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10. Coca-Cola Bottlers (Phils.), Inc. v. Dr. Dean Climaco G.R. No. 146 1!

"e#r$ar% &, '00( Facts: Res)on*ent is a me*ical *octor +ho +as hire* #% )etitioner Coca-Cola Bottler,s Phils., Inc. #% virt$e o- a Retainer ./reement. 0he Retainer ./reement +as rene+e* ann$all%. 0he last one e1)ire* on Decem#er 21, 1332. 4o+ever, *es)ite the non-rene+al o- the sai* a/reement, res)on*ent contin$e* to )er-orm his -$nctions as com)an% *octor to Coca-Cola $ntil he receive* a letter -rom )etitioner com)an% concl$*in/ their retainershi) a/reement e--ective 20 *a%s -rom recei)t thereo-. Res)on*ent in5$ire* -rom the mana/ement o- )etitioner com)an% +hether it +as a/reea#le to reco/ni6e him as a re/$lar em)lo%ee. 0he mana/ement re-$se* to *o so. 7ith this, res)on*ent -ile* a com)laint see8in/ reco/nition as a re/$lar em)lo%ee o- the com)an% an* )ra%e* -or the )a%ment o- all #ene-its o- a re/$lar em)lo%ee, incl$*in/ 12th 9onth )a%, Cost o- :ivin/ .llo+ance, 4oli*a% Pa%, ;ervice Incentive :eave Pa% an* Christmas #on$s. ;$#se5$entl%, res)on*ent receive* a letter -rom the com)an% concl$*in/ their retainershi) a/reement. Issues: 1. 7hether or not there e1ists an em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi) #et+een the )arties. '. 7hether the termination o- res)on*ent,s em)lo%ment is ille/al. Ruling: 0he Co$rt a/rees +ith the :a#or .r#iter an* N:RC that this case sho+s no em)lo%erem)lo%ee relationshi) e1istin/ #et+een the )arties. Petitioner com)an% lac8e* the )o+er o- control over the )er-ormance #% res)on*ent o- his *$ties. 0he Com)rehensive 9e*ical Plan +hich contains the res)on*ent,s o#<ectives, *$ties an* o#li/ations onl% lai* *o+n the /$i*elines to ens$re that the *esire* en* res$lt +as achieve* #$t *i* not control the means an* metho*s +hich res)on*ent )re-orme* his assi/ne* tas8s. 0he sche*$le o- +or8 an* the re5$irement to #e on call -or emer/enc% cases *o not amo$nt to s$ch control #$t are necessar% inci*ents to the retainershi) a/reement. Consi*erin/ that there is no em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi) e1ists #et+een the )arties, the termination o- the Retainershi) ./reement *oes not constit$te ille/al *ismissal o- res)on*ent. 11. Consoli*ate* Broa*castin/ ;%stem vs. =#erio G.R. No. 16 4'4, >$ne , '00( Facts: D?7B-Bom#o Ra*%o, a ra*io station o+ne* an* o)erate* #% )etitioner, em)lo%e* res)on*ents as *rama talents. 0he% +or8e* *ail% -or si1 *a%s in a +ee8 an* +ere re5$ire* to recor* their *rama )ro*$ction in a*vance. ;ome o- them +ere em)lo%e* since 13(4, +hile the latest one +as hire* 133(. 0heir *rama )ro/rams +ere aire* in Bacolo* Cit% an* in the sister stations o- D?7B in the @is9in areas. Petitioner re*$ce* the n$m#er o- its *rama )ro*$ctions, #$t +as o))ose* #% res)on*ents. .-ter the ne/otiations -aile*, the latter so$/ht the intervention o- D=:A. .n ins)ection o- D7?B reveale* that )etitioner is /$ilt% o- violation o- la#or stan*ar* la+s. Petitioner conten*e* that res)on*ents are not its em)lo%ees an* re-$se* to s$#mit the )a%roll an* D0Rs. @e1e* #% the res)on*ents, com)laint, )etitioner alle/e*l% intimi*ate* res)on*ents #% s$s)en*in/ them -or minor la)ses an* *ela%in/ the )a%ment o- their salaries. Avent$all%, res)on*ents +ere #arre* #% )etitioner -rom re)ortin/ -or +or8! th$s, the -ormer claime* constr$ctive *ismissal. =n a))eal to the N:RC, res)on*ents raise* the iss$e o- AR-AA relationshi) an* s$#mitte* the -ollo+in/ to )rove the e1istence o- s$ch relationshi)B time car*s, i*enti-ication car*s, )a%roll, a sho+ ca$se or*er o- the station mana/er to res)on*ent =#erio an* memoran*a either note* or iss$e* #% sai* mana/er. Petitioner, on the other han*, *i* not )resent an% *oc$mentar% evi*ence in its #ehalan* merel% *enie* the alle/ations o- res)on*ents. It claime* that the ra*io station )a%s -or the *rama

)etitioner merel% relie* on its contention that res)on*ents +ere )iece rate contractors )ai* #% res$lts.res)on*ents o))osite their names.the )ro<ect the% +ill $n*erta8e $n*er a +ritten contract.+a/es. it +as )etitioner +ho )ai* the same as sho+n #% the )a%roll #earin/ the name o. I.ince none +as )resente* to sho+ that no +ritten contract +as accom)lishe*. the same +ere *$l% )roven #% theB (1) memoran*$m note* #% )etitioner. 0he contract shall #e *$l% re/istere* #% the station +ith the Broa*cast 9e*ia Co$ncil +ithin 2 *a%s -rom its cons$mmation.)etitioner +ho +ere ille/all% *ismisse* #% the latter.the FDrama De)artmentG to the late s$#mission o. 9oreover. $n*o$#te*l% sho+ that their +or8 is necessar% an* in*is)ensa#le to the $s$al #$siness or tra*e o. an* the )ro/rams in +hich the% +ill +or8. even ass$min/ that res)on*ents +ere initiall% hire* as )ro<ectEcontract$al em)lo%ees. or $n*er the =mni#$s Im)lementin/ R$les o.the em)lo%er. rates o.D?7B in the @isa%as an* 9in*anao areas. incl$*in/ those hire* #% a*vertisin/ or s)onsorin/ com)anies. the en/a/ement o.the em)lo%ee has #een )er-ormin/ the <o# -or at least one %ear. 9ar5$e6.s re/$lar em)lo%ees since their em)lo%ment +as not onl% -or a )artic$lar )ro/ram. even i. s)eci-%in/ the nat$re o.that activit% to the #$siness. the en/a/ement o. Cn*er Polic% Instr$ction No. It is #asic that )ro<ect or contract$al em)lo%ees are a))raise* o.*isci)linar% meas$res.the )ro<ect the% +ill +or8 $n*er a +ritten contract.it +as the *irector alone +ho chose the talents. an* the )ro/rams in +hich the% +ill +or8. re/$lar em)lo%ees -Pro/ram em)lo%ees are those +hose s8ills.the :a#or Co*e -or )ro<ect em)lo%ees. as )rovi*e* either $n*er the ver% Polic% Instr$ction.recor*e* #% )iece an* that it has no control over the con*$ct o. )etitioner co$l* have easil% sho+n a contract to s$ch e--ect. the la+ *eems the re)eate* an* contin$in/ nee* -or its )er-ormance as s$--icient evi*ence o. 0his +as not com)lie* +ith #% the )etitioner.scri)ts #% +riters an* the tar*iness an* .)a%.res)on*ents.I. .)osition to )resent these *oc$ments. Issues: 1) 7hether res)on*ents +ere em)lo%ees o. amon/ other thin/s. 9oreover. Ruling: Petitioner -aile* to controvert +ith s$#stantial evi*ence the alle/ation o.B. . 0h$s.I. 0here +as no sho+in/ o. )etitioner is o#li/e* to e1ec$te the necessar% contract s)eci-%in/ the nat$re o. No +ritten contract +as ever )resente* +hen )etitioner is in the #est o. D40) is in*icative that the so-calle* talents or )ro<ect +or8ers are in realit%. shall #e $n*er a +ritten contract s)eci-%in/.s *e-ense. a*vertisin/ a/encies or s)onsorin/ com)anies. *ismissal.com)liance +ith the re5$ire* re)orts to #e -ile*.+or8 to #e )er-orme* an* the rates o.res)on*ents -rom ' to '& %ears an* the -act that their *rama )ro/rams +ere aire* not onl% in Bacolo* Cit% #$t also in the sister stations o. 0he test to *etermine +hether em)lo%ment is re/$lar or not is the reasona#le connection #et+een the )artic$lar activit% )er-orme* #% the em)lo%ee in relation to the $s$al #$siness or tra*e o.)a%.)a% an* the )ro/ram in +hich the% +ill +or8. contention that the% +ere in*ee* )etitioner.s station mana/er.the +or8 to #e )er-orme*. D40). . 40 (P. In . an* im)osition o.the em)lo%er to )ro*$ce the contract man*ate* #% P.)etitioner! an* ') 7hether their *ismissal +as ille/al.the )er-ormance is not contin$o$s or merel% intermittent. .the necessit%.their services -or ' to '& %ears <$sti-% their classi-ication as re/$lar em)lo%ees. talents or services are en/a/e* #% the station -or a )artic$lar or s)eci-ic )ro/ram or $n*erta8in/ an* +ho are not re5$ire* to o#serve normal +or8in/ ho$rs s$ch that on some *a%s the% +or8 -or less than ei/ht ( ) ho$rs an* on other *a%s #e%on* the normal +or8 ho$rs o#serve* #% station em)lo%ees an* are allo+e* to enter into em)lo%ment contracts +ith other )ersons.)etitioner *i* not hire them an* i. 0his #olsters res)on*ents. callin/ the attention o. )ro<ect or contract$al em)lo%ees are re5$ire* to #e a))rise* o. i.not in*is)ensa#ilit% o.-CBN v. 0he en/a/ement o)ro/ram em)lo%ees.s to the )a%ment o. the -ail$re o.the +or8 to #e )er-orme*. the nat$re o. N:RC ren*ere* a *ecision hol*in/ that res)on*ents +ere re/$lar em)lo%ees o. rates o.)etitioner. 4o+ever.nent the )o+er o.lso.res)on*ents that the -ormer hire* them. i.)etitioner com)an% in the hea*in/ +ith the res)ective salaries o. stations.control. th$s #el%in/ )etitioner.

In Sonza.ll these #ein/ )resent. >$ne .three months. )etitioner. hence..<$stice m$st #e tilte* in -avor o.an AR-AA relationshi).a certain 9rs.R.BC ha* control over the )er-ormance o.the station mana/er *irectin/ res)on*ent =#erio to e1)lain +h% no *isci)linar% action sho$l* #e ta8en a/ainst him -or )$nchin/ the time car* o..em)lo%ees +ho can avail o.)etitioner. the Sonza case is not a))lica#le. >ose >avier. Petitioner.ssociate* Broa*castin/ Com)an%.BC re)lie* that a chec8 coverin/ )etitioner. . an* never )resente* an% s$#stantial evi*ence to s$))ort sai* alle/ation. as a )re-con*ition -or its en-ranchisement.BC) hire* 0helma D$m)it-9$rillo $n*er a talent contract as a ne+scaster an* co-anchor -or Balitang-Balita.la+.. . is the com)arativel% lo+ P' .s +a/es. )a%ment o.on6a. )etitioner sent a letter to 9r. clearl%.s +or8. "$rther. 0he )olic% is to e1ten* the *octrine to a /reater n$m#er o.$n)ai* +a/es an* -$ll #ac8+a/es.-ter -o$r %ears o.)etitioner. 0he contract +as -or a )erio* o. . an earl% evenin/ ne+s )ro/ram. D$m)it-9$rillo v.BC.*o$#ts e1ist #et+een the evi*ence )resente* #% the em)lo%er an* the em)lo%ee. C. . ta8en to/ether sho+ the e1istence o. 1646&'.)etitioner as en$merate* in her em)lo%ment contract in*icate that . 0+o +ee8s a-ter the e1)iration o.tate to /ive ma1im$m ai* an* )rotection o.--airs o. the scales o.BC ha* control over the +or8 o.s talent contract e1)ire*. No. the television station *i* not e1ercise control over the means an* metho*s o. N:RC reverse*.s -avor.BC.on6a. 0he :a#or . . the re5$isites -or re/$larit% o.the #ene-its $n*er the la+. as +ell as the im)osa#le -ines -or -$t$re in-ractions! (') the memoran*$m o.)etitioner vis the P200.)etitioner. 0he )ractice ohavin/ -i1e*-term contracts in the in*$str% *oes not a$tomaticall% ma8e all talent contracts vali* an* com)liant +ith la#or la+. )etitioner sto))e* re)ortin/ -or +or8. . Petitioner -aile* to *ischar/e its #$r*en.the em)lo%er +hich incl$*es.on6a. i. that all the more #olsters the concl$sion that )etitioner +as not in the same sit$ation as .s +or8 +as necessar% or *esira#le in the $s$al #$siness or tra*e o. 0hese. Issue: 7hether or not 9$rillo is an em)lo%ee o. Petitioner merel% conten*e* that it +as res)on*ents +ho cease* to re)ort to +or8. vacationEsic8Eservice incentive leaves an* other monetar% #ene-its *$e to a re/$lar em)lo%ee.the last contract.re)eate* rene+als.la#or. '00( Facts: . In the case at #ar. It is a time-honore* r$le that in controversies #et+een a la#orer an* his master. in-ormin/ the latter that she +as still intereste* in rene+in/ her contract s$#<ect to a salar% increase. Ruling: 0helma D$m)it-9$rillo +as a re/$lar em)lo%ee $n*er contem)lation o..BC also ha* )o+er to *ismiss her. 1'.s +or8.r#iter *ismisse* the com)laint -or ille/al constr$ctive *ismissal. its )artici)ation in the .12th month )a%.BC also *ictate* the +or8 assi/nments an* )a%ment o. @ice Presi*ent -or Ne+s an* P$#lic .the )er-ormance o. *o$#ts reasona#l% arisin/ -rom the evi*ence sho$l* #e resolve* in the -ormer.s memoran*$m s$s)en*in/ res)on*ent =#erio -or si1 *a%s -or the sai* in-raction. 0he *$ties o. "e =#erio! an* (2) the station mana/er. . *eman*in/ reinstatement.em)lo%ment have #een met in the instant case. 0herea-ter.ssociate* Broa*castin/ Com)an% (.the .s talent -ees ha* #een )rocesse* an* )re)are*. Note+orth% too. #$t that the other claims o. G.000 monthl% )a% o.si*e -rom control. +hich is in consonance +ith the avo+e* )olic% o. Concernin/ re/$lar em)lo%ment. )a%ment o.*irectors an* talents.the latter H the em)lo%er m$st a--irmativel% sho+ rationall% a*e5$ate evi*ence that the *ismissal +as -or a <$sti-ia#le ca$se. there e1iste* an em)lo%ment relationshi) #et+een )etitioner an* .he sent a *eman* letter to . "$rthermore.000 a month salar% o.BC. Res)on*ents +ere ille/all% *ismisse*. . res)on*ents +ere correctl% *eclare* to have #een ille/all% *ismisse*.a#sences o. 0he assertion that a talent contract e1ists *oes not necessaril% )revent a re/$lar em)lo%ment stat$s.)etitioner ha* no #asis in -act or in la+.

her +or8 +as contin$o$s -or a )erio* o. :e#ati5$e +as hire* as a *river #% "..the com)an%. G. .r#iter r$le* in -avor o. In a**ition.BC.F A EALS 12 February 2007 l Labor Standards Abandonment – Service Incentive Leave – Field ersonnel In 9arch 1336.ince )rivate res)on*ents *i* not o#serve *$e )rocess in constr$ctivel% *ismissin/ the )etitioner.s +or8 in )rivate res)on*ent . C% cannot there-ore claim that he merel% s$s)en*e* :e#ati5$e.=0 )a% on the *a% :e#ati5$e +as s$s)en*e* #% 9an$el C%.: .R./overnment."A. 0o constit$te a#an*onment as a <$st ca$se -or *ismissal.s a re/$lar em)lo%ee. >$*/in/ at the se5$ence oevent.C% +hen he -ile* a com)laint -or non)a%ment o.this case is )roo. C% tol* :e#ati5$e to loo8 -or another <o#.&0. -EL': No. :e#ati5$e is a re/$lar em)lo%ee.UE an# T-E -.ten$re an* can #e *ismisse* onl% -or <$st ca$se an* a-ter *$e com)liance +ith )roce*$ral *$e )rocess.s ne+s an* )$#lic in-ormation *issemination.URT .overtime )a% a/ainst .the necessit% an* *esira#ilit% o. :e#ati5$e +as s$s)en*e* #% 9an$el C% (#rother o.0 . :e#ati5$e -ile* a com)laint -or non)a%ment o.('. C% s$mmone* :e#ati5$e an* as8e* +h% he +as claimin/ overtime )a%. 0he :a#or .animal -ee*s to the clients o. #ac8 +a/es (time +hen case +as )en*in/).lso. there m$st #eB (a) a#sence +itho$t <$sti-ia#le reason! an* (#) a clear intention.s #$siness.hire is in*icative o. C% cons$lte* +ith his #rother. No. an#$o% ALE&AN'ER U! (s )I**! LE+ATI.s General 9ana/er . :e#ati5$e is not a -iel* )ersonnel as *e-ine* a#ove -or the -ollo+in/ reasonsB . +ith a *ail% +a/e o. 4is -ilin/ o.the a#ove +as )roven #% C%.le1an*er C%. to sever the em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi). None o. . =n >an$ar% '3. =n the same *a%.RA+LE C. )etitioner is entitle* to sec$rit% o. C% ar/$e* that :e#ati5$e +as not *ismisse* an* that he +as merel% s$s)en*e*! that he a#an*one* his <o#! an* that :e#ati5$e +as a -iel* )ersonnel not entitle* to overtime )a% an* service incentive leave.N. :e#ati5$e then -ile* an Ille/al Dismissal case a/ainst the com)an%.P''2. C% +as or*ere* to reinstate :e#ati5$e an* at the same time to )a% :e#ati5$e his 12th month )a%. '000.-o$r %ears.R A.eno$/h that he ha* no intention to a#an*on his <o#. service incentive leave )a% an* =0 )a% H all amo$ntin/ to P136. '000.GRICC:0CR. 4is <o# as a *river incl$*es the *eliver% o. there +as an ille/al *ismissal.I. =n >an$ar% '4.$ch is not a vali* reason -or *ismissin/ :e#ati5$e. ISSUE: 7hether or not :e#ati5$e is a -iel* )ersonnel. :e#ati5$e sai* since he starte* +or8in/ +ith the com)an% he has never #een )ai* =0 )a%. "$rther.:e#ati5$e.the )etitioner. 0his re)eate* en/a/ement $n*er contract o.le1an*er C%) -or alle/e*l% $sin/ the com)an% vehicle ille/all%. .CPP:?. . INC. C% ille/all% *ismisse* :e#ati5$e +hen he tol* him to loo8 -or another <o#. :e#ati5$e *i* not a#an*on his <o#.6&3. :e#ati5$e earne* the ire o. 4e m$st re)ort either in the mornin/ or in the a-ternoon to ma8e the *eliveries. 162813: FAR EAST AGRICULTURAL SU L!" INC.. as mani-este* #% some overt act.

1.s time 8ee)in/ recor*s. Issues: 1. an em)lo%ee o. Fiel# e%sonnel 'e/ine# "iel* )ersonnel are those +ho re/$larl% )er-orm their *$ties a+a% -rom the )rinci)al )lace o. 4. 2. 12th month )a%. 9erca*o -ile* a com)laint a/ainst PN=C-ADC #e-ore the N:RC Re/ional .PN=C-ADC is +ithin the <$ris*iction o.r#iter.+or8 in the -iel* cannot #e *etermine* +ith reasona#le certaint%.serio$s acts o. NLRC Facts: Danilo 9erca*o.66 -or )ersonal $se.the Phili))ine National =il Com)an% . -el#: 0he 4i/h Co$rt a--irme* the resol$tion o. '.*ama/es as +ell as attorne%. 0he . 7ith*re+ P' . a))ro)riate* P6 0.s )remises *$rin/ tr$c8#an ho$rs +hich is -rom &B00 to 3B00 a. an* &B00 to 3B00 ). 7hether or not the la#or ar#iter an* the N:RC are <$sti-ie* in or*erin/ the reinstatement o. select an* contact )ros)ective clients! an* (2) "ar Aast iss$e* a *irective that com)an% *rivers sho$l* sta% at the client. incl$*in/ :e#ati5$e.*ishonest% an* violation o.00. 0he PN=C-ADC.)osition )a)ers )resente* #% #oth )arties. an* )a%ment o.9erca*o.the la#or ar#iter an* the N:RC.its creation.00 -or )ersonal $se an* )ai* the ni)a s$))lier P1000.com)an% r$les an* re/$lations alle/e*l% committe* as -ollo+sB 1. @acation leave +itho$t )rior leave.the )rivate res)on*ent. 7hether or not matters o. .the :a#or :a+.66 as )a%ment -or the -a#rication o.#sence +itho$t leave an* +itho$t )ro)er t$rn-over th$s *isr$)tin/ an* *ela%in/ com)an% +or8 activities.s =0 )a% ta8in/ in to consi*eration the com)an%. havin/ #een incor)orate* $n*er General Cor)oration :a+. 7ith*re+ P16 0. :e#ati5$e is entitle* to service incentive leave an* =0 )a%. 0he test +hether a /overnment-o+ne* or controlle* cor)oration is s$#<ect to Civil .r$##er stam) #$t a))ro)riate* the P . is s$#<ect to the )rovisions o.s -ees.(1) com)an% *rivers.Aner/% Develo)ment Cor)oration.s *ecision #$t reman*e* the case -or )ro)erl% com)$tin/ :e#ati5$e.his savin/s.#$siness o. .m. +as *ismisse* on the /ro$n*s o. 0hose create* #% s)ecial charter are s$#<ect to its )rovision +hile those create* $n*er General Cor)oration :a+ are not +ithin its covera/e.the res)on*ent N:RC +ith mo*i-icationB re*$cin/ moral *ama/es to P10000 an* e1em)lar% *ama/es to P&000. )a%ment o.C0E'C (. are *irecte* to *eliver the /oo*s at a s)eci-ie* time an* )lace! (') the% are not /iven the *iscretion to solicit. .ervice :a+ is the manner o.r#itration Branch. the la#or ar#iter r$le* in -avor o.m.00 -rom com)an% -$n*s.$)reme Co$rt a--irme* the :a#or . '. N.-ter consi*erations o.s a re/$lar em)lo%ee.the em)lo%er an* +hose act$al ho$rs o.em)lo%ment o. .

0he :a#or . =.$)reme Co$rt stresse* the I-o$r--ol* testI in *eterminin/ the e1istence o.the )resence o. NG +URLINGA*E (s.N G. It alle/e* that sai* /ro$) o.an em)lo%ee not onl% as to the res$lt o.the com)an% since the latter e1ercise* control over him. 0on/8o a))eale* to the . 0on/8o alle/e* that he +as an em)lo%ee o.". ISS$%# 7hether or not there is em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi) #et+een res)on*ent an* the em)lo%ees so$/ht to #e re)resente* #% )etitioner &$LI'(# In *eci*in/ the instant )etition.tr$st or #reach o. 0he involvement o.the em)lo%ee '.F T-E CASEB 0he case arose -rom a com)laint -or ille/al *ismissal +ith vario$s claims -ile* #% 0on/8o a/ainst 9an$li-e. the .s acc$sations are not s$))orte* #% evi*ence. the em)lo%ment a/enc%. the em)lo%erJs )o+er to control the em)lo%eeJs con*$ct 0he most im)ortant element is the last element.$)reme Co$rt hel* that sai* contract$al sti)$lation cannot overri*e -act$al circ$mstances -irml% esta#lishin/ the le/al e1istence o.o.con-i*ence is a vali* /ro$n* -or *ismissin/ an em)lo%ee. the latter r$le* in -avor o. 0he elements to *etermine the e1istence o.*.". PN=C-ADC. is limite* onl% to the recr$itment as)ect.s r$lin/ on a 9otion -or Reconsi*eration -ile* #% the 9an$li-e.r#iter *ismisse* the case not -in*in/ an% em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi).an sti)$lation a/ree* into #% the em)lo%ment a/enc% an* herein res)on*ent to the e1tent that the ran8-an*--ile em)lo%ees are consi*ere* as the em)lo%ees o.$)reme Co$rt.the -ormer.+a/es 2. .acturers Li.e -anu. Res)on*ent here -$rther claime* that the em)lo%ees so$/ht to #e re)resente* #% )etitioner are not their em)lo%ees #$t the em)lo%ees o. 0hat is.ervices.*ismissal an* 4.em)lo%erem)lo%ee relationshi).9an$li-e -in*in/ no em)lo%erem)lo%ee relationshi). 162833" )une 13" 2445 FA!"S# Petitioner in this case so$/ht to re)resent all ran8-an*--ile )romo em)lo%ees o. the . +URLINGA*E C. the selection an* en/a/ement o.R .the case clearl% in*icate the e1istence o.e Insurance !o* / . Res)on*ent. #$t also as to the means an* metho*s to accom)lish it. the )a%ment o. Garil.em)lo%ees is not re)resente* #% a Cnion. 0his +as reverse* #% the N:RC.ils*01 Inc*1 (*&* 'o* 1272221 3une 241 2010* 0he cite* *ecision is the Co$rt.. "$rthermore. =n a))eal to the C. o))ose* sai* )etition on the /ro$n* that there e1ists no em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relation #et+een the )arties. :oss o. 9an$li-e claims other+ise insistin/ that he +as an a/ent.em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi). R.an em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi). the em)lo%er controls the con*$ct o. ho+ever. a *$l% license* local em)lo%ment a/enc%. No. . the )o+er o. *es)ite o.res)on*ent. 4ence. (regorio )* "ong+o vs* ". FACTS .:a#or an* Am)lo%ment. Garil 9an)o+er .co$rse. It #ears stressin/ that the -acts o.an em)lo%ment relationshi) areB 1.the +or8 to #e *one. #$t s$ch loss or #reach m$st have some #asis. the% -ile* a )etition -or certi-ication election #e-ore the De)artment o.'.' NG *ANGGA0 GA2ANG R.RATI. LA1AS SA IN'USTRI!A NG 1A ATIRANG -ALIGI NG AL!ANSA 0 INAG+U1L.

$)reme Co$rt hel* that i.$)reme Co$rt r$le* in -avor o.con*$ct that 0on/8o ha* to o#serve )$rs$ant to the a/enc% a/reement. 0he Co$rt accor*e* m$ch +ei/ht on the vario$s co*es o. the -act that 0on/8o +as an em)lo%ee o9an$li-e ma% alrea*% #e esta#lishe*. 0he ori/inal .the ins$rance com)an%. It +as -o$n* #% the Co$rt that 0on/8o *eclare* himsel.N Central to the resol$tion o. the Co$rt hel* that 0on/8o +as an em)lo%ee o. as -ollo+sB (a) the selection an* en/a/ement o.the s)eci-ic r$les an* re/$lations that are en-orce* a/ainst ins$rance a/ents or mana/ers are s$ch that +o$l* *irectl% a--ect the means an* metho*s #% +hich s$ch a/ents or mana/ers +o$l* achieve the o#<ectives set #% the ins$rance com)an%.+a/es! (c) the )o+er o./reement o. the% are em)lo%ees o.as #$siness or sel--em)lo%e* )erson in his income ta1 ret$rn.TI.RIGINAL 'ECISI.0on/8o +ith the com)an% *ictates that he is an ins$rance a/ent. Certainl%. the .URT6S .em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi). 9ore im)ortantl%.N In *is)osin/ o.it is -o$n* that no s$ch relationshi) e1ists. the la#or co$rts have no <$ris*iction over this case.s evi*ence esta#lishes the -act that 0on/8o +as tas8e* to )er-orm a*ministrative *$ties that esta#lishes his em)lo%ment +ith 9an$li-e.G In short.s )o+er to control the em)lo%ee. In a sense. 0he . 0he em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi) is esta#lishe* #% the -o$r--ol* test. relationshi) on the ori/inal a/reement.the Civil Co*e an* Ins$rance )rovisions on a/enc%.$)reme Co$rt in the a))eal +as the *is5$isition on the e1istence o.the em)lo%ee! (#) the )a%ment o.$)reme Co$rt )lace* heav% si/ni-icance on the a))lication o. +ith the com)an% re/$lations an* re5$irements alone.N F. 0his #olsters the content o.))l%in/ sai* stan*ar*. No other *oc$mentar% evi*ence +as -o$n* to s$))ort s$#se5$ent sti)$lations as to their relationshi) that +o$l* ne/ate the a/enc%.0on/8o +hich )rom)te* 9an$li-e to -ile its 9otion -or Reconsi*eration.the . an* not em)lo%ment. an in*e)en*ent contractor. these re5$irements controlle* the means an* metho*s #% +hich 0on/8o +as to achieve the com)an%.9an$li-e since the latter ha* the )o+er o. 9an$li-e.the .$)reme Co$rt sai*B T-E SU RE*E C. the . 0he si/ni-icance o.s /oals. . T-E *.this -in*in/ is that i.control over the -ormer.s con*$ct.R REC.7hat the .this 9otion -or Reconsi*eration.NSI'ERATI.*ismissal! an* (*) the em)lo%er. It hel*B F0h$s./reement .

the Co$rt )ositsB F7hat.e1)enses an* reim#$rsements.s to the val$e o.r$les an* re/$lations.control over the a/ent in a manner consistent +ith an a/enc% relationshi). 0he mere )resentation o. 0hese are mana/ement )olic% *ecisions that the la#or la+ element o. 0he la+ li8e+ise o#li/ates the a/ent to ren*er an acco$nt! in this sense.nother )rinci)le that s$r-ace* here is the conce)t o. on the other han*.s )revio$s a*missions in several %ears o. on the re)resentations to #e ma*e to )otential c$stomers. this as)ect o. e1)ressl% allo+s the )rinci)al an element o. . )artic$larl% on the matter o.mentione* a#ove that he +as an ins$rance a/ent in the conte1t o.the ins$rance a/ent. 0on/8o. cannot #e $se* as #asis -or a . on the *eliver% o.s alrea*% recite* a#ove.la#or la+ control. 9an$li-e.their res)ective o#li/ations $n*er the Co*e.s o#<ectives. res$lts-+ise. control can #e im)ose* thro$/h r$les an* re/$lations +itho$t intr$*in/ into the la#or la+ conce)t ocontrol -or )$r)oses o. )artic$larl% on licenses an* their rene+als.con*$ctin/ their sales an* onl% control them as to the *esire* res$lts an* Ins$rance Co*e norms.G sho$l* not merel% relate to the m$t$all% *esira#le res$lt inten*e* #% the contract$al relationshi)! the% m$st have the nat$re o.ins$rance. the )rinci)al can im)ose )ro*$ction 5$otas an* can *etermine ho+ man% a/ents.the Co*e o.la#or la+ control are the co*es o. serve as evi*ence o.esto))el.con*$ct that 9an$li-e im)oses on its a/ents in the sale o.s co*es o. on the matter o. 0o the Co$rt. ho+ever. . to 0on/8o. In -act. In this sense. these control meas$res cannot #e rea* as in*icative o.em)lo%ment.co*es or o.*ictatin/ the means or metho*s to #e em)lo%e* in attainin/ the res$lt.-i1in/ the metho*olo/% an* o. or o. 0h$s.0on/8o.the Ins$rance Co*e an* the Civil Co*e.#in*in/ or restrictin/ the )art% hire* to the $se o.control cannot reach.ta1 ret$rns as an in*e)en*ent a/ent. +ith s)eci-ic territories.ee o/ t9e 8%inci8al.G 0he Co$rt -$rther hel* that a commitment to a#i*e #% the r$les an* re/$lations o.la#or la+ control as the la+ an* <$ris)r$*ence teach $s. to the e1tent that the% *o not involve the means an* manner o. the collection o)remi$ms. Neither *o /$i*elines someho+ restrictive o. all o+hich *o not intr$*e into the ins$rance a/ents. the )rinci)al ma% im)ose on the a/ent s)eci-ic instr$ctions on ho+ an acco$nt shall #e ma*e. as a/ainst his #elate* claim that he +as all alon/ an em)lo%ee. +o$l* have chan/e* the *ecision as it is an a*mission a/ainst interest on the )art o.com)ensation.la#or la+ Fcontrol.Con*$ct relie* $)on #% 0on/8o in claimin/ that he is an em)lo%ee. G$i*elines in*icative o. are too *iametricall% o))ose* to #e sim)l% *ismisse* or i/nore*. . +hich ha* the% #een /iven im)ortance. 0o these e1tents. as +ill #e sho+n more -$ll% .ins$rance )olicies.s con*$ct necessaril% in*icate FcontrolG as this term is *e-ine* in <$ris)r$*ence. the Ins$rance Co*e im)oses o#li/ations on #oth the ins$rance com)an% an* its a/ents in the )er-ormance o. means an* manner o.these means. "oremost amon/ these are the *irectives that the )rinci)al ma% im)ose on the a/ent to achieve the assi/ne* tas8s.the evi*ence +as not consi*ere* in its ori/inal *ecision.an ins$rance com)an% *oes not i)so -acto ma8e the ins$rance a/ent an em)lo%ee. Ele7ent o/ cont%ol in 8%inci8al0agent %elations9i8 #oes not 7a:e t9e agent an e78lo. o$/ht to #e em)lo%e* to achieve the com)an%.con*$ct.$n*erta8in/ these tas8s. is not )er se in*icative o. 0he /eneral la+ on a/enc%. an* on meas$res to ens$re ethical #$siness )ractice in the in*$str%.

the% )revail in the case.the :a#or . an* 12th month )a%. 0he :. an a))eal #% the em)lo%er ma% #e )er-ecte* onl% $)on the )ostin/ o.R.+riters.he sai* there +ere too man% :i-est%le +riters an* that it +as time to re*$ce the n$m#er o. ISSUE: 7hether or not there e1ists an em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi) #et+een PDI an* =ro6co. .N . the% +ill receive the mone% <$*/ment in their -avor $)on the *ismissal o. H Decisions.s$ch relationshi) an* reverse* its earlier r$lin/ +hich /rante* 0on/8o millions in #ac8+a/es an* *ama/es. 0he N:RC *enie* the a))eal #eca$se othe -ail$re o. PDI a))eale* to the National :a#or Relations Commission.RA+LE C. r$le* that there e1ists an em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi) #et+een PDI an* =ro6co hence =ro6co is entitle* to receive #ac8+a/es.s col$mn +as event$all% *ro))e*.))eals reverse* the N:RC.the :a#or Co*eB . this )rinci)le is rela1e* #% the . =ro6co.rticle ''2 o.he +as the col$mnist oF"eminist Re-lectionsG $n*er the :i-est%le section o.URT . ''2. 7hether or not PDI. or even eva*e. 9a/sanoc as the e*itor-in-chie.the em)lo%er. It +as inten*e* to *isco$ra/e em)lo%ers -rom $sin/ an a))eal to *ela%. .C 24 A5ril 2006 7 Labor Standards %m5loyee-em5loyer &elations.rticle ''2 o. B$t in this case.R0.F A EALS" -ILI INE 'AIL! IN.he +rites on a +ee8l% #asis an* on a )er article #asis (P'&0-200Earticle). their o#li/ation to satis-% their em)lo%ees. =ro6co +on in the :a#or . 133245: 2IL-EL*INA S.F T-E -. (s T-E FIFT.r#iter are -inal an* e1ec$tor% $nless a))eale* to the Commission #% an% or #oth )arties +ithin ten (10) calen*ar *a%s -rom recei)t o. in r$lin/ that the =ro6co is entitle* to #ac8+a/es.control e1iste* #et+een 9an$li-e an* 0on/8o. =ro6co -ile* -or a case -or Ille/al Dismissal a/ainst PDI an* 9a/sanoc.G G. In case o.the )a)er. a+ar*s or or*ers o.-in*in/ that the la#or la+ conce)t o.a <$*/ment involvin/ a monetar% a+ar*. 0he re5$irement that the em)lo%er )ost a cash or s$ret% #on* to )er-ect itsEhis a))eal is a))arentl% inten*e* to ass$re the +or8ers that i. amon/ others. reinstatement.N. . the Co$rt *i* not see the e1istence o.PDI to )ost a s$ret% #on* as re5$ire* #% .R. .i5 in a ublication – Bond &e8uirement 9.<C.so$/ht to im)rove the :i-est%le section o.the :a#or Co*e. 0h$s.s a))eal. . No. a+ar*s.r#iter.s$ch *ecisions.the )$#lication. 0he Co$rt o. *i* not )rovi*e an% com)$tation. In 1331.))eal.r#iter. or or*ers.UIRER" AN' LETICIA )I*ENE< *AGSAN.en %m5loyer A55eals in a Labor !ase =ro6co +as hire* as a +riter #% the Phili))ine Dail% In5$irer in 1330.s a))eal +ill )ros)er. -EL': Cn*er . <$st an* la+-$l claims.$)reme Co$rt consi*erin/ the -act that the :a#or .'I=ISI. .a cash or s$ret% #on* iss$e* #% a re)$ta#le #on*in/ com)an% *$l% accre*ite* #% the Commission in the amo$nt e5$ivalent to the monetar% a+ar* in the <$*/ment a))eale* -rom.

+hether or not there e1ists an em)lo%er-em)lo%ee relationshi) #et+een PDI an* =ro6co.the other iss$e o.r#iter -or the com)$tation. .0he case is then reman*e* to the :a#or . 0his necessaril% )en*e* the resol$tion o.

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