6 in most cases for safe navigation+ ;hen planning the location of approach channels, and approaches or fair*a s in general, account should be ta.en of future siltation and maintenance+ %onsideration ma be given to dredging to a depth greater than the minimum re:uired navigation depth, *ith the intention of eliminating the need for maintenance dredging in the first fe* ears after completion of initial dredging+ &stimation of the amount of siltation *ithin the channel ma be determined from sedimentation field measurement and mathematical modelling as described in Section !+<+


Na!igation Aids

Aids to navigation are used to mar. limits of structures such as piers, sea*alls, brea.*aters and dolphins, channel entrances, boundaries and turns, and hidden dangers such as shoals and roc. outcrops, to act as a guide for vessels and to assist *ith their safe movement+ The t pe, si>e, location and details of fittings and fi?tures for navigation aids should be to the

terms and abbreviations used on the nautical charts can be found in Hong Kong %hart ) published b the Hong Kong H drographic 'ffice 7HKH'. )CCH8+ .2! re:uirements of the (irector of Marine+ General information and locations of e?isting navigation aids in Hong Kong *aters *hich ma be referred to in design can be found on the nautical charts published b the Hong Kong H drographic 'ffice 7see Section !+68+ The definitions of s mbols.

26 .

and Soil (escriptions 7G%'.22 1* 1*1 GEOTEC&NICAL CONSIDERATIONS General This chapter gives general comments and guidance on geotechnical investigation during the planning and design of a marine *or.""" and )$)"". !"""b8 These documents are accompanied b geological maps var ing from Hong Kong@*ide )$!". )C<H8+ Geoguide 6 $ Guide to Roc.all (esign 7G&'. )C<0 to )CC"M G&'.here necessar . )CC! to )CC08 The #re@/uaternar Geolog of Hong Kong 7G&'. the follo*ing documents issued b the Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice should be referred to as appropriate $     Geoguide ) $ Guide to Retaining .""" scale to area specific )$9""" scale for selected parts of Hong Kong+ These sources of geological information *ill assist in the planning of the marine ground investigation and interpretation of the investigation results+ . )CC9 to )CC08 Hong Kong Geological Surve Sheet Reports Bo+ ) to 9 7G&'. !"")8+ . )C<<8+ Geospec 6 $ Model Specification for Soil Testing 7G&'. !"""a8 The /uaternar Geolog of Hong Kong 7G&'. advice from the Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice should be sought+ 1*+ 7)8 Marine Geolog.s+ 1nformation about site geolog in Hong Kong can be obtained from the follo*ing documents published b the Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice $     Hong Kong Geological Surve Memoirs Bo+ ) to 0 7G%'. )CC6a8+ Geoguide ! $ Guide to Site 1nvestigation 7G%'.s proLect+ For details of geotechnical investigation.and C%ara"teristi"s Sources of Geological 1nformation An understanding of the marine geolog is useful in the design of the foundation of marine *or.

at Formation sediments are t picall soft to firm. in >ones of strong currents such as the tidal channels of 5rmston Road and Kap Shui Mun. light gre silt cla s *ith thin sand bands+ The differ in appearance from the Hang Hau Formation being lighter gre in colour *ith *hite patches of deca ed shells and orange ello* o?idised mottles indicating .e up the %he. the formation becomes sand to*ards the base. silts. *ith comple? geometrical relationships that reflect their origin as river channels and floodplains+ &roded channels. Formation are predominantl of alluvial origin. olive gre .ap Ko.ap Ko. the Hang Hau Formation deposits become sand + 1n the deepest parts of the channels the deposits ma be absent *ith Formation occurs bet*een the Hang Hau Formation and the %he. normall consolidated. . normall to slightl over@consolidated. Formation. overl ing in@situ roc. a mi?ed succession of cla s. characteri>e the surface of the %he.aglan Formation. . *hich ma be up to )"" metres thic. the Hang Hau Formation directl overlies the %he. and the %he. Formation+ This irregular topograph is important *hen determining the base of the Hang Hau Formation for dredging or foundation purposes+ 1n *estern and south*estern *aters. the t pical offshore subsoil profile consists of a se:uence of soft to ver stiff transported sediments.ap Ko. Formation+ The Sham . . the Hang Hau Formation. sands.ap Ko. e?posed at the seabed+ 1n central and northeastern *aters.29 7!8 T pical 'ffshore Subsoil #rofile (etails of the offshore subsoil distribution and characteristics in Hong Kong are given in G&' 7!"""b8 and a summar of the t pical subsoil profile is given in the follo*ing paragraphs+ 1n Hong Kong. the Sham . cla e silts that contain shells and lenses of fine sand+ These deposits are commonl referred to as marine mud+ Ho* Formation. .. . particularl in eastern *aters *here the lo*est deposits represent the sand infilling of tidal channels+ At the seabed. ranging in *idth from a fe* metres to several hundred metres and up to !" metres deep. gravels and cobbles that ma be uniform or poorl sorted+ The assorted sediments that ma. the marine Sham . Formation+ The distribution and sedimentar characteristics are summari>ed in Table 6< and a schematic diagram sho*ing the general se:uence of these geological formations is given in Figure )6+ Marine deposits of the Hang Hau Formation form the seabed over most of Hong Kong *aters+ The formation consist of a fairl uniform deposit of ver soft to soft.ap Ko. the . in various states of *eathering+ The offshore transported sediments have been subdivided into four geological groups or formations.

20 subaerial e?posure and *eathering of the sediments+ The also have a higher cla content. the stabilit during and after construction must be chec. such as differential settlement. even after the e?cess pore *ater pressure has dissipated. and a lo*er moisture content than the Hang Hau Formation+ 1n southeastern *aters. normall to slightl over@consolidated. or dredging and filling *ith granular material can be used to improve the stabilit + For environmental reasons. a restricted occurrence of the Sham .es place until the e?cess pore *ater pressure has completel dissipated+ Ho*ever.l + %onse:uentl . piled foundations to transfer loads belo* the soft la ers. the increase in e?ternal shear and vertical stresses *ill cause deformation leading to stabilit problems and foundation failure if the deformation becomes e?cessive+ 1n a reclamation *here the soft mud is left in place. apart from cost. careful site control is re:uired to avoid rapid or irregular fill placement that ma result in e?cessive soil displacement and possibl successive slip failures+ For foundations of marine structures.ed+ Soil improvement techni:ues.hen the soft mud is loaded. the . cla e silt *ith shells that is similar in appearance to the Hang Hau Formation+ Ho*ever. programming and technical factors. settlement ma continue for man ears at a graduall decreasing rate+ This phenomenon is commonl termed secondar consolidation+ Settlement problems.aglan Formation.aglan Formation+ 768 -ehaviour of Marine Mud The presence of soft marine mud underlain b highl variable alluvial deposits re:uires that particular attention be paid to the site geolog *hen designing marine *or.ap Ko. *hich *ill graduall dissipate as the pore *ater drains out+ This process is accompanied b the consolidation settlement of the soil. mud *aves ma develop if the loading is uneven or is applied too :uic. ma arise in a reclamation or marine structure if significant amount of settlement .at Formation underlies the . relies heavil on a sound understanding of the strength properties of the underl ing sediments *hich can onl be obtained through a comprehensive geotechnical investigation+ An increase in vertical stress *ill also induce an e?cess pore *ater pressure in the sediments.aglan Formation comprises a generall firm. . *hich is in turn underlain b the %he.aglan Formation has a slightl higher shear strength and lo*er moisture content+ The formation becomes sand at the base *ith interbedded shell sand and cla e silt+ 1n a small area of southeastern *aters. *hich ta. olive gre .s+ The properties of the marine mud have been studied e?tensivel in recent ears and are sho*n in Table 6C 7Ho R %han. Formation+ The . dar. )CC28+ . a slightl higher shear strength. non@dredge solutions should be emplo ed as far as possible+ The correct choice and effective implementation of the fill placement and foundation methods. the Hang Hau Formation directl overlies the .

the investigation should be continued until a suitable pile@bearing stratum has been reached and is proved to be of ade:uate thic.ness+ The depth of e?ploration should be at least 9m belo* the founding level of the piled foundation or !+9 times the diameter of the piles proposed 7G%'.s and soils for engineering purposes are given in Geoguide 6 7G%'. )C<H8 and Geospec 6 7G&'. the geolog of the site. the engineering design parameters can be determined+ The procedures for carr ing out geotechnical investigations and laborator soil testing are described in Geoguide ! 7G%'.s are completed+ Hence. and from site reconnaissance observations underta. stud .here *ea. )C<<8+ 7)8 . the location of an potential shear failure surface. pier. stud in *hich all e?isting site investigation data and geological information are revie*ed. to allo* an estimate of the founding depth.a out of 1nvestigation The e?tent. lead up to a thorough site reconnaissance. brea. *hichever is deeper+ Guidance on the determination of the location and spacing of the points of e?ploration is given . *ill not affect the future development of the reclamation or the operation of the marine structures+ (etails of stabilit and settlement anal sis for sea*alls.*aters+ 1*0 Deter$ination of Soil Pro#erties Geotechnical investigations should begin *ith a des. and compressible materials *ill be encountered.*aters and reclamation are given in #art 6 and #art 2 of the Manual $   #art 6 K Guide to (esign of Reclamation+ #art 2 K Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea. due either to primar or secondar consolidation.en at periods of both lo* and high tides+ . it is essential to ascertain the settlement parameters of the soils in order to ensure that an residual settlement.2H occurs after the *or. and culminate in one or more stages of ground investigation+ From in@situ and laborator tests of the sediments.s. the findings of the des. !"")8+ Recommendations for the description of Hong Kong roc. the ground investigation should penetrate to a sufficient depth preferabl into the underl ing *eathered roc. la out and final depth of the ground investigation should be determined *ith reference to the nature of the proposed marine *or. and the amount and rate of settlement+ For piled structures such as a pile@supported dec. )C<H8.

site location and soil comple?it + Hence. brea. )C<H8+ The points of e?ploration ma include a combination of borehole locations and points of in@situ tests such as cone penetration tests 7see paragraphs belo*8+ General indication on the spacing of the points of e?ploration for different t pes of marine *or.2< in %hapter )" of Geoguide ! 7G%'. as necessar to confirm the soil strata and properties+ 1t should be noted that the re:uired spacing of points of e?ploration is dependent on factors such as t pes and functions of proposed marine *or.s. or *here there are uncertainties on the information. the above spacing should not be treated as the absolute ma?imum or minimum allo*able values+ For large offshore proLects re:uiring a staged ground investigation. if the sediments are sand or contain shells.*aters or reclamation $ 9" m to )9" m For *or. records the number of blo*s that are re:uired to drive a standard sampler a distance of 6"" mm belo* the base of the borehole+ -lo* count provides an indication of the relative strength of the soils encountered+ The Gane Shear Test measures the tor:ue re:uired to rotate a calibrated vane in the sediments. a minimum of three points of e?ploration should be re:uired if possible+ 1n cases *here the soil stratification is comple?.s *hich are small in plan area. from *hich the measured tor:ue value can be related to the shear strength of the soil+ This test is ver useful for determining the in@situ undrained strength of the marine mud and cla e alluvial deposits+ Ho*ever. additional boreholes should be sun. )C<H88+ For pile foundation *or. the vane shear results should be interpreted *ith caution+ 1n addition.-. or *here buried obstructions are present or suspected. reference should also be made to .s are given as follo*s $   #iers or Qetties $ )" m to 6" m Sea*alls. Gane Shear Test and %one #enetration Test+ The Standard #enetration Test. !"""8+ 7!8 Soil Testing The engineering properties of the soils can be assessed b means of a range of in@situ or laborator tests+ Methods of in@situ testing commonl used include the Standard #enetration Test. a marine geoph sical surve carried out during the first stage *ill provide useful information about the distribution of sediments and serve as a reliable basis for the optimum location and spacing of boreholes.s. there e?ists strong evidence that in@situ vane shear tests 7e+g+ %lause 2+2 of -S)6HH$#art C$)CC"8 give values too large for design+ The use of proper reduction factor for the in@situ vane shear . in addition to identif ing those areas that *ill re:uire more detailed investigation 7see Geoguide ! 7G%'.-T% !!3!""" 7. *hich is carried out during drilling.

are usuall obtained as piston samples from soft marine mud and Ma>ier samples from the firmer alluvial deposits+ #iston and Ma>ier samples ma not necessaril be high@:ualit undisturbed samples+ A sufficient number of samples should be ta. it is preferable to carr out the test in conLunction *ith other means of determining the nature of the soil+ (etails of t pical laborator tests are given in Geospec 6 7G&'. information on the undrained shear strength is necessar to assess the . moisture contents and soil densit tests are usuall re:uested to provide information on the general properties of the soils. )C<H8 provide guidance on the sample :ualit that is re:uired for different sampling procedures and soil materials+ 1t should be noted that shear strength and consolidation tests normall ta.e marine mud *hich has lo* permeabilit + Ade:uate time should be allo*ed for the laborator testing programme during proLect planning+ Table 2" lists the in@situ and laborator tests that can be carried out during marine ground investigations. additional samples should be specified for duplicate tests to chec. !"")8+ As a general re:uirement.e a fairl long period to complete.add et al 7)CHH8 and Aas et al 7)C<08 should be noted+ The Static %one #enetration Test generall provides a rapid means of determining the soil t pe. soil classification. Atterberg limits.en to assess the variations in both the characteristics of the sediments and the associated geotechnical design parameters+ 1n order to cover all possible variations. together *ith the t pe of information provided b the tests+ Additional tests such as particle si>e distribution. shear strength and consolidation tests 7such as the tria?ial compression test and the oedometer test8 are commonl specified for marine ground investigations+ 5ndisturbed samples for laborator tests. .2C strength as proposed b -Lerrum 7)CH!8.herever possible. the soil profile. correlation bet*een soils in different locations. the consistenc of the test results+ The :ualit of the test results depends on the sample :ualit + Therefore. and further details to support the geotechnical parameters+ For silt or cla e soil. the testing schedule should be fle?ible+ The designer should prepare an initial testing schedule that is continuall modified as observations are made and ne* information is obtained from the ground investigation+ . and the soil strength b measuring the resistance encountered b the tip of the penetrating cone+ The Static %one #enetration Test uses a 0" o cone and friction sleeve 7see %lause 6+) of -S)6HH$#art C$)CC"8+ This test is also used as a rapid and economical means of interpolating bet*een boreholes+ Although it ma be possible to estimate the t pe of soil through *hich the cone is passing. especiall for soils li. close field supervision is re:uired to ensure that careful drilling and sampling techni:ues are emplo ed to ield high :ualit test samples+ Tables < and C in Geoguide ! 7G%'. such as the determination of the strength and settlement characteristics of the sediments.

s in Hong Kong are given in Table )) of Geoguide ) 7G&'. )C<<8+ . it is necessar to chec. is not an important consideration in the design of brea. the field conditions in *hich the *or. strength should be selected conservativel in the design+ For further details about the determination of roc. 7moderatel decomposed roc. as closel as possible. t pe.9" stabilit of marine structures such as gravit or sloping sea*alls+ 1t should be emphasi>ed that the specified laborator testing conditions should resemble. strength parameters.s or structures *ill be constructed and operate under various stages+ The initial state of the samples as *ell as the state of the soils in the construction and operation conditions should be clearl specified+ Ade:uate number of samples should also be tested under different stress conditions in order to determine the shear strength and settlement parameters of the soils at different locations and depths+ 1*1 Deter$ination of Ro" Pro#erties T pical ranges of values of the unia?ial compressive strength of the most commonl encountered roc.. )CC6a8+ 5suall . depending upon the roc.*aters. it can be measured b unia?ial compression tests on roc. cores or point load inde? tests on roc. strength ma be assessed appro?imatel b identification tests 7G%'. *hether the roc. )CC6a8+ . gravit sea*alls and reclamations+ For marine structures supported b piles founded on roc. the roc. specimens+ 1t should be noted that. the strength of Grade 111 roc. reference should be made to %hapter 9 of Geoguide ) 7G&'.8 is ver variable and can be :uite lo*+ 1n such case. strength is ade:uate to resist the loads transmitted from the piles+ The roc. the strength of the intact necessar .

9) .

mooring and slipping+ 5nless stated other*ise. the design loads given in this %hapter are unfactored+ 4*+ Loading Conditions and Co$.el to occur simultaneousl 8+ Gessel imposed loads 7berthing and mooring8+ Bormal environmental loads 7*inds. and those imposed loads due to operational activities+ General imposed loads cover live loads from pedestrians. superimposed dead loads. should be designed and chec.en into account+ Guidance is given on the selection of relevant design parameters and methods of calculation to derive the resulting direct forces on into account the nature and characteristics of the structures+ 1n addition to dead the other forces *hich ma act on marine structures are environmental loads. *aves and earth:ua.ive loads due to normal *or. temperature variations. or an part or section. currents. arising from such natural phenomena as *inds. h drostatic loads and soil pressures.9! 4* 4*1 LOADING CONSIDERATIONS General This %hapter describes the loading conditions *hich should be considered in the design of marine structures and includes information on the loads to be ta. tides. ta. cargo storage and handling+ Gessel imposed loads cover operations 7the most severe arrangement li. the should also be investigated+ Garious t pes of load should be combined in a manner consistent *ith the probabilit of their simultaneous occurrence+ 4*+*1 Nor$al Loading Conditions These loading conditions are those in *hich normal operations continue unaffected b environmental conditions+ A combination of the follo*ing should be considered $      (ead loads+ Superimposed dead loads+ .ed for at least the loading conditions given belo*+ 1f it is e?pected that other loading conditions could be critical. currents and *aves8+ .inations The structure as a *hole. vehicles.

ing operations is given later in this %hapter under each t pe of loading condition+ 1t should be assumed that ma?imum imposed live loads can occur simultaneousl *ith ma?imum vessel imposed loads from either berthing or mooring. and cargo storage and handling.oading %onditions8+ Superimposed dead loads 7these ma be different from Bormal . but ma?imum effects from temperature . currents and *aves can occur simultaneousl . *hichever gives the most severe effect+ 1t is possible for mooring loads to occur at the same time as berthing for certain si>e and geometr of the structure such as a Lett allo*ing berthing on one side and mooring on the other side+ 1n this latter case. pedestrian and vehicle movements.oading %onditions.96   Soil pressures+ H drostatic loads+ Guidance on the calculation of environmental loads associated *ith normal *or. e+g+. the most severe combination of berthing and mooring loads should be determined b the designer and this combination assumes to occur simultaneousl *ith ma?imum imposed live loads+ For normal environmental loads. due to difference in *ater levels8+ 1t should be assumed for e?treme environmental loads that ma?imum effects from *inds. currents and *aves can occur simultaneousl + All directions should be considered *hen assessing the most severe effects from these loads+ 4*+*+ E2tre$e Loading Conditions These loading conditions are associated *ith the most severe environmental conditions *hich the structure is designed to *ithstand+ 1t is assumed that under these conditions most normal operations. *ill have ceased+ A combination of the follo*ing should be considered $        (ead loads 7same values as for Bormal . it should be assumed that ma?imum loads from *inds. currents.oading %onditions8+ Reduced live loads 7if an at all8 due to continuing operations+ Reduced vessel@imposed loads 7if an 8 due to continuing operations+ &?treme environmental loads 7*inds. such as vessel berthing and mooring.oading %onditions due to variation of *ater table8+ H drostatic loads 7in some cases. *aves and temperature variations8+ Soil pressures 7these ma be different from Bormal . these *ill be different from Bormal .

as an accident can occur at a time of normal or e?treme environmental loading conditions+ Ho*ever. to*ing.oading %onditions are those *hich occur during accidental impact b a vessel+ For these conditions. as these variations *ill not occur during tropical c clone conditions+ 5nless stated other*ise. resulting in a shorter or longer design life. the return period should be adLusted accordingl + The relationship of the return period and the design life is sho*n in Figure ))+ 4*+*0 Te$#orar. and for the time of ear. live loads and normal environmental loads. *hen the construction or operation *ill be carried out+ 4*+*1 A""ident Loading Conditions Accident .en as those having return periods of )"" ears+ . currents and *aves is given in later sections of this chapter+ Bormal ma?imum live loads should be combined *ith ma?imum effects from temperature special circumstances appl . together *ith the appropriate accident berthing load.Loading Conditions Temporar . a combination of the appropriate dead and ma?imum temporar loads. the e?treme environmental conditions for structures having a design life of 9" ears should be ta. installation or the carr ing out of unusual but foreseeable operations. as these *ill occur during tropical c clone conditions *hen normal vessel movements *ill have ceased+ Ho*ever. vessel@imposed loads should be combined *ith ma?imum effects from temperature variations+ Guidance on live loads to be considered under e?treme environmental conditions from *inds. a combination of dead.ocation *ith respect to normal ferr routes and fair*a s+ . it is not normall necessar to combine accident berthing loads *ith ma?imum imposed loads and e?treme environmental loads because of the lo* probabilit of their simultaneous occurrence+ The need for chec. superimposed dead and h drostatic of accident loading conditions *ill depend on $   1mportance of the structure+ . should be considered+ Guidance on accident berthing loads is given later in this %hapter+ The above combination is to some e?tent artificial.92 variations should be considered separatel + Gessel@imposed loads can be ignored under e?treme environmental conditions from *inds. should be considered+ Temporar design and environmental conditions should be appropriate for the location. currents and *aves. soil pressures.oading %onditions are those *hich arise during construction. together *ith the associated environmental loads. such as the application of a test load+ For these conditions.

e into consideration the use of the structures and the t pes of installations on them+ . h drostatic. stair*a s. handrails. services. superimposed dead. and to such items as fenders.el to arise from the intended use or purpose of the structures+ The minimum imposed live loads that should be applied in a design are recommended in the follo*ing paragraphs. fi?ed e:uipment. and should be adLusted to ta. soil.ed for accident loading conditions+ For such accident loading conditions. the possibilit of an of the superimposed dead loads being removed should be considered+ 4*4 4*4*1 Li!e Loads Li!e Loads on Different T-#es of Str("t(res The imposed live loads include all loads *hich the structure has to *ithstand e?cept parts are *holl . vessel@imposed and environmental loads. fenders. and should be the greatest applied load li.*a s. bollards. and should include surfacing. piling and superstructure+ The *eight of the structure is its *eight in air+ . as recommended in Section 9+H+ 4*1 S(#eri$#osed Dead Loads The superimposed dead load is the *eight of all materials imposing loads on the structure that are not structural elements. upthrust on those parts should be calculated separatel . fittings and furniture+ For all loading conditions. *al. damage to minor structural members *hich can be readil repaired. ladders. partiall or intermittentl immersed in *ater. can be accepted at the discretion of the designer in consultation *ith the maintenance authorit + 4*0 Dead Loads The dead load is the *eight of the structural elements of the structure. including an substructure.99    (egree of e?posure to adverse environmental conditions+ &?pected degree of use if the structure is a pier+ Susceptibilit to damage of the t pe of design used+ #ublic and ferr piers should generall be designed or chec.

hand should be greater than )9" . and should be into account the designated land use.s of public piers. but should in addition be chec. police vehicle and3or fire engine as appropriate is general access for pedestrians is provided to the roof.B+ . the live load should be emergenc vehicular access b an ambulance.en as 9 . the follo*ing additional re:uirements should be satisfied $   %oncentrated load to be applied on plan over an s:uare *ith a 6"" mm side should be greater than H9 .ed and agreed *ith the prospective ferr operators+ The live loads for vehicular ferr pier *aiting areas and ramps *ill depend on the t pes of vehicles allo*ed or e?pected to use the services. to include for the movement of into account the proposed use.#a+ . cargo handling e:uipment and vehicular access+ 728 (olphins The live loads for dolphins should be ta.B+ Total load to be applied on beams.#a+ 798 Sea*alls The live load on the area of the land behind the sea*alls should be determined ta. ta.en as 9 . possible cargo storage. uniforml distributed over span. should be ta.90 7)8 #ublic #iers The live loads for the dec. ship provisions and temporar stac.en as )" .#a+ 7!8 Ferr #iers The live loads for pedestrian ferr piers should be no less than those given above for public piers.en as follo*s $ . and should be agreed *ith the prospective ferr operators+ 768 'ther #iers The live loads for other piers should be determined after consultation *ith the prospective users.

open pla areas and the li.s.oading %onditions for normal structures can be ta.#a Roads and carriage*a s 7normal traffic8 $ !" .hen assessing the loading conditions behind sea*alls.ive .9H   Footpaths. the live loads due to continuing operations under e?treme environmental conditions should be assessed b the designer+ Bormal ma?imum live loads should be considered to appl under e?treme environmental conditions relating to temperature variations+ 7!8 .*aters+ 4*4*+ Deter$ination of Contin(o(s Li!e Loads Guidance on the determination of the live load due to continuing operations under e?treme environmental conditions from *inds.*aters should be no less than those given above for sea*alls. the ma?imum live loads on the adLacent land due to continuing operations under e?treme environmental conditions ma be ta. the effect of temporar loads. is given belo*+ 7)8 . e+g+ for emergencies or storage+ For sea* of materials+ For other structures. and of the live loads to be used in accident loading conditions referred to in Section 9+!.ing operations under normal environmental conditions.oads under Accident %onditions The live loads to be used in Accident . or increased to H9T for structures e?pected to .ing operations under normal environmental conditions+ At the discretion of the designer.*aters The live load on the crest of the brea. such as those due to surcharge preloading in a ne* reclamation. should also be investigated in the design+ 708 -rea. this percentage ma be reduced to !9T for structures e?pected to be loaded infre:uentl .oads under &?treme &nvironmental %onditions The live loads due to continuing operations under e?treme environmental conditions from *inds. currents and *aves.ive .en as >ero for piers and dolphins unless there is a specific need or re:uirement for the pier to be used during tropical c clone into account the uses and operations on the brea.en as 9"T of the live loads due to normal *or.e $ )" . ta. currents and *aves ma be ta. c cle trac. provided that it can be ensured *ith reasonable certaint that the land behind the sea*all *ill not be used for the storage or temporar stac.#a .en as 9"T of the live loads due to normal *or.

including buo anc effects+ Soil pressures+ . the mean and e?treme range of still *ater levels is given in Section !+!+ Such information is re:uired for the evaluation of $     'vertopping+ H drostatic pressures. the effect of *aves and *ave run@up should be considered in relation to overtopping and h drostatic pressures+ For structures *ith a design life of 9" ears and for the loading conditions referred to in Section 9+!.9< have particularl heav usage such as ferr piers on maLor routes *ith e?ceptionall fre:uent services+ 4*5 Tides and Water Le!el /ariations 1nformation on tides. the range of *ater levels that should normall be considered are given as follo*s $ Loading Conditions &?treme Water Levels From mean lo*er lo* *ater level to )""@ ear return period *ater level From mean lo*er lo* *ater level to !@ ear return period *ater level From mean lo*er lo* *ater level to !@ ear return period *ater level Range of *ater levels to be assessed b designers for each individual case Bormal Accident Temporar For structures *here a different design life applies. the return period for e?treme loading conditions should be adLusted accordingl + Structures should be designed to *ithstand safel the effects of the range of still *ater level referred to above for each loading condition+ 1t should be noted that for different t pes of .evels of action of mooring. berthing and *ave forces+ 1n addition.

9C structure.e into account *ater level variations and ground *ater profiles mentioned in Section 9+0 and Section 9+< respectivel + For calculating the h drostatic loads. and an artesian and sub@artesian ground *ater conditions+ Allo*ance should be made for reduced passive resistance due to overdredging or scour+ 1n the case of a sea*all adLoining reclaimed land. different loading cases. drainage provisions. and different conditions.8 can be treated as a monolithic bloc.g3m6 respectivel + 4*7 Soil Press(re and Gro(nd Water Profiles Guidance on the calculation of soil pressures is given in Geoguide ) 7G&'.*or. sea*alls resting on a rubble mound+ The ground *ater condition is a critical factor in stabilit anal sis+ (esigners should note that . for the purpose of stabilit chec.en as )""" . the effect of changes in *ater level can be seen more clearl . )CC6a8+ For the purposes of calculating soil pressures $    . the *all together *ith the bac.hen considering the effects of buo anc .fill up to a vertical plane above its heel 7i+e+ the virtual bac. ma?imum or some intermediate levelM the full range must be investigated b the designer+ 4*6 &-drostati" Loads . the critical still *ater level ma be the minimum.g3m6 and )"!9 . it is preferable to represent the buo anc and gravitational loads as separatel applied loading s stems+ 1n this *a .ing+ Active soil pressures ma be assumed in the calculations and suggested ma?imum values of mobili>ed angle of *all friction for active pressure calculations are given in Table )2 of G&' 7)CC6a8+ #assive resistance in front of the toe of the structure can be neglected for t pical gravit t pe sea*alls such as concrete bloc. and it is possible in limit state design to appl different load factors to dead loads and h drostatic loads as appropriate+ The determination of h drostatic loads should ta. soil permeabilit .ater levels should be derived as described in Section 9+0+ Ground pore *ater pressures should be determined *ith reference to tidal range. the fresh*ater and sea*ater densities ma be ta.

drainage behind the structure are provided. the flo* from land*ard sources is negligible. drainage provided to cater for surface and ground *ater+ 1n relativel simple conditions.en as almost hori>ontal at a level higher than the still *ater level+ 5nless there is clear evidence to the contrar . *here the land behind the sea*all is not paved and the fill is highl variable. through and under the structure+ Surface and bac. the ground *ater profiles illustrated in Figure )2 ma be used as a reference+ . the ground*ater profile should the flo* from land*ard sources is significant. and ade:uate surface and bac. the effects of the ground *ater profile should be evaluated b field investigations+ 4*8 Wind Loads For the assessment of *ind loads on marine structures and for the loading conditions referred to in Section 9+!.ater inflo* from land*ard and from sea*ard sides of the sea*all+ Rate of overtopping *ater under severe *ave climate+ #ermeabilit of *ater draining behind.#a )+! . a tidal lag of not less than "+H m and )+" m above the still *ater level under normal loading conditions and e?treme loading conditions respectivel ma be used in design+ 1n addition to the above *ater level lags. it is recommended that the design *ater pressures should be evaluated from field observations and a detailed anal sis considering $      Tidal variation at the sea*ard side of the sea*all+ .0" ground *ater profiles are site@dependent+ 1f possible. the follo*ing design *ind pressures ma be assumed $ Loading Conditions Bormal &?treme Accident Design Wind Pressures )+! .here the land behind the sea*all is paved.#a . )CC6a8+ . the ground *ater profile in the fill behind the sea*all ma be ta.e into consideration the *orst credible ground *ater conditions that *ould arise in e?treme events selected for design+ Guidance on the determination of the *orst credible *ater conditions are given in Geoguide ) 7G&'.#a 6+" .

ave loads on a structure are d namic in into account the follo*ing points $  The design *ind pressure of )+! . reference ma be made to %hen 7)CH98 and #oon 7)C<!8+ The design *ind pressure of 6+" .oading %onditions. *hich is the ma?imum gust e?pected to occur *ith a mean hourl *ind speed of )H m3s 766 . ta.oading %onditions corresponds to a gust of about 22 m3s.ness of )"" mm of marine gro*th for all surfaces belo* mean sea level ma be assumed+ . a uniform effective thic.el to occur *hile Tropical % clone Signal Bo+ 6 is hoisted or *ithin the first fe* hours of the hoisting of Tropical % clone Signal Bo+ <+ The above assumes a gustiness factor 7ratio bet*een ma?imum gust and mean hourl *ind speed8 of about ! no other information or site measurements are available. directions and periods other than those causing the ma?imum force on the structure and such effect should be considered in design+ Allo*ance should also be made in calculations for the build@up of marine gro*th on the structures+ .ind &ffects 7-((. as *ill be the case for the vast maLorit of structures covered b this Manual.#a for Bormal and Accident . the design *ind pressure should be assessed b the designer for each individual case. )C<68+ 4*1: 4*1:*1 Wa!e Loads General . *hich is not normall e?ceeded under Hong Kong conditions+ For details of gustiness factors.0) For Temporar .nots8. these loads ma be ade:uatel represented b their static e:uivalents+ General guidance on d namic responses and vibrations are covered in Section 9+)9+ The crest or trough of an design *ave should be positioned relative to a structure such that the *ave forces have their ma?imum effect on the structure+ 1t should be noted that the ma?imum stress in elements of the structure ma occur for *ave positions.ind forces on structures and elements of structures ma be calculated in accordance *ith Hong Kong %ode of #ractice on . *hich is the ma?imum gust e?pected to occur *ith a return period of about 9" ears in Hong Kong *aters+  .#a under e?treme environmental conditions corresponds to a gust of about H" m3s 7)60 .nots8+ This b definition is the ma?imum mean hourl *ind speed li. but *hen the design *ave period is much higher than the structureNs fundamental period.

ave condition at tropical c clone signal no+ 6 or *ithin the first fe* hours of the hoisting of tropical c clone signal no+ < and mean lo*er lo* *ater level+ Same as normal loading condition+ .ave condition at tropical c clone signal no+ 6 or *ithin the first fe* hours of the hoisting of tropical c clone signal no+ < and ma?imum *ater level at !@ ear return period+ .s *ith a design life of 9" ears.ave condition to be assessed b designers for each individual case+     Bormal    Accident Temporar    The e?treme *ave and *ater level conditions given above refers to e?treme environmental events *ith return periods of about )"" ears+ . the follo*ing *ave conditions and *ater levels should normall be considered $ Loading Conditions  Waves and Water Levels  &?treme &?treme *ave condition at )""@ ear return period and e?treme *ater level at )"@ ear return period+ &?treme *ave condition at )"@ ear return period and e?treme *ater level at )""@ ear return period+ &?treme *ave condition at 9"@ ear return period and e?treme *ater level at 9"@ ear return period+ &?treme *ave condition at )""@ ear return period and mean lo*er lo* *ater level+ .0! 4*1:*+ Wa!e Conditions The *ave conditions that should be assessed in design should be Lointl described *ith the *ater levels as these t*o variables are correlated 7HK#5. !"""8+ For marine *or.

ing *aves+ The full range of *ater levels in addition to the *ater levels mentioned in the above paragraphs should be investigated b the designer+ 4*1:*0 Wa!e 'or"es on /erti"al Str("t(res .ing and a standing *ave *ill be formed in front of the *all+ 1n certain depths. or the e:uivalent *ind speed adLusted for duration. the )"@ ear *ind *aves b the )"@ ear *inds and so forth+ For the assessment of *ave heights under normal and accident loading conditions.06 . the respective *ave data corresponding to the return period of the e?treme *ave conditions ma be used+ 1t should be noted that for different t pes of structure. different loading cases and different conditions. ma generall be used+ The reason for selecting this particular mean hourl *ind speed is given in Section 9+C+ For temporar loading conditions. *aves ma brea.ave %rests The ma?imum *ave pressure on a long vertical reflective *all ma be estimated b the .+ The associated brea. the designer should assess the design *ave parameters for each situation. the critical still *ater level ma be the minimum. relative to the *avelength and *ave height. the !@ ear *ave data ma be used in the absence of more realistic *ave information+ Similarl . the 9"@ ear *ind *aves b the 9"@ ear *inds. for assessing the *ave conditions in e?treme loading condition. ta.hen *ind data are used for determining the *ave heights. it ma be assumed that the )""@ ear *ind *aves are generated b the )""@ ear *inds.el *ind speeds and *ater levels to be e?perienced+ 1n each loading condition. smaller *aves at a lo*er sea *ater level ma into account the li.aves incident upon a long vertical surface ma be reflected *ithout brea.ave #ressure under . against the *all producing impulsive loading *hich ma be ver large over small surface area+ The follo*ing paragraphs recommend methods to estimate the average *ave pressures on a long structure+ 7)8 . the e?treme *ind speeds sho*n in Tables )! to 6" ma be used to estimate the *ave heights under e?treme loading conditions+ 1n this connection. ma?imum or some intermediate level+ For e? *aves of the smaller *aves ma represent a more critical condition to the structures than the higher non@brea. near the shore *hile those higher *aves at higher sea *ater level ma not brea. a mean hourl *ind speed of )H m3s. the effect of s*ells ma be considered *ith reference to Table 62 in *hich the offshore *ave data of Hong Kong are given+ For assessing the *ave conditions in normal loading and accident loading conditions.

ing *ave forces in a single formula+ The formulae ma. ≦ "+!. *here ( is the pile diameter and . the vertical *all e?periences a net pressure sea*ard+ The solution for *ave pressure under a *ave trough. the *ave pressure distribution under the trough ma be determined according to the theor of Sainflou as given in Figure )H+ The ma?imum *ave height Hma? should be used as the design *ave height in the calculation of *ave pressures under *ave troughs+ Such a pressure *ill li.ave force due to non@brea. is the *avelength+ %aution is given here. is applicable for (3. !"""8+ A summar of the method is given in Figures )9 and )0+ The method deals *ith both the standing and brea.hen the trough of an incident *ave ma.en as the highest of the random brea. assuming that the largest force could be evaluated *ith the highest *ave in a *ave group+ Goda recommended that H ma? can generall be ta. the pressure e?erted on the *all becomes less than the h drostatic pressure under the still *ater level+ As a result.e use of the *ave height parameter Hma? as the design *ave height+ The basic concept is to design the structure against the largest single *ave force e?pected during the design sea state. *hereas *ithin the surf >one the height is *aves on a circular pile *hich does not obstruct *ave propagation ma be calculated from Morison=s e:uation as the sum of a drag force and an inertia force+ The method.ave #ressure under .ave Trough .es contact *ith a vertical *all. in particular that of brea. has not et been full developed+ -ut as far as the pressure of standing *aves is concerned.en as )+<H)36 sea*ard of the surf >one. ho* *aves Hma? at the location of a distance e:ual to 9H)36 sea*ard of the structure as given b the e:uations sho*n in Appendi? A+ The *ave period to be used in the formulae can be *aves.en as the significant *ave period T)36+ A trape>oidal shape of pressure distribution is assumed along the face of the vertical *all+ 1t should be noted that the *ater depth above the rubble foundation is measured from the top of the rubble la er but the *ave pressure is e?erted do*n to the bottom of the vertical *all+ The method of Goda also calculates the *ave uplift pressure acting on the bottom of the structure in addition to the buo anc due to displaced *ater belo* the design *ater level+ A triangular distribution of uplift pressure under the structure is assumed as almost free drainage is provided b the rubble mound of the foundation+ 7!8 . that the use of . summari>ed in Figure )<.el govern the stabilit of the structure against sliding and overturning sea*ard+ 4*1:*1 Wa!e 'or"es on Piles .02 method of Goda as referred to in -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1.

en as the significant *ave period T)36+ %are should be *ave force generall occurs in ver shallo* *ater region 7e+g+ surf >one8+ Although the brea. a uniform effective thic.en that for piles standing closer than about four pile * *aves is usuall shorter in ver shallo* *ater area as compared to that in deeper *ater and this possibl results in a smaller total force+ Hence. the Morison=s e:uation ma also be applied under the assumption that the *ave acts as a *ater mass *ith high velocit on the pile *ithout acceleration+ The inertia coefficient ma be ta. ho*ever. the pile length subLect to action of brea. is based on limited information+ -rea. the loading for the front piles standing side b side in ro*s parallel to the *ave crest should be increased b the follo*ing factors 7& *aves H ma? at the location of a distance e:ual to 9H)36 sea*ard of the structure as given b the e:uations sho*n in Appendi? A+ The *ave period to be used in the formulae can be ta.en to be >ero *hereas the drag coefficient ma be increased to )+H9+ This recommendation.09 linear *ave theor in evaluating the *ave orbital velocit ma lead to an underestimation of the *ave force *hen the ratio of *ave height to *ater depth or the *ave steepness cannot be regarded small+ 1t should also be noted that the crest elevation above the mean sea level is greater than H3! because of the finite amplitude *ave *ave force ma be greater per unit length of the pile. )CC"8 $ Pile Centre-to Centre Distance ! ? #ile (iameter 6 ? #ile (iameter 2 ? #ile (iameter Factor )+9 )+!9 )+" For the assessment of *ave forces on no other information or site measurements are available.en as the highest of the random brea.ness of )"" mm of marine gro*th for all surfaces belo* mean sea level ma be assumed+ . *hereas *ithin the surf >one the height is ta.en as !H )36 sea*ard of the surf >one. the area normal to the flo* or *ave propagation should include an allo*ance for marine gro*th+ . *here H is the *ave height+ Suggested values of the drag coefficient in the Morison=s e:uation are sho*n in Figure )C and a value of ! is recommended for the inertia coefficient for circular piles+ For brea. pile design ma be governed primaril b vertical loads acting along the pile under such condition+ The design *ave height ma be ta.

it *ill be necessar to separate the structure into different elements and appl different theories to different elements in order to assess the total *ave load on the structure+ For a pile@supported dec. structures. for *hich reflective conditions mentioned in Section 9+)"+6 *ill appl if the dec.s *ere uplifted *hile partiall damaged+ The access bridges bet*een the dec. *ave forces for different still *ater levels+ The critical still *ater level for *ave loads on different elements of the structure *ill not al*a s be the same.=s soffit+ The impulsive uplift is characteri>ed b the relativel high magnitude but short duration+ There have been some instances of damage of open@t pe *harves *ith dec.00 4*1:*4 Wa!e 'or"es on Pile<s(##orted De" Str("t(res For some structures. soffit Lust above the still *ater level ma be in the order of )+6 to )+Hγ*Hma? . . incoming *aves ma e?ert impulsive uplift forces as the rising *ater surface hits the dec. it should be noted that ma?imum *ave forces ma not occur simultaneousl at all piles in a pile bent+ 1t is particularl important *hen assessing *ave forces for pile@supported dec.le Mo(nd Str("t(res For rubble mound structures protected b roc. !""!8+ 4*1:*6 Wa!es on R(. structure consisting of a relativel open concrete dec. *ith effective depth to be assessed b the designer. the instantaneous uplift pressure ma locall rise more than )"γ*Hma? . armour or concrete armour units on the slope.s and piles *ere destro ed and the dec.s supported b vertical piles. and *ill not al*a s correspond to the critical *ater level for *ave loads for the structure as a *hole+ 4*1:*5 Wa!e U#lift For a dec.. )CC<8. should be considered to consist of a solid concrete dec. *here reflective conditions ma appl for one part and MorisonNs e:uation for another part of the structure. length is sufficient+ -elo* this solid concrete dec. to chec. *hose soffit is Lust above the still *ater level.s and the earth retaining *alls ma be fallen do*n b the action of impulsive *ave uplift+ The magnitude of uplift intensit is hard to evaluate+ -ased on a stud on *ave absorbing sea*all for the Gictoria Harbour 7HK5. should be less than 2 times the h drostatic head of the design *ave height 7'%(1. *ave loads on the piles should be assessed separatel using MorisonNs e:uation+ 1t should normall be assumed that ma?imum *ave forces on the dec. supported on piles. edge. the dec. but the e:uivalent static pressure for calculating stresses *ithin the dec. edge and piles can occur simultaneousl + Ho*ever. in *hich the connecting parts bet*een dec. the average uplift pressure on the dec. *here γ* is the unit *eight of sea*ater+ Ho*ever. edge.

en as ) m3s from the *ater surface to a depth of )9 metres belo* the *ater surface+ -elo* )9 metres *ater depth. the figure of ) m3s should not be used *ithout a detailed investigation+ . Temporar and Accident .ei Aue Mun. the permeabilit of the structure and the properties of the armour unit+ &?amples of these formulae include the Hudson formula and the Gan (er Meer formulae+ Guidance on the application of these formulae are given in #art 2 of the Manual K Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea. for all loading conditions other than for temporar conditions during construction. it should normall be assumed that the design current can occur in all directions+ For the assessment of current forces on piles and other parts of structures. as current forces are assumed to act simultaneousl *ith *ave and *ind forces+ For locations near channels such as Kap Shui Mun.oading %onditions ma be measurements or mathematical modelling results are available.0H the overall stabilit and the unit stabilit must be fulfilled for the structure to remain stable under *ave actions+ 1t is reali>ed that damage to an armoured sloping structure is often a chain process b *hich failure of one element induces a series of failures+ The stabilit of a single armour unit therefore becomes a prime interest for the stabilit of the entire structure+ 1n general. Tolo no detailed information or records are available at a site. Rambler %hannel and . the current ma be ignored+ For most locations. the design of rubble mound structure involves the determination of the si>e of the armour unit on the slope b means of some stabilit formulae instead of calculating the *ave force on it+ These stabilit formulae generall e?press the *eight of an armour unit as a function of a number of factors such as *ave conditions. the design current velocit for Bormal. particularl *ithin the harbour area.*aters+ 4*11 4*11*1 C(rrent Loads General . the direction ma normall be assumed to be parallel to the shoreline+ For isolated locations remote from the shore. *here above average currents are no other information or site . slope of the structure. the designer should assess design current velocities for the various loading conditions+ The direction of the design current for locations *here no information or records are available should be determined b the designer+ For locations close to the shore. &?treme. 5rmston Road. the area normal to flo* should include an allo*ance for marine gro*th+ . the above *ill be conservative.

due to the shedding of vortices do*nstream of the pile+ The fre:uencies of the fluctuating forces are directl related to the fre:uenc of the vorte? shedding and the amplitude of the fluctuating force increases as its fre:uenc approaches the natural fre:uenc of the pile or of the structure as a *hole+ #iled structures are particularl vulnerable to this t pe of oscillation during construction+ the current is not uniform over the *ater column. a uniform effective thic.oads imposed b currents on marine structures ma be classified as either drag forces parallel to the flo* direction. or cross@flo* forces transverse to the flo* direction+ %urrent drag forces are principall stead M the oscillator component is onl significant *hen its fre:uenc approaches the natural fre:uenc of the structure+ %ross@flo* forces are entirel oscillator for bodies s mmetricall presented to the flo*+ Stead drag forces on a circular pile in a uniform current ma be calculated using the formula given as follo*s $ f( = ) % (Uv ! ( ! *here f( %( U v ( $ $ $ $ $ (rag force per unit length+ (rag coefficient+ (ensit of *ater+ Gelocit of current normal to pile a?is+ #ile diameter 7including marine gro*th8+ . both in@line and cross@flo*.Drag 'or"es .0< measurements are available. it is not usuall necessar to . the total drag force can be determined b adding the drag force at different depths of the pile+ The drag coefficients for circular c linders is given in Figure )C+ 4*11*0 'lo.ness of )"" mm of marine gro*th for all surfaces belo* mean sea level ma be assumed+ 4*11*+ Stead.<ind("ed Os"illations A pile in a current e?periences fluctuating forces. restraint should be provided to pile heads immediatel after driving to prevent the possibilit of oscillation in the cantilever mode+ For completed structures in t pical *ater depths and *ith the t pes of pile normall used in Hong Kong.

0C chec.en as the coefficient of friction bet*een the t*o faces in contact multiplied b the berthing reaction and should be considered in both the hori>ontal and vertical directions+ .Bm8 to be absorbed. reference on the coefficient of friction should be made to the manufacturers of the selected fender units+ 4*1+*+ Assess$ent of 3ert%ing Energ- The total amount of energ & 7. !"""8 to chec. ma be calculated from the follo*ing energ formulae $ &= ) ! V % m V M v V Gb V % e V % s V % c ! *here %m is the h drod namic coefficient+ Mv is the displacement of the vessel 7t8+ Gb is the velocit of the vessel normal to the berth 7m3s8+ . including an fendering. but also on the nature of the structure. not onl on the si>e and velocit of the vessel. reference should be made to -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1. critical flo* velocities causing the oscillations+ Ho*ever. loads *ill be generated bet*een the vessel and the berthing structure from the moment at *hich contact is first made until the vessel is finall brought to rest+ The magnitude of the loads *ill depend. and the degree of resilience it presents under impact+ -erthing loads transmitted to a structure comprise berthing reactions normal to the berthing face and friction loads parallel to the berthing face+ The berthing reactions normal to the berthing face depends upon the berthing energ and the load3deflection characteristics of the vessel. for structures in particularl deep *ater *here slender piles are being considered and at locations *here high design current velocities are encountered. structure and fender s stem. either b the fender s stem alone or b a combination of the fender s stem and the structure itself *ith some fle?ibilit . *hether flo*@induced oscillations *ill occur+ 4*1+ 4*1+*1 3ert%ing Loads General 1n the course of berthing. and should be determined in accordance *ith Section 9+)!+! and Section 9+)!+6+ The friction loads parallel to the berthing face ma be necessar .

oading %onditions.""" !.here ade:uate statistical data on berthing velocities for vessels and conditions similar to . but as a general rule the total energ to be absorbed for accident loading should be at least 9"T greater than for normal loading+ For particularl critical structures or for structures *ith e?pected heav use and unfavourable e?posure. the follo*ing berthing velocities normal to the berth ma be used as a guide $ Vessel Displacement 7t8 5nder )"" )"" to !"" !"" to !.""" to )". users or ferr operators as appropriate+ For Accident . possible constraints on movement approaching the berth.H" %e is the eccentricit coefficient+ %s is the softness coefficient+ %c is the berth configuration coefficient+ This energ depends on the velocit of the vessel normal to the berth and a number of factors that modif the vessel=s . advice should be sought from the clients. and for the first fe* hours after the raising of Tropical % clone Signal Bo+ <+ -efore an velocit is finall adopted for detailed design. general comments are given in Section 9+!+2+ The vessel displacement and berthing velocit for such conditions should be decided b the designer for the individual structure being considered. fre:uenc of no other information is available.inetic energ to be absorbed b the fender s stem and the structure+ 7)8 -erthing Gelocit The berthing velocit of the vessel normal to the berth depends on the vessel si>e and t pe. this ma need to be increased to )""T+ .el to be encountered at berthing+ . current and *ind conditions li. and assume that berthing ma continue after the raising of Tropical % clone Signal Bo+ 6. and *ave. for the normal loading conditions referred to in Section 9+!.""" Berthing Velocity ormal to Berth 7m3s8 "+2" "+69 "+6" "+!" The berthing velocities normal to the berth suggested above relate to structures located at sites *ith normal e?posure to environmental conditions *ithout e?cessive fre:uenc of use.

g837. )CC2b8 $ %m = ) + ! V (v -v *here (v is the draft of the vessel 7m8+ -v is the beam of the vessel 7m8+ &ccentricit coefficient 768 A vessel *ill usuall berth at a certain angle and hence it turns simultaneousl at the time of first impact+ (uring this process.inetic energ of the vessel at berthing 7see Figure !"8+ The formula for calculating the coefficient is given as follo*s 7-S1. the velocit should be derived from these data in preference to the above suggested values+ 7!8 H drod namic Mass %oefficient The h drod namic mass coefficient allo*s the movement of *ater around the ship to be ta. coefficient.H) those of the berth being designed are available. )CC2b8 $ ! ! 7K ! v + R v cos W 8 ! 7K ! v + Rv8 %e = *here Kv is the radius of g ration of the ship+ Kv P 7"+)C%b D "+))8 .en into account *hen calculating the total energ of the vessel b increasing the mass of the s stem+ The h drod namic mass coefficient %m ma be calculated from the follo*ing e:uation 7-S1.g3m688 Rv is the distance of the point of contact from the centre of mass 7m8+ γ is the angle bet*een the line Loining the point of contact to the centre of mass and the velocit vector+ .v . t picall in the range of "+9 to "+<9+ %b P displacement 7. some of the .v7m8 ? beam7m8 ? draft7m8 ? densit of *ater7.v is the length of the hull bet*een perpendiculars 7m8+ %b is the bloc.inetic energ of the ship is converted to turning energ and the remaining energ is transferred to the berth+ The eccentricit coefficient represents the proportion of the remaining energ to the .

brea. the fender unit *ill receive an angular loading+ The hull geometr over the impact area should therefore be considered in both hori>ontal and vertical planes 7see Figure !)8 to establish the angle of application of load to individual units+ Manufacturers of proprietar rubber fender units usuall provide correction factors to the performance data of their units under angular berthing conditions+ .here the point of impact is not on the straight run of the vessel hull and the vessel is not parallel to the berth at impact. the coefficient should be ta.H! 728 Softness %oefficient The softness coefficient allo*s for the portion of the impact energ that is absorbed b the vessel=s hull+ Generall . the value of the softness coefficient should be ta. a value of )+" should be used 7-S1.en b the structure can be assessed from the manufacturerNs performance curves once the t pe of fender to be used has been determined+ A performance curve sho*s the relationship of the deflection. the energ absorbed b the deformation of the ship=s hull is small+ 1n the absence of more reliable information. sudden changes of *ind or current conditions and human error+ -ecause of the non@linear energ 3deflection and reaction3deflection characteristics of most fender s stems.en as bet*een "+< and )+ For pile@supported dec. the effects of both normal and abnormal impacts on the fender s stem and berth structures should be e?amined+ 4*1+*0 3ert%ing Rea"tions -erthing reaction is a function of the berthing energ and the deformation characteristics of the fender s stem+ After the berthing energ is calculated. )CC2b8+ 708 &nerg %apacit of Fenders The designed energ capacit of each fender should in general be at least 9"T greater than that calculated for normal loading conditions to allo* for accidental occurrences such as vessel engine failure. )CC2b8+ 798 -erth %onfiguration %oefficient The berth configuration coefficient allo*s for the portion of the vessel energ *hich is absorbed b the cushioning effect of the *ater trapped bet*een the vessel hull and the structure+ For solid :ua *alls or sea* of mooring or to*ing lines. berthing reaction to be ta.en as )+" 7-S1. structures. energ absorption and reaction of a fender+ .

*here *ave loading is severe. mooring loads ma be assumed to be e:ual to the normal ma?imum bollard *or.H6 4*10 Mooring Loads Mooring loads comprise those loads imposed on a structure b a vessel tied up alongside. reference ma be made to -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1.""" Bollard Loading 7. a ma?imum angle to the hori>ontal of 6"S 7up and do*n8 ma be assumed+ The direction of each mooring load should be ta. user departments and the ferr operators as appropriate+ For Bormal . the follo*ing bollard loads ma be assumed *ithout specific calculation on the probable ma?imum mooring loads $ Vessel Displacement 7t8 5p to !. both through contact bet*een the vessel and structure or its fender s stem. )CC2b8 for further details+ At e?posed locations.oading %onditions. !"""8 and #art 2 7-S1.B8 )"" 6"" . b *aves+ Mooring bollard locations and normal ma?imum * loads should be agreed *ith the (irector of Marine. !"""8+ 1n the design calculations of the marine structures.en as that having the most adverse effect on the structure. bollard loads or loads imposed directl b vessels on a structure. mathematical anal sis or other methods *ith reference to the guidance given in %lause 6) of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1. currents loads+ As a general guidance.""" 5p to )". the d namic response of the vessel under restraint of mooring lines and fenders should be determined b model testing. allo*ance should be made for the mooring lines not being hori>ontal+ 1f no other information is it is considered necessar to calculate the forces acting on the moored vessels in order to chec. and in general it should be assumed that all mooring loads on a structure can act simultaneousl + 4*11 Te$#erat(re /ariation . and through tension in mooring ropes+ The also include loads arising from manoeuvres of the vessel at the berth but e?clude the impact and frictional berthing loads+ These loads are principall caused b *inds. in more e?posed locations.

structures *here thermal movements of the dec. for design purposes an effective ma?imum temperature drop of !9S% and an effective ma?imum temperature rise of !"S% can be assumed for concrete dec. and the e?tremes e?pected during the design life of the structure. !"""8+ For the marine structures covered b this Manual and the relativel shallo* *ater depths normall appl ing. reference ma be made to Section 2H of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1. movements of fle?ible and even relativel infle?ible structures can be important in assisting *ith energ absorption+ .H2 The loads or load effects arising from thermal e?pansion or contraction of the structure and from temperature gradients in the structure *ill usuall be minor in relation to other loads for marine structures *ith a ma?imum length bet*een Loints of 9" m. induce loads in the supporting piles+ . and need not be considered+ The loads arising from thermal e?pansion or contraction of the structure for marine structures *ith a length bet*een Loints e?ceeding 9" m should be assessed+ This is particularl important for piers and similar pile@supported dec. Mo!e$ents and /i. structures under e?treme environmental conditions+ 5nder normal loading conditions. should be assessed in the usual *a in order to fi? Loint si>es and locations+ .rations For the marine structures covered b this Manual. seismic forces in Hong Kong ma be assumed to be minor in relation to the combined effects of other imposed loads+ Further information on seismicit ma be obtained from G%'7)CC) vessel berthing occurs. G&'7)CC!8 and G&'7)CCH8+ For guidance on movements and vibrations. the effects of temperature variations ma be ignored+ 4*14 Eart%=(a es. and bet*een ne* and e?isting no specific information is available concerning the temperatures of the structure at the time of construction. movement and vibration problems should not be e?pected and usuall can be effectivel ignored+ Movements bet*een different parts of structures.

H9 .

do*n the passivit la er and initiate corrosion of the reinforcement+ Therefore. should be adopted for marine structures+ The main features of the recommended specification are summari>ed as follo*s $       The minimum characteristic strength of the concrete mi? shall be 29 M#a+ The ma?imum *ater3cementitious ratio shall not e?ceed "+6<+ %ondensed silica fume is to be added to reduce the permeabilit of the concrete+ The cementitious content shall be *ithin 6<"@29" .g3m 6. *idth.en to be "+) mm for marine structures. the allo*able crac. ma be increased b a factor of )+!9+ . timber. the recommended specification given in Appendi? -.s 7GS8 7Hong Kong Government. reference should be made to the General Specification for %ivil &ngineering . armour roc. and fill materials+ For general information on these materials and an other materials used in marine structures. *idth design and control purpose. it is important to use a concrete mi? *ith high densit and the re:uired *or. use and specification+ The materials covered are concrete.abilit for ade:uate compaction and to provide a large concrete cover to the reinforcement bars to dela the time for ingress of chloride to the reinforcement+ 1n this connection. the al. steel.or.H0 5* 5*1 CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND DURA3ILIT> General This %hapter gives comments and guidance on particular matters related to material selection. under intermittent or periodical *etting and dr ing conditions. chloride of sea*ater that penetrates into the concrete *ill brea. of *hich the dr mass of condensed silica fume shall be *ithin 9@)"T range b mass of the cementitious content+ The cover to all reinforcement in all e?posure >ones shall be H9 mm+ For fle?ural crac.alinit of the concrete enables the formation of a protective passivit la er around the reinforcement that prevents corrosion+ Ho*ever. ta. designed to address the corrosion of reinforced concrete. rubber. )CC!a8+ %omments on aspects related to durabilit are also given in this %hapter+ 5*+ Reinfor"ed Con"rete The durabilit of reinforced concrete depends fundamentall on the :ualit of the concrete and the cover to the reinforcement embedded inside the concrete+ Bormall .

because of the difficulties of ensuring sound results and the problems of inspection+ 1n particular. sections *ill reduce effects of heat of h dration+ Replacement of up to 9"T of the cement ma be considered if earl strength is not critical+ 5*1 Under.ater Con"rete Guidance on under*ater concrete is given in Section 9<+2+)! of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1. provided the concrete is actuall cast in the dr + #artial replacement of cement b pulveri>ed fuel ash in to ensure effective compaction+ Harmful chemical reactions in the concrete are *ithin acceptable levels+ Ade:uate curing is carried out in order to achieve the desired durabilit + 5*0 Unreinfor"ed Con"rete For unreinforced concrete in massive sections. pulverised fuel ash or blast furnace slag and curing compounds to ensure that $     Suitable constituents and mi? compositions are used+ %oncrete mi?es are sufficientl *or. aggregates. and the use of precast units or the use of *atertight steel shutters. irrespective of *hether the concrete is full immersed or *ithin the tidal or splash >ones. but a .s and bac.HH The specification also stipulates other re:uirements on cements. e?tended in height as necessar to avoid being flooded b sea*ater due to tide level change or *ave action. such as precast concrete sea*all bloc. the use of concrete *ith a minimum characteristic strength of !" M#a has been sho*n to be successful *ith no significant maintenance problems+ The continued use of such concrete for massive sections is recommended. !"""8+ Reinforced concrete placed under*ater should onl be used *here absolutel necessar . the use of concrete placed b tremie for forming heavil reinforced elements such as pile caps *ithin the full immersed or tidal >ones should be avoided. chemical admi?tures. should be adopted to enable the concrete to be cast in dr condition+ 1t should be noted that concrete placed under *ater should not be designed for a characteristic strength greater than !9 M#a+ 1t is recommended that this limitation should appl to bored piles formed b reinforced concrete placed b tremie due to the defects *hich can concrete for granite facing in sea*alls.

or generall above the splash >one. )CCHa R b8 for tubular piles made of cold formed sections as appropriate+ 5*4*+ Corrosion Prote"tion 1n the design of steel structures and steel elements. and contain various pollutants *hose effect on steel is generall un. it is recommended that all structural steel*or.H< higher grade of concrete should be specified in order to achieve this condition+ 5*4 5*4*1 Steel Str("t(ral Steel in General Structural steel in marine structures should normall be *eldable structural steel compl ing *ith -S &B )""!9 7-S1. corrosion protection. )CC2 R )CCHd8 for tubular piles made of hot formed sections. -S &B )"!2< 7-S1. is also suspected+ 1n the absence of full scale long@term tests covering metal loss from corrosion in Hong Kong *aters. -S &B )"!)" 7-S1. Section 0+< should be referred to+ . *hich can greatl increase normal steel corrosion rates. *ithin the tidal or splash >ones. the presence of anaerobic sulphate@ reducing bacteria. allo*ance for metal losses due to corrosion or both are maLor considerations+ 1t should be noted that the advice in Table !9 of -S 062C$#art )*n+ 1n man sites. is full protected against corrosion for the design life of the structure+ -elo* sea@bed level. !"""8. above sea@bed level. *hether full immersed. )CC0a R b8 for hot rolled sheet piling. and -S &B )"!)C 7-S1. *hich gives t pical upper rates of corrosion for structural steels in maritime conditions for temperate climates. )CC68 for structural sections. an allo*ance for corrosion loss of "+"9 mm per ear on the outside face of steel is considered reasonable if no corrosion protection is carried out *ithin this >one+ For guidance on protective measures *hich can be ta.en against corrosion. is not recommended for use in Hong Kong+ Hong Kong *aters are relativel *arm.

s such as chains. as corrosion in stainless steel members and fasteners ma not be readil evident+ 1n stress corrosion crac. even though the member or fastener is about to fail+ 5*4*1 General G(idan"e General guidance on the use of structural steel and other metals in marine structures is given in %lause 9C of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1. or onl slight staining+ A visual e?amination ma not sho* this ta. cat ladders. or -S &B )""<< all of *hich tend to promote the formation of galvanic corrosion cells+     . -S )22C$#art ! 7-S1.HC 5*4*0 Use of Stainless Steel Section !) of the GS re:uires stainless steel for elements in marine * advantage of mechanised *elding and earl painting under factor @controlled conditions+ Steel embedded in concrete is cathodic relative to the same steel in sea*ater.en. and there ma be no corrosion product evident.ept as simple as possible and should be designed to avoid corrosion and facilitate maintenance+ Tolerances for on@site connections should be generous because of the difficulties associated *ith *or. and rapid corrosion *ill therefore occur at the interface of a partl embedded member unless special treatment is carried out. pumphouse screens and screen guides. railings. e+g+ use of sacrificial anodes or impressed currents+ %hemical composition of steels has less influence on corrosion rates in a marine environment than ph sical factors such as the roughness of the surface finish of the steel and the presence of holes and re@entrant corners. corrosion occurs along grain boundaries. )CC0c8. )C<68. !"""8+ 1mportant points to note are as follo*s $  Fabrication details should be . mooring e es and other fittings to be austenitic stainless steel grade 6)0 compl ing *ith -S CH"$#art ) 7-S1. )CC9a. b R c8 as appropriate+ 1t should be noted that the commonl available grade 6"2 stainless steel is not suitable for use in a marine environment due to the presence of chlorides+ The selection of the correct grade of stainless steel at the design stage is most in a marine environment+ As much prefabrication as possible should be underta.

to minimise the different t pes of fenders re:uired to be .er Timbers are mainl used in the fendering s stem of marine structures in Hong Kong in the past+ Ho* the use of timbers in marine structure are considered necessar . reference should be made to -S 9H90 7-S1. to be homogeneous.el to be more can be obtained from manufacturer=s catalogues+ 1nformation given in maLor manufacturersN catalogues concerning fender reaction.herever possible. the advice of the manufacturers should be . pores or Section !) of the GS re:uires rubber for fenders to be resistant to aging. )CC<8 gives guidance on the choice. )CC" to )CC<8+ T pes of rubber fenders available in the mar. deformation and energ characteristics ma generall be accepted *ith confidence+ -efore finalising a rubber fender design.s and to have certain defined properties as covered b parts of -S C"6 7-S1.. rubber fenders should be selected or specified to match e?isting fenders. such application is considered not environmentall friendl and hence further use of timber as fenders is not recommended+ . due mainl to higher air and sea temperatures and humidit + For the use of coating materials under local conditions. )CC0d8+ 5*6 R(. although it should be noted that the definitions of environment and recommendations for coatings ma not be straightl applicable to local conditions *hich are li.<" 5*5 Ti$. )CCHc8 and -S 9!0<$#art ! 7-S1. for future maintenance+ 5*7 5*7*1 Prote"ti!e Meas(res General 1nformation on protective measures *hich can be used to stop or reduce deterioration in marine structures is given in Section 00 of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1. several parts.ept in stoc. *eathering and *earing. !"""8+ %omments on corrosion losses for steel in local conditions are given in Section 0+9+! 5*7*+ Prote"ti!e Coatings for Steel -S &B 1S' )!C22 7< parts. free from an defects or impurities. design and specification of coating s stems available. advice should al*a s be sought from one or more of the maLor reputable suppliers regarding suitabilit for the proLect+ .

but epo? and coal tar epo? ma also be used if protected from sunlight+ Silane could also be used at limited locations in splash >one *here concrete is not *holl saturated+ For the tidal >one. and the amount of maintenance or replacement *or. salt spra s and salt *ater immersion+ The life of a coating s stem prior to the need of re@coating should be at least ten ears and should have bridging resistance over crac. or the specification of a corrosion allo*ance. structural components *hich are e?posed to corrosion stresses and *hich are no longer accessible for corrosion protection measures after assembl should be provided *ith corrosion protection that *ill remain effective for the duration of the design life of the structure+ 1f this cannot be achieved b means of protective coating s stems. should be considered+ The cost@effectiveness of a given corrosion protection s stem is generall in direct proportion to the length of time for *hich effective protection is maintained.<) sought and follo*ed+ The period during *hich the protection covered b paint s stems is effective is generall shorter than the design life of the structure+ (ue consideration should be given at the planning and design stage to the possibilit of their maintenance and rene*al+ As a general guidance.s due to fle?ural loading+ Some t pes of concrete coatings for local marine conditions are given in the Model Specification for #rotective %oatings for %oncrete published b the %ivil &ngineering (epartment 7%&(. other measures. suitable coating s stems applied in the splash >one include acr lic and pol urethane. designing components so that the are replaceable. re:uired during the design life of the structure should be reduced to a minimum+ (urabilit has been indicated in -S &B 1S' )!C22 in terms of three ranges+ These include lo* durabilit $ ! to 9 ears. )CC28+ Generall .ing high performance epo? . medium durabilit $ 9 to )9 ears. coating s stems such as cross@lin. and high durabilit $ more than )9 ears+ The life re:uirement of the protective coating should be based on the time *hich can elapse before maLor or general maintenance of the coating becomes necessar . and should be agreed b the interested parties+ Such life re:uirement can assist the client or the maintenance authorit to set up a maintenance programme+ General information on the e?pected durabilit of various t pes of coatings can be found in -S &B 1S' )!C22+ 5*7*0 Prote"ti!e Coatings for Con"rete %oatings ma be used to provide additional corrosion protection to marine concrete structures b preventing ingress of e?ternal deleterious agents such as chloride into the concrete+ The coatings applied to such concrete should normall be resistant to abrasion. coal tar epo? and pol urethane are normall effective for immersed . such as manufacturing components from corrosion@resistant material.

allo s of these metals are normall used as sacrificial anodes+ As sacrificial anodes need to be replaced ever several ears. the should be fi?ed at locations that are relativel eas for future inspection and replacement+ The design of a cathodic protection s stem re:uires specialist .(lar Piles For the corrosion protection of steel tubular piles. the use of pol eth lene sheeting for coating steel tubular piles ma be*ledge and e?perience and should be underta. aluminum and magnesium+ Bo*ada s.<! conditions+ The Model Specification also provides guidance on the on the outside surface of the steel tube. tidal and splash >ones. this t pe of coating can be . application.ed carefull during the construction stage b electrical continuit measurement over the reinforcing bars or steel elements+ An discontinuit should be rectified immediatel + 5*7*4 Corrosion Prote"tion of Steel T(. and is applied under controlled factor conditions b heat@shrin. *hich has been treated *ith undercoat3primer and an adhesive la er+ Ho*ever. testing methods and acceptance criteria of protective coatings for concrete of marine structures+ Reference should be made to it for further details+ (esigners are also advised to see. and in theor such a s stem should be able to offer full corrosion protection for the piles+ The pol eth lene sheeting is normall several millimetres thic. for the latest information on coatings+ 5*7*1 Cat%odi" Prote"tion for Reinfor"ed Con"rete %athodic protection ma be applied to restrain reinforcement corrosion in marine concrete structures b causing direct current to flo* from the electrol tic environment into the reinforcement+ There are generall t*o s stems of cathodic protection. the impressed current s stem and the sacrificial anode s stem+ The impressed current s stem operates b passing an e?ternal direct current through a permanent anode fi?ed in the concrete to the reinforcement+ The use of this s stem re:uires a permanent po*er suppl at the structures+ An alternate cathodic protection s stem is called sacrificial anode s stem in *hich the reinforcement is connected to a sacrificial anode *ithout using a po*er suppl + Metals that can be used as sacrificial anodes include >inc. covering the immersed.en b a suitabl :ualified corrosion e?pert+ A pre@re:uisite re:uirement for the installation of cathodic protection s stem is to ensure that the embedded reinforcement is electricall connected+ This should be chec. specification. namel .

or b vessel activities during operation stage of the structure+ Therefore. and the steel tube above seabed level can be considered as sacrificial and ignored for design purposes+ The length of pile above seabed level in effect becomes a reinforced concrete cast in@situ pile+ Such reinforced concrete should follo* the recommendations of Section 0+!. it is usuall possible. and should be cast in a dr condition+ For the latter. the condition of the coating should be thoroughl chec. consideration ma be made for steel tubular piles to be infilled *ith reinforced concrete to a depth belo* seabed level at least ade:uate for loading transfer bet*een the concrete and the steel tube.+ 1t is recommended that the detailed design for an cathodic protection s stem should be entrusted to a suitabl :ualified specialist compan and an operating and maintenance manual should be provided+ For monitoring *or. should be strictl follo*ed and close supervision maintained+ The electrochemical processes leading to corrosion of submerged steel elements in sea*ater are described in -S H60) 7-S1. after e?cavation. but this s stem is generall considered to be onl effective up to about half@tide mar. driving or vessel operations. particularl *ith regard to surface preparation. )CC)8. *hich also gives details of the *a that cathodic protection should be applied to combat corrosion+ %athodic protection avoids the problems usuall encountered in the use of coating or *rapping s stems due to damage b handling. consideration should be given to arranging a maintenance contract *ith a suitabl :ualified specialist+ To reduce the possibilit of long term maintenance problems. to form a plug in the bottom and pump the inside of the pile dr before concreting+ 5*7*5 Corrosion Monitoring . *ith the increase in durabilit provided b the steel Xcasing= as an additional benefit. the advice of the manufacturer. after installation. *here site application is unavoidable.ed after construction and fre:uentl inspected during the operation stage+ The other corrosion protection method is to appl a spiral *rap of denso tape around the steel piles+ The s stem normall consists of an inner anti@corrosion tape *rapping *ith an outer armouring la er+ 1t seals out o? gen and *ater and forms an anti@corrosion barrier b displacing *ater and forming a moisture resistant bond+ A tough outer cover surrounds this component to protect against *eathering and mechanical damage+ This s stem can be applied belo* and above *ater on site *ithout heat@shrin.<6 damaged during handling and driving. and is suitable for the repair of e?isting piles+ For all proprietar coatings and *

!"""8. it is recommended that corrosion monitoring devices should be installed to provide the necessar information for the maintenance engineers to ta. and regular maintenance and rene*al of coatings *ill be necessar for all structures e?cept those *ith relativel short design lives+ For important.e actions against corrosion+ The design of such corrosion monitoring s stem b a :ualified specialist is re:uired+ 1t should be noted that. loss of the original material can be much more rapid than e?pectedM an estimate of a corrosion allo*ance is li.el to be e?cessive for some parts *hile being inade:uate for others+ The cost of rene*ing a protective s stem is li. visual inspection is still re:uired and should be incorporated in an corrosion monitoring program+ 5*7*6 I$#ortant Points to . regular maintenance and rene*al of coatings should be designed to allo* normal use of the structures+ %orrosion does not proceed at a uniform rate over the *hole structure or member.<2 To monitor the conditions of the structures. as it ma be more effective and durable than a paint s stem *hich might replace it+ Bormall the onl e?posure >ones *hich might usefull be repainted are the splash and atmospheric >ones+      .e Considered The follo*ing notes. no matter ho* sophisticated the corrosion monitoring s stem is.el to be much more than the initial protection due to the need to remove marine gro*th and old paint prior to rene*al of the s stem. heavil used structures. are particularl important *hen considering protective s stems $  #otential corrosion ha>ards can be eliminated b planned maintenance and monitoring of the structure or b increasing the allo*ance of the structural strength+ The costs of protective measures are repetitive in that the protective materials themselves deteriorate. and the fact that access *ill usuall be more difficult than during construction+ Marine gro*th is prevalent on structures belo* mean high *ater level+ &vidence e?ists that such gro*th can be protective against corrosion and therefore generall should not be removed. and at certain corrosion points. *hich are summari>ed from %lause 00+) of -S 062C$#art ) 7-S1.

)CC!b8 providing further information on the fill material. are given in Section !) of the GS+ Reference should also be made to the guidance notes for the GS 7Hong Kong re:uired ma?imum roc. *hich are free from crac. it is recommended that the specific gravit of the roc. the use of precast concrete armour units *ill normall be necessar . both prior to construction. including their particle si>e distribution. veins. durable roc..<9 5*8 Ar$o(r Ro" The properties of armour into account the effect on cost and programming of the proLect+ 5*1: 'ill General re:uirements of the different t pes of fill material for marine *or. discolouration and other evidence of decomposition+ 1t is usuall used as levelling founding la ers for marine structures+ The ma?imum roc. source has been identified.en as !+0+ This figure corresponds to the minimum re:uirement of specific gravit given in Section !) of the GS+ A value higher than !+0 should not be used for design *ithout e?tensive testing. si>e is H9 mm 7for -S test sieve si>e8+   . *here a roc. and during construction for :ualit control+ The normal ma?imum armour si>e available locall in reasonable :uantities is generall in the range of 0 to < t.s. should be ta. although si>es up to about )" t ma be available in small :uantities+ .+ The restriction on plasticit inde? is intended to limit the cla content of the material+ Roc. ta. fill material 7Grade H98 shall consist of pieces of hard.s. if obtained locall . armour si>es e?ceed the range given above. *hich is summari>ed in the follo*ing paragraphs $  5nder*ater fill material 7T pe )8 shall consist of natural material e?tracted from the seabed or a river bed. should compl *ith the re:uirements given in Section !) of the GS+ For armour design. and is basicall natural sand similar to coarse sand free from deleterious material+ 5nder*ater fill material 7T pe !8 shall consist of material *hich has a coefficient of uniformit e?ceeding 9 and a plasticit inde? not e?ceeding )!+ 1t is basicall decomposed granite or similar t pe of roc.

fill for Gravit Sea*alls in Hong KongF 7G&'. animal and vegetable matter.and 7Miscellaneous #rovisions8 'rdinance 7%ap+!<8 and are restricted to earth. permeabilit . and not more than 6"T b mass shall be discoloured or sho* other evidence of decomposition+ The ma?imum roc. )CC6b8+ The suitabilit of the use of decomposed granite depends on man factors.en roc.<0  Roc. *hich are free from crac. bro. and concrete+ The materials shall be free from marine mud. . reference can be made to the G&' report entitled EAn &valuation of the Suitabilit of (ecomposed Granite as Foundation -ac.B3m!8 " !" 29 " Galues of fill parameters higher than those given above ma be used for design *hen supported b evidence such as testing results of the fill material from an identified source both prior to and during construction+ #ublic fill is the inert portion of construction and demolition materials and can be used as fill material for reclamation through the provision and operation of public filling facilities+ The re:uirements of the public fill are given b the conditions of the dumping licence issued under Section 9 of the . other than granite is subLect to designer=s evaluation+ General parameters of the above fill materials that ma be adopted for design purpose are indicated as follo*s $ Bul! Density 7.s. industrial and chemical *aste. such as grading. fill material 7Grade H""8 shall consist of pieces of roc. )C<<8+ The suitabilit of decomposed roc. si>e is H"" mm 7for -S test sieve si>e8+ .B3m68 5nder*ater fill 7T pe ) and T pe !8 Roc. and should not contain Grade G1 materials as defined in Table 2 of Geoguide 6 7G%'. veins and similar defects. plastic. household refuse. coefficient of consolidation and construction programme+ 1n order to limit e?cess pore pressures *ithin the construction period for maintaining the stabilit of the sea*all. building debris. fill material 7Grade H""8 )C Friction "ngle 7degree8 6" Cohesion decomposed granite is used for under*ater foundations. the deposited la er should normall not e?ceed )9 m thic. plasticit inde?. metal.

s proLects+ 1t should be noted that *hen placing fill under *ater.<H and other material considered unsuitable b the filling supervisor+ Small :uantities of timber mi?ed *ith other*ise suitable material *ill be permitted+ Since roc.s. under the %hairmanship of the (irector of %ivil &ngineering.en *ith the choice of bedding and filter materials to prevent loss of material from *ave or current action and ground*ater movements+ Fill material placed immediatel behind sea*alls should be free draining to avoid the unnecessar build up of *ater pressures due to tidal lag and ground *ater flo*+ . as e?ternal compaction is e?pensive+ %are must be ta. and concrete over !9" mm *ould impede subse:uent piling *or. the should be bro. the material and method of placement should be capable of achieving a relativel high densit fill untreated. and is also responsible for forecasting the generation of construction and demolition material and identif ing the fill demands for reclamation and site formation proLects+ The MF% has the responsibilit to identif and manage the suppl and demand of marine fill resources in Hong Kong+ The #F% and MF% should be consulted for the use of fill materials as appropriate during the planning of marine *or.en do*n belo* this si>e or deposited in areas *here no building development *ill ta. :uasi@government and maLor private proLects+ The #F% is responsible for overall management and coordination of the use of public fill and the provision and operation of public filling.e place+ The #ublic Fill %ommittee 7#F%8 and Marine Fill %ommittee 7MF%8. are responsible for the management of the use of fill materials for government.

it is necessar to ta. as :ualit control of in@situ *or. the life of a structure ma be significantl reduced due to the corrosive marine environment and *ear and tear of dail operation+ This ma lead to the need for serious remedial *or. . reference can be made to the guidance on the choice and specification given in %hapter 0 of this #art of the Manual+ 5se of protective coatings or cathodic protection and implementation of corrosion monitoring measures ma also be considered to protect the reinforcement or steel from corrosion+ These aspects should be considered collectivel in the design stage *ith respect to the particular site and operational conditions in order to optimi>e the maintenance effort in the future+ %areful detailing of the structure *ill also have a beneficial effect on future maintenance+ Some suggestions are provided as follo*s $     .a outs or shapes of elements that *ill be subLect to fre:uent usage or *ear and tear should be detailed in such a *a to minimi>e damage and to avoid malpractice of operations+ Simple structural forms and precast or prefabricated units *ith the minimum of in@situ connections should be adopted *herever possible.<< 6* 6*1 MAINTENANCE CONSIDERATIONS General This chapter outlines the general principles that should be considered *ith respect to maintenance in the design of a marine structure+ 6*+ Design Considerations Marine structures re:uire regular inspection and maintenance in the course of their life to ensure satisfactor long@term performance of the structures+ .s in the tidal >one is generall more difficult+ Attention should be paid to detailing to avoid congested reinforcement so that the concrete can be easil placed and subse:uentl compacted+ For pier fenders *hich is fre:uentl subLect to the berthing loads of vessels.s or even replacement of the structure *ithin an une?pectedl short time+ Hence.ithout proper maintenance.e into consideration future maintenance aspects during the design stage+ #roper choice and specification of materials are important to ensure the durabilit of marine structures as this *ill affect the re:uired maintenance effort in the future+ 1n this connection.

e into account the appearance and functions of the structure and advice should be sought from the maintenance authorit before finali>ing these details+ Specific re:uirements on maintenance facilities for piers. dolphins.*aters 6*1 Design Me$orand($ and Maintenan"e Man(al 'n completion of the design. together *ith the as@constructed dra*ings.s or structures re:uiring special inspection.s or structures+ This should be updated at the end of construction if necessar to include an as@constructed modifications to the original design+ Such information should form the basis for the maintenance records considered appropriate b the maintenance authorit . monitoring or maintenance techni:ues+ .s.s or structures *ith the use of non@routine design. should be passed to the maintenance authorit + . should be submitted to the maintenance authorit to recommend the maintenance *or.s or structures+ As a general guidance. the designer should provide the design memorandum containing all the information relevant to the marine *or. a maintenance manual should be prepared for the maintenance authorit under the follo*ing circumstances $    .*aters *ill be given in the follo*ing parts of the Manual $   #art ! $ Guide to (esign of #iers and (olphins #art 2 $ Guide to (esign of Sea*alls and -rea. a maintenance manual. access *al. fi?ing or lifting hoo. inspection openings and associated safet measures as appropriate+ The design of these maintenance facilities should ta. to help redistribution of the berthing load and to provide additional fi?ing for the fender units+ 6*0 Maintenan"e 'a"ilities %onsideration should be given to the provision of facilities to facilitate inspection and maintenance+ These facilities should include access holes. facilities or materials+ Marine *or.*a s.s or structures that *ill re:uire significant input of maintenance resources+ Marine *or.arge scale marine *or. on completion of the design.<C e?tra members ma be added on the fender frame*or. guard rails. sea*alls and brea. ladders. re:uired+ The maintenance manual should also be updated as necessar at the end of construction before handing over the *or.

monitoring re:uirements.C" The maintenance manual should contain a description of the maintenance obLectives. criteria for maintenance actions and recommended maintenance *or. the li. an inspection programme. or procedures+ An items *hich re:uire specialist input and use of special maintenance e:uipment or monitoring devices should be identified and brought to the attention of the maintenance authorit + The maintenance manual should be prepared b the designer in consultation *ith the maintenance authorit + .el failure modes.

C) .

:ualit of materials and surface te?tures+ Since the introduction of a structure *ill invariabl modif the setting of a local environment. seafront and adLacent landscape and their appearance ma have a significant impact on the visual :ualit of the surroundings+ Therefore. models and photo@montages to assist in the three@ dimensional perception of the la out of the structure throughout the design process+ Alternative forms of the structure should be compared in order to determine an aestheticall pleasing solution+ 1n addition. colour. and consideration should commence in the preliminar design stage as it *ill have a significant bearing on subse:uent design process+ 7*+ Prin"i#les Garious aspects of a marine structure *ould affect public perception of *hether it is aestheticall pleasing+ &?amples of these include the form. seafront characteristics and scenic elements in order to achieve successful integration *ith the environment+ To full appreciate the appearance of a marine structure. computer graphics.e considerable improvement to the appearance *ithout leading to significant increase in cost+ . landscape appropriate. a designer should ma. the advice of architect7s8 or landscape architect7s8 should be sought+ The sustainabilit of the appearance in the long term is also important to ensure that the structures remain attractive throughout its design life+ 1n this connection. good appearance should also aim at fitting the structure *ith the surroundings+ A structure *ith a harmonising appearance *ith the surroundings means that there should be no discordant features and the structure=s attributes such as form. good appearance is an important element in design. the follo*ing points should be noted $  5se of durable materials or protective coatings *hich *ill not deteriorate .C! 7* 7*1 AEST&ETICS General Marine structures can be ver dominant features in the harbour. careful design of the form and detailing of the structure together *ith sound appreciation of the site characteristics could ma. te?ture and colour should blend in a positive *a *ith the corresponding characteristics of the surroundings+ Attention should also be paid to the relationship of the structure *ith adLacent buildings.e use of visual aids including dra*ings. dimensional proportion.

should be confined to components *hich can be readil replaced+ %areful detailing to reduce chance of damage or spoiling of surfaces or components due to accident or improper use.ess durable materials. if used.C6      significantl *ith time+ . and to avoid eas trap of refuse and floating debris+ #roper provision of facilities in the structure for cleaning and maintenance+ %lose supervision to avoid improper construction practices that ma affect the durabilit of the structure+ S stematic inspection and repair programme to maintain the structures in good condition+ .

!2p+ -S1 7)CC9b8+ Stainless Steels+ #art ! K Technical (eliver %onditions for Steel #lates and Strip for General #urposes 7-S &B )""<<@!$)CC98+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. AS%&. .ondon+ -S1 7)CC)8+ %athodic #rotection+ #art ) K %ode of #ractice for .ondon.ondon. 2<p+ . Gl. )2p+ -uilding (evelopment -Lerrum. Hong Kong. et al+ 7)C<08+ 5se of 1n@situ Tests For Foundation (esign on %la + )2th Specialt %onferences on the 5se of 1n@situ tests in Geotechncial &ngineering+ #roc+ of Soil Mechanics and Foundation (ivision. . . . !<p+ -S1 7)CC2b8+ Maritime Structures K #art 2 $ %ode of #ractice for (esign of Fendering and Mooring S stem 7-S 062C@2$)CC28+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. .C2 RE'ERENCES Aas. )CC" to )CC<8+ #h sical Testing of Rubber 7-S C"68+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. #urdue 5niversit . . Hong Kong+ (epartment. pp )@6"+ -(( 7)C<68+ %ode of #ractice on . 2"p+ -S1 7)CC2a8+ Hot Finished Structural Hollo* Sections of Bon Allo and Fine Grain Structural Steels+ Technical (eliver Re:uirements 7-S &B )"!)"@)$)CC28+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. .ist of Stainless Steels 7-S &B )""<<@)$)CC98+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. .ments on soft ground+ #roc+ AS%& Specialt %onference on &arth and &arth@Supported Structures.ondon. 2<p+ -S1 7)CC9a8+ Stainless Steels+ #art ) K . . Sheet and Strip+ #art ! K Specification for Stainless and Heat@ resisting Steel #lates.ondon. Gol+ !+ -S1 7)C<68+ Steel #late.ind &ffects. ))0p+ -S1 7)CC68+ Hot Rolled #roducts of Bon Allo Structural Steels+ Technical (eliver %onditions 7-S &B )""!9$)CC68+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution.ondon.ondon.ondon.+ 7)CH!8+ &mban.and and Marine Applications 7-S H60) #art )$)CC)8+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. )0p+ -S1 7several parts. Sheets and Strip 7-S )22C #art !$)C<68+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution.

elded Structural Sections of Bon Allo and Fine Grain Steel+ Tolerances. . 22p+ -S1 7)CC0a8+ Hot Rolled Sheet #iling of Bon Allo Steel+ Technical (eliver %onditions 7-S &B)"!2<@)$)CC08+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution.ondon.ondon+ . . !0p+ -S1 7)CCHb8+ %old Formed .ondon. )0p+ -S1 7)CC0b8+ Hot Rolled Sheet #iling of Bon Allo Steel+ Tolerances on Shape and (imensions 7-S &B)"!2<@!$)CC08+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. Materials and . )CC<8+ #aints and Garnishes K %orrosion #rotection of Steel Structures b #rotective #aint S stems 7-S &B 1S' )!C22@) to <$)CC<8+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. . Allo and Stainless Steels 7-S CH" #art )$)CC08+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. -ars. Rods and sections for General #urposes 7-S &B )""<<@6$)CC98+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution.ondon.ondon. . )0p+ -S1 7)CC0c8+ Specification for .ondon. 62p+ -S1 7)CCHc8+ Specification for Gisual Strength Grading of Hard*ood 7-S 9H90$)CCH8+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution.or. (imensions.ondon. )<p+ -S1 7)CCHd8+ Hot Finished Structural Hollo* Sections of Bon@allo and Fine Grain Structural Steels+ Tolerances. )0<p+ -S1 7)CCHa8+ %old Formed . . and Sectional #roperties 7-S &B )"!)C@!$)CCH8+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. .ondon.elded Structural Sections of Bon Allo and Fine Grain Steel+ Technical (eliver Re:uirements 7-S &B )"!)C@)$)CCH8+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. . 9!p+ -S1 7)CC0d8+ Structural 5se of Timber+ #art ! K %ode of #ractice for #ermissible Stress (esign.rought Steels for Mechanical and Allied &ngineering #urposes+ #art ) K General 1nspection and Testing #rocedures and Specific Re:uirements for %arbon.ondon.manship 7-S 9!0< #art !$)CC08+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. 6"p+ -S1 7< parts. . .ondon. %arbon Manganese. . and Sectional #roperties 7-S &B )"!)"@!$)CC28+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution.C9 -S1 7)CC9c8+ Stainless Steels+ #art 6 K Technical (eliver %onditions for Semi@finished #roducts. (imensions.

aterfront Structures of the Societ for Harbour &ngineering and the German Societ for Soil Mechanics and Foundation &ngineering.ind Speeds near Sea@level during Tropical % clone %onditions in Hong Kong+ Ro al 'bservator .e (ata for the Hong Kong Region 7G%' #ublication Bo+ )3C)8+ Geotechnical %ontrol 'ffice.ater*a s+ The %ommittee for . 6)p+ &A5 7)CC"8+ Recommendations of the %ommittee for . Technical Bote Bo+ 29. 609p+ G%' 7)C<<8+ Guide to Roc.e Resistance of -uildings and Marine Reclamation Fills in Hong Kong 7G&' Report Bo+ )08+ Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice. . German + G%' 7)C<0 to )CC"8+ Hong Kong Geological Surve Memoirs Bo+ ) to 6+ Geolog of Sha Tin. Hong Kong. Hong Kong. )<Cp+ %&( 7)CC28+ Model Specification for #rotective %oatings for %oncrete+ %ivil &ngineering (epartment.estern Be* Territories+ Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice.ap Ko. )"9p+ %hen.""" scale maps+ .aterfront Structures..ondon. plus )$9. Hong Kong. Tsing Ai. and the . and Soil (escriptions 7Geoguide 68+ Geotechnical %ontrol 'ffice. %he. Hong Kong. Hong Kong. Harbours and . Hong Hong Kong. and Ma 'n Shan+ Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice. Hong Kong 1sland and Ko*loon. Borth . 99p+ G&' 7)CC! to )CC08+ Hong Kong Geological Surve Sheet Reports Bo+ ) to 9+ Geolog of Auen .ong. .antau 1sland and Ma .""" scale maps+ G%' 7)C<H8+ Guide to Site 1nvestigation 7Geoguide !8+ Geotechnical %ontrol 'ffice. 26p+ %hin R . T+A+ 7)CH98+ %omparison of Surface . Hong Kong.inds in Hong Kong+ Ro al 'bservator . plus )$!". Technical Bote Bo+ 2). Hong Kong.C0 -S1 7!"""8+ Maritime Structures K #art ) $ %ode of #ractice for General %riteria 7-S 062C@ )$!"""8+ -ritish Standards 1nstitution. ))9p+ G&' 7)CC!8+ &arth:ua.eong 7)CH<8+ &stimation of . )C)p+ G%' 7)CC)8+ Revie* of &arth:ua.

Abbreviations.""" scale maps+ G&' 7!"""b8+ The /uaternar Geolog of Hong Kong+ Hong Kong Geological Surve Memoir. Hong Kong. plus )$!".ile R Sons. Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice. )<)p plus four )$)"". Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice. and Sai Kung and %lear . Hong Kong. pp+))!C@)!!9+ HKH' 7)CCH8+ HK %hart ) K S mbols. Hong Kong. G&' Report Bo+ 99+ Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice.CH G&' 7)CC6a8+ Guide to Retaining . Hong Kong+ G&' 7)CC9 to )CC08+ Hong Kong Geological Surve Memoirs Bo+ 2 to 0+ Geolog of the Bortheastern Be* Territories. Hong Kong.""" scale maps+ G&' 7)CC08+ %onventional and %RS Ro*e %ell %onsolidation Test on Some Hong Kong %la s. Hong Kong. G&' Report Bo+ 66+ Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice. !"Cp plus si? )$)"". Hong Kong. Gol 6+ &ffective Stress Tests+ Qohn . 9!p+ G&' 7!"""a8+ The #re@/uaternar Geolog of Hong Kong+ Hong Kong Geological Surve Memoir. .aves+ The Hong Kong #ol technic 5niversit + . Hong Kong.antau (istrict.ater -a + Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice.aborator Testing. Marine (epartment. 1nc..""" scale maps+ G&' 7!"")8+ Model Specification for Soil Testing+ Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice.all (esign 7Geoguide )8. Second &dition+ Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice. 6C)p+ Head. 0"p+ HK#5 7)CC98+ Bumerical Hindcast Stud of T phoon Generated . Be* Aor. Hong Kong+ G&' 7)CCH8+ #ilot Stud of &ffects of Soil amplification of Seismic Ground Motions in Hong Kong 7G&' Technical Bote TB 93CH8+ Geotechnical &ngineering 'ffice. Terms used on Hong Kong %harts+ H drographic 'ffice. K+H+ 7)C<98+ Manual of Soil . !0Hp+ G&' 7)CC6b8+ An &valuation of the Suitabilit of (ecomposed Granite as Foundation -ac.fill for Gravit Sea*alls in Hong Kong.

ave Absorbing Sea*alls+ 5niversit of Hong Kong+ HK#5 7!"""8+ Qoint #robabilit Anal sis of &?treme Sea .+%+ 7)C<!8+ Tropical % clones %ausing #ersistent Gales at the Ro al 'bservator )<<2 K )C9H and at .s -ureau Technical %ircular Bo+ !!3!""" K &nhanced /ualit Supervision and Assurance for #ile Foundation .or. Supplement to #1AB% -ulletin. A+%+ 7)CC28+ Ground 1mprovement Methods for Hong Kong Marine Mud+ Geotechnical Seminar. )"<p+ #oon. B+. 00)p+ Hong Kong Government 7)CC!a8+ General Specifications for %ivil &ngineering .aglan 1sland )C96 K )C<"+ Ro al 'bservator .ave . K+S+ R %han. B+ R 'lliver.or. et al+ 7)CHH8+ Stress@(eformation and Strength %haracteristics+ State@of@art Report. Cth 1nternational %onference of Soil Mechanics and Foundation &ngineering. Technical Bote Bo+ 00. pp+ 2!)@2C2+ '%(1 7!""!8+ Qapanese Technical Standards for #ort and Harbour Facilities *ith %ommentar 7)CCC &dition8+ 'verseas %oastal (evelopment Research 1nstitute.add.evel and . 6 volumes+ 5niversit of Hong Kong+ HK5 7)CC<8+ Stud of 1nner Harbour .s -ureau. Hong Kong+ .aves and their Reduction K Final Report. o+ #1AB% and 1A#H 7)CCH8+ Approach %hannels $ A Guide for (esign+ Final Report of #T%11@ 6". 6"0p+ .ave Height K Final Report+ The Hong Kong #ol technic 5niversit + Ho. %+%+. Gol+ !. 6 volumes+ Hong Kong Government 7)CC!b8+ General Specifications for %ivil &ngineering .. no+ C9. Hong Kong.ave Statistics+ -ritish Maritime Technolog .C< HK5 7)CCH8+ Stud of 1nner Harbour . (acunha. To. 66p+ . G+ 7)C<08+ Global .s+ . .s+ Hong Kong Government.aves and their Reduction K . pp <9@)"!+ Hogben.oading (etermination for .7!"""8+ .or.or. Hong Kong 1nstitution of &ngineers.s $ Guidance Botes+ Hong Kong Government.or.

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