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Content of Practical Report 1: 1. Brief introduction about the purpose of measurements made in this practical.

The purpose of measurements made in this practical session is to assess the individuals nutrition status. These measurements could be used to measure the growth and body composition of an individual. The body fat and fat-free mass measurements and calculations can assess an individuals composition and fitness. 2. Results (the subject is a male) Fill in Anthropometry Proforma 1. Calculate Body Mass Index(BMI) and Compare to norm BMI = Weight(kg)/Height(m2) = 66/174.12 = 21.76 kg/m2 The BMI of 21.76 kg/m2 falls under the category of normal BMI which range from 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Normal BMI generally indicates good body composition and health except for some exceptions where the body fat is underestimated. 2. Calculate % body fat D (kg/m3) = 1.1631- [0.0632 X log10 (sum of 4 skinfolds)(mm)] = 1.1631-[0.0632 X long10(8.43+2.6+2.5+11.53)] = 1.075 Percent body fat = [4.950/D- 4.500) X 100% = [4.950/1.075-4.500] X 100% = 10.47% 3. A) Discuss and Compare Results of Body Fat and Muscle Mass from calculations and using BIA. B) Discuss your results for all and compare to norms.

From calculations, the percentage body fat is 10.47%. The total weight minus the body fat gives 59.1 kg of lean body mass. From BIA, the percentage body fat is 14.23% whereas the lean body mass is 56.1 kg. The water content of the body affects the measurement of BIA. The subject admitted to had taken breakfast before measurement of BIA as this test is measurement is conducted in the morning. This had caused the readings from BIA to be inaccurate in this case. The skin fold measurement is more accurate here as repeating this

process at several different locations increases the accuracy of the measurement. Furthermore, time interval between repeated measurement of same location is sufficient to minimize fat redistribution. Comparing to the table of recommended percent body fat, the subject body fat falls in the category of acceptable (lower end). This means that the subject has healthy body fat percentage. Fats are required for basic physical and physiological health. On the other hand, having high body fat percentage can be detrimental. Thus, being in the acceptable range of percent body fat is good for health.

4. Calculate the waist to hip ratio. Compare results of waist and hip circumference and their ratio to accepted norms Waist to hip ratio = 75/94 = 0.798 Waist circumference of subject is 75cm which is less than 90cm, thus, is of accepted norm. The waist to hip ratio of the subject is 0.798 which is less than 1.0, thus is of accepted norm.

Discuss the use of waist and hip circumference to measure adiposity and its relation to health. How does the measurements of waist and hip circumference compare with BMI and body fat measurements performed? Research shows that people with "apple-shaped" bodies (with more weight around the waist) face more health risks than those with "pear-shaped" bodies who carry more weight around the hips. Some studies indicates that waist is a store of LDL whereas hip is a store of HDL. Waist to hip ratio(WHR) is a measurement of obesity, this in turn is an indicator of other serious health conditions like cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. Unhealthy waist circumference is also part of the metabolic syndrome thus explaining its higher risk associated with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus. The National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) states that women with waisthip ratios of more than 0.8, and men with more than 1.0, are at increased health risk because of their fat distribution. Men with WHRs around 0.9 also have been shown to be more healthy and fertile with less prostate cancer and testicular cancer. Women within the 0.7 range have optimal levels of estrogen and are less susceptible to major diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and ovarian cancers.

Of all the three measurements namely WHR, BMI and body fat measurement, only WHR takes account of the differences in body structure. Hence, it is possible for two women to have vastly different body mass indices but the same waisthip ratio, or to have the same body mass index but vastly different waisthip ratios. Thus, WHR index is not the most suitable measurement for an estimation of body fat in certain cases. In certain cases especially the older subjects, BMI tends to underestimate the percentage of fat in the body. WHR index is not a suitable for an estimation of body fat. Body fat measurement is a more accurate option. Skin pinching method is more accurate compare to BIA measurements. In spite of all the above, other options to measure like hydrostatic weighing, CT scan, MRI and DEXA should be considered as well to measure adiposity and its relation to health.

Content of Practical Report 2(A)