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A New Rapid Tooling Process

Xiaoping Jiang and Chao Zhang

1. Introduction Due to the globalization of the world economy and the consequent increase in competition, it is more important than ever for manufacturers to shorten their product development and manufacturing cycles. The current competitive market not only requires faster product development and reduced production time, but also demands higher quality, greater efficiencies, lower cost, and the ability to meet environmental and recycling objectives. Tooling is a very important phase in the development and manufacturing of new products and is usually one of the most time-consuming and costly phases. Therefore, shortening the tooling lead-time plays a key role in the reduction of the overall product development and manufacturing time. Great effort has been made to develop new rapid tooling (RT) technologies that combine the recently emerged rapid prototyping (RP) processes with one or more subsequent processes. RP normally refers to fabricating prototypes directly from computer aided design (CAD) data using a layered, additive method. Almost all products developed in the manufacturing industry arise from the creation of a threedimensional computer model using a CAD system. Converting the CAD model into a prototype by using a RP process can be easily realized (Jacobs, 1992). A RP system can quickly generate physical objects and prototypes using liquid, powder, or sheet materials. RP parts allow designers to verify their product design at an early stage and to use three-dimensional representations of the design for sales, marketing and production. Along with the evolution and improvements of various RP technologies, great research and development efforts have been made in recent years to develop RT technologies based on RP processes (Pham, 1998, Willis, 1997, Hejmadi and McAlea, 1996, Nelson, 1999, and Phelan, 1997). Whether the application is prototype, bridge, short-run, or production tooling, RT represents an opportunity to reduce both production time and cost. Therefore, researchers continue to

Source: Manufacturing the Future, Concepts - Technologies - Visions , ISBN 3-86611-198-3, pp. 908, ARS/plV, Germany, July 2006, Edited by: Kordic, V.; Lazinica, A. & Merdan, M.

Open Access Database www.i-techonline.com

637

638

Manufacturing the Future: Concepts, Technologies & Visions

explore ways to improve RT technologies. In this study, a new RT process using a metal shell backfilled with metal powder to provide mechanical support to the metal shell is presented and the feasibility of this new RT process is evaluated. In particular, the study is focused on (1) the packing behavior of the metal powder used to backfill the metal shell, (2) the deformation behavior of the compacted metal powder under compression, (3) the deformation behavior of the metal shell, and (4) the deformation behavior of the metal shell and compacted metal powder assembly.

2. The New Rapid Tooling Process

The proposed new RT process is shown schematically in Fig. 1. For convenience, the figure only illustrates the fabrication of half mould. The proposed new RT process involves the following major steps: Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: A three-dimensional computer model of the mould is designed on a computer. A plastic pattern with complementary shape to the mould is fabricated using a RP process, such as Stereolithography. A thin metal layer is deposited onto the cavity side of the plastic pattern using an electro-chemical process to form a metal shell. Then, the metal shell is separated from the plastic pattern. Metal ribs are added to the back of the metal shell to increase the strength of the metal shell. The metal powder is packed into the metal shell to provide mechanical support to the metal shell. The backside of the mould is sealed to prevent leakage of the metal powder. The tool is finished and ready for moulding operations.

Step 4: Step 5: Step 6:

In addition to anticipated short lead-time and low cost, it is also expected that this RT process is environmentally friendly because the metal powder used in backing is fully reusable/recyclable.

A New Rapid Tooling Process

639

Step 1 Step 2

SStep 3

Step 4

Figure 1. New rapid tooling process

Step 5

Step 6

3. Powder Packing Behavior

3.1 Powder Packing Models

Powder packing can be divided into single component packing, binary packing as well as multiple component packing. In single component packing, all packing particles used are of the same size and geometry. In contrast, binary or multiple components packing involves two or more packing components. The powder packing behavior is measured by the packing density, which is defined as the ratio of the volume occupied by the powder to the total volume without compression, i.e.

Packing Density =

VPOWDER ∑ Wi / ρ i = VTOTAL VTOTAL

(1)

where VTOTAL is the total volume of the powder for single component packing or the total volume of the powder mixture for multiple component packing,

a weighed amount of fine powder is added to the container while the cylinder is vibrated. . and they are made of different materials. The volume of the mixed powders is measured after the vibration. the weighted finer powder is added to the previous mixture while the cylinder is vibrated. The characteristics of the selected powders are listed in Table 1.640 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. The voids formed by large particles can be filled by small particles. 3. The powder in the container is vibrated for 15 minutes on a vibration machine with the topside of the powder being lightly pressed by a flat plate. eleven different metal powders are selected for the powder packing experiment. The final volume is measured and the packing density of the mixed powders is calculated. In binary and multiple component packing. The cylinder is vibrated on a vibrating machine for 15 minutes while the topside of the powder is being lightly pressed by a flat plate. In this study.2 Procedures for Powder Packing Experiments For single component powder packing. the coarse metal powder is weighed and placed into a scaled cylinder. In single component packing. The voids created by small particles can be filled by even smaller particles. packing density of the powder depends on only the packing structure or the arrangement of the particles. and ρi is the theoretical density of the powder material for component i. For a three-component mixture. The packing density is calculated. It is then vibrated. For binary component powder packing involving low fluidity powders. After the volume of the coarse powder is measured. Technologies & Visions Wi is the weight of the powder component i. the powder is first weighed and placed into a scaled cylinder or beaker. The packing density is determined based on the measured data for the weight and volume of the powder. For binary or multiple component powder packing. The mixture is stirred so that the powders are mixed evenly. The volume of the mixed powders is measured and the packing density of the mixed powders is calculated. After vibration. The particles of the selected powders have different shapes and sizes. the packing density is affected by the size and proportion of each packing component. the volume of the powder is measured. the weighed coarse and fine powders are placed into a scaled cylinder or a beaker.

19 8. 1947).3 Results of the Single Component Powder Packing Experiments The packing density depends on the characteristics of the particles. (a) The effect of the ratio of the diameters of the container to the particle McGeary (1962) studied the effect of the ratio of the diameters of the container to the particle D/d (D is the container diameter and d is the particle diameter) and concluded that if the ratio D/d is greater than 50.A New Rapid Tooling Process 641 Powder Powder name number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Carbon Steel Ball 12 HP Copper Shot 34 HP Bronze Fe T-15 T-15 T-15 ATOMET 1001 ATOMET 1001 DISTALOY 4600A DISTALOY 4600A Material Carbon Steel Copper Bronze Iron Tool Steel Tool Steel Tool Steel Low Carbon Steel Low Carbon Steel Low Carbon Steel Low Carbon Steel Material density (g/ml) 7.85 7. for powder packing. Experiments are carried out here for ratios D/d .19 8.85 7.9 Geometry Spherical Round Round Spherical Spherical Spherical Spherical Irregular Irregular Irregular Irregular Average particle size ( m) 3175 850 450 22~53 >150 80~150 <22 >150 <22 >150 <22 Table 1. particle shape.9 7.65 7.91 8.19 7. Characteristics of selected powders 3.85 8. the density of the powder material has no significant influence on its packing density. The main factors affecting the packing density for single component powder packing are particle size. Particles of the same size and shape will have the same packing density despite of the difference in their theoretical densities (Leva and Grummer. the packing density tends to reach the maximum value. Generally.85 8. and the ratio of the diameters of the container to the particle.

6. It can be observed from Table 2 that the packing density increases with the increase of the ratio D/d.4 using 3175 m (1/8-inch) diameter carbon steel balls (Powder #1) and for the ratio D/d of 57. Therefore.642 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. flow. different diameter containers are used to create different D/d ratios. The experimental results presented in Table 2 show the effect of the ratio D/d on the packing density.62 1 7.63 1 15.65 1 39.5.93 0. It can be seen that the packing densities for the . Technologies & Visions from 3.58 1 3.63. the lower the packing density (Shinohara.55 Table 2. Some particle shapes of the selected powders used in this study are shown in Fig. which is 0. 1998). the shape is almost spherical and for water atomized metal powder. The lowest packing density. 0.55. the shape is more irregular (German. However.50 0. Powder number D/d Packing density 2 57.62 1 4. DISTALOY 4600A (Powders #10 and #11) and ATOMET 1001 (Powders #8 and #9) powders.1 0.6 0. the packing density of the powders with irregular shapes is 22% lower than that of the powders with the spherical shape. which is 3. In the carbon steel ball packing tests. and compression properties. Single component packing density for different D/d (b) The effect of the particle shape The particle shape varies significantly depending on the manufacturing process used and influences the particle packing. which is 0. (c) The effect of the particle size The results shown in Table 3 also indicate the effect of the particle size on the packing density of the powder.4 0. For a gas atomized metal powder.65 when the ratio D/d is 57. The greater the particle surface roughness or the more irregular the particle shapes.66. The highest packing density is 0. 1984).66 0.49.9 0.5 to 39. The powders with irregular particle shapes.61 1 10. occurs at the lowest ratio D/d. Table 3 gives the comparison of the packing densities for powders with different particle shapes. the packing density does not change much when the ratio D/d is greater than 7. as compared with the packing density of the powders of the spherical shape with the same size (Powders #5 and #7).6 using 12 HP copper shorts of diameter of 850 m (Powder #2). have a lower packing density. 2.

60 10 11 Irregular Irregular >150 <22 0.63 0.65 Powder number 7 8 Shape Spherical Irregular Size <22 >150 Packing density 0.49 4 5 6 Spherical Spherical Spherical 22~53 >150 80~150 0.63 0.63 0.49 3 Round 450 0. despite of the difference in the particle size. particle size has no significant effect on the packing density.49 for the powders with irregular shapes. a test for the particle fluidity by pouring the powders onto a plate with smooth surface that is at a 45o angle to the horizontal plane reveals that the particles demonstrate a low fluidity if the particle size is less than 22 m.65.A New Rapid Tooling Process 643 powders with spherical shape and round shape are between 0.60 and 0. and it is 0. Powder number 1 2 Shape Spherical Round Size ( m) 3175 850 Packing density 0.4 Results of the Binary and Tertiary Powder Packing Experiments The results of the single component powder packing experiments indicate that the maximum packing density is about 0. a higher packing density is required to achieve sufficient load transfer ability. Optical micrographs of powders with different shapes 3. Thus.49 Table 3.63.63 0. Adding certain amount of smaller particles into a . However. For the new RT process considered in the current study.63 9 Irregular <22 0. Single component packing density for different particle shapes and sizes ATOMET 1001 DISTALOY 4600 A T-15 100 μm Figure 2.49 0.

Small particles are used to fit into the interstices between large particles.63 0.6): 1 6. The increase in the packing density for the binary mixture with a low particle size ratio (Cases 4-6) is in the range of 9% ~ 14% and it is 32% ~ 33% for the binary mixture with a high particle size ratio (Cases 2 and 3).63 0.71 0.63 0. The results show that adding small particles into a packing structure of large particles can greatly increase the packing density.65 0.63 0. Binary and tertiary packing density for different particle size ratios .23 for the middle size particles in the tertiary mixture. Technologies & Visions packing structure consisted of large particles can greatly improve the packing density. This is the basic principle for the binary or multiple component packing. The packing density of the binary or tertiary mixture increases between 9% and 44% as compared with the single component packing density. and 0.9~144): 1 (16.644 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts.86 0.63 0. The factors that affect the binary or tertiary packing density.63 Mixture 0. The mixing ratio is defined as the ratio of the weight of the large particle to the total weight of the powder mixture and the particle size ratio is defined as the ratio of the size of the large particle to the size of the small particle.0~38. the experiments are conducted for different particle size ratios at the mixing ratio of 0.82: 1 (5.72 Table 4. and smaller particles can be used to fit into the next level of pores.63 Small particle 0.60 0.5: 1 (59.63 for the large size particles in the tertiary mixture and 0. Case Powder mixture Particle size ratio Packing density Packing density increase (%) 44 33 32 13 9 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 #1+#3+#7 #1+#4 #2+#4 #5+#7 #2+#6 #1+#2 144: 20. the packing density can be improved.63 0.65 0. such as the size ratio and the mixing ratio of the packing components. (a) The effect of the particle size ratio To exam the effect of the particle size ratio of the packing components on the packing behavior of binary and tertiary mixtures.63 0. are considered in this study.84 0. Table 4 gives the packing densities of binary and tertiary mixtures at different particle size ratios.74 for binary mixtures.91 0.67~10.71 0.6): 1 3.74:1 Large particle 0. Thus.

the relation between R and r can be expressed as: R = cos 30 o R+r (2) R R (a) (b) Figure 3. 3 (b). The simple cubic packing. produces the largest interstice between particles. (a) Simple cubic packing. There are two extreme packing conditions in the ordered single component packing.A New Rapid Tooling Process 645 The increase in the packing density for the tertiary mixture is 44%. The size of the fine particles should be smaller than the throat gate dimension of large particles so that the fine particles can freely pass through the throat gate between large particles. For the face-centered packing model. 3. the minimum size ratio that satisfies this requirement can be determine using the packing models shown in Fig. (b) Facecentered cubic packing . and r is the radius of the small sphere. produces the smallest interstice between particles. Throat gate structures between particles. 3. on the other hand. R is the radius of the large sphere. For spherical component packing. In Fig. as shown in Fig. 3 (a). The basic requirement of good multiple component packing is that small particles can freely pass through the voids between large particles. The face-centered cubic packing shown in Fig.

R/r.46. the highest packing density is obtained from tertiary powder packing.46 . Technologies & Visions From Eq. In Case 5. This is due to the fact that the actual powder packing is not ordered packing. R r = 2. It is also noticed that the binary packing density is between 0. the particle size ratio has little effect on the binary packing density . for small particles to fill the voids between large particles without pushing them apart is 2.41. Therefore. the packing densities in these cases are higher than those in Cases 4 to 6.86 when the particle size ratio is higher than the minimum particle size ratio requirement. the particle size ratio is lower than 6. As expected. the packing density is also low.46 based on ordered packing. the small particles can only partially fill the voids between the large particles. The experimental results shown in Table 4 reflect the effect of particle size ratio. (2).46. but higher than 2. the particle size ratio should be greater than 6. we have comes R r = 6. This may attribute to the fact that the single component packing density for Powder #1 is lower than that for Powder #2 as shown in Table 3. In order to obtain a higher packing density.41 It can be concluded that the minimum particle size ratio. which leads to a lower packing density. The packing density increases compared with the single component packing density.67 to 10. It is observed that the binary packing density for the mixture of Powder #2 and Powder #4 (Case 3) is slightly higher than that for the mixture of Powder #1 and Powder #4 (Case 2). The particle size ratios in Cases 1 to 3 are much higher than 6. the size ratio varies from 5.72 when the particle size ratio is lower than the minimum particle size ratio requirement for good binary packing and it is 0. However.41. In Case 6.82. Case 1.646 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts.91.84 to 0. all of the small particles can pass the throat gates and enter the interstices between large particles. The particle size ratio in Case 4 is 6. When the ratio R/r is greater than 6. However. So.71 and 0.82 and it is greater than the minimum particle size ratio requirement for good binary packing. the relation be- (3) Therefore.6 and it does not totally satisfy the particle size ratio requirement for good binary packing. The result suggests that the minimum particle size ratio for actual powder packing to achieve a good binary packing should be higher than 6.46. Thus. it is lower than that with high particle size ratio. R = cos 45 o R+r For the simple cubic packing. which is 0. which is 6.46.

81 0.6 0.70 0. When the small particles fill all of the voids without forcing the large particles apart.67 #1+#4 59.68 0.80 Tabele 5.0.71 .83 0. The packing density varies from 0.67 Binary packing density 0.77 0.86 #2+#6 5.71 0. Deformation Behaviour of Compacted Metal Powder under Compression The effects of various parameters on the deformation behavior of compacted metal powder under compressive loading are investigated experimentally in .67 to 0. (b) The effect of the mixing ratio The experiments are conducted for binary mixtures at different mixing ratios to investigate the effect of the mixing ratio on the packing density of binary powder mixtures.68 0.6 #5+#7 6.77 0. Table 5 shows the experimental results of packing densities for four different binary mixtures at different mixing ratios.83 0.86 0. It can be seen from the results that there is an optimal mixing ratio for each binary mixture at which the packing density of the binary mixture is maximal.69 0.84 0.A New Rapid Tooling Process 647 once the size ratio is lower or higher than the minimum particle size ratio requirement for good binary packing. the porosity of the binary powder mixture decreases.69 0.68 0.80 0.70 0. the packing density of the binary mixture is at its maximum value.84 0.83 0.82 0.85 0.71 0.67~10.85 0.71 0.86.83 0.86 0.70 0. the packing density of the binary mixture increases.70 0. Therefore.74 0. Further addition of small particles will force the large particles apart and the packing density will decrease.71 0.72 0.82 0. Mixture Particle size ratio Mixing ratio 0.77. The optimal mixing ratio falls in the range of 0.9~144 #2+#4 16.0~38.82 0. Binary packing density at different mixing ratios 4. When small particles are added to fill the voids between the large particles.80 0.72 0.82 0.68 0.65 0.

The powder is vibrated for 15 minutes in the single component powder compression test after being loaded into the compression die. HRB – Hardness.85 Material properties E (GPa) HRB 190~210 190~210 190~210 220 48 79 0. both coarse and fine size particles are used to examine the compression behaviour of powder mixtures.Young’s modulus. -Poisson’s ratio .27~0.27~0. For T-15. only coarse size particles are used.27~0.22 45-150 45-150 - ρ (g/ml) 8. 2002) in an axial compression die shown schematically in Fig. Characteristics of selected powders ρ – Density. 4. Technologies & Visions order to examine the feasibility of the proposed new RT process. E . The compression tests are carried out using an Instron Mechanical Testing System according to ASTM standard B331-95 (ASTM B331-95. The sizes of the powders are chosen so that the size ratio of coarse powder and the fine powder is greater than 7. 4.648 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. which gives a higher packing density as shown in Table 5. As shown in Table 6. T-15 tool steel powder has much higher hardness than that for ATOMET 1001 and DISTALOY 4600A. The powder is dried in an oven at 105oC for 30 minutes before the compression test to remove any absorbed moisture. The mixing ratio of the coarse and fine powders is varied between 0.3 Shape Spherical Irregular Irregular Table 6.1 Compression Experiments The metal powders used for the compression experiments are given in Table 6. Three different kinds of powders are selected to provide different particle shapes and hardness. These are important parameters for the deformation analysis of the metal shell and powder assembly used in the new RT process. For ATOMET 1001 and DISTALOY 4600A.85 7. The experimental results are used to obtain the elastic properties of the compacted metal powder under various loading conditions.3 0.19 7.70 and 0. Powder T-15 ATOME T 1001 DISTAL OY 4600A Particle size Coarse Fine ( m) ( m) 150-350 6.80.3 0.

It can be seen that the powder material properties have a significant effect on the compressive characteristics of the powder. and the maximum compressive stress used is 138 MPa.49 0. which is the smallest among all powders considered.157 0.49 Powder condition after compression Loose Block Block Table 7.375 0.157. Therefore. corresponding to the maximum injection moulding pressure used for forming most engineering plastics.2 Results (a) The effect of powder material properties on powder compressive properties Table 7 shows the results of the single loading-unloading compression experiments for the three coarse powders listed in Table 6. . three times that of the T-15 tool steel powder.63 0. The total strain under the same loading condition for the T-15 tool steel powder is 0.627 0.A New Rapid Tooling Process 649 The coarse and fine powders are carefully mixed in the die and are then vibrated for 15 minutes before the compression test of the mixed powders. Effect of powder material properties on powder compressive deformation behavior In contrast. 0.462 Compact density 0. It can be seen that the change between the powder compact density and packing density is smallest for the T-15 tool steel powder that corresponds to the smallest total strain. The loading and unloading rate is 10 kN/min. For the purposes of comparison. 4. The powder compact density is defined as the ratio of the volume occupied by the powder to the total volume after the compression. the total strain for the ATOMET 1001 powder is largest. powders with higher hardness produce smaller compressive strain and density change under the same compressive load. Powder (coarse) T-15 Tool Steel DISTALOY 4600A ATOMET 1001 Total strain 0.462. the packing density obtained in Section 3 is also listed in Table 7.692 0. as expected.766 Packing density 0.

650 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. Technologies & Visions Fixed Upper Punch 101. This suggests that powders with high hardness are preferred for the backing application in the proposed new RT process. Such powder blocks cannot be reused for tooling applications because they lose the filling capabil- . Therefore. harder materials can support bigger loads.8 mm Support Ring Moving Lower Punch Compressive Loading Figure 4. for the same powder compact density. In addition.6 mm Packed Powders 7 mm Die 50. the test indicates that soft powders such as DISTALOY 4600A and ATOMET 1001 tend to form blocks after compression. Die and punches for the compression test It is also observed that the T-15 tool steel powder has the lowest compact density after compression although it has the highest packing density before compression.

It can be seen from the results that at the mixing ratio of 0. The addition of smaller particles into a packing structure consisting of large particles can greatly improve the packing density.74 Total Strain 0. Effect of the mixing ratio on binary powder compressive deformation behavior .77 are carried out using a five-cycle loading pattern shown in Fig. (b) The effect of the mixing ratio on the compressive properties of binary powder mixtures The RT process considered in the current study requires a higher packing density to achieve sufficient load transfer ability.783 0.80 0. In contrast. 5.183 0.162 0. Therefore. Table 8 shows the total compressive strain and corresponding powder compact density of the binary powder mixture at different mixing ratios.77. It is clear that the optimal mixing ratio corresponding to a maximum powder packing density produces the least compressive deformation. multiple loading-unloading experiments for the T15 binary powder mixture with a mixing ratio of 0. the total strain is minimal and the compact density is maximum. Such powders are better choices for the application in the proposed new RT process from a reusable point of view.A New Rapid Tooling Process 651 ity that powders possess. Experiments that involve the binary powder mixture of the coarse T-15 powder and fine T-15 powder at different mixing ratios using a single loading-unloading compression cycle are also carried out. (c) Compressive behavior of powders in multiple loading-unloading cycles To investigate the effect of loading history on the deformation behavior of the compacted metal powder.179 Compact Density 0. This is also the optimal mixing ratio for T-15 tool steel powder mixture at which the powder packing density is maximal as shown in Table 5. The mixing ratio is defined as the ratio of the weight of the coarse powder to the total weight of the powder mixture. the T-15 tool steel powder remains in loose condition after compression at a compression stress of up to 138 MPa. the T-15 tool steel powder is used in the experiments conducted in subsequent sections.77 0.810 Table 8.822 0. Powder Mixture T-15 Tool Steel T-15 Tool Steel T-15 Tool Steel Mixing Ratio 0.

After the unloading.652 150 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 120 90 60 30 0 0 14 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. The first loading curve is significantly different from the succeeding unloading and reloading curves. the next reloading curve crosses the previous unloading curve at a certain stress level. Upon unloading during the first cycle. it showed that the total deformation is twice as much as the other curves. Technologies & Visions 28 42 56 70 TIME (minute) Figure 5. Loading pattern of the five-cycle compression test (i) Loading history and critical point The loading-unloading curves for the five-cycle compression test are shown in Fig. approximately 50% of the deformation is recovered. Typical loading-unloading curves of the five-cycle compression test . 6. COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) CRITICA L POINT COMPRESSIVE STRAIN Figure 6. indicating a large amount of irreversible deformation during the first load cycle. For the same load.

as shown in Fig. some of the irreversible deformation mechanisms. 1998). the deformation is essentially elastic and completely reversible. such as local plastic deformation and particle relative movements. leaving a significant amount of irreversible deformation. 6. when the load is below the critical point. when the load is below the critical point. when load is high enough. These features indicate that the elastic properties of compacted powders can be controlled with properly designed loading-unloading cycles. and therefore resulting in increased critical point and tangent of the loading-unloading curves. During the succeeding loading cycles. the irreversible deformation mechanisms have largely been exhausted. can further contribute to the unrecoverable deformation. The tangent of the unloading or the reloading curve increases over cycles and approaches a constant value. In particular. The deformation behavior and the critical point phenomenon can be understood from the deformation mechanisms of the powder compact. Secondly. i. However. During the first loading cycle. Upon unloading in the first load cycle. the vibration packed powder particles only have point contacts with each other and will go through a large amount of irreversible deformation through such mechanisms as relative particle movement. and therefore a major portion of the deformation is elastic in nature.e. indicating that the deformation below the critical point is mostly elastic in nature. plastic deformation at contacting points. beyond the critical points. The critical point has two features. This cross point is referred to as the critical point. only the elastic component of the deformation is recovered. the available sites and the amount of irreversible deformation will be gradually reduced. On the other hand. and the curves shows a hysteresis. 6.A New Rapid Tooling Process 653 A pair of unloading and subsequent reloading curves form a cross point. and perhaps particle fracture for brittle particles (Carnavas.. The unloading and reloading curves become parallel and closer to each other as the reloading and unloading cycles proceed. . It can be expected that with the proceeding of repeated loading-unloading cycles. First. the strain of reloading exceeds that in the previous unloading process. the reloading curve lies on the left side of the unloading curve of the previous cycle and the two curves essentially overlap with each other. Elastic deformation will increase with the increase in the load and the decrease in the irreversible deformation. when the reloading load goes beyond the critical point. as shown in Fig. the stress corresponding to the critical point moves higher with an increased number of cycles.

A higher critical point means a higher deformation resistance in the subsequent reloading. Technologies & Visions (ii) The effect of the mixing ratio on the critical point Figure 7 shows the effect of the binary mixing ratio on the position of the critical point. as shown in Fig.654 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. two new compression tests are designed and carried out to examine the deformation behavior of compacted powders under cyclic loading below the critical point using the binary T-15 tool steel powder mixture. To minimize the deformation of the power compacts under repeated compressive load cycles.80.77 corresponds to the highest powder packing density in the binary packing system. 8. It can be seen that the binary powder mixture with a mixing ratio of 0. COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (a) Mixing ratio: 0. The compressive stresses corresponding to the first and the fourth critical points are shown in Table 9. High deformation resistance is beneficial for maintaining the integrity of tooling under working conditions for the intended RT application. In the first test. 8 and 9.77 has higher critical points compared to the powder mixtures with mixing ratios of 0. (d) The effect of loading history on the compressive properties of binary powder mixtures Excessive deformation of compacted powders in the proposed RT application is undesirable and must be avoided.74 and 0. respectively. The loading patterns for the two tests are shown in Figs.74 . respectively. three more cycles of loading-unloading are added with a maximum load set at 60% of the previous maximum load. The mixing ratio of 0. after two cycles of loading and unloading at the maximum load of 138 MPa.

77 as shown in Fig. In the second test.A New Rapid Tooling Process 655 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (b) Mixing ratio: 0. 9. 8 and powder mixtures with mixing .80 Figure 7. and three more cycles are followed with the maximum load set at 60% of that used in previous cycles. 7b) and still practical for injection moulding of engineering plastics. Figure 10 shows the loading-unloading curves of the compression test using the loading pattern shown in Fig.77 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (c) Mixing ratio: 0. the powder first undergoes five loading and unloading cycles with a maximum load of 138 MPa. as shown in Fig. Locations of critical points The new maximum load after initial loading was chosen as 60% of the initial maximum load so that the it is safely below the critical points on the initial loading curves (The stresses at critical points are at least 80% of the maximum load for the mixture with a mixing ratio of 0.

there is no further increase in the total strain observed in the three loading-unloading cycles with reduced maximum load.656 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts.74 At the fourth critical point (MPa) 75 127 98 Table 9.80 0. For all mixing ratios studied. 11.77. and 0. 0. Figure 12 shows the experimental results using the second loading pattern shown in Fig. 9.74. Second loading pattern . respectively. Again. Technologies & Visions ratios of 0. there is no further strain increase observed in the three loading-unloading cycles with reduced maximum load.77 are given in Fig. Compressive stress at the first and fourth critical points COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 7 14 21 28 TIME (minute) 35 42 49 56 Figure 8. First loading pattern COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 77 84 91 TIME (minute) Figure 9. Details of the stress-strain curves for the mixing ratio of 0.77 0. Powder mixture Mixing ratio At the first critical point (MPa) 52 110 58 T-15 tool steel T-15 tool steel T-15 tool steel 0.80.

74 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.20 COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (b) Mixing ratio 0.12 0.02 0.10 0. Loading-unloading curves using the first loading pattern .06 0.16 0.02 0.14 0.77 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.16 COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (c) Mixing ratio 0.80 Figure 10.06 0.14 0.04 0.10 0.12 0.12 0.08 0.A New Rapid Tooling Process 657 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.08 0.16 COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (a) Mixing ratio 0.

0E-02 8.09 0.2E-01 1.77 among all powder mixtures examined. 100 90 80 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) LOWERED LOADING AND UNLOADING 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.0E-01 COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (a) Mixing ratio: 0.14 COMPRESSIVE STRAIN Figure 11. This is consistent with the results from the compression test using a single loading-unloading cycle.74 .77 has the least increase in both the total strain and powder compact density between the second loading and the last loading.11 0.1 0.658 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. Technologies & Visions These results indicate that by properly pre-compressing the metal powders. plastic deformation of the backing metal powders can be eliminated in the proposed RT process. It is seen that the powder mixture with a mixing ratio of 0.0E+00 4. Table 10 shows the change in total strain and powder compact density between the second loading and the last loading for the loading pattern shown in Fig.13 0.6E-01 2.77) COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0. It is also seen that the increase in the total strain in the first five loading-unloading cycles is smallest for the mixing ratio of 0. 9.0E-02 1. Detailed loading-unloading curves of the test using the first loading pattern (Mixing ratio: 0.12 0.08 PREVIOUS UNLOADING 0.

(1982) interpreted the unloading curves of uniaxial compression of compacted powders in terms of the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio.0E+00 3.2E-01 1.5E-01 1. 1998). few studies have reported the elastic properties of unsintered compacted powders (Carnavas. such as the Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of compacted powders are important parameters for the deformation analysis of the metal shell and powder assembly used in the new RT process.77. Hehenberger et al.0E-02 6.A New Rapid Tooling Process 659 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.0E+00 3.8E-01 2. indicating that the plastic deformation after the second loading cycle is very small.0E-02 9.77 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.8E-01 COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (b) Mixing ratio: 0.2E-01 1.80 Figure 12. 1998).0E-02 1.0E-02 9.0E-02 1. 4. . Linear elasticity (Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio) is often sufficient to describe the behavior of compacted powders (Cambou.5E-01 1.5 Elastic Properties of Compacted Powders Elastic properties. Loading-unloading curves using the second loading pattern The increase in the total strain is less than 5% for the powder mixture with a mixing ratio of 0.1E-01 COMPRESSIVE STRAIN (c) Mixing ratio: 0. However.0E-02 6.

007 0.179 Δε= (εL. Changes of the total strain and compact density between the second loading and last loading The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratios for the compacted binary T-15 powder mixture are obtained experimentally in this study using the data from the uniaxial compression test.183 0.77. both the unloading and reloading curves have an apparently linear portion that is consistent with elastic deformation.1 0. unloading of the compacted powder is largely a linear elastic process. These mechanisms are interrelated through particle interactions that in turn depend on the distributed and individual particle properties.157 0.77 T-15/0. 13. The elastic parameters of compacted powders are calculated using linear elastic theory.155 0.026 0.162 0.017 Compact density increase (%) between the second loading and the last loading 8. Figure 14 shows the unloading curve obtained from the compression test in the fifth unloading phase for the T-15 powder mixture with a mixing ratio of 0. the elastic properties of compacted powders are calculated from the linear portion of the unloading curve. Technologies & Visions Powder/ Mixing ratio T-15/0.6 1. The linear portion is taken from the point with 20% of the maximum loading stress to the critical point. the reloading compressive strain does not exceed the previous unloading strain and the curve lies on the left of the previous unloading curve in the stress-strain diagram. Therefore.162 Total strain Last loading (εL) 0.8 Table 10. the elastic properties of compacted powders can be more accurately determined from the elastic unloading process.74 Second loading (εS) 0. In contrast. In the current study. In this linear portion.660 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts.εS) 0. Typical unloading and reloading curves used for the calculation of the elastic properties of the compacted powder are shown in Fig. Although the curves are not entirely linear. The Young’s modulus of a compacted powder is calculated as follows: E= ∆σ σ B − σ A = ∆ε ε B − ε A (4) .80 T-15/0. The compaction of powders involves a number of different mechanisms.

It indicates that the trend line of the selected segment matches well with the actual experimental data.15 0.A New Rapid Tooling Process 661 where σ is compressive stress [MPa] and ε is compressive strain.8 MPa. ‘A’ and ‘B’ could be any two points on the straight line as shown in Fig.12 0. which is the Young’s modulus of the compacted T-15 powder mixture at a mixing ratio of 0. From Hooke’s Law.07 UNLOADING 0. 14 is 0.13 0. Selected unloading curve (Mixing ratio: 0. and the deformation on the inner surface of the die in the radial and circumferential directions is zero.9982.77) For the calculation of the Poisson’s ratio.77.08 0.09 0. 140 120 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) 100 RELOADING 80 60 40 20 0 0. the triaxial stress can be written in cylindrical coordinates as (Gere. 14. 2001): .16 COMPRESSIVE STRAIN Figure 13. A linear regression analysis shows that the R-squared value for the curve shown in Fig. The tangent of the trend line is 1679.14 0. Typical unloading and reloading process ∆ ∆ Figure 14.11 0.1 0. it is assumed that the compression die is rigid.

This agrees with the results from Hehenberger’s study (1982).77 are calculated based on the experimental data using Eq. (5) can be rewritten as: σz = E (1 − ν )ε z (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (6) If the Young’s modulus E is assumed to be a constant in Eq. Poisson’s ratios for T-15 tool steel powder mixture at the mixing ratio of 0.7570 0. (7). Eq. The results show that the Poisson’s ratio decreases with an increase in compressive stress. Eq.242 0. Since the Poisson's ratio is the ratio of lateral strain to axial strain during elastic deformation.7875 0.6909 0. 15.8210 0. the decrease in the Poisson's ratio with increasing stress means that the increments of lateral strain will become smaller with each increment of compressive stress (strain). Letting Ω = be rewritten as: Eε z σz .437 Table 11. (6).277 0. the compressive stress and strain have a linear relationship.367 0.258 0.8454 0. Compressive Stress σz (MPa) 110 95 80 70 55 40 25 Ω 0. Technologies & Visions σz = E [(1 − ν )ε z + ν (ε r + ε θ )] (1 + ν )(1 − 2ν ) (5) where E is Young’s modulus and v is Poisson’s ratio. When εr and εθ are equal to zero.662 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts.77 .323 0. (6) can 2ν 2 − (Ω − 1) ν + (Ω − 1) = 0 (7) The values of the Poisson’s ratio for the T-15 powder mixture at a mixing ratio of 0.3200 Poisson’s Ratio 0.5750 0. They are tabulated in Table 11 and shown in Fig.293 0.

L L/2 X L O Y t Figure 16.A New Rapid Tooling Process 663 0. Deformation of the Metal Shell The front side of the metal shell used in the proposed new RT process has the shape complementary to the mould to be fabricated and the backside of the metal shell is hollow with a number of reinforcing ribs as shown in Fig 1.4 0.2 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 COMPRESSIVE STRESS (MPa) Figure 15. The deformation analysis is conducted for a single cell formed by four adjacent ribs in the metal shell. These ribs divide the space inside the metal shell into a number of square cells. Variation of Poisson’s ratio with compressive stress 5. Dimensions of the thin plate .3 0.25 0.35 0.45 POISSON'S RATIO 0.

The material of the plate is elastic. where t is the thickness of the plate and L is the edge dimension of the plate. c. The software I-DEAS (Lawry. 1998): ω max = 1. d.26 × 10−3 where p0 L4 D (8) Et 3 D= 12(1 − v 2 ) ωmax is the maximum deformation of the plate. and t is the thickness of the plate. Deformations are small in comparison to the thickness. The plate is initially flat. and isotropic. The comparison of the results from the two methods is presented. Technologies & Visions The ribs are assumed rigid and their deformation can be neglected during loading. The deformations of the thin plate can be analyzed using both the traditional elastic theory for a thin plate (Gould. 2000) is used for the FEA simulations. i. The smallest lateral dimension of the plate is at least ten times larger than its thickness. t / L 0. E is the plate material elastic modulus.e. The maximum deformation occurs at the center of the plate. This model is called the thin plate model. 1998). 5. the maximum deformation based on the traditional elastic theory is (Gould. fixed at its four edges with a distributed force applied on it. Therefore. . For a square plate with clamped edges. v is the plate material Poisson’s ratio. the top surface of each cell can be considered as a thin plate with its four edges being clamped (fixed).1.664 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. The dimensions of the thin plate are shown in Fig.1 Analysis Based on Traditional Elastic Theory The assumptions used in traditional elastic theory for a thin plate are (Gould. 1998) and the finite element analysis (FEA) (Gould. 16. 1998): a. p0 is the uniformly distributed load per unit area on the plate. which is equal to the size of a single cell. homogeneous. b. Thus. Both methods are used in this study for the analysis of the deformation of the metal shell. The thickness “t” of the plate is small in comparison to its lateral dimension L. the model used for the deformation analysis of the metal shell is a square metal plate.

Maximum metal shell deformation at different shell thickness .1339 0.98 3.4 mm2 and the materials of the plate is nickel (E=210 GPa and ν=0.42 0.0709 0.091 0.37 17.0551 0.2 Analysis Based on FEA The simulation function is used to conduct the finite element analysis. Table 12 and Fig.197 0.04 -3.91 0. t/L.27 Not applicable " " " " " " FEM Method 234 48.4 0.46 0.A New Rapid Tooling Process 665 5.081 0.0 1.671 0.4 1.0 t/L 0.0 4.0629 0.4 × 25.0236 0.30 0.1772 0.0 3.5 5. The three-dimensional solid element and free mesh method are used in the simulation so that there is no restriction on the thickness of the plate.5 -0.3 -11 Not applicable " " " " " " Table 12.5 4.6 0.74 2.8 3.16 1.049 Difference (%) 99.5 16.31).15 1.92 58.2 0.0 2.6 1.1 -4.9 16.165 0.0079 0.2 7.8 1.8 4. The dimensions of the plate are 25.062 0. the deformation analysis is carried out for a thin plate with different thickness as well as different loading using both the FEA and the traditional elastic theory.1 0.0157 0.29 7.1181 0.1496 0.3 Results Since the stress and deformation of the thin plate varies with the plate thickness and loading.8 2.0 6.36 0.498 0.119 0. 5.2 1.8 -8.4 2.0394 0.30 3.938 0.1575 0.66 2. with a uniformly distributed load of p0 =138 MPa on the plate surface.0945 0.0787 0.0315 0.1969 ωMax (mm) Elastic Theory 466.4 3.1102 0. t (mm) 0.4 2.64 0.0472 0. 17 present the results on the maximum deformation of the metal shell at different relative shell thickness.

17.0934 2 2. when the relative shell thickness. The results from both methods agree very well and the maximum difference is less than 2.1 110.93 2.4 3.07.66 3.366 0.36 2.0914 Difference (%) 137. 6.0 2.3 96.0 2.56 2. the traditional elastic theory is not applicable for the prediction of the deformation. when the relative thickness is greater than 0.8 2.1 2.1 1.0394.055.183 0.49 1.1.5 82. Analysis of the Deformation of the Shell-Powder Assembly The mechanical structure of the metal shell backfilled with the metal powder can be treated as a thin metal plate on an elastic block of compacted powders.8 2.0.87 1. Maximum metal shell deformation at different loading . there is no such limitation for the FEA method using a three-dimensional element.24 1. Table 12 shows that the maximum deformation calculated by both methods agree well in the range of t/L = 0.9 3.12 0.731 0.74 3.08. t/L.187 0.2 2.61 2.1 Table 13.3 1.19 1. Loading (MPa) ωmax (mm) Elastic Theory FEM Method 3.98 2.374 0. As shown in Fig. However.9 124.46 1.9 55.2 41.3%. is greater than 0.747 0.6 13.9 6. Technologies & Visions It can be seen that the thickness of the metal shell has a strong influence on the shell deformation.29 2.7 68. The smallest difference in the maximum deformation predicted by the two methods occurs at the relative thickness t/L = 0.03 . Table 13 shows the variation of the maximum deformation of the metal shell with loading at the relative shell thickness t/L = 0. In addition.3 2. for which the difference between the two methods is less than 5%.666 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. the deformation is not sensitive to the shell thickness.10 0.4 27.83 1.0 2.

4 mm and L=12. 18. 18. at different shell thickness. A uniform distributed stress. at the mixing ratio of 0.2 FEA Figure 17.7 mm. Therefore. 6.2 Results The simulations are performed for two different cell sizes of the shell-powder assembly.A New Rapid Tooling Process 667 MAXIMUM DEFORMATION (mm) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0. Powders #5 and #7. and L is the edge dimension of the cell. 6. The material of the metal shell is nickel. and differ- . L=25. The four edge surfaces and the bottom of the shell-powder assembly are fixed. The results can be used to optimize the structure of the shellpowder assembly. t. The model and the boundary conditions used in the analysis are shown in Fig.08 t/L 0. The binary mixture of T-15 powders. where t is the thickness of the metal shell. The deformation behavior of the metal shell and powder assembly at different metal shell thickness. The elastic properties of the binary powder mixture are from those given in Table 11.16 0. the loading. Variation of the maximum deformation of the shell with the shell thickness Using the traditional elastic theory to analyze this type of structure is difficult although this is a common type structure in engineering applications. The boundary conditions of the model are also shown in Fig. the FEA method is used for the deformation analysis of the metal shell and powder assembly. H is the high of the powder. cell dimensions and compressive loading is investigated.04 0.12 0.1 Model and Boundary Conditions for the Shell-Powder Assembly The analysis is carried out for a single cell of the metal shell and metal powder assembly.77 is used to backfill the metal shell. is applied on the top surface of metal shell.

5 0.6 0. v2) H X.4 t=0.668 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. Technologies & Visions ent loading.5mm t=2.0mm t=1.4 mm and L=12.4 mm . especially the cell size. t.1 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 LOADING (MPa) (a) L = 25.5mm t=1. It is observed that the cell size.3 0.7 0. The variations of the maximum deformation of the shell-powder assembly with the shell thickness and loading are shown in Fig. v1) t Packed powders. Shell-powder assembly and boundary conditions MAXIMUM DEFORMATION (mm) 0.0 mm 0.7 mm. L. Y Direction Rigid foundation Z Direction Figure 18. (E2. 19 for the cell size of L=25.2 0. all 4 edges are clamped (E1. significantly affect the deformation of the shell-powder assembly. P. and shell thickness. H is taken as 50 mm. L P Top shell.

L=25.8 1. The .5mm t=1.5mm t=2.0mm 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 LOADING (MPa) (b) L = 12.7 mm Figure 19.6 3 2.6 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 LODING (MPa) Assembly Metal shell Figure 20.A New Rapid Tooling Process 669 MAXIMUM DEFORMATION (mm) 0.0mm t=1. It can be seen that the use of the backfilled metal powder greatly improves the structure’s ability to resist deformation. where the parameters are H=50 mm.04 0.03 0.02 0. 20.08 0.07 0.3 times when the shell thickness is increased from 0. the maximum deformation can be lowered by a factor of 7-15 when the cell size is reduced from 25. For the same cell size.7 and 5. Variation of the maximum deformation of the shell-powder assembly with the shell thickness and loading MAXIMUM DEFORMATION (mm) 3.01 0 20 30 t=0. Comparison of the maximum deformations between the metal shell and the shell-powder assembly At the same shell thickness.4 mm.09 0.2 0.5 mm to 2 mm.06 0. and t=1 mm. the maximum deformation can be lowered to 2.7 mm.4 mm to 12. The comparison of the maximum deformation of the metal shell and the shellpowder assembly is given in Fig.05 0.4 1.

In the current study. the size ratio of the large particle to the small particle should be higher than at least 6. The dimension ratio of the container and the particle (D/d) has less effect on the packing density when D/d 7. The powder with the higher hardness has less compressive deformation under the same loading conditions.66. the mixing ratio of powders of different sizes.86. 7.77 is found to . The particle size has no significant effect on the packing density. In addition. the maximum deformation of the metal shell increases drastically with the increase in loading as shown in Fig.0. The particle size ratio is a very important parameter for multiple component packing. 20. The optimal mixing ratio is in the range of 0. the packing density of three-component packing can reach 0. the increase in the maximum deformation with the increase of the loading is very slow if the back support metal powder is used. the particle shape has the most significant effect on the powder packing density. are desirable for the intended RT application. Mixing particles with different sizes can greatly increase the packing density because the voids among large particles can be filled by small particles. Higher hardness also helps to prevent compacted powders from forming blocks after compression. and therefore. Without powder support. The mixing ratio is another important parameter affecting multiple component packing density. The T15 tool steel powder is the best choice among the materials studied for the proposed new RT process. The deformation behavior of compacted powders under uniaxial compression depends heavily on the properties of the powder materials. as well as the loading history. In contrast.71 .91 and binary packing density can reach 0. The spherical and round particles produce higher packing density. For best packing results. Technologies & Visions maximum deformation of the shell-powder assembly at a compressive loading of 110 MPa is only 18% that of the metal shell without the powder backing support.77. There exists an optimal mixing ratio for a binary mixture at which the packing density is maximal. It is possible to obtain the required elastic properties of the compacted powders used for the proposed RT application by adjusting these factors. which is necessary for powder reuse. the mixing ratio of 0. particle size should not be too small to avoid low fluidity. On the other hand.82 so that all small particles can enter the interstices between large particles. Conclusions In the single component packing.670 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. but packing density started to drop significantly when the ratio D/d is less than 5.

J. there is no such restriction for the FEA method. The loading history is important for the deformation behavior of compacted powders. 8. German. M. CA. References ASTM B331-95 (2002). Behavior of Granular Materials. Pacific Grove. It defines the limit for the operating load that produces the smallest increase in plastic strain under the tool working condition. Standard Test Method for Compressibility of Metal Powder in Uniaxial Compaction. The relative metal shell thickness has a significant effect on the deformation of the metal shell. which indicates that the proposed new rapid tooling process is feasible. (1998). (1998). The critical point is an interesting and important phenomenon for powder compression. The load level that corresponds to the critical point increases with the number of loading cycles. Powder Metallurgy of Iron and Steel. Brooks/Cole. The elastic theory is applicable only for a thin plate. However. (2001). New York. Carnavas. The deformation resistance of the compacted powder can be improved by increasing the number of loading cycles. A higher loading stress level generally leads to higher operating loads without further plastic deformation in subsequent loading. M. Cambou. B. 4647-4655. pp. 33. the use of the metal powder to support the metal shell can greatly improve its ability to resist deformation. P. Journal of Material Science. Use of a proper cell dimension and shell thickness can limit the deformation of the shell-powder assembly within the tolerance. The maximum deformation of the metal shell predicted by the elastic theory and FEA method are in good agreement in a certain range of the relative shell thickness (t/L).A New Rapid Tooling Process 671 give the highest deformation resistance. The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratios can be obtained using the experimental data from the linear portion. ASTM International. The deformation of the metal shellpowder assembly depends also strongly on the dimension of the cell size and the thickness of the metal shell. Mechanics of Materials. Vol. Furthermore. R.. John Wiley & Sons Inc. . The unloading curves have a linear portion and are almost parallel in a certain range of the stress-strain curve. C. (1998). Gere. Springer Verlag. Elastic Properties of Compacted Metal Powders. 5th edition.

(1998). Phelan. (1962). Delft. P. Pressure Drop Through Packed Tubes. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Rapid Prototyping. M. Nov. Vol. Alm. Vol. Lawry. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Powder Compaction. MI. L. M. Journal of the American Ceramic Society-McGary. R. pp. 1982. September. Automotive Industries. OH. (1997). Pham. B4. Proceedings of the Conference on the Deformation and Failure of Granular Materials. and McAlea. March. 1997.. (2000).. pp. Samuelson. New Jersey. Part III. Nilsson. K. 97-104. H. 212. Techniques for Firm Tooling Using Rapid Prototyping. and Grummer. Selective Laser Sintering of Metal Molds: The Rapid Tooling Process. Leva.1-12. 10 pp. The Two-Week Tool. T. No. Fast Rapid Tooling for Injection Molds. 269-277. (1947). M. (1999). 396-404. TX. U. Chemical Engineering Progress. McGeary.. Proceedings of the Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium. pp. pp. Rapid Prototyping & Manufacturing Fundamentals of Stereo Lithography. P. Willis. 513-522. 441-446. No. 43. pp. pp. P. IUTAM. Austin. I-DEAS Master Series™ (Mechanical CAE/CAD/CAM Software). Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture. 62-63.. C. pp. (1998). New York.. Rheological Property of Particulate Solids. Milford. Student Guide. Structural Dynamics Research Corporation. 381–390. . (1992). F. D. Nelson. Eastman Dr. (1997). K. Society of Manufacturing Engineers. M. M. 1996. Proceeding of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. August. Hehenberger. pp. S. (1996). (1984). Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River. March. K. Rapid Tooling Mold Inserts for Pressure and Gravity Die Casting Using SLS Technology. L.672 Manufacturing the Future: Concepts. Transactions of World of Die Casting. Analysis of Shells and Plates. Jacobs. Mechanical Packing of Spherical Particles. Prediction of Voids in Packed Tubes. Handbook of Powder Science and Technology. and Olofsson (1982). O. Technologies & Visions Gould. Shinohara. 44. San Francisco. 713-718. Vol. Dearborn. Hejmadi.

intechopen.com/books/manufacturing_the_future/a_new_rapid_tooling_process InTech Europe University Campus STeP Ri Slavka Krautzeka 83/A 51000 Rijeka. quality assurance. rapid prototyping. 200040. product design process.65. chain management. modern manufacturing equipment.com InTech China Unit 405. 2006 The primary goal of this book is to cover the state-of-the-art development and future directions in modern manufacturing systems. This interdisciplinary and comprehensive volume. Austria Published online 01. July. Aleksandar Lazinica and Munir Merdan ISBN 3-86611-198-3 Hard cover. Available from: http://www. Shanghai. covers a survey of trends in distributed manufacturing. ISBN: 3-86611-198-3. Yan An Road (West). feel free to copy and paste the following: Xiaoping Jiang and Chao Zhang (2006). 908 pages Publisher Pro Literatur Verlag.). A New Rapid Tooling Process. Hotel Equatorial Shanghai No. 2006 Published in print edition July. Aleksandar Lazinica and Munir Merdan (Ed. Germany / ARS. Vedran Kordic. Croatia Phone: +385 (51) 770 447 Fax: +385 (51) 686 166 www. Manufacturing the Future.Manufacturing the Future Edited by Vedran Kordic. Office Block. from technological and organisational point of view and aspects of supply How to reference In order to correctly reference this scholarly work. InTech. China Phone: +86-21-62489820 Fax: +86-21-62489821 .intechopen. consisting of 30 chapters.

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