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A. PHN M U
1. L do chn ti:
Qu trnh dy hc trng trung hc c s (THCS) vch ra ba nhim v chnh
l: gip hc sinh (HS) c th nm vng h thng tri thc, pht trin nng lc nhn
thc c bit l nng lc t duy c lp sng to v pht trin nhn cch[ 3 ].
Ha hc l mt mn khoa hc thc nghim. Trong , l thuyt l c s gip HS
vn dng gii quyt nhng vn xy ra trong thc tin. Nh vy, HS cn phi
c cng c khc su thm phn l thuyt hc. Cho nn, vic gii bi tp v
thc hnh l hai khu c ngha quan trng. Thc t cho thy, s tit bi tp dnh
cho HS lp 8 trn lp rt t, HS li mi lm quen vi dng bi tp nh lng nn
chc chn s gp phi nhng kh khn nht nh trong vic gii bi tp. Bi tp v
nng dung dch ( NDD) ( thuc dng bi tp nh lng ) ra i va mang tnh
cht cng c, va l iu kin pht trin t duy cho HS, bc u hnh thnh
mt s tao tc t duy nht nh lm c s cho vic gii bi tp nh lng vi mc
cao hn, phc tp hn cc lp trn.
Hn na, vic nghin cu su v bi tp NDD gip ti khng nhng vng vng
v chuyn mn m cn c th tm ra c nhng gii php ti u nht pht trin
t duy cho HS thng qua vic gii cc bi tp ha hc (BTHH) khc, t gip
HS hc tp tt hn. Mc d vn pht trin t duy cho HS thng qua vic gii bi
tp c rt nhiu tc gi nghin cu nhng nghin cu s pht trin t duy ca
HS lp 8 trong vic gii bi ton v NDD vn cn nhiu vn m chng ta cn
phi quan tm.
Trn c s , ti chn nghin cu ti: Pht trin t duy ca hc sinh lp 8
thng qua gii cc bi ton v nng dung dch.
2. Mc tiu nghin cu:
Pht trin t duy ca HS lp 8 thng qua gii cc bi ton v NDD
3. Nhim v nghin cu:
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- 2 -
- Phn tch mc pht trin cc thao tc t duy ca HS lp 8 thng qua mt s
bi ton NDD.
- Tm hiu thc t v vic ging dy ca gio vin (GV) cng nh vic hc tp v
NDD vi mc pht trin t duy ca HS.
- xut mt s bin php pht trin t duy cho HS lp 8 thng qua gii cc
dng ton v NDD.
4. i tng nghin cu:
- Cc thao tc t duy ca HS lp 8.
- Cc dng ton v NDD ( SGK Ha hc 8, sch tham kho).
5. Phng php nghin cu:
- Phng php nghin cu l lun.
- Phng php nghin cu thc tin : qua phiu kho st, phiu phng vn v dy
mu.














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- 3 -
B. PHN NI DUNG
CHNG 1: C S L LUN
1. 1. Bi tp ha hc v bi ton ha hc:
1. 1. 1. Khi nim :
Bi tp l mt dng bi lm gm nhng bi ton, nhng cu hi hay ng
thi c bi ton v cu hi, m trong khi hon thnh chng , hc sinh nm c mt
tri thc hay k nng nht nh hoc hon thin chng [ 8 ]
Bi ton - l nhng bi lm m khi hon thnh chng hc sinh phi tin hnh
mt hot ng sng to [ 8 ]
Nh vy, bi ton l mt dng bi lm ca bi tp. Bi ton NDD thuc dng bi
tp nh lng ca BTHH.
1. 1. 2. Tc dng ca BTHH:
- Gip cho HS hiu c mt cch chnh xc cc khi nim ha hc, nm c
bn cht ca tng khi nim hc.
- C iu kin rn luyn, cng c v khc su cc kin thc ha hc c bn,
hiu c mi quan h gia cc ni dung kin thc c bn.
- Gp phn hnh thnh c nhng k nng, k xo cn thit v b mn Ha hc
HS, gip h s dng ngn ng ha hc ng, chun xc.
- C kh nng gn kt cc ni dung hc tp trng vi thc tin a dng,
phong ph ca i sng x hi hoc trong sn xut ha hc.
V cc bi ton v NDD nm trong h thng BTHH nn y cng l nhng tc
dng ca bi ton v NDD.
1. 1. 3. Bi ton v NDD: l mt dng ton nm trong chng 6: Dung dch
ca chng trnh Ha hc 8 cui chng trnh lp 8. S lng bi ton cn t,
cha a dng, ch ph hp cho HS rn luyn k nng gii ton.


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- 4 -
1. 2. T duy v s pht trin t duy:
1. 2. 1 Khi nim t duy:
Theo tm l hc: T duy l mt qu trnh tm l phn nh nhng thuc tnh bn
cht, nhng mi lin h v quan h bn trong c tnh quy lut ca s vt hi tng
trong hin thc khch quan, m trc ta cha bit.
Theo Sacdacop: T duy l s nhn thc khi qut gin tip cc s vt, hin tng
khch quan trong nhng du hiu nhng thuc tnh chung v bn cht ca chng.
T duy cng l s nhn thc sng to nhng s nhn thc sng to nhng s vt,
hin tng mi, ring l ca hin thc trn c s nhng kin thc khi qut thu
c.
Theo thuyt thng tin: T duy l hot ng tr tu nhm thu thp v x l thng tin.
Chng ta t duy hiu t nhin, x hi v chnh mnh
Xt v bn cht t duy l mt qu trnh c nhn thc hin cc thao tc tr tu nht
nh gii quyt vn , nhim v t ra [ 14 ].
Nh vy, t duy c nh gi bng cc thao tc t duy nh phn tch, tng hp,
so snh, suy lun, khi qut ha, tru tng ha, h thng ha.
1. 2. 2 Bn cht ca t duy:
1. 2. 2. 1. Phn tch v tng hp
Phn tch : l hot ng t duy phn chia mt vt, mt hin tng ra cc
yu t, cc b phn nhm mc ch nghin cu chng y , su sc, trn vn hn
theo mt hng nht nh.[ 6 ]
Tng hp l hot ng t duy kt hp cc b phn, cc yu t c
nhn thc nhn thc ci ton b.[ 6 ]
Phn tch v tng hp thng nht vi nhau : s phn tch c tin hnh theo
phng hng ca s tng hp; cn tng hp c thc hin trn kt qu ca phn
tch. [ 14 ]

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- 5 -
1. 2. 2. 2. So snh:
So snh l s xc nh nhng im ging nhau v khc nhau ca s vt, hin tng
v ca nhng khi nim phn nh chng. [ 6 ]
So snh l c s ca mi s hiu bit v t duy(K. . Usinxki).
Thao tc so snh phi km theo s phn tch v tng hp.
1. 2. 2. 3. Suy lun : gm php suy l din dch, suy l quy np v suy l tng t
hay loi suy
Din dch :L cch phn on i t nguyn l chung, ng n ti mt
trng hp ring l n nht [ 6 ]
Chng hn c th s dng s ng cho gii cc bi ton v pha ch dung
dch. Suy l din dch lm pht trin t duy logic v pht huy tnh c lp sng to
ca HS.
Qui np: L cch phn on da vo nghin cu nhng hin tng,
trng hp n l i ti kt lun chung.[ 6 ]
Suy l qui np gip cho kin thc HS c m rng v nng cao.
Loi suy: L nhng phn on i t ci ring bit ny n ci ring bit
khc tm ra nhng mi lin h c tnh quy lut ca cc cht v hin tng.[ 6 ]
Cn phi kim tra li bng thc nghim v n ch mang tnh cht gn ng nhng
phng php loi suy gip HS tit kim c thi gian trong hc tp v HS khng
th nghin cu mi cht, mi hin tng m ch nghin cu c mt s trng
hp.
1. 2. 2. 4. Khi qut ha: L tm ra nhng ci chung v bn cht trong s nhng
du hiu, tnh cht v nhng mi lin h gia chng thuc v mt lot vt th hoc
hin tng.[ 6 ]
1. 2. 2. 5. H thng ha: l thao tc t duy nhm tng hp, sp xp cc kin thc
sao cho c trt t logic, mch lc r rng.[ 6 ]
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- 6 -
1. 2. 3 Pht trin t duy: L s thay i v mt nhn thc ca HS, qu trnh ny
c nh gi bi mc linh hott ca t duy, mc s dng cc thao tc t
duy gii quyt nhanh mt vn nhng tnh hung khc nhau i hi HS phi
c tnh tch cc trong hot ng nhn thc. Nh vy, pht trin t duy ng ngha
vi vic pht trin cc thao tc t duy hay nng lc t duy ca HS, s dng chng
mt cch linh hot y cng l tnh nhy bn ca t duy.
Kt qu ca s pht trin t duy l t vic ti hin li tri thc n vn dng chng
mt s trng hp tng t ri cui cng HS c th gii quyt vn mt cch
nhanh chng trong nhng tnh hung mi.
1. 3. Mi quan h gia pht trin t duy v BTHH:
1. 3. 1. Thng qua gii cc BTHH pht trin t duy cho HS:
Qu trnh chim lnh ri thc l qu trnh din ra s tc ng qua li bin chng gia
tri thc v cc thao tc hot ng tr tu. Tri thc c hnh thnh trong qu trnh
hc tp nh cc thao tc hot ng tr tu va c hnh thnh v cng c s gip
cho HS lm phong ph tri thc ca mnh. V vy, cc nh tm l hc cho rng, s
pht trin tr tu c c trng bi vn tri thc, bi vn k nng, k xo v vic s
dng nhng thao tc tr tu vo vic chim lnh tri thc mi. Trong ha hc, BTHH
l iu kin rt tt rn luyn v pht trin cc k nng, thng qua cc BTHH, HS
c hnh thnh v pht trin cc thao tc t duy nh: phn tch, tng hp, so snh,
suy lun, khi qut ha, h thng ha,
1. 3. 2. Bi ton v NDD v s pht trin t duy ca HS lp 8:
Bi ton v NDD nm trong h thng BTHH nn cc dng ton v NDD cng
c kh nng pht trin t duy cho HS.Tuy nhin, mc pht trin t duy ca HS
cn ty thuc nhiu vo vic la chn h thng BTHH cng nh cc bi ton v
NDD v s tch cc ca HS.

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- 7 -
CHNG 2: PHT TRIN T DUY CHO HC SINH LP 8
THNG QUA GII BI TON V NNG DUNG DCH
2. 1. Pht trin cc thao tc t duy cho HS thng qua gii ton v NDD
2. 1.1 Pht trin t duy phn tch v tng hp:
Dng ton v NDD l dng ton mi xut hin chng trnh Ha 8, HS s gp
mt s kh khn ban u. gip HS gii tt bi ton NDD th GV cn lu rn
luyn v pht trin kh nng phn tch v tng hp cho HS.
Mt s v d:
V d 1: Ha tan 5g NaCl vo 120g nc c dung dch A. Tnh nng phn
trm ca dung dch A.
Gii:
* S gii ton: %
,
C
mct
mdd mdm mct

)
`


Phn tch:
- m
ct
= 5g.
- m
dm
= 120g
- Tnh C%?
Tng hp:
m
dd
= 5 + 120 = 125g
% 4
125
100 . 5
% 100 . % = = =
dd
ct
m
m
C
V d 2: 20
0
C 100g nc ha tan c ti a 8g KClO
3
. Tnh nng phn
trm ca dung dch KClO
3
.
Gii:
* S gii ton: tan %
,
C
mct
mdd mdm mct

)
`



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- 8 -
Phn tch:
m
ct
= 8g.
m
dm
= 100g
Tnh C%?
Tng hp
m
dd
= 8 + 100 = 108g
% 4 , 7
108
100 . 8
% 100 . % = = =
dd
ct
m
m
C
V d 3:a. Tnh khi lng nc cn pha ch 400g dung dch CuSO
4
5%.
b.Nu dng tinh th ngm nc CuSO
4
. 5H
2
O th cn bao nhiu g mi cht
cng pha ch c 400g dung dch ni trn.
Gii:
a. S gii ton: mdd, C% mct mdm = mdd mct
Phn tch:
a. m
dd
= 400g
C% = 5%
Tnh m
H2O
= ?
b. S gii ton: mdd, C% mct m
tinh th

Khi lng cht tan l CuSO
4
c trong tinh th
Tnh m
CuSO4. 5H2O
= ?
m
H2O
= ?
Tng hp:


m
H2O
= 400 20 =380g
b. Trong 250g CuSO
4
. 5H
2
O c 160g CuSO
4
xg 20g
g
C m
m
dd
ct
20
100
5 . 400
% 100
% .
= = =
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- 9 -
x = g 50
160
250 . 20
=
Cn 50g tinh th ha trong 350g nc to c dung dch CuSO
4
5%.
V d 4: Tnh nng mol ca dung dch H
2
SO
4
20% bit khi lng ring ca
dung dch l D = 1,14g/ml.
Gii:
* S gii ton:
V
n
C
V
mct
D
C
gdd
M
dd
=
)
`

%
100
Phn tch:
D = 1,14g/ml
C% = 20%
C
M
= ?
Tng hp:
Trong 100g dung dch H
2
SO
4
20% c 20g H
2
SO
4

n = mol
M
m
98
20
= ,V =
14 , 1
100
=
D
m
ml
M
V
n
C
M
32 , 2 1000 .
100 . 98
14 , 1 . 20
= = = .
2. 1.2 Pht trin t duy so snh
So snh l mt thao tc t duy cn c v m u cho s pht trin t duy. So snh
gip HS nh lu, khc su kin thc.
So snh gip HS hiu r c bn cht ca s vt, hin tng.
Mt s v d:
V d 1:Trnh by cch pha ch:
a. 150g dung dch CuSO
4
2% t dung dch CuSO
4
20%.
b. 250ml dung dch NaOH 0,5M t dung dch NaOH 2M.

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- 10 -
Gii:
gii c bi ton ny, HS tin hnh so snh nng (phn trm / nng
mol) trc v sau khi pha ch.
cu a. C%
tr
= 20% > C%
s
= 2% phi thm nc vo dung dch CuSO
4

20%.
cu b. C
Mtr
= 2M > C
Ms
= 0,5M phi thm nc vo dung dch NaOH
2M.
a. m
dd1
l khi lng dung dch CuSO
4
20%
m
dd2
l khi lng dung dch CuSO
4
2%
g m m m g
C
m
g m
m
C
dd dd O H
dd
ct
dd
135 15
%
3
%
1 2 2
1
1
2
2
= = =

=
)
`



b. ml V V V V n
C
V
M M O H M NaOH
M
M dd
5 , 187
2 5 , 0 2 2
5 , 0
5 , 0
= =


V d 2: Cho mt lng bt nhm vo 500ml dung dch HCl 3M thu dc 0,1
mol kh hiro ( H = 100%). Tnh s mol cc cht c trong dung dch sau phn
ng.
Gii: gii c bi ny, HS phi i tm s mol cc cht trc v sau phn
ng, xem cht no phn ng ht, cht no cn d sau phn ng?
Ta c :
n
HCl
= 0,5.3 = 1,5 mol
n
H2
= 0,1 mol
Phng trnh phn ng:
2 3
3 2 2 6 H AlCl Al HCl + +
6mol 2mol 2mol 3mol
Trc p: 1,5
3
2
. 1 , 0
3
2
. 1 , 0 0,1
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- 11 -
So snh: 1,5 >
3
2
. 1 , 0 sau phn ng trong dung dch cn d
( 1,5 -
3
2
. 1 , 0 ) mol HCl,
3
2
. 1 , 0 mol AlCl
3

V d 3: Hy chuyn 300ml dung dch NaOH 1,2M thnh dung dch NaOH
1,5M.
Gii:
HS so snh nng mol ca dung dch NaOH trc v sau khi pha.
1,2M < 1,5M nh vy, nng dung dch sau khi pha ch gim xung. Lc ny
HS c th la chn mt trong ba cch gii:
Cch 1: Lm bay hi nc 300ml dung dch NaOH 1,2M:
HS i tm lng nc bay hi
Cch 2: Thm cht rn NaOH vo dung dch NaOH 1,2M: HS i tm khi lng
NaOH thm vo dung dch NaOH 1,2M
Cch 3: Thm vo 300ml dung dch NaOH 1,2M mt dung dch NaOH c nng
cao hn ( v d 2M, 3M,..): HS i tm th tch dung dch NaOH thm vo.
2. 1.3 Pht trin t duy suy lun
- Suy lun gip HS trnh by mt vn hay c th l mt bi ton mang tnh
logic.
- HS s mt thi gian hn trong vic gii bi tp trc nghim khch quan bng
phng php loi suy. Tuy nhin, cn phi kim chng li bng thc tin th s
vic hay kt qu bi ton mi mang tnh khch quan.
Mt s v d:
V d 1: nhit 25
0
C, tan ca mui n l 36g, ca ng l 204g. Hy
tnh nng phn trm ca cc dung dch bo ha mui n v ng nhit
trn.


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- 12 -
Gii:
* S gii ton:
tan
mdd
mct
C mdd
mdm
mct
% 100 .
% =
)
`


HS suy lun: Mun tnh C% th phi c m
ct
v m
dd
.
T nh ngha tan: tan ca mt cht l s gam cht ha tan trong 100g
nc to thnh dung dch bo ha nhit xc nh.
- i vi mui n: tan ca mui n l 36g m
ct
= 36g
m
dd
= 36 + 100 = 136 g
% 47 , 26
136
100 . 36
% 100 . % = = =
dd
ct
m
m
C
- i vi ng: m
ct
= 204g
m
dd
= 204 + 100 = 304g
% 11 , 67
304
100 . 204
% 100 . % = = =
dd
ct
m
m
C
V d 2: Tnh C% ca dung dch thu c khi ha tan 40g ng vo 210g nc.
Gii:
Theo bi ta c:
m
ct
= 40g
m
dd
= 40 + 210 = 250 g
Suy lun: Trong 250g dung dch ng c cha 40g ng
100g................................................ xg?
g x 16
250
40 . 100
= = C% = 16%.
V d 3: Tnh nng C% ca dung dch thu c khi ha tan 10g
CuSO
4
.5H
2
O vo 54g nc.
Gii:
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- 13 -
* S gii ton:
%
4
2 4
5 .
C mdd
mdm
m
m
CuO
O H CuO

)
`


Trong 250g CuSO
4
.5H
2
O c 160g CuSO
4

10g....................... xg?
g x 4 , 6
250
160 . 10
= =
% 10
54 10
100 . 4 , 6
% 100 . % =
+
= =
dd
ct
m
m
C
V d 4:Cho V
1
l dung dch HCl cha 9,125g HCl ( dung dch A) v V
2
l dung
dch HCl cha 5,475g HCl ( dung dch B). Trn 2 dung dch trn vi nhau cho ta
2l dung dch mi 9 dung dch C); th tch dung dch C bng tng th tch dung
dch A v dung dch B.
a. Tnh C
M
ca dung dch C.
b. Tnh nng mol/lt ca dung dch A v dung dch B, bit rng hiu s gia
nng mol/l ca dung dch A v dung dch B l 0,4M.
Gii:
a. S gii ton:
V
n n
V
n
C
V V V
n m
n m
M
2 1
2 1
2 2
1 1
+
= =

+ =


Vi m
1
= 9,15g, n
1
= 0,25mol
m
2
= 5,475g, n
2
= 0,15mol, V = 2l, C
M
= 0,2M.
b. S gii ton:

+ =
= +

=
= +
4 , 0
2 / 15 , 0 / 25 , 0
4 , 0
2
2 1
MB MA
MB MA
MB MA
C C
C C
C C
V V

C
MB
= 0,25M
C
MA
= 0,65M.
V d 5: Bng cch no c c 200g dung dch BaCl
2
5%:
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- 14 -
A. Ha tan 190g BaCl
2
trong 10g nc?
B. Ha tan 10g BaCl
2
trong 190g nc?
C. Ha tan 100g BaCl
2
trong 100g nc?
D. Ha tan 200g BaCl
2
trong 10g nc?
E. Ha tan 10g BaCl
2
trong 200g nc?
Tm kt qu ng
Gii: p n B.
mdd = mdd + mct = 200g
Loi cu D,E.
Dung dch BaCl
2
5% ngha l cht tan t hn nc rt nhiu loi cu A v C
Nh vy, p n ng l p n B.
2. 1.4 Pht trin t duy khi qut ha
Khi qut ha l mt trong nhng thao tc t duy v hc tp quan trng nht m
trong qu trnh tin hnh, hot ng tr tu ca HS hng vo ch: a) vch r nhng
mt chung v bn cht ca cc s vt hay hin tng cn nghin cu, b) xc lp
gia chng nhng mi ln h v quan h mi, v c) trn c s , xy dng nhng
nguyn l tng qut mi. [ 8 ]
Mt s v d:
V d 1: Cn ly 10,6g Na
2
CO
3
cho vo cc chia c dung tch 500ml. Rt t t
nc ct vo cc cho n vch 200ml khuy nh cho Na
2
CO
3
tan ht, ta c
dung dch Na
2
CO
3
. Bit 1ml dung dch ny cho khi lng l 1,05g. Hy xc
nh nng phn trm ( C%) v nng mol ca dung dch va pha ch c.





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- 15 -
Gii:
Khi qut ha:
Cn ly 10,6g Na
2
CO
3
cho vo cc chia c dung tch 500ml. Rt t t nc ct
vo cc cho n vch 200ml khuy nh cho Na
2
CO
3
tan ht: HS tch du hiu bn
cht ra khi du hiu khng bn cht v khi qut vn : cho bit V
dd
= 200ml.
- 1ml dung dch c cha 1,05g cht tan , vy 200ml dung dch s l:
200.1,05 = 210g
% 3 , 5
210
100 . 6 , 10
% 100 . % = = =
dd
ct
m
m
C
M
V
n
C
M
5 , 0
2 , 0 . 106
6 , 10
= = =
V d 2: Trn 150g dung dch NaOH nng 10% vi 250g dung dch NaOH
nng 20%. Tnh nng phn trm ca dung dch thu c.
Gii:
Khi qut ha: Khi trn 2 dung dch c nng th s gam cht tan trc v sau
khi trn l khng i.

2 1 ct ct cts
m m m + =
S gii ton: % ,
,
2 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
C
mdd mdd mdd
mct
mct C mdd
mct C mdd
s
s

+ =


S: % 25 , 16
V d 3: Trn 2l dung dch NaCl 0,1M vi 3l dung dch NaCl 0,5M. Tnh C
M
ca
dung dch thu c.
Gii:
Khi qut ha: S mol trc v sau khi trn hai dung dch c sn nng l khng
i .
2 1
n n n
s
+ =
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- 16 -
S gii ton: M
V
n
C
l V V V
mol n
s
s
M
s
s
34 , 0
5
7 , 1
2 1
= =

= + =
=

V d 4:
C mt dung dch axit hu c nng 0,2M v mt dung dch khc ca axit
c nng 1M. Phi trn th tch ca hai dung dch th no ta c dung
dch mi c nng 0,4M?
Gii:
Khi qut ha: S mol trc v sau khi trn l khng i.
0,2.V
1
+ V
2
= 0,4.(V
1
+V
2
)
0,4
0,4.V
1
. 2 , 0
2
1
2
1
+ = +
V V
V

3
2 , 0
6 , 0
2
1
= =
V
V

Vy trn dung dch 0,2M vi dung dch 1M theo t l th tch l 1:3 th s thu c
dung dch mi c nng 0,4M.
V d 5: Ha tan 1mol NaOH rn vo dung dch NaOH 0,5M thu c dung
dch c nng mol l 1,5M. Tnh th tch dung dch NaOH trc v sau khi
thm NaOH rn. Bit rng khi cho NaOH rn vo nc c 20g lm tng th tch
5ml.
Gii:
Khi qut ha: Khi ha tan cht rn vo mt dung dch c sn nng th tng s
mol trc v sau khi trn l khng i.
1 + 0,5.V = 1,5(V + x) (1)
Trong : V l th tch dung dch trc khi thm NaOH rn, x l th tch tng ln
khi cho NaOH vo.
x = 5.2 = 10ml = 0,01l
Thay x vo (1) V V
dds
= V + x
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- 17 -
V d 6: Cn ha tan bao nhiu gam Na
2
O vo 27g nc c dung dch
NaOH c nng 65,57 % ?
Gii:
- khi lng cht tan l khi lng ca NaOH ch khng phi l Na
2
O v khi ha
tan n vo nc c xy ra phn ng:
NaOH O H O Na 2
2 2
+
- m
ddNaOH
= m
Na2O
+ m
H2O

Gi x l s mol ca Na
2
O theo phng trnh:
m
NaOH
m
dd
C%
2. 1.5 Pht trin t duy h thng ha
H thng ha gip HS c iu kin n li nhng kin thc hc.
H thng ha cn gip HS rn luyn th gii quan duy vt bin chng, gip HS
xem xt s vt hin tng t trong mi quan h tc ng qua li vi nhau.
Cc dng ton thng gp l: dng ton c lin quan n khi lng ring, dng
ton c lin quan n tan, dng ton c lin quan n phn ng ha hc,
Mt s v d:
V d 1:a.Tnh nng phn trm ca dung dch HCl 10M bit khi lng ring
ca dung dch l D =1 ,12g/ml.
c. Tnh nng mol ca dung dch H
2
SO
4
20%

bit khi lng ring ca dung
dch H
2
SO
4
l D = 1,14g/ml.
Gii:
H thng ha: bi ton ny lin quan n khi lng ring ca dung dch (
V
m
D = )
a. Xt trong 1l dung dch HCl 10% c 10 mol HCl
S gii ton: % 59 , 32 %
n
1120g D.V mdd
HCl
=

= =
C
m
HCl

b. Trong 1l dung dch H
2
SO
4
c 1140 g H
2
SO
4

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- 18 -
S gii ton: n mct

C%
mdd
C
M
=
V
n

S: 2,33M
V d 2: tan ca NaCl 25
0
C l 36g. Tnh khi lng NaCl c th tan c
vo 250g nc. Tnh nng phn trm ca dung dch thu c.
Gii:
H thng ha: Bi ton ny lin quan n tan.
25
0
C, c 36g NaCl tan trong 100g nc
xg ........................250g nc
g x 90
100
36 . 250
= =
% 47 , 26
250
100 . 90
% = = C
V d 3:Ha tan 4,7g K
2
O vo 195,3g nc. Tnh nng phn trm ca dung
dch thu c bit qu trnh phn ng xy ra hon ton.
Gii:
Ta c phng trnh phn ng:
K
2
O + H
2
O 2KOH
S gii ton: %
2 2
C
mdd
m n n m
KOH
KOH KOH O K O K

)
`


Theo nh lut bo ton khi lng:
m
K2O
+ m
H2O
= m
ddKOH
= 4,7+195,3 = 200g
% 8 , 2
200
100 . 6 , 5
% 100 . % = = =
dd
ct
m
m
C
H thng ha: phng trnh phn ng, tnh cht ha hc ca nc, nh lut bo
ton khi lng.
V d 4: Cho mt lng bt st d vo 200ml dung dch HCl thu c 0,5mol kh
hiro. Tnh nng mol/lt ca dung dch axit.
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- 19 -
Gii:
Fe + 2HCl FeCl
2
+ H
2

1mol ..........................0,5mol
C
M
= M 5
2 , 0
1
= .
y l dng ton c lin quan n phn ng th, vit phng trnh phn ng.
V d 5: Cho 2,3g Na vo 200g dung dch NaOH 10% thu c dung dch Y c
nng C% bng bao nhiu? Bit Na phn ng vi nc to thnh hiroxit v
gii phng kh hiro c khi lng khng ng k.
Gii:
Bi ton ny c lin quan n tnh cht ha hc ca nc, nh lut bo ton khi
lng.
Gi m
1
l khi lng NaOH to thnh khi phn ng vi nc
m
2
l khi lng NaOH c trong dung dch NaOH 10%
khi cho Na vo nc c phn ng ha hc xy ra:
K
2
O + H
2
O 2KOH
S gii ton: % %,
% 10
2 2 2
1
C
mdd m mdd
m
m mdd C
m n n m
NaOH Na
NaOH
NaOH Na Na

+ =

)
`



( khi lng dung dch da vo nh lut bo ton khi lng).
S: 11,86%
2. 2. Mt s bin php pht trin t duy cho HS lp 8
2. 2. 1 Thng qua gii cc bi tp NDD trong SGK Ha hc 8:
SGK Ha hc 8 c tng cng 17 bi ton v NDD v 11 th d minh ha. Cc bi
ton thuc nhng dng ton tng t nh cc th d trong bi hc do HS c th
t lc gii c. Cc dng ton ny ch rn luyn v pht trin mt mc nht
nh t duy cho HS ( cc thao tc phn tch, tng hp l ch yu). Nh vy, bi tp
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- 20 -
trong SGK c kh nng pht trin t duy ca HS nhng mt mc nht nh.
Tuy nhin, pht trin cc thao tc phn tch tng hp mc cao hn, GV c
th cho HS tin hnh phn tch mt hoc hai bi ton NDD dng c phn ng ha
hc n gin xy ra trong tit luyn tp. Lc ny, HS nhn thc vn trong mt
tnh hung mi, kch thch s tm ti suy ngh ca HS v ban u di s hng
dn ca GV, HS c th gii c dng ton ny.
2. 2. 2 Thng qua gii cc dng ton NDD ngc xui:
V d1:
BT1: Tnh nng mol ca 1 mol KCl trong 750ml dung dch.
BT 2: Tnh s gam cht tan trong 500ml dung dch KNO
3
2M.
Khi gii bi ton 1: HS vn dng cng thc hoc p dng nh ngha v nng
mol ca dung dch gii.
n bi ton 2: Lc ny, i lng cn tm b thay i, yu cu HS phi bit
chuyn i cng thc gii.
T duy ca HS s c pht trin hn nu ta cho HS tin hnh gii cc bi ton lin
quan n dng pha ch dung dch. Lc ny HS nhn thc vn trong tnh hung
mi, HS phi suy ngh tm nhng i lng NDD trong trng hp dung dch
thm vo dung dch ban u: nc, cht tan hay mt dung dch khc,..
V d 2: Cn 300g dung dch KOH 10% cho mi ln pha ch sau:
a.Tnh nng phn trm ca dung dch thu c khi trn ln vi 200g dung
dch KOH 5%
b. Tnh khi lng dung dch KOH 25% em trn ln thnh dung dch c nng
20%
c. thm vo 200ml nc. Tnh nng phn trm ca dung dch thu c.
d. chuyn thnh dung dch c nng 12% cn lm bay hi bao nhiu gam
nc?
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- 21 -
e. Nu thm 20g KOH vo dung dch trn th nng ca dung dch sau cng l
bao nhiu?
f. Tnh khi lng KOH cn ha tan thm thnh dung dch c nng dung
dch 25%
2. 2. 3 Thng qua bi ton NDD c nhiu cch gii:
Nhng bi ton c nhiu cch gii va gip HS c th t kim tra kt qu bi ton
mt cch chnh xc, va gip cho HS nhn nhn vn khng my mc. T pht
trin kh nng tm ra nhng phng php gii ton mt cch nhanh hn, tit kim
thi gian gii ton iu ny c ngha trong vic gii cc bi tp trc nghim.
V d :Ha tan 10,6g Na
2
CO
3
vo nc to thnh dung dch 26,5%. Tnh khi
lng nc cn dng.
Gii:
Cch 1 : Trong 100g dung dch Na
2
CO
3
26,5% c 26,5g Na
2
CO
3

xg 10,6g
m
H2O
= m
dd
- m
ct
= 40 10,6 = 29,4g
Cch 2: p dng cng thc:
g
C
m
m
ct
dd
40
5 , 26
100 . 6 , 10
%
% 100 .
.
= = =
m
H2O
= 29,4g
Cch 3: Bi ton ny c th gii bng phng php ng cho:
10,6g 100% | C
2
- C |
26,5
m
H2O
0% |C
1
C |
g m
O H
4 , 29
5 , 26
6 , 10 . 5 , 73
2
= =
2. 2. 4 Thng qua vic thay i d kin trong bi ton NDD:
y l dng ton ph hp cho s pht trin cho HS trung bnh tr ln bng cch
tng dn mc t duy ca bi ton ln, t mt bi ton NDD n gin dng p
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- 22 -
dng cng thc n thay i d liu trong bi ton kch thch t duy cho HS ri
n nhng bi ton phc tp hn ( nh dng ton pha ch dung dch, dng ton c
phn ng ha hc xy ra, dng ton tng hp). Thng qua vic thay i d kin
trong bi ton HS c c hi rn luyn k nng gii ton v nhn thc vn trong
mt tnh hung mi.
V d1:
Bi tp 1: Tnh C% ca dung dch thu c khi:
a. Ha tan 40g ng vo 210g nc.
b. Ha tan 33,6l amoniac ( NH
3
) o iu kin tiu chun vo 224,5g nc.
Bi tp 2: Ha tan 0,5 mol NaOH vo 400ml nc ( bit khi lng ring ca
nc l D = 1g/ml). Tnh C% ca dung dch thu c.
V d 2:
Bi tp 1:Ha tan 10g NaOH v 15g KOH vo 175g nc. Tnh nng phn
trm ca mi baz trong dung dch thu dc.
Bi tp 2:Trn 500g dung dch HCl 3% vo 300g dung dch HCl 10% th thu
c dung dch c nng bao nhiu?
2. 2. 5 Thng qua cc bi ton NDD c kh nng gii nhanh:
gii cc bi tp trc nghim th yu cu t ra l HS phi tm ra p n tht
nhanh, v k nng gii ton ca HS lp 8 mi c hnh thnh vi li dng ton
NDD l dng ton mi xut hin trong chng trnh Ha hc 8 nn thi gian
HS gii mt bi ton NDD tng i lu. Thng qua vic gii cc bi ton ny s
gip HS la chn phng php gii ton thch hp tm ra kt qu nhanh nht.
2. 2. 5. 1 Ton pha ch dung dch c kh nng gii nhanh:
Phng php ng cho:
Nguyn tc : Trn ln hai dung dch:
Dung dch 1: C khi lng m
1
, th tch V
1
, nng C
1
( C% hoc C
M
).
Dung dch 2: C khi lng m
2
, th tch V
2
, nng C
2
( C
2
> C
1
).
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- 23 -
Dung dch thu c c m = m
1 +
m
2
, V = V
1
+ V
2
, nng C ( C
1
< C < C
2
).
S ng cho v cng thc tng ng vi mi trng hp l :
a. i vi nng phn trm v khi lng :
m
1
C
1
| C
2
- C |
C
m
2
C
2
|C
1
C |

C C
C C
m
m

=
1
2
2
1

b. i vi nng mol/lit:(V bao toan)
V
1
C
1
| C
2
- C |
C
V
2
C
2
|C
1
C |

C C
C C
V
V

=
1
2
2
1

Khi s dng s ng cho ta cn ch :
+ Cht rn coi nh dung dch c C = 100%(chat tan nguyen chat)
+ Dung mi (nguyen chat)coi nh dung dch c C = 0%
+
Mt s v d:
V d 1: C 200g dung dch NaCl 10% ( dung dch a ). Hy tnh nng ca
dung dch mi to thnh khi:
a. Ha tan thm 10g NaCl vo dung dch A.
b. Trn dung dch A vi 50g dung dch NaCl 5%.
Gii:
a. *Theo cch gii thng thng:
- Khi lng NaCl c trong 200g dung dch NaCl 10% :
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- 24 -
g
C m
m
dd
20
100
200 . 10

% 100
%

.
1
= = =
- Khi lng cht tan ca dung dch sau cng:
m = m
1
+ 10 = 30g
- Khi lng dung dch sau khi thm NaCl:
mdd = 10 +200 = 210g
Nng dung dch sau cng l:
% 29 , 14
210
100 ). 10 20 (
% 100 . % =
+
= =
dd
ct
m
m
C
* gii nhanh bi ton ny ta s dng phng php ng cho:
200g 10% | 100

- C |
C
10g 100% | 10 C |

C
C

=
10
100
10
200
C = 14,29%
b. * Theo cch gii thng thng:
- Tm khi lng cht tan ca 200g dung dch NaCl 10%
- Tm khi lng cht tan ca 50g dung dch 5%
- Tm khi lng cht tan sau khi thm 50g dung dch NaCl 5%
-Tm khi lng dung dch sau cng
C%
*Ta s dng phng php ng cho gii nhanh:
200g 10% | 5

- C |
C
50g 5% | 10 C |

C
C

=
10
5
5
10
C = 9%
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- 25 -
V d 2: Trong 800ml mt dung dch cha 8g NaOH.
a. Tnh nng mol ca dung dch ny.
b. Phi thm bao nhiu ml nc vo 200ml dung dch ny c dung dch
NaOH 0,1 M ?
Gii:
a.Nng mol ca dung dch trn l :
M 25 , 0
40.0,8
8

V
n

dd
= = =
M
C

b. *Theo cch gii thng thng:
- Tm s mol ca 200ml dung dch trn
Th tch dung dch sau khi thm nc
V
H2O
= Vdds 200.
*Phng php ng cho:
Ta c:
200ml 0,25 | C
2
- C |
C
V
H2O
0 |C
1
C |
ml V
O H
300
1 , 0
200 . 15 , 0
2
= =
Vy phi thm 300ml nc vo 200ml dung dch ny c dung dch NaOH
0,1M.
V d 3:Trn hai dung dch A v B theo t l th tch l 3:5. Nng mol ca
dung dch sau khi pha trn l 3M. Tnh C
M
ca hai dung dch A v B. Bit C
M

ca dung dch A gp hai ln dung dch .
Gii:
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- 26 -
y l dng ton thiu d kin nn vi cch gii thng thng HS s tn mt lng
thi gian kh lu nhng nu s dng phng php ng cho th HS s tit kim
c thi gian:
V
1
C
1
| C
2
- 3 |
3
V
2
C
2
|C
1
3 |

3
3
5
3
1
2

=
C
C

V C
1
= 2C
2

C
1
, C
2
2. 2. 5. 2 Rn luyn nng lc pht hin vn gii nhanh bi tp trc nghim:
Thng qua vic rn luyn ny HS nhn nhn vn mt cch linh hot hn v pht
trin kh nng suy lun, khi qut ha cho HS.
V d1: Trn ln 50g dung dch NaOH 20% vi 150g dung dch NaOH 10%.
Tnh nng phn trm ca dung dch thu c.
Gii:
* Theo phng php thng thng:
HS s i tm:
- Khi lng cht tan c trong 50g dung dch 20%
- Khi lng cht tan c trong 150g dung dch 10%
- Tnh tng khi lng cht tan ca dung dch thu c
- Tnh khi lng dung dch sau khi trn
C
1
, C
2
.
* HS pht hin vn gii nhanh:
HS pht hin m
dd2
= 3m
dd1
. Nh vy trong dung dch sau dung dch 20% chim 1
phn, cn dung dch 10% chim 3 phn.
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- 27 -
% 5
4
20 . 1
1
= = C ; % 5 , 7
4
10 . 3
1
= = C
V d 2: c dung dch NaCl 20% cn phi ly bao nhiu gam nc ha tan
20g NaCl?
A. 120g B.155g C. 80g D. 60g
p n: C
HS pht hin trong dung dch NaCl 20% ny c 20g NaCl cho nn khi lng dung
dch l 100g v khi lng nc cn thm vo l 80g.
i vi nhng HS cha pht hin c vn th HS phi tin hnh tm khi lng
dung dch theo cng thc tnh nng phn trm ri ly khi lng tr i khi
lng cht tan v chn p n C.
2. 2. 6 Thng qua mt s dng ton NDD c kh nng pht trin t duy cho HS:
2. 2. 6. 1. Dng ton pha ch dung dch:
Dng ton ny ngoi yu cu HS tnh ton cc i lng cn thit ra th cn yu cu
HS phi nu ra c cc thao tc pha ch dung dch.
Mt s v d:
V d 1: Trong phng th nghim c sn mui K
2
SO
4
v dung dch K
2
SO
4
25%.
Cn pha ch 200g dung dch K
2
SO
4
10%. Hy tnh ton v ni cch lm thc
hin c yu cu ny trong mi trng hp sau:
a.Ch dng mui K
2
SO
4.
b .Ch dng dung dch K
2
SO
4
25%
c. Dng c mui v dung dch.
Gii:
- cu a, HS ch cn tnh khi lng K
2
SO
4
c trong 200g dung dch K
2
SO
4
l s
tm ra cn phi ha tan bao nhiu g K
2
SO
4
vo nc c dung dch cn pha.
- cu b, HS phi tm khi lng dung dch K
2
SO
4
25% em i pha vo nc
v nng dung dch cn pha nh hn nng ca dung dch c ban u.
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- 28 -
- n cu c, HS phi tm khi lng K
2
SO
4
v khi lng dung dch K
2
SO
4
25%
ri ha tan vi nc c dung dch theo yu cu. Lc ny, HS c th chn bt
k khi lng no sao cho

<
<
80
20
m
a
trong a l khi lng K
2
SO
4
v m l khi
lng dung dch cn em pha.
Song song vi dng ton nh lng , GV c th xen cc bi ton nh tnh vo cc
bi ton nh lng kch thch t duy HS pht trin.
V d 2:
Ha tan 40g ng vo 210g nc.
a. Nu lm bay hi nc dung dch trn th nng phn trm ca dung dch
ny tng hay gim?Hy chng minh bng th d c th
b. Nu thm ng vo dung dch trn th nng dung dch ban u s nh
th no ? Hy chng minh iu
Bng cch ny HS c rn luyn k nng d on, suy lun v tm cch chng
minh li gii ca mnh. Nh vy, HS c lp trong suy ngh v c kh nng gii
quyt vn trong nhng tnh hung mi. T duy ca HS cng c pht trin
trong gi thc hnh pha ch dung dch lc u trn c s nhng bi ton c th, v
mc cao hn HS c th t pha ch dung dch t nhng ha cht c trong
phng th nghim.
2. 2. 6. 2. Dng ton NDD c phn ng ha hc xy ra:
y l dng ton NDD khng gp trong SGK Ha hc 8, dng ton ny s c
HS bit n trong chng trnh Ha hc 9. Tuy nhin, dng ton ny gip cho HS
rn luyn k nng vit phng trnh phn ng, cng c v pht trin kh nng suy
lun, h thng ha, khi qut ha,
V d:Cn thm bao nhiu gam SO
3
vo dung dch H
2
SO
4
10% c 100g
dung dch H
2
SO
4
20% ?
Gii:
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- 29 -
y l dng ton c phn ng ha hc xy ra gia SO
3
vi nc trong dung dch
H
2
SO
4
20%.
Gi x l s mol ca SO
3
, m
1
l khi lng cht tan ca dung dch sau khi thm SO
3
.
Phng trnh phn ng:
SO
3
+ H
2
O H
2
SO
4
80x 98x
mct
C
mdd

%
=20g
mct
x

=
= =
80 m
80xg - 10
100
80x).10 - (100
m
3
SO
1
=m
1
+ m
SO3

Khi qut ha: Tng khi lng cht tan trc v sau khi thm SO
3
l nh nhau:
20 = 10 8x + 98x
x = 1/9 mol
m
SO3
= 80/9 = 8,89g
Vy ta cn ha tan 8,89g SO
3
vo dung dch H
2
SO
4
10% c 100g dung dch
20%.
2. 2. 6. 3. Dng ton tng hp
L dng ton i hi gia tri thc v k nng c mi quan h vi nhau nhiu hn,
i hi HS phi tch cc s dng cc thao tc t duy gii.
V d: Trn ln 700ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
60% c khi lng ring 1,503g/ml vi
500ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
20% khi lng ring 1,143g/ml ri thm mt lng
nc ct vo. Khi cho Zn d tc dng vi 200ml dung dch trn thu c 2000ml
hiro iu kin tiu chun. Tnh nng mol ca dung dch trc khi thm
nc ct v th tch ca dung dch sau khi thm nc ct.
Gii:
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- 30 -
y l dng ton c lin quan n rt nhiu kin thc, gii c bi ton ny HS
ngoi vic nm vng kin thc v pha ch dung dch, kin thc c lin quan n
khi lng ring ca dung dch, HS cn phi s dng cc thao tc t duy nh phn
tch, tng hp, so snh, suy lun, khi qut ha, h thng ha c th gii c
bi ton ny.
* S gii ton:
M C
V V V
n
n m
C
mdd V D
n m
C
mdd V D
M
34 , 6
%
,
%
,
2 1
2 2
2
2 2 2
1 1
1
1 1 1
=

= +


)
`


)
`


Trong : dd
1
l dung dch H
2
SO
4
60%; dd
2
l dung dch 20%.
* khi cho Zn tc dng vi dung dch pha thm nc:
Zn + H
2
SO
4
ZnSO
4
+ H
2
2/22,4 2/22,4 mol
M 446 , 0
0,2 22,4.
2

V
n

dd
2
= = =
M
C .
Khi qut ha: S mol trc v sau khi thm nc ct l nh nhau:
n
1
+ n
2
= 0,446.V V = 17,1l.








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- 31 -



CHNG 3: MT S KT QU BC U
Qua qu trnh nghin cu ti pht trin t duy cho hc sinh lp 8 thng qua
gii ton v NDD ti tin hnh tm hiu v xc nh c nhng bin php
pht trin t duy cho HS lp 8 thng qua gii ton NDD nhng ch l nghin
cu trn mt l thuyt v c phn mang tnh ch quan. ti c hon thnh
tt hn, ti tin hnh pht phiu phng vn gio vin tm hiu thc t ging
dy ca gio vin dy Ha cc trng: THCS Phm Hu Lu, THCS Tn M,
THCS M An Hng B, THCS Nguyn Minh Tr, THCS Th Trn M Th, THCS
Nguyn Th Lu, THCS Nguyn Tri cng nh tm hiu s pht trin t duy ca
HS qua vic gii ton NDD qua mt s tit dy th trng THCS Phm Hu
Lu v pht phiu kho st cho HS lp 8. Bn cnh ti cn pht phiu phng vn
sinh vin chuyn ngnh Ha trng H ng Thp cc lp 30K6, 31K6 v
30K7 tham kho, b sung v hon thin ti. Sau y l mt s kt qu ti thu
c khi tin hnh tm hiu thc t:
3.1 Kt qu qua phiu phng vn sinh vin:
Ti tin hnh pht 35 phiu phng vn sinh vin chuyn ngnh Ha v thu v 23
phiu hp l, kt qu thu c nh sau ( bng 3.1)
Bng 3.1 Kt qu phng vn sinh vin
T l phn trm cc cu tr li (%)
Cu A B C D
1 21,74 78,26 0
2 26,09 43,48 13,04
3 21,74 60,87 0
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- 32 -
4 0 43,48 34,78 21,74
5 4,30 17,39 26,09
6 0 34,78 8,70
7 69,57 0 8,70 4,30
8 21,74 47,83 13,04 8,70
9 0 21,74 60,87 8,70
10 47,83 26,09 26,09
12 8,70 4,35 60,87 0
13 0 21,34 69,57
14 0 65,22 17,39
15 4,35 21,74 69,57
17 39,13 4,35 34,78
18 3,45 30,43 3,45 39,13

Qua kt qu phiu phng vn ti thy:
- a s sinh vin (SV) c kho st cho rng bi ton v NDD c kh nng pht
trin t duy cho HS, trong c 18 SV( chim 78,26%) cho rng cc bi ton v
NDD ch pht trin t duy cho HS mc nht nh, s cn li cho rng y l
iu kin tt nht HS pht trin t duy.
- Sinh vin cha tht s quan tm n vic su tm hay xy dng h thng cc bi
tp v NDD pht trin t duy cho HS.
- a s SV cho rng lng ton NDD trong SGK Ha 8 pht trin t duy
cho HS ( 14SV chim 60,87%), 5 SV cho rng s lng ton pht trin t duy
cho HS l qu t ( chim 21,74%).
- 14SV (chim 60,87%) cho rng mi dng ton NDD thng pht trin t duy
phn tch v tng hp, 5SV( chim 21,74%) cho rng mi dng ton c th pht
trin nhiu loi t duy cho HS.
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- 33 -
- 15SV ( chim 65,21%) cho rng ton v NDD pht trin t duy cho tt c cc
i tng, 8SV (chim 34,78%) cho rng ch pht trin cho HS kh, gii tr ln.
-14SV ( chim 60,87%) cho rng HS phi tn thi gian tng i gii ton
NDD, mt s khc cho rng cn ty thuc vo trnh cng nh mc kh ca
bi ton m c thi gian gii khc nhau.
- Phn nhiu SV (16SV chim 69,57%) cho rng c hai gi hc l thuyt v bi tp
l thch hp nht pht trin t duy cho HS, c kin khc b sung thm gi thc
hnh.
- a s SV cho rng c th xen k cc bi ton NDD vo mt mc nht inh
khi c iu kin thch hp( 16SV chim 65,22%), 4SV(chim 17,39%) cho rng
nn a nhiu vo cc tit bi tp.
- Khi gii cc bi tp trc nghim,GV nn hng dn HS mt s phng php gii
nhanh v rn luyn cho HS nng lc pht hin v gii quyt vn ( 16SV chim
65,22%).
- Hnh thc hc tp theo nhm pht trin t duy HS qua vic gii ton NDD
c 9SV tha nhn ( chim 39,13%), 8SV cho rng GV nn hng dn ri cho HS
t lm.
- 9SV( chim 39,13%) cho rng pht rin t duy cho HS, GV nn cho HS lm
th nghim pha ch dung dch, 7SV( chim 30,43%) nn tng lng bi tp v nh
cho HS gii.
3.2 Kt qu qua phiu phng vn gio vin:
Ti tin hnh pht 9 phiu phng vn gio vin cc trng THCS v thu v 9
phiu hp l, kt qu thu v nh bng 3.2
Bng 3.2 Kt qu phng vn gio vin
T l phn trm cc cu tr li (%)
Cu A B C D
1 44,44 44,44 0
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- 34 -
2 33,33 44,44 0
3 44,44 44,44 0
4 55,56 33,33 11,11
5 100 0 0
7 66,67 0 0
8 55,56 33,33 0
9 0 55,56 0 44,44
10 44,44 33,33 22,22
12 11,11 11,11 77,78
13 0 33,33 66,67
14 0 33,33 66,67
15 22,22 22,22 55,56
17 55,56 11,11 22,22
18 22,22 33,33 0 33,33

Qua kt qu phiu phng vn ti nhn thy:
- a s GV cho rng cc bi ton NDD c kh nng pht trin t duy cho HS.
- 6 GV( chim66,67% ) cho rng ton v NDD pht trin t duy cho HS kh, gii
tr ln, 3GV cn li ( chim 33,33%) cho rng ton NDD c kh nng pht trin
t duy cho tt c i tng t trung bnh tr ln.
- 5GV ( chim 55,56%) cho rng mi dng ton NDD pht trin nhiu loi t
duy, 4 GV b sung thm trong ch yu l pht trin t duy phn tch v tng hp
cho HS.
- 4GV ( chim 44,44% ) cho rng s lng ton NDD trong SGK lp 8
pht trin t duy cho HS, 4GV ( chim 44,44%) cho rng s lng ton qu t
pht trin t duy cho HS lp 8, s lng bi tp cn cha a dng.
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- 35 -
- C 7GV ( chim 77,78%) cho rng gii mt bi ton v NDD th thi gian
HS gii l HS phi tn thi gian tng i, 1GV (11,11%) cho rng HS gii rt lu,
1GV cho rng HS gii rt nhanh.
- a s GV u c xy dng h thng bi tp v NDD pht trin t duy cho
HS c bit l HS lp 8 ( c 5GV thng xuyn chim 55,56%), 3GV ch thnh
thong ( chim33,33%), 1 GV t khi xy dng h thng bi tp NDD.
- 6 GV ( chim 66,67%) cho rng gi hc l thuyt v bi tp l gi hc thch hp
nht rn luyn v pht trin t duy cho HS, s GV cn li th cho rng gi bi
tp c tc dng hn.
- Nn a dng ton v NDD nhng tit bi tp ( 6GV chim 66,67%), s cn
li cho rng ch nn a xen k cc bi ton NDD mc cho php khi c iu
kin thch hp.
- Nn hng dn cho HS mt s phng php gii nhanh v rn luyn cho HS nng
lc pht hin v gii quyt vn khi HS gii bi tp trc nghim ( 5GV chim
55,56%).
- Hnh thc hc tp NDD pht trin t duy cho HS l hot ng nhm ( 5GV
chim 55,56%), 1GV cho rng nn HS t gii, GV khc cho HS t gii khi no
HS gp kh khn th GV s gip , 2 GV cn li cho rng nn hng dn HS gii
ri cho HS t gii.
- pht trin t duy cho HS th GV nn cho HS lm th nghim pha ch dung dch
( 3GV chim 33,33%), nn tng lng bi tp v nh cho HS ( 3GV chim
33,33%), 2GV( chim 22,22%) yu cu tng s tit bi tp trn lp v 1 GV cho
rng phi tng tit, cho HS lm th nghim pha ch dung dch v tng lng bi tp
v nh cho HS v a dng ha cc dng ton hc sinh t gii ( 3GV chim
33,33%).


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- 36 -
3.3 Kt qu qua vic ging dy :
3.3.1 Gio n: GIO N HA 8
BI 42: NNG DUNG DCH
I. Mc tiu: Sau khi hc xong bi ny HS s :
- HS bit ngha ca nng phn trm, nng mol ca dung dch.
- HS nh cng thc tnh nng phn trm, nng mol ca dung dch.
- Vn dng cng thc gii bi tp.
II. Tin trnh dy hc:
1. n nh lp:
2. Bi mi ( tit 1): nng phn trm ca dung dch
Hot ng 1: Gii thiu chung v dung dch:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
- Cho v d: Khi ta ha tan ng
vo trong nc. Hy cho bit:
+ Cht no c ha tan?
+ Cht no ha tan cht khc ?
+ Cht to thnh sau khi ha tan l
g?
- GV hng dn HS rt ra kt lun.
- Tng t nh vy, kho ha tan
mui, CuSO
4.
5H
2
O, vo nc
u to thnh dung dch v mi
dung dch c mt nng . Vy
nng dung dch cho ta bit iu
g?

- HS tr li:

+ ng l cht c ha tan.
+ Nc l cht ha tan ng.
+ Sau khi ha tan to thnh nc
ng.
-HS kt lun: ng l cht tan, nc
l dung mi. Nc ng l dung dch.
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- 37 -
Hot ng 2:Tm hiu v nng phn trm ca dung dch:
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
- thu c dung dch mui n
(NaCl) 15% ngi ta cho 15g
mui ha tan vo 85g nc. Hy
xc nh khi lng cht tan,
khi lng dung mi v khi
lng dung dch mui.
- Dung dch mui 15% c bao
nhiu g cht tan c trong bao
nhiu g dung dch?
- Dung dch mui 15% chnh l
nng phn trm ca dung
dch. Vy nng phn trm ca
mt dung dch cho ta bit iu
g?
- Gi HS nhn xt, b sung.
- GV cho HS bit cng thc tnh
nng phn trm.
g mdd 100 85 15
85g mdm
15g mct
= + =
)
`

=
=




- Dung dch mui 15% c 15g cht tan
c trong 100g dung dch mui.

Nng phn trm ( k hiu l C%)
ca mt dung dch cho ta bit s
gam cht tan c trong 100g dung
dch.
Cng thc:
% 100 . %
dd
ct
m
m
C =
Trong :
mct: khi lng cht tan (g)
mdd: khi lng dung dch (g)
mdd = mdm + mct






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- 38 -
Hot ng 3: Hng dn HS vn dng l thuyt gii bi tp.
Hot ng ca GV Hot ng ca HS
- Cho HS lm bi tp:
BT1: Tnh C% ca dung dch thu
c khi:
a. Ha tan 40g ng vo 210g
nc. Nu lm bay hi nc
dung dch trn th nng ca
dung dch ny tng hay gim?
b. Ha tan 33,6l Amoniac ( NH
3
)
o ktc vo 224,5g nc.
GV yu cu HS gii bng hai cch















a. HS phn tch :
mdm = 210 g
mct = 40g
mdd = 40+ 210 = 250g.
Tnh C%?
-Cch 1:
Trong 250g dung dch ng c 40g ng.
Vy trong 100g dung dch ng cxg?
g x 16
250
40 . 100
= =
-Cch 2:
p dng cng thc:

% 16 100 .
250
40
% = = C
- Nu lm bay hi dung dch trn th nng
dung dch s gim.
b. V
NH3
= 33,6l
mdm = 224,5g.
Tnh C%?
mol n
V
NH
NH
5 , 1
4 , 22
6 , 33
4 , 22
3
3
= =
)
`

m
NH3

=1,5.17 = 25,5g
mdd = mdm + mct = 25,5 + 224,5 = 250g
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- 39 -





BT2: Tnh s gam ca axit sunfuric c
trong 80g dung dch H
2
SO
4
10% ?
GV yu cu HS gii theo hai cch






BT3: Ha tan 10g NaOH v 15g KOH
vo 175g nc. Tnh nng phn
trm ca mi cht baz trong dung
dch thu c.
GV chia lp thnh tng nhm nh v
yu cu mi nhm phn tch v tm
ra cch gii.
- GV nhn xt v gip HS hon thin
bi lm.




% 2 , 10 100 .
250
5 , 25
% = = C
mdd = 80g
C% = 10%
Tnh mct = ?g
Khi lng cht tan ca dung dch axit l:
g mct 8
100
10 . 80
= =


- HS phn tch :
m
1
= 10g
m
2
= 15g
mdm = 175g
Tnh C
1
, C
2
= ?%
Gii:
mct = m
1
+ m
2
= 25g
mdd = 25 + 175 = 200g
% 5 100 .
200
10
%
1
= = C
% 5 , 7 100 .
200
15
%
1
= = C



HS phn tch :
mdd
1
= 50g, mdd
2
=150g,
C
1
= 20%, C
2
= 10%. Tnh: C%?
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- 40 -

BT4: Trn ln 50g dung dch NaOH
20% vi 150g dung dch NaOH 10%.
Tnh nng phn trm ca dung
dch thu c.

GV yu cu HS lm vic theo nhm
tm ra cch gii.
Gii:
%
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
1
1
C
mdd mdd mdd
mct mct mct
mct
C
mdd
mct
C
mdd

= +
+ =

)
`

)
`


C% = 12,5%

3. Dn d:
V nh hon thnh BT3,BT4, lm BT v nh v xem trc phn tip theo ca bi
nng dung dch.
BI TP V NH
BT1:Tnh nng C% ca dung dch thu c trong cc trng hp sau:
a. Ha tan 0,5mol NaOH vo 400ml nc ( bit khi lng ting ca nc l D
=1g/ml).
b. em 10g CuSO
4
.5H
2
O ha tan vo 54g nc.
BT2:Cn bao nhiu gam NaOH pha ch c 3lt dung dch NaOH 10% bit
khi lng ring ca dung dch l 1,115g/ml.
BT3: Tnh khi lng dung dch H
2
SO
4
30% v khi lng dung dch H
2
SO
4
20%
pha ch thnh 800g dung dch H
2
SO
4
24%.
BT4: Ha tan 4,7g K
2
O vo 195,3g nuc. Tnh nng phn trm ca dung dch
thu c bit qu trnh phn ng xy ra hon ton.




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- 41 -
3.3.2 Kt qu:
Ti tin hnh dy 2 tit bi NDD Ha hc 8 v c dy 3 lp trnh HS
t trung bnh tr ln khi lp 8 : 8A1,8A3 v 8A5 trng THCS Phm Hu
Lu. Qua qu trnh dy th ti rt ra mt s nhn xt sau:
- HS cc lp ny a s u rt tch cc trong hc tp, cc em rt thch gii bi tp.
- cc lp c trnh HS trung bnh khi a ra bi tp vn dng, HS cha th tm
ra p n m cn phi c s hng dn phn tch ca GV th mi c th t vn
dng cng thc gii cc bi ton c lin quan.
- cc bi ton c tnh nng cao hn mt cht, mt s HS lp kh, gii tm ra
p n ng, s HS cn li v nhng HS lp trung bnh gii c khi c s hng
dn ca GV.
- a s HS cha thc s hot ng nhm trong vic gi bi tp c tnh phc tp
hn mt cht, HS cn c lp gii bi tp mt mnh.
- Nhng bi ton nh tnh xen vo bi ton inh lng lm kch thch t duy cho
HS, HS tm c cu tr li khi c s gi ca GVGV cn quan tm n dng
ton ny nhiu hn pht trin t duy cho HS.
- Thi hon thnh bi tp c giao v nh ca HS l rt tt, tuy nhin cc lp
trung bnh HS tm ra kt qu ng bi tp khc vi dng ton p dng cng thc
khng nhiu, nhng nu c rn luyn v cng vi s c gng ca HS nhiu hn
na th HS c th gii c cc bi tp c giao.
3.4 Kt qu qua phiu kho st hc sinh:
Sau khi dy th 2 tit khi lp 8, ti tin hnh pht phiu kho st hc sinh
nhm kim tra, tm hiu kh nng pht trin t duy ca HS thng qua gii ton
trong phiu kho st. Ti tin hnh pht 96 phiu cho cc lp 8A1,8A3 v 8A5,
ti thu v c 59 phiu trong phn ng l HS lm phn trc nghim v ch
c 32 phiu hp l ( lm ht c phn t lun v trc nghm), c 7 HS thuc lp
trung bnh. Kt qu c trnh by di bng 3.3 v 3.4
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- 42 -
3.4.1 Kt qu qua phiu kho st HS phn trc nghim:
Bng 3.3: Kt qu phiu kho st Hc sinh phn trc nghim
Cu
S lng HS
tr li ng
T l phn
trm(%)
S lng HS
tr li sai
T l phn
trm(%)
1 29 90,63 3 9,37
2 32 100 0 0
3 31 96,88 1 3,12
4 24 75,00 8 25
5 31 96,88 1 3,12
6 14 43,75 18 56,25
7 28 87,50 4 12,50
8 32 100 0 0
9 25 78,13 7 21,87
10 15 46,88 17 53,12
11 22 68,75 10 31,25
12 14 43,75 18 56,25
13 8 25,00 24 75,00
14 31 96,88 1 3,12
15 26 81,25 6 18,75
16 30 93,75 2 6,25
17 26 81,25 6 18,75
18 24 75,00 8 25,00
19 30 93,75 2 6,25
20 29 90,63 3 9,37


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- 43 -
Qua kt qu kho st trn cho thy:
-Hu ht HS kh, gii u c kh nng gii c tt c bi tp trong phiu kho st.
HS c kh nng vn dng nhng g hc trong 2 tit l thuyt gii quyt vn
t ra trong tnh hung mi. Nguyn nhn : trong gi l thuyt ti c gng a
dng ha bi tp NDD mc cho php sau khi cho HS rn luyn k nng vn
dng cng thc. Bn cnh , HS c giao bi tp v nh dng ton tng t
nhng c ci bin i t cht v HS c gng hon thnh chng tng i tt.
- Qua kho st ti nhn thy HS cn lng tng v cha tm ra p n ng dng
ton c phn ng ha hc xy ra ( cu 10 t l HS lm ng l 46,88%, cu 12 t l
tr li ng l 43,75%; cu 13 t l tr li ng l25%) v dng tinh th ngm nc
( cu 6 c t l HS lm ng l 25%). Nguyn nhn l do HS mi ch c gii
thiu s b v 2 dng ton ny, tuy nhin HS c kh nng gii c chng. Nh
vy, chng t t duy HS kh, gii pht trin rt tt v vi nhng gi ca GV cng
vi s c gng, HS th t lc gii quyt vn mi t ra.
- cc phiu kho st m HS ch lm c phn trc nghim ti nhn thy tuy HS
khng gii ng ht cc bi tp cho nhng HS u vn dng c cng thc
gii ng cu 2 v cu 3. Mt s HS c kh nng nghin cu SGK v vn dng
nhng bi tp tng t trn lp hon thnh cu 4, cu 5, cu 8, cu14, cu 16,
cu 19.
3.4.2 Kt qu qua phiu kho st hc sinh phn t lun:
Bng 3.4 Kt qu kho st hc sinh phn t lun
Cu S lng
HS tr li
ng
T l phn
trm(%)
S lng
HS tr li
sai
T l
phn
trm(%)
1 32 100 0 0
2 7 21,88 25 78,12
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- 44 -
a 20 62,50 12 37,50
3
b 22 68,75 10 31,25
a 19 59,38 13 40,62
4
b 18 56,25 14 43,75
a 2 6,25 30 93,75
5
b 1 3,13 31 96,87
Qua kt qu thu c trn bng 3.4 ti rt ra mt s nhn xt sau:
- HS c kh nng gii c bi tp vn dng cng thc.
- Nng lc khi qut ha ca HS cha cao th hin cu 2, ch c 7HS tr li ng
thc s ( chim 21,88%), tuy nhin, xt v phn ng th c n 30 HS, nhng HS
lm ng cha hon ton (c s HS tm ra p n ng nhng kt lun sai, s HS
kt lun ng nhng cha chng minh, li c s tm ra c cu tr li nhng cha
bit phi tnh nh th no ra kt qu).
- Cu 5 l dng ton tng hp, a s HS u khng lm c, nn GV cn gip HS
phn tch cng nh phn tch yu cu bi ton v n gin chng HS nhn
thy bi ton tng hp l dng ton c th gii c v khng n ni kh.
Nhn xt chung:
Qua qu trnh nghin cu tm hiu s pht trin t duy cho HS lp 8 thng qua gii
ton NDD ti c mt s nhn xt chung sau:
- Hin nay, trnh t duy ca HS pht trin rt tt, HS c kh nng t nghin
cu SGK, c kh nng vn dng , p dng cng thc, nhng th d SGK gii
ton NDD. Tuy nhin, ton NDD ch c HS kh, gii v nhng HS trung
bnh cn c v c gng hon thnh chng mc tng i tt. Trong , ti
nhn thy HS trung bnh tn thi gian tng i gii mt bi ton NDD,
i vi HS kh gii th tc gii nhanh hn. Cc dng ton NDD c kh
nng pht trin t duy cho HS thuc trung bnh tr ln, bn cnh phi k n
s tch cc ca HS v h thng cc bi ton NDD a ra cho HS lm.
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- 45 -
C. PHN KT LUN V XUT
1. Kt lun:
Qu trnh nghin cu ti : pht trin t duy cho HS lp 8 thng qua gii ton v
NDD ca ti hon thnh. So vi mc tiu ban u ra ti t c mt
s kt qu sau:
- tin hnh phn tch mc pht trin t duy cho HS lp 8 thng qua gii mt
s bi ton v NDD.
- Bc u tm hiu v thu c mt s thng tin v tnh hnh ging dy ca gio
vin ph thng.
- tin hnh kho st mc pht trin t duy ca HS lp 8 thng qua gii ton
v NDD thng qua mt s tit dy th trng THCS Phm Hu Lu v pht
phiu kho st cho HS lp 8.
2. xut kin:
Sau qu trnh tm hiu, nghin cu ti ti c mt s kin xut nh sau:
- pht trin t duy cho HS lp 8, GV cn thng xuyn ch , quan tm n
vic a dng ha cc bi tp cho HS t gii .
- Do thi gian HS trung bnh gii ton NDD c tnh cht phc tp hn mt
cht l tng i lu nn GV cn rn luyn cho HS k nng hot ng nhm tit
kim thi gian v qua HS c th hc tp ln nhau trong gi hc, nhng trng
hp bi tp kh hn th GV cn phi hng dn HS t gii.
- HS c kh nng nghin cu SGK, GV cn pht huy k nng nghin cu cho HS
HS lnh hi uc kin thc su hn v rng hn mc cho php.
- Bi ton NDD t bn thn n c kh nng gip t duy HS pht trin nhng GV
phi thng xuyn xy dng h thng bi tp t d n kh, t n gin n phc
tp, c bit GV cn ch to iu kin tt nht HS lm th nghim pha ch
dung dch cc tit thc hnh cng nh cc bi ton nh tnh v NDD.
- GV cn gip HS hiu r vn t ra trong bi ton NDD.
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- 46 -
- Trong tit luyn tp GV c th gii thiu cho HS dng ton c phn ng ha hc
xy ra v cho HS gii mc kh tng i HS c th gii c qua h
thng ha li kin thc m HS c hc.
- Bn cnh nhng vn trn, iu quan trng v tt yu pht trin t duy HS l
bn thn HS phi tch cc trong hot ng nhn thc, lun tm ti, hc hi nng
cao trnh ca mnh.





















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- 47 -
D. TI LIU THAM KHO(noi xuat ban)
1. Ng Ngc An (2006), Ha hc c bn v nng cao 8, Nxb Gio Dc.
2. Ng Ngc An (2005), Ha hc nng cao THCS, Nxb HSP.
3. PGS.TS Nguyn Ngc Bo, Trn Kim (2007), L lun dy hc trng trung
hc c s, Nxb HSP.
4. Hunh B (Nguyn Vnh) (2007), C s l thuyt 300 cu hi trc nghim Ha
hc 8, Nxb HSP.
5. PGS.Nguyn nh Chi, Nguyn Vn Thoi (2007), Chuyn bi dng Ha
hc 8, Nxb HSP.
6. Nguyn Cng, Nguyn Mnh Dung (2005), Phng php dy hc Ha hc Tp
1, Nxb HSP.
7. Tt Hin (2004), n tp Ha hc 8, Nxb Gio Dc.
8. M.V.Zueva (1982), Pht trin hc sinh trong ging dy Ha hc, Nxb Gio Dc.
9. Ng Th Diu Minh, Ng Nh Trang (2008), Gii bi tp Ha hc 8, Nxb Tng
hp Thnh Ph H Ch Minh.
10. Nguyn Th Nguyt Minh (2004), 250 bi tp Ha hc 8, Nxb HSP.
11. Trn Trung Ninh (2004), Hng dn gii bi tp Ha hc 8, Nxb Nng.
12. L Phm Thnh (20070, Ha hc ng dng, s 7(67/2007), tr3.
13.L Xun Trng, Nguyn Cng, Tt Hin (2005), Ha hc 8, Nxb Gio
Dc.
14. GS.TS Nguyn Quang Un, PGS.Trn Trng thy (2003), Tm l hc i
cng, Nxb HSP.
15. Hunh Vn t (2008), Hc tt Ha hc 8, Nxb HQuc Gia H Ni.




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