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KULLIYYAH OF ENGINEERING

MEC 4627: Vehicle Instrumentations and Electrical Systems

SEMESTER 1, 2013/2014 SESSION

E2PERIME " 3.4 364 374 3,


POWER

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'ecturer: !ssc#Pro5 %r#!taur Rahman Section: ) %ue date o5 su6mission: 26 %ecem6er 2*). %ate o5 su6mission: 26 %ecem6er 2*).

EXPERIMENT 3: "he Study o5 !utomoti7e Electronics &sin8 "he !tech )9** Series !utomoti7e Electrical:Electronic "rainin8 System

OBJECTIVE: %e5ine electricity and identi5y automoti7e sources o5 electricity# Identi5y common electrical sym6ols used in ser7ice manual schematics# ; %e5ine the <ro<erties o5 electricity4 includin8: EM1 <otential =7olta8e>4 current =am<eres>4 resistance =ohms>4 and <o?er =?atts># ; E@<lain the di55erence=s> 6et?een !C and %C current# ; %e5ine 7olta8e dro<# ; %escri6e ho? the multimeter must 6e set;u< and the leads connected to a circuit to measure 7olta8e4 7olta8e dro<4 current 5lo?4 and resistance# ; E@<lain the OhmAs 'a? relationshi< 6et?een 7olta8e4 current4 and resistance# ; &sin8 OhmAs 'a?4 detemine 7olta8e4 am<era8e4 and ohm 7alues o5 sam<le circuits# ; E@<lain 6asic circuit elements4 includin8 source4 <rotection4 control load4 and 8round# ; %escri6e the characteristics o5 series4 <arallel4 and series;<arallel circuits# ; %escri6e the di55erent ty<es o5 circuit 5aults and their e55ects on automoti7e electrical circuits# ; E@<lain the use and o<eration o5 automoti7e circuit com<onents that use electroma8netic induction4 includin8 relays4 solenoids4 and trans5ormers# COMPONENT:

EXPERIMENT ! 4

!ssem6le the circuit sho?n on the <re7ious <a8e# With the <o?er o554 measure the resistance o5 R)# "hen a<<ly <o?er to the circuit and measure the 7olta8e dro< across R) and the current 5lo?in8 throu8h R)# Record the results in the ta6le 6elo?# e@t4 remo7e <o?er 5rom the circuit and re<lace R) ?ith R2# Re<eat the three measurements: resistance =<o?er o55>4 7olta8e dro<4 and current# !8ain4 record your results in the ta6le 6elo?# Resistor R) )**B R2 )*CB . Resistance =ohms> )** )*C Volta8e %ro<=Volts> )#7+ )* Current=!m<eres> )7#+m )m

EXPERIMENT " 1 E@<eriment O6Decti7e: P#$%& O'()* L+, $- + ./#.0/1# Eo to the "echline terminal and locate a ci8ar li8hter circuit# !ssem6le a sim<li5ied 7ersion o5 that circuit on your <roDect 6oard# &se a sim<le s?itch as a su6stitute 5or the i8nition s?itch# When you ha7e con5irmed that the circuit ?orCs correctly4 <er5orm a current measurement# Recall that the %VOM must 6e ?ired in series ?ith the circuit in order to measure current# Current;5lo? in ci8ar;li8hter circuit: )# With ci8ar li8hter <o<<ed out 0A 2# With ci8ar li8hter <ressed in "A .# &se OhmAs 'a? to determine the a<<ro@imate resistance o5 the ci8ar li8hter element# 2 O'(* 4#%isconnect the ci8arli8hter 5rom the <o?er su<<ly on the <roDect 6oard# %e<ress the li8hter into the socCet and measure the resistance o5 the ci8ar li8hter element# 2 O'(* +# %id your <redicted resistance match your measured resistance =a<<ro@imately>F Y&* Where in the "echline terminalAs Electtonic Ser7ice In5ormation =ESI> did you 5ind the ci8ar li8hterF 7# %urin8 your dia8nosis ?orC at the dealershi<4 ?hen ?ould you 5ind a use 5or OhmAs 'a?F 2'&- 1,$ 3&./3&3 ,'&1'&# 4$0 ,+1 1'& ./5+# 6/5'1&# $# -$1 EXPERIMENT 7 1 OBJECTIVE: %emonstrate that 7olta8e dro<s across a load# THEORY:

In this e@<eriment4 ?e are reGuirin8 to measure the 7olta8e dro<s across the load# Volta8e is reGuired to <ush current throu8h a load4 ?hich is source o5 resistance# "he amount o5 7olta8e used is called a 7olta8e dro<# In order to <er5orm this e@<eriment4 ?e are usin8 so5t?are <ro7ided in the la6# !ctually our circuit in this e@<eriment is series circuit# Re5er 5i8ure 7;2# "he 5ollo?in8 are characteristics o5 all series circuits: )# Volta8e dro<s add u< to the source 7olta8e 2# "here is only one <ath 5or current to 5lo? .# "he same current 5lo?s throu8h e7ery com<onent# In other ?ords4 ?e ?ill 8et the same current measurement at any <oint alon8 the circuit# 4# Since the only one <ath in a series circuit4 an o<en any?here in the circuit sto<s current 5lo?s# +# Indi7idual resistances add u< to the total resistance#

)> Measure the 7olta8e 5rom )2V to 8round=source 7olta8e>: 12V 2> Measure the 7olta8e dro< 5rom )2V ta< to the to< o5 the 6ul6: 0V .> Measure the 7olta8e dro<) across 6ul6:12V 4> Measure 5rom the 6ottom o5 the 6ul6 to the 8round:0V +> !dd the 7olta8e dro<s=Guestion2;4>#H 12V %o they eGual the source 7olta8e=Guestion )>F: Y&* 6> Place the red lead in the 8round ta<# What is the 7olta8e measurementF 0V 7> Measure the 7olta8e to the 6ottom o5 the 6ul6: 0V 9> Measure the 7olta8e to the to< o5 the 6ul6: 12V +

,> Measure the 7olta8e to the )2V ta<: 12V Conclusion: What is the measured 7olta8e dro< across the 6ul6 in Guestion .F 12V What is the 7olta8e measured a6o7e the 6ul6 in Guestion 9F 12V What is the 7olta8e measured a6o7e the 6ul6 in Guestion 7F 0V Su6tract the 7olta8e 6elo? the 6ul6 5rom the 7olta8e a6o7e the 6ul6# %oes it eGual the 7olta8e dro< measured in Guestion .F I Y&*

8ISCUSSION: In this e@<eriment ?e are measured the 7olta8e dro<s in series circuit# We are 5ollo?in8 the OhmJs 'a? ?hich is VH IR# In a series circuit in 5i8ure 7#24 )2Vs are used u< <ushin8 current throu8h the 6ul6: "here5ore4 the 7olta8e dro< is )2 Volts# "his means that 7olta8e measured 6e5ore the 6ul6 is )2 7olts4 and 7olta8e measured a5ter the 6ul6 ?ill 6e Kero 7olts# In a series circuit4 the total o5 all the 7olta8e dro<s eGuals source 7olta8e# I5 they are t?o de7ices in a series circuit4 each de7ice ?ill dro< <art o5 the 7olta8e# In a series circuit4 the action o5 any de7ice a55ects the entire circuit# Re5er to the circuit in 5i8ure 7#24 i5 the s?itch is o<en4 there ?ill 6e )2 7olts at <oint !4 6ut Kero 7olts at <oints ( and C# i5 the s?itch is o<en4 there is no current 5lo? throu8h the circuit# !5ter ?e closed the s?itch current ?ill 5lo? throu8h the circuit# !ccordin8 to the results ?e 8ot in this e@<eriment4 ?e can <ro7e that: Volta8e dro< across the 6ul6 in Guestion . H )2 V Volta8e measure a6o7e the 6ul6 in Guestion 9 H )2 V Volta8e measured 6elo? the 6ul6 in Guestion 7 H *V Volta8e dro< measures in Guestion . a5ter su6tracted the 7olta8e 6elo? the 6ul6 5rom the 7olta8e a6o7e the 6ul6: )2 V I * V H )2 V# "his 7alue actually same ?ith the 7alue in Guestion .# "his is 6ecause the added u< o5 the 7olta8e dro<s in a series circuit is eGual to the

source 7olta8e# !lso the current is same in any?here <ath o5 the circuit# CONCLUSION: We are success5ully archi7es our main o6Decti7e at the end o5 this e@<eriment# "he 7olta8e dro<s in this e@<eriment is )2 7olts# !ctually ?e are e@<ected to 8et correct results 6ecause ?e are used so5t?are ?hich is <ro7ided in the la6# We also ha7e concluded se7eral 5indin8 in this e@<eriment such as: )# Volta8e dro<s across the series circuit is added u< to the 7olta8e source# V* 9 V1 : V2 : V3 : ;: V2# Current 5lo?s in the series circuit are same in any <ath o5 the circuit# I* 9 I1 9 I2 9 I3 9 ; 9 I-

EXPERIMENT 7 2

)# Measure the 7olta8e 5rom the )2V ta< to 8round =source 7olta8e>: 12V 2# Measure the 7olta8e dro< 5rom the )2V ta< to the to< o5 the 5irst 6ul6: 0V .# Measure the 7olta8e dro< )across the 5irst 6ul6: "V 4# Measure the 7olta8e dro< o5 the Dum<er ?ire 6et?een the t?o 6ul6s:0V +# Measure the 7olta8e dro< 2 across the second 6ul6: "V 6# Measure 5rom the 6ottom o5 the second 6ul6 to the 8round: 0V 7# !dd the 7olta8e dro<s =Guestions 2;6># %o they eGual the source 7olta8e =Guestion I>F 4&* M&+*0#& 1'& %$61+5& +* .$(<+#&3 1$ 5#$0-3= P6+.& 1'& >6+.? 6&+3 $@ 1'& (&1&# /- 1'& 5#$0-3 1+< 30#/-5 A0&*1/$-* B 1'#$05' 13= 9# Place the red lead in the 8round ta<# What is the 7olta8e measurementF 0V ,# Measure the 7olta8e to the 6ottom o5 the second 6ul6:0V )*# Measure the 7olta8e to the to< o5 the second 6ul6: "V ))# Measure the 7olta8e to the 6ottom o5 the 5irst 6ul6: "V )2# Measure the 7olta8e to the to< o5 the 5irst 6ul6:12V ).# Measure the 7olta8e to the )2V ta<: 12V

C$-.60*/$)4# What is the measured 7olta8e dro< across the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion .F "V )+# What is the 7olta8e measured a6o7e the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion )2F 12V )6# What is the 7olta8e measured 6elo? the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion ))F "V )7# Su6tract the 7olta8e 6elo? the 5irst 6ul6 5rom the 7olta8e a6o7e the 5irst 6ul6# %oes it eGual the 7olta8e dro< measured in Guestion .F WhyF "V; >&.+0*& %$61+5& 3#$<* $@ 1'& >06>* ,/66 >& &A0+6 +-3 (0*1 +33 0< 1$ 1'& *$0#.& %$61+5&

EXPERIMENT 7 3

)# Measure the 7olta8e 5rom the )2V ta< to 8round =source 7olta8e>: 12V 2# Measure the 7olta8e dro< 5rom )2V ta< to the to< o5 the 5irst 6ul6: 0V .# Measure the 7olta8e dro< ) across the 5irst 6ul6: 1=2CV 4# Measure the 7olta8e dro< o5 the Dum<er ?ire 6et?een the t?o 6ul6s: 0V +# Measure the 7olta8e dro< 2 across the second 6ul6: 10=71V 6# Measure 5rom the 6ottom o5 the second 6ul6 to the 8round: 0V 7# !dd the 7olta8e dro< =Guestion 2;6>#=)2V>%o they eGual the source 7olta8e =Guestion )>F Y&* 9# Place the red lead in the 8round ta<# What is the 7olta8e measurementF 0V ,# Measure the 7olta8e to the 6ottom o5 the second 6ul6:0V )*# Measure the 7olta8e to the to< o5 the second 6ul6: 10=71V ))# Measure the 7olta8e to the 6ottom o5 the 5irst 6ul6: 10=71V )2# Measure the 7olta8e to the to< o5 the 5irst 6ul6:12V ).# Measure the 7olta8e to the )2V ta<: 12V )4# What is the measured 7olta8e dro< across the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion .F 1=2CV )*

)+# What is the 7olta8e measured a6o7e the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion )2F 12V )6# What is the 7olta8e measured 6elo? the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion ))F 10=71V )7# Su6tract the 7olta8e 6elo? the 5irst 6ul6 5rom the 7olta8e a6o7e the 5irst 6ul6# %oes it eGual the 7olta8e dro< measured in Guestion .F WhyF 1=2CV EXPERIMENT 7 4

)# Measure the 7olta8e 5rom the )2V ta< to 8round =source 7olta8e>: 12V 2# Measure the 7olta8e dro< 5rom the )2V ta< to the to< o5 the 5irst 6ul6: 0V .# Measure the 7olta8e dro< )across the 5irst 6ul6: 10=71V 4# Measure the 7olta8e dro< o5 the Dum<er ?ire 6et?een the t?o 6ul6s: 0V +# Measure the 7olta8e dro< 2 across the second 6ul6: 1=2CV 6# Measure 5rom the 6ottom o5 the second 6ul6 to the 8round: 0V 7# !dd the 7olta8e dro<s =Guestions 2 throu8h 6># %o they eGual the source 7olta8e =Guestion )>F 12V M&+*0#& 1'& %$61+5& +* .$(<+#&3 1$ 5#$0-3= P6+.& 1'& >6+.? 6&+3 $@ 1'& (&1&# /- 1'& 5#$0-3 1+< 30#/-5 A0&*1/$-* B 1'#$05' 13= 9# Place the red lead in the 8round ta<# What is the 7olta8e measurementF 0V ,# Measure the 7olta8e to the 6ottom o5 the second 6ul6: 0V )*# Measure the 7olta8e to the to< o5 the second 6ul6: 1=2CV ))

))# Measure the 7olta8e to the 6ottom o5 the 5irst 6ul6: 1=2CV )2# Measure the 7olta8e to the to< o5 the 5irst 6ul6: 12V ).# Measure the 7olta8e to the )2V ta<: 12V C$-.60*/$)4# What is the measured 7olta8e dro< across the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion .F 10=71V )+# What is the 7olta8e measured a6o7e the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion )2F 12V )6# What is the 7olta8e measured 6elo? the 5irst 6ul6 in Guestion ))F 1=2CV )7# Su6tract the 7olta8e 6elo? the 5irst 6ul6 5rom the 7olta8e a6o7e the 5irst 6ul6# %oes it eGual the 7olta8e dro< measured in Guestion .F Y&* )9# $o? has the <osition o5 the small 6ul6 a55ected the circuit di55erently 5rom the <re7ious e@erciseFB4 +33/-5 1'& #&*/*1+-.& >4 1'& >06> /1*&6@ +* 1'& .0##&-1 /* #&30.&3

EXPERIMENT 7 !

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)# With only the tailli8ht in the circuit4 measure the current 5lo? in the circuit: 2A 2# Calculate the resistance o5 the tailli8ht: 1D .# !dd the t?o other 6ul6s and measure the current 5lo?: 1C3=!(A 4# Calculate the resistance o5 the circuit: 7D +# Why donAt the t?o tailli8hts illuminateF L&** %$61+5& 6# Which li8ht 6ul6=s> do you thinC ?ill ha7e the most 7olta8e dro<FS(+66 >06>

).

EXPERIMENT 7 "

Measure 7olta8e 6et?een each o5 the 5ollo?in8 <airs o5 <oints and record the readin8s# )# Record measurements: )4

) to2 12 . to 4 12 + to 6 12 7 to 9 12

7olts 7olts 7olts 7olts

2# !re the 7olta8e dro<s in the three 6ranches eGualF Y&* .# %oes the sum o5 the .;44s;64 and 7;9 7olta8e dro<s eGual the su<<ly 7olta8eF N$ 4# Should itF N$ +# Why do you thinC all 6ranches o5 a <arallel circuit dro< an eGual amount o5 7olta8eF I1 @$66$,* 1'& L+, $@ <+#+66&6 ./#.0/1

)+

EXPERIMENT 7 7

)# What is the total current 5lo? throu8h the circuit ?ith only one li8ht connectedF ote: Connect the ammeter 6et?een the )2;V ta< and the ?ire 8oin8 to the 5use# 'ea7e the ammeter connected as each 6ranch is added# 2A 2# With the marCer li8ht added to the circuit4 ?hat is the total current 5lo? throu8h the circuitF : 2=24A .# With the tailli8ht added to the circuit4 ?hat is the total current 5lo? throu8h the circuitF : 4=24A 4# With the )**;ohm resistor added to the circuit4 ?hat is the total current 5lo? throu8h the circuitF : 4=3"A +# With the )***;ohm resistor added to the circuit4 ?hat is the total current 5lo? throu8h the circuitF : 4=37A

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6# %id the current 5lo? increase as more 6ranches ?ere added to the circuitF: Y&* 7# When the )***;ohm resistor ?as added to the circuit4 ?hy did the total current 5lo? only increase sli8htlyF : 1'& .0##&-1 $@ 1'& ./#.0/1 ,+* 3/%/3&3 /-1$ >#+-.'&*= 9# In E@<eriment 7;+=series circuit>4 you demonstrated that the addition o5 resistance in a series circuit decreased the current# Only the marCer 6ul6 ?as illuminated in that circuit# Why do all three 6ul6s in this <arallel circuit illuminatedF : ,# What ha<<ens ?hen a resistance is added in series ?ith one li8ht 6ul6F : 2'&- 1'& #&*/*1+-.& /-.#&+*&* /- *&#/&*, T'& .0##&-1 /* 3&.#&+*&3 )*# What does the resistance in series ?ith that 6ranch o5 the <arallel circuit simulateF : T$1+6 #&*/*1+-.& ))# $a7e you e7er seen a circuit liCe this on a 7ehicleF : N$ )2# What ?ould 6e the 6est ?ay to dia8nose a circuit liCe this on a 7ehicleF U*/-5 O'((&1&# !dd a )**;ohm resistor in series ?ith one o5 the lar8e tailli8ht 6ul6# ).# Measure the 7olta8e dro< across the resistor: 11=32V

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EXPERIMENT 7 B

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)# Measure the 7olta8e dro< at 'ocation ): "=32 V and at 'ocation 2 : !="B V 2# Measure the resistance at 'ocation ): 1"0 D .# Measure the resistance o5 each resistor in the <arallel <ortion o5 the circuit: R29100D, R391?D, R4910?D ),

4# Measure the current o5 each 6ranch o5 the <arallel <ortion o5 the circuit: I29!"=B(A, I39"3=04B(A, I490=!"(A +# &se the OhmJs 'a? to 5i8ure out the total resistance 5or the <arallel circuit: 6# Measure the resistance at 'ocation 2: C0=1D %oes it match your calculationF: Y&* 7# Measure the resistance at 'ocation .: 1C0=1D 9# %oes the resistance at 'ocation ) and 2 add u< to the resistance you measured at 'ocation .F: Y&* ,# Calculate the total circuit current usin8 OhmJs 'a?: "3=1(A )*# Measure the total circuit current: "3=1(A %oes it match your calculationF: Y&*

2*

EXPERIMENT 7 C

2)

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EXPERIMENT C 1

)# %oes the com<ass mo7e ?hen the relay is acti7atedF I Y&* 2# Measure the current throu8h the coil o5 the relay# I 200(A .# Measure the current throu8h the door locC actuator side o5 the circuit: ; 2=40 A 4# What is the <ur<ose o5 the relay in the circuitF ; +# When the relay ?as ener8iKed4 the com<ass mo7ed# What does the mo7ement o5 the com<ass <ro7eF I &E/*1&-.& $@ &6&.1#$(+5-&1/. @$#.&

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8ISCUSSION F CONCLUSION In this e@<eriment4 ?e are usin8 the !"EC$ )9** SERIES automoti7e electric:electronic trainin8 system in order to achie7e the desired o6Decti7es stated early in this <art o5 re<ort# (y usin8 this system4 ?e do analyKe e7ery theoretical 5act in automoti7e electrical:electronic 5ield4 in order to <ractically understand and 8ras< all the conce<ts ?hich lay 6ehind all these theoretical 5act# 1rom e@<eriment +;44 ?e do in7esti8ate one o5 the <arameter ?hich is 6asically used in electrical automoti7e system4 ?hich is OhmJs 'a?# In this e@<eriment4 ?e are 8oin8 to o6ser7e the e55ect o5 di55erent 7alue o5 resistance used to the circuit current as ?ell as 7olta8e dro< across the 6ul6# !s ?e can see 5rom the results 6elo?: Resistor R) )**B R2 )*CB Resistance =ohms> )** )*C Volta8e %ro<=Volts> )#7+ )* Current=!m<eres> )7#+m )m

We can conclude that as 7alue o5 the resistance increase4 7olta8e dro< ?ill 6e increase4 ?hereas the resultin8 circuit current is decrease# 1or e@<eriment 7#)4 ?e need to <er5orm a circuit o6tained as reGuired 6y the la6 manual# In this e@<eriment4 ?e do measure the 7olta8e dro<4 ?hich is 6asically the 7olta8e ?hich is reGuired to <ush current throu8h a load4 ?hich is the sources o5 resistance# "hus4 ?e do measure the 7olta8e across the 6ul6 ?hich is the same as the source 7olta8e4 ?hich in this case )2 V# this is 6asically the same as the theoretical 5acts ?hich is the total o5 all 7olta8e dro<s eGuals to source 7olta8e# "he same conce<t has 6een a<<lied in e@<eriment 7;24 6ut more loads =2 6ul6s> are <ro7ided in the circuit# "he o6Decti7e is 6asically to measure the 7olta8e dro< at 6ul6s# We can o6ser7e 5rom this e@<eriment that each 6ul6 ?ill ha7e same eGual amount o5 7olta8e dro< =6V each># "hus4 the amount o5 7olta8e dro< 5or 6oth 6ul6s ?ill 6e eGual to the 7olta8e source =)2V># "his ?ill satis5y the theoretical 5acts# 1rom e@<eriment 7;.4 ?e do <er5orm the desired circuit as reGuired and do conclude that 7olta8e dro< is an indirect ?ay o5 measurin8 circuitJs resistance# "his e@<eriment is 6asically to demonstrate the 7olta8e does not al?ays dro< eGually across loads in series circuit# !s resistance increase4 7olta8e dro< is also increase4 thus the circuit current is decrease# "he same case is a<<lied to e@<eriment 7;4# 1rom e@<eriment 7;+4 ?e can see that the current in a series decreases ?ith the addition o5 resistance# In this case4 the small 6ul6 ?ill ha7e the most 7olta8e dro<# In 2+

e@<eriment 7;64 ?e <ro7ed that all 6ranches o5 <arallel circuit dro< an eGual amount o5 7olta8e4 <ro7ided that all 7alue o5 resistance are the same# I5 the resistance 7alues are not the same4 then a di55erent amount o5 current ?ill 5lo? in each 6ranch4 6ut the 7olta8e ?ill remain the same in each 6ranch# !ddin8 the additional 6ranches to a <arallel circuit increases the current 5lo? throu8h the circuit4 liCe in e@<eriment 7;7# 1or e@<eriment 7;94 the circuit consists o5 series; <arallel circuit ?hich has the characteristic o5 6oth series circuit and <arallel circuit# REFFERENCES: )# Vehicle Electrical System 'a6 manual# 2# 1undamental o5 Electrical Circuits4 2nd Edition =IE>4 2**44 Charles C# !le@andria Matthe? #O# SadiCu4 Mc Era? $ill#

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