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COURSE BOOK ( PART 1

)
DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR ENGI NEERI NG
KYUNG HEE UNI VERSI TY
KWANGHEON PARK
Basic (Electronic) Experiments
for Nuclear Engineers
1
2
Grade:
- Experiment note -- 30%
- Mid-term -- 20%
- Final -- 30%
- Reports(HW) -- 15%
- Attendance -- 5%
- Electronic Gadget -- 10%(bonus)
week
Tue
team
Thur
team
Lesson Experiment
1
3/5 3/8
(1) Introduction, Class schedule, Precautions
charge, electric current, voltage, electric circuit
-
2
3/12 3/15
(2) Ohm's Law, Digital Multimeter
Resistor, LDR, Diode
1, 2, 3
3
3/19 3/22
(3) Kirchhoff's Law, Resistor,
Introducing Excel
4 (HW1,2)
4
3/26 3/29 (4) Capacitor 5, 6
5
4/2 4/5 (5) NPN, PNP Transistor 7, 8, 9 (HW3,4)
6
4/9 4/12
(6) Digital logic, AND_OR_NAND_NOR Gates
CMOS IC
10, 11
7
4/16 4/19 MidTerm
8
4/23 4/26 (7) LabView and Data Acquisition 12
9
4/30 5/3 (8) NAND Gate Oscillator 13 (HW5)
10
5/7 5/10 (9) AC and DC, Amplifier ,Oscilloscope 14, 15, 16 (HW6)
11
5/14 5/17 Review
12
5/21 5/24 (10) OP amp - Feedback circuit 17, 18 (HW7)
13
5/28 5/31 (11) Making a gadget by yourself 19
14
6/4 6/7 Review
15 Final Exam Final
Text: Dave Cutcher, ‘Electronic Circuits for the Evil Genius,’ Mc Graw Hill
Paul Scherz, ‘Practical Electronics for Inventors,’ 2
nd
ed. Mc Graw Hill
3
Fundamental Concepts.
Text: Dave Cutcher, ‘Electronic Circuits for the Evil Genius,’ Mc Graw Hill
Paul Scherz, ‘Practical Electronics for Inventors,’ 2
nd
ed. Mc Graw Hill
1-1
1. Charge:
Ordinary matter is made up of atoms which have positively charged nuclei
and negatively charged electrons surrounding them. Charge is quantized as
a multiple of the electron or proton charge ( ).
Unit= C (coulomb)
19
1.602 10 Coul
÷
×
Fundamental Concepts.
1-2
-1C = 6.242x10
18
electrons
Free electrons
Conductor
Insulator
Valence electrons
1-3
6
2. Electric current:
The total charge that passes through a conductor per unit time.
Unit= A(ampere) = 1 C/s (coulomb per sec)
1-4
From now on, we consider positive charges are moving along the direction
of current, which is wrong, however, which is convenient to think over.
7
3. Voltage:
Electromotive force that is responsible for giving all free electrons (or ions)
within the conductor a push to move.
Unit= V (volt)
Electrical Battery:
chemical driving force = electromotive force.
1-5
8
V+: Applied
voltage
Current
Water flow:
Current
Hydrostatic Potential:
Voltage
1-6
9
1-7
10
4. Electrical circuit:
An electrical circuit is a network that has a closed loop, giving a return path
for the current.
1-8
11
5. Ground, the earth (reference)
Ground (earth), the reference as V=0 volt.
1-9
12
6. Ohm’s law:
Free electrons in a material undergo frequent collisions with other electrons,
lattice ions, and impurities within the lattice that limit their forward motion.
These mechanisms impede electron flow with electrical resistance.
Resistance is the ratio of the applied voltage divided by the resultant current
flow.
or,
The unit of resistance, .
1O = 1V / 1A
V
R
I
=
( ) ohm O
V I R = ·
7. Energy:
The total work that 1 C of charge moves along 1 V of electromagnetic force
is 1 Joule.
1 Joule = 1 V x 1 C
8. Power:
Energy per second used by a device such as a resistor.
2
2
( / sec) ( )
V
P joule P watt V I I R
R
= = · = · =
2-1
13
2
2
2-2
2
2
14
2-3
2
2
15
2-4
16
Resistors in series: R
4
R
3
R
2
R
1
1 2 3 4 Tot
R R R R R = + + +
Resistors in parallel:
R
4
R
3
R
2
R
1
1 2 3 4
1 1 1 1 1
Tot
R R R R R
= + + +
or,
1 2 3 4
1
1 1 1 1
Tot
R
R R R R
=
+ + +
2-5
17
2-6
18
9. Digital Multimeter
Measure voltage, resistivity (impedance), current.
2-7
19
2-8
20
10. Diode
Diode is a one-way street. Diode lets current flow only in one direction.
Power diode
LEF (Light Emitting Diode)
Negative(cathode)
2-9
21
2-10
22
Experiment 1. Preparation.
a) The solderless breadboard has a definite layout as shown in the figure.
One strip of the spring metal in the breadboard connects the five holes.
You can easily connect five pieces in one strip. Please draw lines where
the holes are commonly connected.
b) You will be given 5 resistors that were known to have the same resistor
value. Measure the resistor value of each resistor and record it.
Find the average value and the standard deviation.
23
Experiment 2. Start to make a basic electronic circuit.
Purpose: The summation of each voltage at all components in a circuit
equals to the total voltage applied to the circuit.
Setup the following circuit on your breadboard.
Parts Spec. No./ea
9V Battery cell 1
Safety diode IN4003 1
Resistor 470 Ohm 1
LED 1
24
http://www.play-hookey.com/
25
Experiment 2 (cont.)
Let's look at how the voltage is being used in the circuit. Set the Digital Multimeter
(DMM) to direct-current voltage (DCV).
a) Measure the voltage of the 9-volt battery while it is connected to the circuit.
Place the red (+) probe at test point A (TP-A) and the black (-) probe at
TP-D (ground). The arrows in the schematic shown in Figure indicate where to attach
the probes.
Record your working battery. voltage. _____V
b) Measure the voltage used between the following points:
TP-A to TP-B across the safety diode: _____V
TP-B to TP-C across the 470-ohm resistor: _____V
TP-C to TP-D across the LED: _____V
c) Now add all the voltages from b): _____V
d) Compare the voltage used by all of the parts to the voltage provided by the battery.
The voltages added together should be approximately the same as the voltage
provided by the battery. It may be only a few hundredths of a volt difference.
e) Describe why there is a difference between two total voltages.
26
R1=470 ohm
R2= 1 kohm
R3=470 ohm
R4= 1 kohm
R
4
R
3
R
2
R
1
A B
C
D E
Experiment 3. Ohm’s law conformation.
Purpose: Application of Ohm’s law for the analysis of a circuit.
a) Measure the resistor value of R1, R2, R3, R4 by DMM.
Check the accuracy.
Now, set up the circuit on the breadboard.
b) Measure the total resistor value connected in series (R
ACD
)
and in parallel (R
BE
). Be sure of that the connection that
you are going to measure should be isolated. After setting
up total connection, measure the total resistor value. Check
whether Ohm’s law is applicable.
c) Measure the voltage across each resistor.
d) Calculate the value of current passes through each resistor.
e) Calculate the power generated by each resistor.
f) Compare the sum of all powers generated by each resistor
and the power calculated from the total resistor value.
2
2
V
P I V I R
R
= · = · =
27
11. Resistors
3-1
28
① 10Ⅹ10
5
Ω=1MΩ ±5%
② 68Ⅹ10
3
Ω=68kΩ ±5%
③ 51Ⅹ10
2
Ω=5.1kΩ ±5%
① ② ③
?
3-2
29
12. Open circuit, short circuit
3-3
30
13. Kirchhoff’s Law
Voltage law (or loop rule): The algebraic sum of the voltages around
any loop of a circuit is zero.
1 2 3
0
N
V V V V V A = + + +· · · · + =
¿
3-4
31
Current law (or junction rule): The sum of the currents that enter a junction
equals the sum of the currents that leave the junction.
in out
I I =
¿ ¿
1 2 3
I I I = +
3 4 6
I I I + =
2 4 5
I I I = +
3-5
32
Example
In a matrix form (multivariable-linear equations),
3-6
6 variables, 6 equations
33
AX Y =
A =
X = Y =
where,
where,
1
A
÷
= Inverse matrix of
A
I =
1 1
A AX I X X A Y
÷ ÷
= = =
3-7
34
‘Office Excel’ is very useful and powerful.
Usage of Excel
1. Spread sheet – make tables, cells, reports, etc..
2. Draw graphs and charts.
3. Calculation tool – easy and powerful.
Calculation Tools – examples.
1. Basic calculations in Excel
2. Solution of equations:
- one variable, non-linear equation.
- multivariable linear equations
Exl-1
35
Basic calculations
Exl-2
36
Linear Least Squares Fitting
Exl-3
37
Excel Equation Solver
Setting up.
Exl-4
38
Solution of non-linear single variable equation
solution of
2
3 4 0 x x ÷ ÷ =
Exl-5
39
Solution of linear multivariable equations
then,
AX Y =
1 1
A AX I X X A Y
÷ ÷
= = =
Exl-6
40
Matrix
11 12 13
21 22 23
31 32 33
a a a
a a a
a a a
(
(
(
(
¸ ¸
1
st
row
2
nd
row
3
rd
row
3
r
d
c
o
l
u
m
n
2
n
d
c
o
l
u
m
n
1
s
t
c
o
l
u
m
n
ij
a
(
¸ ¸
i
th
row j
th
column
11 12 13 11 12 13 11 11 12 21 13 31 11 12 12 22 13 32 11 13 12 23 13 33
21 22 23 21 22 23 21 11 22 21 23 31 21 12 22 22 23 32 21 13 22 23 23 33
31 32 33 31 32 33 31 1
a a a b b b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b
a a a b b b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b
a a a b b b a b
+ + + + + + ( (
( (
= + + + + + +
( (
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ 1 32 21 33 31 31 12 32 22 33 32 31 13 32 23 33 33
a b a b a b a b a b a b a b a b
(
(
(
( + + + + + +
¸ ¸
Matrix multiplication
AB C =
1
N
ij ik kj
k
c a b
=
=
¿
2 3 1 1 11 4
1 4 3 2 13 7
÷ ( ( (
=
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Example:
1 1 2 1 3 1 5 6 8
2 1 1 2 1 1 3 6 0
1 3 2 1 1 3 5 4 2
( ( (
( ( (
÷ =
( ( (
( ( ( ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 2 1 1 1 4
2 1 4 2 2 24
1 1 3 2 3 16
2 1 2 1 4 2
÷ ( ( (
( ( (
( ( (
=
( ( ( ÷
( ( (
÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
| || | | |
N K K M N M × × = ×
| | | |
1 0 2
1 1 2 0 1 1 5 7 1
2 4 0
(
(
÷ =
(
(
¸ ¸
Supplementary
A
41
Exl-7
Unit matrix
1 0 0 1 2 1 1 2 1
0 1 0 1 1 3 1 1 3
0 0 1 0 2 4 0 2 4
( ( (
( ( (
÷ = ÷
( ( (
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
I A A =
I
AI A =
4 2 1 1 0 0 4 2 1
2 1 3 0 1 0 2 1 3
1 2 1 0 0 1 1 2 1
÷ ÷ ( ( (
( ( (
=
( ( (
( ( ( ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Inverse matrix
1
A
÷
1
AA I
÷
=
1
A A I
÷
=
2 2 3 1 1 3 1 0 0
3 1 3 0 2 3 0 1 0
2 1 2 1 2 4 0 0 1
÷ ÷ ( ( (
( ( (
÷ =
( ( (
( ( ( ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 1 3 2 2 3 1 0 0
0 2 3 3 1 3 0 1 0
1 2 4 2 1 2 0 0 1
÷ ÷ ( ( (
( ( (
÷ =
( ( (
( ( ( ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
1 0 0 2 2
0 1 0 1 1
0 0 1 4 4
( ( (
( ( (
÷ = ÷
( ( (
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Supplementary
1 2 1 0 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0
0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
÷ ( ( (
( ( (
÷ =
( ( (
( ( ( ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
42
Exl-8
Homework 1.
You have learned Kirchhoff’s law for the analysis of a circuit. Find total current
(i.e., the current passes through R1) in the circuit below. And compare the
result with that from the calculation based on Ohm’s law.
V
43
Experiment 4
Purpose: Application of Kirchhoff’s law for the analysis of a circuit.
We are going to setup the following circuit on the breadboard.
a) Before setting up, measure the value of each resistor and check the accuracy.
b) After setup, measure the voltage across each resistor.
c) Find out the current passes through each resistor.
d) Analyze the circuit and calculate the current passing through each resistor
using Kirchhoff’s law (Use Excel program to get the solution).
Compare the values of the currents from the calculation and those from
the measurements.
R1= 470 ohm
R2= 1 kohm
R3= 2.2 kohm
R4= 470 ohm
R5= 4.7 kohm
R6= 1 kohm
44
Homework 2.
A circuit called Wheatstone bridge is technically important in measuring the
unknown resistor value of a resistor. Explain the principles of Wheatstone
bridge by applying Kirchhoff’s law.
45
14. Capacitor
A capacitor can store an electric charge. The capacitor is made of just two
Metal plates with a bit of insulation between them. The amount of charge
a capacitor can store is proportional to the voltage applied. Capacitance of
a capacitor is defined by,
( )
( )
( )
Q coulomb
C F farad
V volt
= =
6
1 ( ) 1 10 F microfarad F µ
÷
= ×
12
1 ( ) 1 10 pF picofarad F
÷
= ×
4-1
46
• 금속판
• 금속판
• 유전체
Metal foil
insulator
( 47x10
3
pF, 5%)
( 33x10
3
pF, 10%)
( 10x10
4
pF )
4-2
47
4-3
48
Capacitors can be connected in serial and/or in parallel.
Capacitors in parallel:
C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
Capacitors in series:
1 2 3 4 Tot
C C C C C = + + +
1 2 3 4
1 1 1 1 1
Tot
C C C C C
= + + +
1 2 3 4
1
1 1 1 1
Tot
C
C C C C
=
+ + +
4-4
49
Experiment 5
Purpose: Role of Capacitor as a charge storage.
a) Set up the circuit on the breadboard. Look closely at the electrolytic
capacitors. Be sure to note the stripe and the short leg that marks
the polarity.
b) Describe what happens in your circuit as you push the button,
then let go.
c) (1) Disconnect the wire between the capacitor and R1 (point A).
(2) Push the button to charge the capacitor.
Now wait for a minute or so.
(3) Set your DMM to the proper voltage range. Put the red probe
to the positive side of the cap, and the black probe to ground.
Record the voltage that first appears. The capacitor will slowly
leak its charge through the DMM.
(4) Reconnect the wire and describe what happens.
d) Use the following Table to record your information as you play
with your circuit. As you replace each capacitor and record the
time, the LED stays on. Don't expect the time to be very exact.
Capacitor value Time
1,000 microF
470 microF
100 microF
A
x
R1=470 Ohm
C1= 1000 microF
50
Experiment 6. Capacitors in serial / in parallel
Purpose: Analysis of capacitance in serial/parallel connections.
a) Measure the capacitance value for each capacitor
before setting up the circuit using DMM.
b) Measure total capacitance value of the capacitors
connected in parallel (circuit A) using DMM. Check the
total value is the sum of all capacitance of capacitors.
c) Calculate the electric charge stored in each capacitor.
d) Measure total capacitance value of the capacitors
connected in serial (circuit B) using DMM. Check
whether the summation formula of capacitance in serial
connection can be applicable.
e) Measure total capacitance value of the capacitors
connected in a mixed circuit (circuit C). Calculate the
total capacitance using the summation formula and
compare it with the measured one.
51
15. Transistor
NPN transistor: semiconductor devices that act as either electrically controlled switches
or amplifier controls.
The arrow inside the symbol.
-the direction of the current towards ground
-always on the side of the emitter.
The NPN transistor is turned on when a positive voltage is applied to the base.
The NPN transistor acts very much like a water faucet. A little pressure on the
handle opens the valve, releasing the water under pressure.
5-1
N
P
N
52
High Pressure
Water
High
Current
Control
Valve
by V
BE
High Pressure
Water
Control
Valve
5-2
53
An NPN transistor control current flow through a light
bulb. When a positive voltage is applied to the base,
the collector-to-emitter channel opens, allowing current
to flow from Vcc through the light bulb and into ground.
Transistors are operated in the active region.
Small amount of base current changes large
amount of collector current. For example,
0.3mA of base current results 10mA of
collector current.
So, a little pressure (voltage) on the base of
the NPN transistor leads to a very large
increase in the flow of current through the
NPN transistor from the collector to the
emitter.
5-3
Increasing V
BE
V
BE
B
E
C
54
(a) Basic common-emitter amplifier circuit. (b) Transfer characteristic of the circuit in (a). The amplifier is biased at a point Q,
and a small voltage signal v
i
is superimposed on the dc bias voltage V
BE
. The resulting output signal v
o
appears superimposed
on the dc collector voltage V
CE
. The amplitude of v
o
is larger than that of v
i
by the voltage gain A
v
.
V
BE
V
CE
V
BE
(V)
V
CE
5-4
55
Experiment 7. NPN transistor demonstration circuit.
Purpose: Role of the base voltage to the emitter current in NPN transistor.
Setup the following circuit on the breadboard.
a) Press and release the push button. After you release the push
button, what part provides the power to the base of the
transistor?
b) Describe the path of the current that provides the power to the
LED. Is the capacitor powering the LED?
c) Record three time trials of how long the LED stays on with the
10 microF capacitor. Find the average.
d) Replace C1 with 100 microF capacitor. Time the LED here for
three times as well and find the average. Roughly, how much more
time did the 100 microF capacitor keep the LED on than 10 microF
capacitor?
e)Write down your prediction of how much time the 1000 microF
capacitor would keep the LED working? And check the estimation
by trying it using 1000 microF capacitor. How accurate was your
prediction? Can you make a relation between the LED light
emitting time and capacitance?
C1= 10 micrF
R1= 22 kOhm
R2= 470 Ohm
56
Homework 3
a) Briefly describe the purpose of the transistor.
b) There are many transistors that look different. Draw some of them, and indicate
Emitter, Base, and Collector to the three legs.
c) What two separate things does the arrow inside the transistor symbol indicate?
d) Regarding the water faucet analogy, is the water pressure provided by the water
system or the handle?
57
15. Transistor (continue)
PNP transistor:
N
P
P
The PNP transistor’s action is opposite of the NPN. As you increase the voltage
to the base, the flow decreases; and as the voltage to the base decreases, the
PNP transistor is turned on more. The PNP transistor still acts very much like
a water faucet. A little pressure on the handle closes the valve, stopping the water.
The arrow inside the symbol still points in the
direction of the current , but is on the top side.
PNP emitters and collectors have reversed
positions relative to the NPN.
5-5
58
In PNP transistor circuit, everything is reversed to that of the NPN.
Current must leave the base in order for a collector current to flow.
5-6
59
Experiment 8. PNP transistor demonstration circuit, 1
st
Example.
Purpose: Role of the base voltage to the collector current in PNP transistor.
Setup the following circuit on the breadboard.
a) When you first attach your battery, check whether LED turns on
immediately. Why does LED turn on initially?
b) Press and release the push button. What happens to LED?
Describe the path of the current that provides the power to the
LED.
c) Record three time trials of how long it takes till the LED turns on
fully with the 10 microF capacitor. Find the average.
d) Replace C1 with 100 microF capacitor. Time the LED here for
three times as well and find the average. Roughly, how much more
time did the 100 microF capacitor need for the LED to light on
than 10 microF capacitor?
e) Replace R1 with 1 MOhm resistor and let C1 be 10 microF.
Measure roughly how much time is needed to make LED turn on
fully.
C1= 10 micrF
R1= 100 kOhm
R2= 22 kOhm
R3= 470 Ohm
60
Experiment 9. PNP transistor demonstration circuit, 2
nd
Example.
Purpose: Measurement of DC current gain of a PNP transistor.
Setup the following circuit on the breadboard.
a) When you first attach your battery, check whether LED turns on
immediately. Measure the voltage at point A with respect to the
ground.
b) Measure the voltage between points AD (V
AD
) and points FG (V
FG
).
c) Calculate the current through R3 (I
B
) and that through R4 (I
C
),
respectively. Find the ratio, I
C
/ I
B
.
d) Replace R1 with 1 kOhm. Measure the voltage at point A again.
e) Measure the voltage between points AD (V
AD
) and points FG (V
FG
).
Calculate the current through R3 and that through R4, and find the
ratio, I
C
/ I
B
.
R1= 47 kOhm
R2= 10 kOhm
R3= 22 kOhm
R4= 470 Ohm
A
x x
x
x
D
F
G
61
Homework 4
Find and write down the definition of ‘DC current gain’ (h
FE
or |) of a transistor. You
can find the data sheet for ‘2n3906’ PNP transistor easily by web searching. Compare
the measured current gains in Experiment 9 with the values in the data sheet.
62
16. Digital Logic
Digital electronics deals with only two things; on/off (or 0/1, low/high, …).
By combination of these two things, you can store, transfer, and make
meaningful information.
Binary system (0,1):
Decimal system (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9):
A byte is a basic unit of measurement of information storage in computer
science. In many computer architectures it is a unit of memory addressing.
There is no standard but a byte most often consists of eight bits.
10011101  8 bit/ 1 byte
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
10011101 1 2 0 2 0 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 0 2 1 2 = × + × + × + × + × + × + × + ×
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
45623907 4 10 5 10 6 10 2 10 3 10 9 10 0 10 7 10 = × + × + × + × + × + × + × + ×
6-1
63
Binary alphabet: ASCII table
Space= 20 = 00010100
A = 65 = 01000001 a = 97 = 01100001
B = 66 = 01000010 b = 98 = 01100010
Y = 89 = 01011001 y = 121 = 01111001
Z = 90 = 01011100 z = 122 = 01111010
6-2
Digital electronic system:
Information is combinations of
only two things, i.e., High or Low;
1 or 0; On or Off; Yes or No;….
Time set by Clock
H H L L H H L H H
1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1
+V
-V
0
64
Analog Digital
advantage
Varying voltages. Precise transfer of information.
Easy to record. No generational loss.
Easy to play back. Footprint of a bit can be done at the molecular level.
Common transfer rate in billion bits per second.
Any material can be used for storing data. (0/1, high/low, on/off)
Disadvantage
Not precise. Needs special equipment to transfer, record, and read information.
Signal loss with each generation recorded.
Take up large recording space.
Limited transfer time.
Signal fades as media ages.
6-3
65
17. AND, OR, NAND, NOR Gates
AND Gate:
input A input B Output
High High High
High Low Low
Low High Low
Low Low Low
6-4
66
OR Gate:
input A input B Output
High High High
High Low High
Low High High
Low Low Low
6-5
67
NOT Gate:
N T
input Output
High Low
Low High
6-6
68
NAND Gate:
input A input B Output
High High Low
High Low High
Low High High
Low Low High
If any one of inputs is ‘low’,
the output is ‘High’.
6-7
69
input A input B Output
High High High
High Low High
Low High High
Low Low Low
input A input B Output
High High Low
High Low High
Low High High
Low Low High
input A input B Output
High High High
High Low Low
Low High Low
Low Low Low
input A input B Output
High High Low
High Low Low
Low High Low
Low Low High
AND Gate
OR Gate
NAND Gate
NOR Gate
6-8
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18. Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) IC’s
-A major class of integrated circuits.
-high noise immunity and low static power consumption.
- 4000 series of CMOS Ics are very popular because they are
inexpensive and work with as little as 3 volts and as much as 18 volts.
Dual in-line package: a package type for
integrated circuits with pins lying along
two lines
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Precautions for CMOS ICs
- CMOS IC’s are static sensitive.
- Always store the IC in a carrying tube or static foam until it is placed
into the circuits.
- Remove static from your fingers. Touch some type of large metal object
to remove any static electricity from your fingers before you handle the
CMOS chips.
- Always check that the chip is set in properly. (cautious about numbering).
- Don’t walk across the room with a CMOS chip in hand.
- Always tie any unused inputs to ground. If an input is not connected,
the small voltage changes in the air around us can affect the input.
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Experiment 10. NAND logic conformation.
Purpose: Check the NAND gate output.
Setup the following circuit on the breadboard.
Be careful about numbering the legs of the 4011 IC chip.
We use only legs, 1, 2, and 3. The other input legs (5, 6, 8,
9, 12, 13) should be grounded.
a) Measure the voltages (V
A
, V
C
) at points, A and C. If the
voltage is higher than V/2, we call it is ‘High’. Otherwise, it
is ‘Low’. Remember we are studying digital logic. Which
ones are high and which ones are low?
b) Apply High voltage (V
A
) to point D and Low voltage (V
C
)
to point E. Check whether LED turns on. Remove the LED,
then measure the voltage at point F.
c) If we apply High voltages to both inputs (points D and
E), what happens? Measure the output voltage at point F.
d) By changing high and low voltages applied to points D
and E, check NAND logic by filling up the following table.
R= 10 kOhm
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Experiment 11. Analog and Digital Combination.
Purpose: Understanding the analog and digital combination circuit.
Set up the following circuit on your breadboard. Be careful about numbering the legs
of the IC chip. Unused inputs are recommended to be grounded.
Notice the test points (TP) 1, 2, 3, and 4. When you push the button, LED will light
for a while then turn itself off, if all parts are successfully connected.
a) Measure the voltages at TP1, TP2, TP3, and TP4 before you push the button.
b) Measure the voltages at TP1, TP2, TP3, and TP4 while you are pushing the button.
c) Measure the voltages at TP1 and TP2 after you release the button.
d) Observe the voltage change at TP3 after you release the button. If possible, record
the voltage change with time. Measure how long LED turns on.
e) After you release the button, LED turns on for a while. Observe the voltage at TP3,
then record the voltage when LED turns off. Is it the half of 9V?
f) Change C1 and R2 as shown in the table below. First, expect the time for which
LED turns on. And measure the real time for which LED is on.
R1= 100 kOhm
R2= 220 kOhm
C1= 100 microF
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