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The free encyclopedia for UK steel construction information

Concept design
Contents 
1 Multi-storey buildings

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1.1 Hierarchy of design decisions 1.2 Anatomy of building design 1.3 Floor grids 1.4 Dimensional coordination


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1.4.1 Influence of building height 1.4.2 Horizontal coordination 1.4.3 Vertical coordination 1.5.1 Rigid frames 1.5.2 Braced frames 1.5.3 Concrete or steel cores

1.5 Structural options for stability

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1.6 Columns 1.7 Structural options for floor systems 1.8 Estimating steel quantities 1.9 Factors influencing structural arrangements

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1.9.1 Site conditions 1.9.2 Cranes

1.10 Service integration

2 Single storey buildings 2.1 Hierarchy of design decisions 2.2 Architectural design


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2.2.1 Building form 2.2.2 Simple roof beam, supported on columns. 2.2.3 Portal frame 2.2.4 Trusses 2.2.5 Other forms of construction 2.3.1 Cladding types

2.3 Choice of building type

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  Roofing Walls

2.4 Concept design of portal frames

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2.4.1 Frame stability 2.4.2 Member stability 2.5.1 Eaves connection 2.5.2 Apex connection

2.5 Connections

3 Resources 4 See also

This article presents information necessary to assist in the choice and use of steel structures at the concept design stage for modern multi-storey buildings and single storey buildings . The information is presented in terms of the design strategy, anatomy of building design and structural systems. For multi-storey buildings the primary sector of interest is commercial buildings, but the same information may also be used in other sectors. For single storey buildings the primary sector of interest is industrial buildings, but the same information can also be used in other sectors, such as commercial, retail and leisure .

Multi-storey buildings
In multi-storey buildings , the design of the primary structure is strongly influenced by many issues, as defined below:

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The need to provide clear floor spans for more usable space The choice of cladding system Planning requirements, which may limit the building height and the maximum floor-tofloor zone

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The services strategy and effective integration of building services Site conditions, which dictate the foundation system and location of foundations Craneage limitations and storage space for materials and components Speed of construction, which may influence the number of components that are used and the installation process.

Studies show that the cost of the building structure is generally only 10% of the total building cost - and the influence of the choice of structure on the foundations, services and cladding are often more significant. In reality, building design is a synthesis of architectural, structural, services, logistics and buildability issues. Steel frames are ideally suited for modern multi-storey commercial buildings.

Hierarchy of design decisions
The development of any proposal for a construction project requires a complex series of design decisions that are inter-related. The process should begin with a clear understanding of the client requirements and of local conditions or regulations. Despite the complexity, it is possible to identify a hierarchy of design decisions. Firstly, planning requirements are likely to define the overall building form, which will also include aspects such as natural lighting, ventilation and services. The principal design choices that need to be made in close consultation with the client are:

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The depth of the floor zone and the overall structure/service interaction strategy The need for special structural arrangements in public spaces or circulation areas The provision of some tolerance between structure and services, to permit future adaptability The benefit of using longer spans, at negligible extra cost, in order to enhance flexibility of layout.

Based on the design brief, a concept design can then be prepared which is reviewed by the design team and client. It is at this early interactive stage where the important decisions are made that influence the cost and value of the final project. Close involvement with the client is essential.


of building design

The building design is dependent on various parameters; these include:

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Floor grid Building height Circulation and access space Services requirements and service integration.



Floor grids define the spacing of the columns in orthogonal directions, which are influenced by:

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The planning grid (normally based on units of 300 mm but more typically multiples of 0.6, 1.2 or 1.5 m) The column spacing along the façades, depending on the façades material (typically 5.4 to 7.5 m) The use of the internal space, i.e. for offices or open plan space The requirements for building service distribution (from the building core).

Along the façade line, column spacings are normally defined by the need to provide support to the cladding system for example, a maximum column spacing of 6 m is normally required for brickwork. This influences the column spacing internally, unless additional columns are used along the façade line. The span of the beams across the building normally conforms to one of the following column grid arrangement:

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Single internal line of columns, placed offset to the line of a central corridor. This is shown in the figure below Pairs of column lines on either side of a corridor Column-free internal spans with columns located along the façade line.

For naturally ventilated offices, a building width of 12 m to 15 m is typically used, which can be achieved by two spans of 6 to 7.5 m. A single span can also be provided with deep (400 mm or more) precast concrete hollow core units spanning the full width of the building. Natural lighting also plays a role in choice of the width of floor plate. In modern buildings, a long span solution provides a considerable enhancement in flexibility of layout. For air-conditioned offices, a clear span of 15 m to 18 m is often used. An example of the column grid for a long span option in a building with a large atrium is shown in the figure below.

Dimensional coordination
The choice of the basic building shape is usually the architect's responsibility, constrained by such issues as the site plan, access, building orientation, parking, landscaping and local planning requirements. The following general guidance influences the choice of structure.

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Between sources of natural light there should be 13.5 m and 20 m intervals Naturally lit and ventilated zones extend a distance of twice the floor-to-ceiling height from the outer walls - artificial light and ventilation is required in other zones Atria improve the efficient use of the building, and reduce the running costs.

[top]Influence of building height
The building height has a strong influence on the:

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Structural system that is adopted Foundation system Fire resistance requirements and means of escape Access (by lifts) and circulation space Choice of cladding system Speed of construction and site productivity.

9 m These targets permit a range of structural solutions. Integrated beam systems are often used in renovation projects where the floor-to-floor height is limited by compatibility with the existing building or façades.5 .4.200 Cellular beams (with service integration) 800 – 1.For taller buildings. The following target floor-to-floor depths should be considered at the concept design stage: Prestige office 4. plus the floor depth including services.7 m for speculative offices.0 m Renovation project 3. The two planning grids shown above present typical arrangements that satisfy these criteria. strategically placed concrete or braced steel cores are usually adopted. it is required to limit the overall building height.4. but are not covered here. Sizes of lifts and their speed of movement also become important considerations for tall buildings. the use of sprinklers may be required for buildings of more than eight storeys (or approximately 30 m high). An atrium may be incorporated to increase lighting to the occupied space and to provide high value circulation areas at ground and intermediate levels. or 3 m for more prestige applications. safe evacuation in fire. Positioning of service and access cores is influenced by:    Horizontal distribution systems for mechanical services Fire resistance requirements.450 Shallow floor or integrated beams 600 – 800 Typical floor depths for multi storey buildings .100 Downstand beams with precast concrete floor slabs 1.0 . The design requirements for atria are:     Support to the long span roof of the atrium Access routes for general circulation Fire safety measures by smoke extraction and safe evacuation routes Light levels and servicing to internal offices. this can be achieved by use of shallow floor or integrated beam systems. and vertical service distribution. [top]Vertical coordination The target floor-to-floor height is based on a floor-to-ceiling height of 2. for planning reasons. the following 'target' floor depths may be used. which may control evacuation routes and compartment sizes The need to distribute the stabilizing systems (bracing and cores) effectively throughout the building plan. If. Flooring system Target floor depth (mm) Composite beam construction 800 – 1. Depending on the Regulations for fire safety.6 . [top]Horizontal coordination Horizontal coordination is dominated by the need on plan for defined zones for vertical access.2 m Speculative office 3. For concept design of orthodox commercial multi-storey steel structures .200 – 1. Ultra tall buildings are influenced strongly by the stabilising system.5 to 2.3.

K or V bracing is used in the walls. A typical layout of beams around a concrete core is shown in the figure below. In this form of construction. although angle and channel sections may also be used. Cross bracing is often simple flat steel plate . This is generally only possible where the beams are relatively deep (400 mm to 500 mm) and where the column size is increased to resist the applied moments. [top]Concrete or steel cores Concrete cores are the most practical system for buildings of up to 40 storeys high. Special structural design considerations are required for:    The beam connections to the concrete core The design of the heavier primary beams at the corner of core Fire safety and robustness of the long span construction. braced steel frames are commonly used in which cross. [top]Rigid frames For buildings up to four storeys high. the structure is stable.[top]Structural options for stability The structural system required for stability is primarily influenced by the building height. with the use of heavier beams at the corner of the core. The following structural systems may be considered for stability. or around stairs or other serviced zones. the beams often span directly between the columns on the perimeter of the building and the concrete core. the steel structure may be designed to provide stability. [top]Braced frames For buildings up to 12 storeys high. Cross bracing is designed in tension only (the other member being redundant). hollow sections are often used. For buildings up to eight storeys height. but for taller buildings. A steel braced frame has the two key advantages:   Responsibility for temporary stability lies with one organisation As soon as the steel bracing is connected (bolted). but the concrete core is generally constructed in advance of the steel framework. Full depthend plate connections generally provide the necessary rigidity. rigid frames may be used in which the multiple beam to column connections provide bending resistance and stiffness to resist horizontal loads. A double beam may be required to minimise the structural depth at the corner of the cores. but angle and channel sections may also be used. concrete or braced steel cores are more efficient structurally. When bracing is designed to work in compression. . generally within a cavity in the façades.

Typical beam layout around a concrete core A braced steel core .

When the stability of the structure is provided by cores. Typical column sizes are given in the table below. predominantly carrying axial load. due to the connection being on one side only. composite construction Medium and high rise. 15m steel beams spanning 15 m Medium and high rise. no restriction on construction depth precast units or composite floors Downstand beams in the façade precast concrete units (15 m). steel has an important advantage over other materials in that long span solutions (between 12 and 18 m) can be easily provided. An example of a braced steel core is shown in the figure above right. the beams are generally designed as simply supported. no restriction on construction depth Downstand beams. If the reactions on the opposite side of the column are equal. This has the key advantage of column-free space. [top]Columns Columns in multi-storey steel frames are generally H sections . the practical issues of connections to the floor beams should be considered. long span e. It can be difficult and costly to provide connection into the minor axis of a very small column section. [top]Structural options for floor systems A wide range of floor system solutions is available for which typical solutions are given in the table below. allowing future adaptability.g. . there is no net moment.Braced steel cores may be used as an economic alternative where speed of construction is critical. Number of floors supported by column section Universal Column (UKC) serial size 1 152 2-4 203 3-8 254 5 . The generally accepted design model is that nominally pinned connections produce nominal moments in the column. modest spans. Form of construction Typical solution Downstand beams Low rise. Columns on the perimeter of the structure will have an applied moment. composite floors with secondary Low rise. long spans (to 18 m) restricted construction depth Composite floors with cellular long span secondary steel beams Typical floor solutions Although steel solutions are appropriate for short spans (typically 6 to 9 m). Such cores are installed with the rest of the steelwork package.40 356 Typical column sizes for small and medium span composite floors Although small column sections may be preferred for architectural reasons.12 305 10 . calculated by assuming that the beam reaction is 100 mm from the face of the column. and fewer foundations. modest spans. or discreet vertical bracing.

or integrated beams. In composite construction shear connectors are welded to the top flange of the beam. Span range of various structural options [top]Estimating steel quantities For estimating purposes in the design of office buildings. They do not include the steelwork used in the façades. to reduce the overall depth of the zone. These quantities will increase significantly for non rectangular or tall buildings or for buildings with atria or complex façades.Floors spanning onto the steel beams will normally be either precast concrete units . whereas fabricated beams are often used for long span primary beams. and are expressed in terms of the total floor area of the building. Cellular beams and composite trusses are more efficient for long span secondary beams. Long span steel options generally provide for service integration for spans of over 12m. Beams within the floor zone are known as slim floor. The approximate quantities are presented in the table below. or composite floors. Beams may be non composite. transferring load to the concrete floor. The span range of various structural options in both steel and concrete are illustrated in the table below. The supporting beams may be below the floor. but composite floors are common in both low rise and high rise structures. or the beams may share the same zone with the floor construction. The available construction zone is often the determining factor when choosing a floor solution. or composite. Precast concrete units may be used for low rise frames. Approximate steel quantities (kg/m² floor area) Form of Building Beams Columns Bracing Total 3 or 4 storey building of rectangular form 25–30 8–10 2–3 35–40 6–8 storey building of rectangular form 25–30 12–15 3–5 40–50 8–10 storey building with long spans 35–40 12–15 3–5 50–60 20 storey building with long spans and a concrete core 40–50 10–13 1–2 50–65 Approximate steel quantities . with the floor bearing on the top flange (often known as 'downstand' beams ). representative weights of steel may be used for buildings of rectangular plan form. atrium or roof.

See SCI P166 and P273. In city centres. the cladding (cost and programme) and overall building height. The provision for such systems is of critical importance for the superstructure layout. Other systems provide conditioned air from a raised floor. albeit more heavily loaded foundations are often preferred.Further guidance on estimating steel quantities and cost is available. cladding and finishes. and should be considered at the same time as considering the cost of structure. quickly to allow early access for the following trades. [top]Site conditions Increasingly. where earlier construction has left a permanent legacy. and structural solutions which can be erected safely. which may be supplemented by mobile cranes for specific heavy lifting operations. a solution involving fewer. structures are constructed on 'brownfield' sites. affecting the layout and type of members chosen. Service integration Most large office-type structures require air conditioning or 'comfort cooling'. [top]Factors influencing structural arrangements The construction programme will be a key concern in any project. the services. the size of the project and the use of additional mobile cranes. The basic decision either to integrate the ductwork within the structural depth or to simply suspend the ductwork at a lower level affects the choice of structural member. which lead to longer spans for the superstructure. . The structural scheme has a key influence on programme and cost. tower cranes are often located in a lift shaft or atrium. [top]Cranes The number of cranes on a project will be dominated by the site footprint. which will necessitate both horizontal and vertical distribution systems. In city centre projects. the fire protection system. Multi-storey structures are generally erected using a tower crane.

such as offices. Increasingly. which are efficient. Single storey buildings are a 'core' market for steel in the UK. Large open spaces can be created. many factors have to be addressed in their design. but may require space for other uses.Single storey buildings Single storey buildings use steel framed structures and metallic cladding of all types. architectural issues and visual impact have to be addressed and many leading architects are involved in the design of modern single storey buildings . Single storey buildings tend to be large enclosures. handling and transportation. easy to maintain and are adaptable as demand changes. . etc. Therefore. overhead cranes.

Although these building types are primarily functional. including end of life issues. depending on the building form and use:          Space use. for example. . they are commonly designed with strong architectural involvement dictated by planning requirements and client 'branding'.Hierarchy of design decisions Important design factors for single storey buildings The development of a design solution for a single storey building. particularly in production facilities Access and security Sustainability considerations Design life and maintenance requirements. specific requirements for handling of materials or components in a production facility Flexibility of space in current and future use Speed of construction Environmental performance. including services requirements and thermal performance Aesthetics and visual impact Acoustic isolation. The following overall design requirements should be considered in the concept design stage ofindustrial buildings and large enclosures. such as a large enclosure or industrial facility is more dependent on the activity being performed and future requirements for the space than other building types. such as commercial and residential buildings.

In many cases. the requirements for a distribution centre will be different to a manufacturing facility. it is necessary to review these considerations based on the type of single storey building. Stability in the . to provide in-plane and longitudinal stability. A review of the importance of various design issues is presented in the table on the right for common building types. up to approximately 20 m. Various examples are presented below together with a brief description of the design concept. [top]Portal frame A portal frame is a continuous frame with moment resisting connections to provide stability in-plane. with notes on the structural concept. Structural concepts The basic design concepts for each structural type are described below: [top]Simple roof beam. Bracing will be required in the roof and all elevations. The roof beam may be pre-cambered. supported on columns. For example. The span will generally be modest. [top]Building form The basic structural form of a single storey building may be of various generic types. [top]Architectural design Modern single storey buildings using steel are both functional in use and are designed to be architecturally attractive. with the resistance of the rafter enhanced locally with a haunch. The members are generally plain rolled sections.To enable the concept design to be developed. as shown in the figure below. the frame will have pinned bases. and typical forces and moments due to gravity loads. A portal frame may be single bay or multi bay. The figure shows a conceptual cross-section through each type of building.

[top]Other forms of construction Built-up columns (two plain beams. [top]Trusses Truss buildings generally have roof bracing and vertical bracing in each elevation to provide stability in both orthogonal directions. These may be used in portalised structures. such as cranes. and modest cranes to avoid excessive deflections Generally bracing is used for in-plane stability No economy due to continuity . although it is more common to provide bracing to stabilise the frame. portal frames or trusses are shown in the table below. External or suspended support structures may be used. connected to form a compound column) are often used to support heavy loads. across one or both end bays. with shallow or steep external roof slopes. A truss building may also be designed as rigid in-plane. Simple beam Portal frame Truss Advantages Simple design Long span Very long spans possible Designed to be stable in plane Heavy loads may be carried Member sizes and haunches may be optimised for efficiency Modest deflection Disadvantages Relatively short span Software required for efficient design Generally more expensive fabrication Bracing needed for in-plane stability Limited to relatively light vertical loading.longitudinal direction is provided by a combination of bracing in the roof. Most efficient Less efficient Analysis using elastic-plastic software Elastic analysis Cladding considered to restrain the flange of the purlins and side rails Purlins and side rails unrestrained Purlins and side rails used to restrain both flanges of the hot-rolled steelwork The inside flange of the hot rolled steelwork is unrestrained Nominal base stiffness utilised Nominal base stiffness ignored Efficient portal frame design The reasons for choosing simple beam structures. and with bracing to provide in-plane stability. and the assumptions that are made regarding the restraint to the structural members. as shown in the table below. but are often used with rigid bases. and vertical bracing in the elevations. Their efficiency depends on the method of analysis. If vertical bracing cannot be provided in the elevations (due to industrial doors. [top]Choice of building type Portal frames are considered to be a highly cost-effective way to provide a single storey enclosure. for example) stability is often provided by a rigid frame within the elevation. but are relatively uncommon. The trusses may take a variety of forms.

Haunches are provided in the rafters at the eaves to enhance the bending resistance of the rafter and to facilitate a bolted connection to the column. Deep decking spanning between main frames. Composite or sandwich panels spanning horizontally between columns. the use of higher strength steel is rarely justified. The eaves height is determined by the specified clear height between the top of the floor and the underside of the haunch. Different forms of cladding (including vertically and horizontally orientated sheets) may be used together for visual effect in the same façades. Brickwork is often used as a 'dado' or 'dwarf' wall below the level of the windows for impact resistance. to facilitate the bolted connection. Sections are generally S275 or S355.5 m or more is commonly adopted). Composite panels (also known as sandwich panels) spanning between purlins. supporting insulation. orientated vertically and supported on side rails. A single-span symmetrical portal frame (as illustrated in the figure below) is typically of the following proportions:   A span between 15 m and 50 m (25 m to 35 m is the most efficient) An eaves height (base to rafter centreline) of between 5 and 15 m (7. Sheeting or structural liner trays spanning horizontally between columns. Metallic cassette panels supported by side rails. because they must carry significant bending moments and provide in-plane stiffness. eliminating side rails. Small haunches are provided at the apex. [top]Walls Sheeting.       A roof pitch between 5° and 10° (6° is commonly adopted) A frame spacing between 5 m and 8 m (the greater frame spacings being used in longer span portal frames) Members are I sections rather than H sections. As deflections may be critical. .Efficient portal frame design [top]Cladding types The main types of roofing and wall cladding used in single storey buildings are described as follows: [top]Roofing        'Built-up' or double layer roofing spanning between secondary members such as purlins. [top]Concept design of portal frames Steel portal frames are widely used because they combine structural efficiency with functional form. with an external metal sheet or waterproof membrane.

portal frames are commonly used as the gable frames. The length of the eaves haunch is generally 10% of the span. The length of the haunch means that the hogging bending moment at the 'sharp' end of the haunch is approximately the same as the maximum sagging bending moment towards the apex. or one slightly larger. A typical gable frame is shown in the figure below. even though they experience lighter loads.Single span symmetric portal frame The eaves haunch is typically cut from the same size Standard open sections|rolled section as the rafter. Gable frames may be identical to the internal frames. as shown in the figure below. to reduce the impact of the structural works. The end frames of a portal frame are generally called gable frames. . and is welded to the underside of the rafter. If future extension to the building is envisaged. No higher resolution available.

back to the eaves level. or in one bay only. stability is provided by vertical bracing in the elevations. In the longitudinal direction. The vertical bracing may be at both ends of the building. Each frame is connected to the vertical bracing by a hot-rolled member at eaves level. longitudinal stability can be provided by a rigid frame on the elevation. A typical bracing arrangement is shown in the figure below. Typical bracing in a portal frame The gable columns span between the base and the rafter. If diagonal bracing in the elevations cannot be accommodated. and to the foundations by the vertical bracing.Typical details of an end gable of a portal frame building Frame stability In-plane stability is provided by frame continuity. . where the reaction is carried by bracing in the plane of the roof.

The arrangement of restraints to the inside flange is generally similar to that shown in the figure below and in all cases. Restraint bracing to inside flange . or from angles designed in compression if bracing is only possible from one side. The bracing is usually formed of thin metal straps. as shown in the figure below. Restraint to the inside flange is commonly provided by bracing from the purlins and side rails. the purlins and side rails do not restrain the inside flange. designed to act in tension. The purlins and side rails are considered adequate to restrain the flange that they are attached to. but unless special measures are taken. restraints to the rafter and column must be considered. the junction of the inside face of the column and the underside of the haunch must be restrained.[top]Member stability Restraint locations For economic design .

Single storey buildings: Part 1 Architect’s guide Steel Buildings in Europe . The haunch is generally fabricated from a similar size beam to the rafter (or larger). at the bottom of the haunch) will be required. The apex haunch is usually fabricated from the same member as the rafter. 1997 .8 and the end plate 25 mm thick S275. [top]Apex connection A typical apex connection is shown in the figure below. the bolts may be M24 8. and to increase the shear resistance of the column web panel. Typically. or from equivalent plate.Single storey buildings: Part 2 Concept design SCI P166 Interfaces: Design of Steel Framed Buildings for Service Integration. Other stiffeners may be required to increase the bending resistance of the column flange. Typical apex connection [top]Resources      Steel Buildings in Europe . The apex connection primarily serves to increase the depth of the member to make a satisfactory bolted connection. or fabricated from equivalent plate. Typically.8 and the end plate 25 mm thick S275.[top]Connections [top]Eaves connection Typical eaves connection A typical eaves connection is shown in in the figure below. the bolts may be M24 8.Multi-storey buildings: Part 1 Architect’s guide Steel Buildings in Europe . adjacent to the tension bolts. In almost all cases a compression stiffener in the column (as shown.Multi-storey buildings: Part 2 Concept design Steel Buildings in Europe .

BCSA                         [top]See Chapter 3 .  SCI P273 Service Integration in Slimdek.Multi-Storey Buildings SCI P167 Architectural Teaching Resource Studio Guide. 2000 Steel Buildings.Single Storey Buildings Chapter 4 . (Publication No 35/03). 2000 also Multi-storey buildings Single storey buildings Composite construction Floor systems Long span beams Portal frames Moment resisting connections Service integration Building envelopes Cost of structural steelwork Cost comparison study Retail buildings Leisure buildings Structural fire resistance requirements Continuous frames Braced frames Steel construction products Structural robustness Trusses Fire and steel construction Design software and tools . 2003.

1 Permanent actions 4.3 Combinations of actions 5 Frame analysis at ULS 5.2 Member stability 7.2 Frame dimensions              Clear span and height 3.4 Sensitivity to effects of the deformed geometry  o o o 7.3 The uplift condition 7.2 Snow loads 4.3 Wind actions In plane stability 7.2 Bracing to restrain longitudinal loads from cranes 8.1 Choice of material and section 3.1.4 Positions of restraints 4 Actions o o 4.Portal frames Contents [hide]    1 Anatomy of a typical portal frame 2 Types of portal frames 3 Design considerations o o Rafter design and stability o           7.7 Fire 4.2.1 Column bases 10 References 11 Further reading 12 Resources 13 See also 14 External links 15 CPD .2 Main frame 3.3.3 Haunch dimensions 3.2 Plan bracing        9 Connections o 9.3.1 Out-of-plane stability 7.4 Crane actions 4.1 Out-of-plane stability 7.1 Plastic analysis 5.2 First-order and second-order analysis 6.2 Elastic analysis 6 In-plane frame stability Second order effects 6.3 Calculation of αcr 6.1 Portalised bays 8.2.2 Variable actions   o o o o o o o 7 Design 4.1.1 Imposed roof loads 4.1 Restraint to inner flanges Cross-section resistance 7.2.4 In plane stability 7.1 Vertical bracing 8.5 Accidental actions 4.2.6 Robustness 4.1 Service loads 4.4 Column design and stability 8 Bracing o o 8.2 Gravity combination of actions 7.

Portal frames are generally low-rise structures. connected by moment-resisting connections. . in fact 50% of constructional steel used in the UK is in portal frame construction. They are very efficient for enclosing large volumes. which form portal frames. The end frame (gable frame) can be either a portal frame or a braced arrangement of columns and rafters. Multi-bay portal frame during construction Anatomy of a typical portal frame Principal components of a portal framed building A portal frame building comprises a series of transverse frames braced longitudinally. This article describes the anatomy and various types of portal frame and key design considerations. The primary steelwork consists of columns and rafters. and bracing. therefore they are often used for industrial. which is increased by a suitable haunch or deepening of the rafter sections. Portal frames are very common. storage. retail and commercial applications as well as for agricultural purposes. Resistance to lateral and vertical actions is provided by the rigidity of the connections and the bending stiffness of the members. This form of continuous frame structure is stable in its plane and provides a clear span that is unobstructed by bracing. comprising columns and horizontal or pitched rafters.

25 to 35 m are the most efficient spans. The roof and wall cladding separate the enclosed space from the external environment as well as providingthermal and acoustic insulation. The structural role of the cladding is to transfer loads to secondary steelwork and also to restrain the flange of the purlin or rail to which it is attached. Pitched roof symmetric portal frame Generally fabricated from UKB sections with a substantial eaves haunch section. Frame types described below give an overview of types of portal construction with typical features illustrated.The light gauge secondary steelwork consists of side rails for walls and purlins for the roof. This information only provides typical details and is not meant to dictate any limits on the use of any particular structural form. Cross-section showing a portal frame and its restraints Portal framed structures . which may be cut from a rolled section or fabricated from plate. Pitched roof symmetric portal frame Lancashire Waste Development .overview [top]Types of portal frames Many different forms of portal frames may be constructed. but also plays an important role in restraining the primary steelwork. The secondary steelwork supports the building envelope.

Crane portal frame with column brackets Portal frame with internal mezzanine floor Waters Meeting Health Centre. guidance is given in SCI P292. .) Where a travelling crane of relatively low capacity (up to say 20 tonnes) is required. brackets can be fixed to the columns to support the crane rails. The assessment of frame stability must include the effect of the mezzanine. Use of a tie member or rigid column bases may be necessary to reduce the eaves deflection. and ASD Westok Ltd.Portal frame with internal mezzanine floor Office accommodation is often provided within a portal frame structure using a partial width mezzanine floor. Bolton (Image courtesy BD Structures Ltd.

requirements should be agreed with the client and with the crane manufacturer. The high axial forces introduced in the frame when a tie is used necessitate the use of second-order software when analysing this .The spread of the frame at crane rail level may be of critical importance to the functioning of the crane. A tie may be useful to limit spread in a crane-supporting structure. Tied portal frame In a tied portal frame the horizontal movement of the eaves and the bending moments in the columns and rafters are reduced.

form of frame. and tends to be used for smaller buildings (up to 15 m span). Hemswell (Image courtesy of Metsec plc) . It is a simple variation of the pitched roof portal frame. Rebottling Plant. Propped portal frame Where the span of a portal frame is large and there is no requirement to provide a clear span. a propped portal frame can be used to reduce the rafter size and also the horizontal Propped portal frame shear at the foundations. Mono-pitch portal frame A mono pitch portal frame is usually chosen for small spans or because of its proximity to other buildings.

Curved rafter portal frame Portal frames may be constructed using curved rafters. which should be carefully detailed for architectural reasons. Because of transport limitations rafters longer than 20 m may require splices. Guidance on the . mainly for architectural reasons.Mansard portal frame A mansard portal frame may be used where a large clear height at mid-span is required but the eaves height of the building has to be minimised. The curved member is often modelled for analysis as a series of straight elements.

they should be carefully detailed. the rafter can be fabricated as a series of straight elements. to preserve the architectural features. Where transport limitations impose requirement for splices.stability of curved rafters in portal frames is given in SCI P281. The sections used Cellular beam portal frame Hayes garden centre (Image courtesy of ASD Westok Ltd. It will be necessary to provide purlin cleats of varying height to achieve the curved external profile. Alternatively.) . Cellular beam portal frame Rafters may be fabricated from cellular beams for aesthetic reasons or when providing long spans.

to give adequate clear internal dimensions and adequate clearance for the internal functions of the building. Class 2 compact sections can be used elsewhere [top]Frame dimensions Dimensions used for analysis and clear internal dimensions A critical decision at the conceptual design stage is the overall height and width of the frame. [top]Choice of material and section Steel sections used in portal frame structures are usually specified in grade S275 or S355 steel. by the section depth. and should be established early in the design process. this will usually be measured from the finished floor level to the underside of the haunch or suspended ceiling if present. Class 1 plastic sections must be used at hinge positions that rotate. The client requirement is likely to be the clear distance between the flanges of the two columns – the span will therefore be larger. [top]Clear span and height The clear span and height required by the client are key to determining the dimensions to be used in the design. [top]Design considerations In the design and construction of any structure. so that the decisions required at each stage can be made with an understanding of their implications. a large number of inter-related design requirements should be considered at each stage in the design process. so only elastic design is used.cannot develop plastic hinges at a cross-section. Where a clear internal height is specified. . In plastically designed portal frames. The following discussion of the design process and its constituent parts is intended to give the designer an understanding of the inter-relationship of the various elements of the structure with its final construction. Any requirement for brickwork or blockwork around the columns should be established as this may affect the design span.

The haunch also adds stiffness to the frame.5 Light gauge purlins and side rails Light gauge diagonal ties from some purlins and side rails to restrain the inside flange of the frame at certain locations. and is welded to the underside of the rafter. The apex haunch may be cut from a rolled section – often from the same size as the rafter. or one slightly larger. The length of the eaves haunch is generally 10% of the frame span. A typical frame is characterised by:         A span between 15 and 50 m An clear height (from the top of the floor to the underside of the haunch) between 5 and 12 m A roof pitch between 5° and 10° (6° is commonly adopted) A frame spacing between 6 and 8 m Haunches in the rafters at the eaves and apex A stiffness ratio between the column and rafter section of approximately 1. The depth from the rafter axis to the underside of the haunch is approximately 2% of the span. which may be cut from a rolled section or fabricated from plate.[top]Main frame The main (portal) frames are generally fabricated from UKB sections with a substantial eaves haunch section. The haunch length generally means that the hogging moment at the end of the haunch is approximately equal to the largest sagging moment close to the apex. The apex haunch is not usually modelled in the frame analysis and is only used to facilitate a bolted connection. reducing deflections. or fabricated from plate. and facilitates an efficient bolted moment connection. The eaves haunch is typically cut from the same size rolled section as the rafter. [top]Haunch dimensions Typical haunch with restraints The use of a haunch at the eaves reduces the required depth of rafter by increasing the moment resistance of the member where the applied moments are highest. .

and on the combinations of actions in BS EN 1990[2].25 kN/m on plan over the whole roof area. α qk (kN/m²) [top]Imposed roof loads α < 30° 0. restraint can be provided at specified locations by column and rafter stays. If introducing intermediate lateral restraints to the column is not possible. It is important to refer to the UK National Annex for the relevant Eurocode part for the structures to be constructed in the UK. [top]Service loads Service loads will vary greatly depending on the use of the building. It is necessary to consider carefully where additional provision is needed. Where possible. rails position maybe dictated by doors or windows in the elevation.6[60 . Where the compression flange of the rafter or column is not restrained by purlins and side rails. unit weights of materials should be obtained from manufacturers‟ data. it is normal to assume a service loading of 0. The buckling resistance is likely to be more significant in the selection of a column size.6 30° < α < 60° 0. 2 [top]Variable actions Roof slope. [top]Actions Advice on actions can be found in BS EN 1991[1].[top]Positions of restraints General arrangement of restraints to the inside flange During initial design the rafter members are normally selected according to their cross sectional resistance to bending moment and axial force.1–0. as particular items of plant must be treated individually. Where information is not available. [top]Permanent actions Permanent actions are the self weight of the structure. Side rails interrupted by (for example) roller shutter doors. Depending on the use of the building and whether sprinklers are required. It is therefore essential to recognise at this early stage if the side rails may be used to provide restraint to the columns. cannot be relied on as providing adequate restraint.α)/30] . Only continuous side rails are effective in providing restraint. In portal frames heavy point loads may occur from suspended walkways. as there is usually less freedom to positing rails to suit the design requirements. secondary steelwork and cladding. these may be determined from the data in BS EN 1991-1-1[3]. the buckling resistance will determine the initial section size selection. air handling units etc. In later design stages stability against buckling needs to be verified and restraints positioned judiciously.

For more advice refer to Chapter 3 of the Steel Designers’ Manual and SCI P394. The loading for roofs not accessible except for normal maintenance and repair is given in the table on the right. high-speed or multiple cranes the allowances should be specially calculated with reference to the manufacturer. and a uniformly distributed load. but also in the design of the purlins that support the roof cladding. to be applied vertically. It should be noted that imposed loads on roofs should not be combined with either snow or wind. For simple cranes. The beams are carried on cantilever brackets or. This Eurocode gives much scope for national adjustment and therefore its annex is a substantial document. and depend on the roof slope. Wind loading calculator [top]Crane actions Gantry girders carrying an overhead travelling crane The most common form of craneage is the overhead type running on beams supported by the columns. . Qk is given. most of whom offer free software to facilitate rapid design.Imposed loads on roofs are given in the UK NA to BS EN 1991-1-1[4]. Free software for establishing wind pressures is available from manufacturers. A point load. [top]Wind actions Wind actions in the UK should be determined using BS EN 1991-1-4[7] and its UK National Annex[8]. Their value should be determined from BS EN 1991-1-3[5] and its UK National Annex[6] – the determination of snow loads is described in Chapter 3 of the Steel Designers’ Manual. in heavier cases. The designer needs to make a careful choice between a fully rigorous. In addition to the self weight of the cranes and their loads. Wind actions are inherently complex and likely to influence the final design of most buildings. by providing dual columns. Any drift condition must be allowed for not only in the design of the frame itself. The intensity of loading at the position of maximum drift often exceeds the basic minimum uniform snow load. the effects of acceleration and deceleration have to be considered. this is by a quasistatic approach with amplified loads For heavy. The calculation of drift loading and associated purlin design has been made easier by the major purlin manufacturers. which is used for local checking of roof materials and fixings. α > 60° 0 Imposed loads on roofs [top]Snow loads Snow loads may sometimes be the dominant gravity loading. complex assessment of wind actions and the use of simplifications which ease the design process but make the loads more conservative. qk.

[top]Robustness Robustness requirements are designed to ensure that any structural collapse is not disproportionate to the cause. determined using Annex B of BS EN 1991-1-3[5] The opening of a dominant opening which was assumed to be shut at ULS Each project should be individually assessed whether any other accidental actions are likely to act on the structure. where structural fire protection may be required. The most common situation in which it is required to fire protect the structural steelwork is where prevention of fire spread to adjacent buildings. BS EN 1990[2] covers both ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS). boundary condition on gridlines 2 and 3. onward reference is made to the material codes (for example BS EN 19931-1[11] for steelwork) to identify which expression should be used and what SLS limits should be observed.[top]Accidental actions The common design situations which are treated as accidental design situations are:   Drifted snow. a boundary condition. BS EN 1991-1-7[9] gives details of how this requirement should be met. [top]Fire Collapse mechanism of a portal with a lean-to under fire. instances. For more information on robustness refer to SCI P391. for example when demanded by an insurance provider. occurs. . although for the SLS. When a portal frame is close to the boundary. There are a small number of other. BS EN 1990[2] sets the requirement to design and construct robust buildings in order to avoid disproportionate collapse under accidental design situations. [top]Combinations of actions BS EN 1990[2] gives rules for establishing combinations of actions. For many portal frame structures no special provisions are needed to satisfy robustness requirements set by the Eurocode. structural steel in single storey buildings does not normally require fire resistance. In the United Kingdom. rare. with the values of relevant factors given in the UK National Annex[10]. there are several requirements aimed at stopping fire spread by keeping the boundary intact:    The use of fire resistant cladding Application of fire protection of the steel up to the underside of the haunch The provision of a moment resisting base (as it is assumed that in the fire condition rafters go into catenary) Comprehensive advice is available in SCI P313.

the maximum moment (at the eaves) is higher than that calculated from a plastic analysis. the methods of frame analysis fall broadly into two types: elastic analysis and plastic analysis. The rotations are normally considered to be localised at “plastic hinges” and allow the capacity of under utilised parts of the frame to be mobilised. which are capable of accommodating rotations.All combinations of actions that can occur together should be considered. due to plastic hinge rotations. due to symmetry. where plastic hinges form in a portal frame. These plastic hinge rotations occur at sections where the bending moment reaches the plastic moment or resistance of the cross-section at loads below the full ULS loading. specifically for portal frames. they should not be combined. where possible plastic hinges may occur need to be Class 1 sections. Guidance on the application of Eurocode rules on combinations of actions can be found in SCI P362 and. designers need to consider all possible hinge locations. [top]Elastic analysis A typical bending moment diagram resulting from an elastic analysis of a frame with pinned bases is shown the figure below. it is quite possible that no plastic hinges form and the frame remains elastic at ULS. . but in the illustrated example. If stiffer sections are selected in order to control deflections. In this case. Both the column and haunch have to be designed for these large bending moments. there may be no advantage in using plastic analysis for the ULS. For this reason members. The figure shows typical positions. in SCI P400. [top]Frame analysis at ULS At the ultimate limit state (ULS). however if certain actions cannot be applied simultaneously. Plastic analysiscommonly results in a more economical frame because it allows relatively large redistribution of bending moments throughout the frame. Where deflections (SLS) govern design. Two hinges lead to a collapse. [top]Plastic analysis Bending moment diagram resulting from the plastic analysis of a symmetrical portal frame under symmetrical loading The term plastic analysis is used to cover both rigid-plastic and elastic-plastic analysis.

) Taken together. which leads to further deflection The apex drops.Bending moment diagram resulting from the elastic analysis of a symmetrical portal frame under symmetrical loading Portal frame analysis software (Fastrak model courtesy of CSC) [top]In-plane frame stability When any frame is loaded. The deflection has a number of effects:    The vertical loads are eccentric to the bases. [top]Second order effects P-δ and P-Δ effects in a portal frame . Axial compression in curved members causes increased curvature (which may be perceived as a reduced stiffness. these effects mean that a frame is less stable (nearer collapse) than a first-order analysis suggests. it deflects and its shape under load is different from the un-deformed shape. reducing the arching action Applied moments curve members. The objective of assessing frame stability is to determine if the difference is significant.

est. In these circumstances. defined as: where: Fcr is the elastic critical buckling load for global instability mode. BS EN 1993-1-1[11]describes this as the effect of deformed geometry. usually called P-Δ effects.1 (3) and the UK National Annex[12] Section NA. allowing for second-order effects if necessary. does not exceed 5 times the mean height of the columns b) hr satisfies the criterion: (hr/ sa) + (hr/ sb) ≤ 0. Further details are given in SCI P397. the simplified expression cannot be used. [top]First-order and second-order analysis For either plastic analysis of frames. so that the results include the P-δ and P-Δ effects. As shown in the figure below there are two categories of second-order effects:   Effects of displacements of the intersections of members. [top]Calculation of αcr The effects of the deformed geometry (P-Δ effects) are assessed in BS EN 1993–1–1[11] by calculating the factor αcr. or elastic analysis of frames. Second-order analysis is the term used to describe analysis methods in which the effects of increasing deflection under increasing load is considered explicitly in the solution.9 as: For elastic analysis: αcr ≥ 10 For plastic analysis:  αcr ≥ 5 for combinations with gravity loading with frame imperfections. characterised by the calculation of the αcr factor. as is the case for very many orthodox frames. 2 2  αcr ≥ 10 for combinations with gravity loading with frame imperfections for clad structures provided that the stiffening effects of masonry infill wall panels or diaphragms of profiled steel sheeting are not taken into account [top]Design Once the analysis has been completed.2. the frame members must be verified. αcr may be found using software or using an approximation (expression 5.5 in which sa and sb are the horizontal distances from the apex to the columns. Effects of deflections within the length of members. Rules are given in the Eurocode to identify when the axial force is significant. referred to asαcr. [top]Sensitivity to effects of the deformed geometry The limitations to the use of first-order analysis are defined in BS EN 1993–1–1[11]. an alternative expression may be used to calculate an approximate value of αcr. When the frame falls outside the specified limits. For a symmetrical frame this expression simplifies to hr ≤ 0.2.The geometrical effects described above are second-order effects and should not be confused with non linear behaviour of materials. based on initial elastic stiffnesses FEd is the design load on the structure.2 from BS EN 1993-1-1[11]) as long as the frame meets certain geometric limits and the axial force in the rafter is not „significant‟. L. Section 5.25L. the choice of first-order analysis or second-order analysis depends on the in plane flexibility of the frame. . provided that: a) the span. usually called P-δ effects.

In typical portal frames neither the shear force nor the axial load is sufficiently high to reduce the bending resistance.61 of BS EN 1993-1-1[11]) need not be verified as the global analysis is considered to account for all significant in-plane effects. and this combination of actions should be verified. [top]Cross-section resistance Member bending. the likely key points are at the positions of maximum bending moment:    In the column at the underside of the haunch In the rafter at the sharp end of the haunch In the rafter at the maximum sagging location adjacent to the apex. axial and shear resistances must be verified. In-plane buckling of members (using expression 6. the bending resistance is reduced so combined shear force and bending and axial force and bending resistances need to be verified. SCI P400 identifies the likely critical zones for member verification. the axial load in the rafter may be significant. If the shear or axial force is high. Although all cross-sections need to be verified.Both the cross-sectional resistance and the buckling resistance of the members must be verified. When the portal frame forms the chord of the bracing system. [top]Member stability Diagrammatic representation of a portal frame rafter . SCI P397contains numerical examples of member verifications.

In-plane. .62 simplifies to: [top]Rafter design and stability In the plane of the frame rafters are subject to high bending moments. A haunch that extends from the column for approximately 10% of the frame span. Because there are no minor axis moments in a portal frame rafter. and frame imperfections are usually accounted for by including the equivalent horizontal force in the analysis. Expression 6. as the global analysis has accounted for all significant in-plane effects. Compression is introduced in the rafters due to actions applied to the frame. producing a torsional restraint at that location. The rafters are not subject to any minor axis moments. This will generally mean that the maximum hogging and sagging moments in the plain rafter length are of similar magnitude. which vary from a maximum „hogging‟ moment at the junc tion with the column to a minimum sagging moment close to the apex. when the outer flange is in tension Torsional and lateral restraint to the rafter when the purlin is attached to the tension flange and used in conjunction with rafter stays to the compression flange. [top]Out-of-plane stability Purlins attached to the top flange of the rafter provide stability to the member in a number of ways:    Direct lateral restraint. Depending on the bending moment diagram this may be either the tension or compression flange Restraints to the inside flange can be provided at purlin positions. no member buckling checks are required. when the outer flange is in compression Intermediate lateral restraint to the tension flange between torsional restraints. The analysis has accounted for any significant second-order effects.The figure on the right shows a diagrammatic representation of the issues that need to be addressed when considering the stability of a member within a portal frame. the out-of-plane checks are completed to ensure that the restraints are located at appropriate positions and spacing. Initially. Optimum design of portal frame rafters is generally achieved by use of:   A cross section with a high ratio of Iyy to Izz that complies with the requirements of Class 1 or 2 under combined major axis bending and axial compression. The following points should be noted:    There are no intermediate points of restraint for in plane flexural buckling Purlins provide intermediate lateral restraint to one flange. The effects of in-plane member imperfections are small enough to be ignored. in this example a rafter between the eaves and apex.

the bottom flange of the haunch is in compression. Purlins are generally placed at up to 1. The bottom flange is partially or wholly in compression over the length of Zone B. the purlins provide lateral restraint to the top (compression) flange. The stability checks are complicated by the variation in geometry along the haunch. .[top]Gravity combination of actions Typical purlin and rafter stay arrangement for the gravity combination of actions The figure on the right shows a typical moment distribution for the gravity combination of actions. In Zone A.8 m spacing but this spacing may need to be reduced in the high moment regions near the eaves. The objective of the checks is to provide sufficient restraints to ensure the rafter is stable out-of-plane. which are referred to further. the shape of the bending moment diagram and the geometry of the section (three flanges or two flanges). typical purlin and restraint positions as well as stability zones. The selection of the appropriate check depends on the presence of a plastic hinge. Guidance on details of the out-of plane stability verification can be found in SCI P397. In Zone C.

[top]In plane stability No in-plane checks of rafters are required. . As the haunch is stable in the gravity combination of actions.[top]The uplift condition Typical purlin and rafter stay arrangement for the uplift condition In the uplift condition the top flange of the haunch will be in compression and will be restrained by the purlins. the purlins will not restrain the bottom flange. and under reduced loads In Zone F. The moments and axial forces are smaller than those in the gravity load combination. The rafter must be verified between torsional restraints. A torsional restraint will generally be provided adjacent to the apex. being restrained at least as well. The rafter may be stable between this point and the virtual restraint at the point of contraflexure. which is in compression. it will certainly be so in the uplift condition. and each length of the rafter verified. as all significant in-plane effects have been accounted for in the global analysis. as the moments are generally modest in the uplift combination. If the rafter is not stable over this length. additional torsional restraints should be introduced.

In this case there will be intermediate lateral restraints between the torsional restraints . By contrast. [top]Out-of-plane stability If there is a plastic hinge at the underside of the haunch. The column size will generally be determined at the preliminary design stage on the basis of the requiredbending and compression resistances. The column section may need to be increased if intermediate restraints to the compression flange cannot be provided. the column is subject to a similar bending moment at the underside of the haunch. unless restraints are provided the inner compression flange is unrestrained. Whether the frame is designed plastically or elastically. or by some other means. both out-of-plane and inplane stability must be verified. This may be from a side rail positioned at that level. In a similar way to the rafter. It may be possible to demonstrate that a torsional restraint is not required at the side rail immediately adjacent to the hinge. but may be provided at some greater distance. interrupted by industrial doors) cannot be relied upon to provide adequate restraint. geometry and choice of column and rafter sections. a torsional restraint should always be provided at the underside of the haunch. The optimum design for most columns is usually achieved by the use of:   A cross section with a high ratio of Iyy to Izz that complies with Class 1 or Class 2 under combined major axis bending and axial compression A plastic section modulus that is approximately 50% greater than that of the rafter.3.1. Additional torsional restraints may be required between the underside of the haunch and the column base because the side rails are attached to the (outer) tension flange.1.[top]Column design and stability Typical portal frame column with plastic hinge at underside of haunch The most heavily loaded region of the rafter is reinforced by the haunch. A side rail that is not continuous (for example. but without any additional strengthening. The presence of a plastic hinge will depend on loading. the distance to the adjacent torsional restraint must be less than the limiting distance Lm as given by BS EN 1993-1-1[11]Clause BB.

as all significant in-plane effects have been accounted for in the global analysis. The bending moments will generally be significantly smaller than those under gravity loading combinations. If it is not possible to provide additional intermediate restraints.If the stability between torsional restraints cannot be verified. In all cases. the column moment will reverse. the size of the member must be increased.) Bracing is required to resist longitudinal actions due to wind and cranes. [top]Bracing Bracing in a portal frame (Image courtesy of William Haley Engineering Ltd. When the frame is subject to uplift. a lateral restraint must be provided within Lm of a plastic hinge. It is common to use hollow sections as bracing members. Bracing arrangement in a typical portal frame . it may be necessary to introduce additional torsional restraints. and to provide restraint to members. and the column is likely to remain elastic [top]In plane stability No in-plane checks of columns are required.

[top]Vertical bracing Common bracing systems The primary functions of vertical bracing in the side walls of the frame are:    To transmit the horizontal loads to the ground. The bracing may be located:   At one or both ends of the building Within the length of the building . The horizontal forces include forces from wind and cranes To provide a rigid framework to which side rails and cladding may be attached so that the rails can in turn provide stability to the columns To provide temporary stability during erection.

Where the side wall bracing is not in the same bay as the plan bracing in the roof. it is necessary to introduce moment-resisting frames in the elevations in one or more bays. [top]Bracing to restrain longitudinal loads from cranes Additional bracing in the plane of the crane girder . an eaves strut is essential to transmit the forces from the roof bracing into the wall bracing. where h is the height of the portalised bay it is suggested that:   The bending resistance of the portalised bay (not the main portal frame) is checked using an elastic frame analysis Deflection under the equivalent horizontal forces is restricted to h/1000. In each portion between expansion joints (where these occur). In addition to the general serviceability limit on deflection of h/300. An eaves strut is also required:    To ensure the tops of the columns are adequately restrained in position To assist in during the construction of the structure To stabilise the tops of the columns if a fire boundary condition exists [top]Portalised bays Longitudinal stability using portalised bays Where it is difficult or impossible to brace the frame vertically by conventional bracing. where theequivalent horizontal forces are calculated based on the whole of the roof area.

the longitudinal surge force will be eccentric to the column and will tend to cause the column to twist. For large horizontal forces. A horizontal truss at the level of the crane girder top flange or.If a crane is directly supported by the frame. a horizontal member on the inside face of the column flange tied into the vertical bracing may be adequate to provide the necessary restraint. The stay and its connections should be designed to resist a force equal to 2. for lighter cranes. [top]Plan bracing Plan view showing both end bays braced Plan bracing is located in the plane of the roof. .5% of the maximum force in the column or rafter compression flange between adjacent restraints. The primary functions of the plan bracing are:     To transmit wind forces from the gable posts to the vertical bracing in the walls To transmit any frictional drag forces from wind on the roof to the vertical bracing To provide stability during erection To provide a stiff anchorage for the purlins which are used to restrain the rafters. Where restraint is only possible from one side. additional bracing should be provided in the plane of the crane girder. [top]Restraint to inner flanges Restraint to the inner flanges of rafters or columns is often most conveniently formed by diagonal struts from the purlins or sheeting rails to small plates welded to the inner flange and web. the plan bracing should connect to the top of the gable posts. Pressed steel flat ties are commonly used. unless additional restraint is provided. In these locations angle sections of minimum size 40 × 40 mm must be used. In order to transmit the wind forces efficiently. the restraint must be able to carry compression.

This is generally achieved by:     Making the haunch deeper (increasing the lever arms) Extending the eaves connection above the top flange of the rafter (an additional bolt row) Adding bolt rows Selecting a stronger column section. The eaves connection in particular must generally carry a very large bending moment. connections should be arranged to minimise any requirement for additional reinforcement (commonly called stiffeners). which are both moment-resisting. For economy. Apex connection Eaves connection Typical portal frame connections Haunched connections . The design of moment resisting connections is covered in detail in SCI P398. Both the eaves and apex connections are likely to experience reversal in certain combinations of actions and this can be an important design case.[top]Connections The major connections in a portal frame are the eaves and apex connections.

Snow loads. it is recommended that the base be modelled as perfectly pinned when using elastic global analysis to calculate the moments and forces in the frame under ULS loading.2 2. General actions. but more significantly. imposed loads for buildings . The stiffness of the base may be assumed to be equal to the following proportion of the column stiffness:   10% when assessing frame stability 20% when calculating deflections under serviceability loads. because of the difficulty and expense of providing a rigid base. BSI ^ NA to BS EN 1991-1-1: 2002. General actions. A rigid base will involve a more expensive base detail. 4. BSI ^ BS EN 1991-1-1: 2002 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures.0 5. Actions on structures. [top]References 1. Densities. BSI ^ NA to BS EN 1991-1-3: 2003. Eurocode . Densities. 6.3 BS EN 1990: 2002. UK National Annex to Eurocode 1. the foundation must also resist the moment. 3. BSI ^ 2. Eurocode 1: Actions on structures. self-weight. self-weight. General actions. imposed loads for buildings. which increases costs significantly compared to a nominally pinned base.0 2.Basis of structural design. BSI . BSI ^ 5. Snow loads. 5.1 2.[top]Column bases Typical nominally pinned base In the majority of cases. ^ BS EN 1991. a nominally pinned base is provided. General actions. Actions on structures. Actions on structures. 2.1 BS EN 1991-1-3: 2003 Eurocode 1. If a column base is nominally pinned. UK National Annex to Eurocode 1.

Wind actions. 8. Actions on structures. Editors B Davison & G W Owens. 2001 SCI P362 Steel Building Design: Concise Eurocodes. General actions. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Actions on structures. 2013 SCI P398 Joints in Steel Construction: Moment-resisting Joints to Eurocode 3.3 11. Basis of structural design.5 11. Accidental actions. 2013 SCI P313 Single Storey Steel Framed Buildings in Fire Boundary Conditions. BSI ^ 11. Wind actions. 2001 SCI P391 Structural Robustness of Steel Framed Buildings. 2009 SCI P394 Wind Actions to BS EN 1991-1-4. BSI ^ BS EN 1991-1-7: 2006 Eurocode 1. BSI ^ NA to BS EN 1993-1-1: 2005. General actions.4 11. BSI [top]Further reading                            Steel Designers' Manual 7th Edition. ^ BS EN 1991-1-4: 2005 +A1: 2010 Eurocode 1. 9.2 11.0 11. SCI.7. 11.6 BS EN 1993-1-1: 2005. BSI ^ NA to BS EN 1990: 2002 +A1: 2005 UK National Annex for Eurocode. 12. 10. 2013 SCI P397 Elastic Design of Single-span Steel Portal Frame Buildings to Eurocode 3. General rules and rules for buildings. Chapters 3 and 4 [top]Resources SCI P292 In-plane Stability of Portal Frames to BS 5950-1:2000. The Steel Construction Institute 2012. General rules and rules for buildings.1 11. General actions. BSI ^ NA to BS EN 1991-1-4: 2005 +A1: 2010 UK National Annex to Eurocode 1. 2002 SCI P400 Interim report: Design of portal frames to Eurocode 3: An overview for UK designers. Actions on structures. 2001 SCI P281 Design of Curved Steel. 2013 [top]See also Thermal performance Introduction to acoustics Steelwork specification Steel construction products Design codes and standards Member design Concept design Fabrication Braced frames Allowing for the effects of deformed frame geometry Modelling and analysis Structural robustness Structural fire resistance requirements Single storey buildings in fire boundary conditions Moment resisting connections Continuous frames Single storey industrial buildings . UK National Annex to Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. SCI.

or by Tata Steel's experienced team of Regional Technical Managers.9 Weathering steel bridges 1.4 Design for fire 1.   Retail buildings Building envelopes Design software and tools Continuing Professional Development Contents [hide]  1 In-house technical CPD seminars  o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1.1 Sustainability and steel construction 1. Summary results from the Target Zero programme are presented and steel construction sustainability credentials demonstrated.8 Corrosion protection 1. ending with a question & answer session.13 Request Form 2 Fire Engineering Seminars 2013 In-house technical CPD seminars Primarily aimed at engineers and architects.3 Worked examples to EC3 1. They may either be delivered online.12 Steel the safe solution 1. building assessment .5 Portal frames 1.2 Introduction to EC3 1. [top]Sustainability and steel construction Vulcan House in Sheffield Steel framed: BREEAM Excellent This presentation sets out the principal sustainable construction drivers in the UK and identifies key things that structural engineers can do to deliver sustainable buildings. and are designed to be presented around the lunchtime period. It covers operational carbon emissions.6 Steel floor construction 1. . waste. materials and planning.11 Acoustics 1.10 Design of floors for vibration 1. these free in-house technical CPD seminars last around 50 minutes.7 Steel grades and specifications 1.

A series of numerical worked examples are presented. The use of the expressions given in the Standard is demonstrated. The examples cover the design of struts. . and members subject to both compression and bending. restrained beams and unrestrained beams. Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version [top]Worked examples to EC3 Erecting precast floor planks Image courtesy of Atlas Ward Structures Ltd. highlighting the major changes in presentation compared to BS 5950. An introduction to the calculation of member resistances is given. The examples incorporate the influence of the UK National Annex. The presentation covers the Eurocode system of determining of ultimate loads and then introduces the Eurocode approach to the assessment of frame stability and choice of steel sub-grade. demonstrating the application or EC3 to common design situations. This presentation is complemented by the presentation of worked examples to EC3. but also the use of look-up tables and other support resources. including the calculation of flexural buckling resistance(members in compression) and lateral-torsional buckling resistance (members in bending).Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version [top]Introduction to EC3 Buckling curves for members in compression This presentation highlights the more significant technical features of EC3. Each worked example is complemented by using the resistance tables in the ‘Blue Book’. A number of useful support resources are highlighted.

the role of fire safety engineering is explained and its role in providing more economical solutions for fire safety in buildings than is explored. It describes the most common forms of structural fire protection and explains the role of fire testing. This very common form of structure involves a range of structural behaviour that must be recognised and correctly addressed by designers. Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version [top]Portal frames Cranes erecting portal frames Image courtesy of Atlas Ward Structures Ltd. Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version .Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version [top]Design for fire Large compartment fire test This presentation examines the regulatory background to fire precautions in buildings in the UK and the most common methods of meeting the demands of these regulations. Finally. Portal frames are an efficient. It also describes the special case of fire precautions in single storey buildings. focussing on the key design consideration and critical detailing requirements that should be addressed in portal frame construction. This presentation presents an overview of analysis and design. cost effective structural form for single-storey buildings. justifiably representing a large share of the market. The presentation covers the design rules as presented in EC3 and the UK National Annex.

including:    Should the Designer adopt S275 or S355 grade steel as their standard for sections? Comparison of hot rolled with cold formed hollow sections and issues to be considered before substituting one for the other. It also gives an overview of how to assess the performance of steel floors over the life of the building and the impacts of fabrication and erection on the overall cost of the building. Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version . Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version [top]Steel grades and specifications V-notch impact test specimen This is a practical presentation providing guidance on a number of issues. this presentation gives practical thoughts on the what. where of different options such as clear span. when.[top]Steel floor construction Decking being laid out on a steel frame Exploring the range of options available to Engineers when considering the design of a floor plate. metal deck or precast units. Why subgrade selection is important and the requirements of both BS5950 and EC3.

fabrication and installation. Hence. Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version [top]Weathering steel bridges A typical weathering steel bridge over the A1 at Wetherby Weathering steel is a high strength low alloy steel that in suitable environments forms an adherent protective rust „patina‟.[top]Corrosion protection Airless spray application of paint This presentation is designed to provide essential information and guidance for those concerned with the corrosion protection of structural steelwork. very low maintenance. highlights the benefits of using weathering steel . and possible remedial measures should corrosion rates exceed those anticipated at the design stage. inspection and maintenance. methods of surface preparation. a well detailed weathering steel bridge in an appropriate environment can provide an attractive. and comments on both the material availability and the appearance of such bridges. It also provides advice on a range of issues including. It covers howcorrosion occurs. paint and metallic coatings. The corrosion rate is so low that bridges fabricated from unpainted weathering steel can achieve a 120 year design life with only nominal maintenance. design and detailing. to prevent furth er corrosion. economic solution in many locations. This seminar. specifications and the importance of inspection and quality control. describes thelimitations. design detailing. Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version .

It then walks through the simplified approach for Design of Floors for Vibration laid out in SCI Guide P354. case study projects are referenced which give on-site acoustic test data. this presentation helps Designers to understand the science behind those general rules of thumb. This CPD is currently only available as an online version . The presentation begins with some fundamentals about soundand how it behaves before moving on to look at the regulatory requirements relating to sound insulation in buildings and then some of the many solutions that are available for steel framed buildings. Guidance on the principles of acoustic detailing are discussed in the presentation along with sources of design guidance such as the online acoustic performance prediction tool.[top]Design of floors for vibration Impulsive response Reviewing industry standard practice for vibration. Request this in-house technical CPD seminar or go to online version [top]Acoustics Composite floor on steel beams This presentation provides information on the acoustic detailing of steel framed buildings for sound insulation. gives a quick method to determine whether vibration will be an issue for a proposed floor and points towards guidance for special cases such as gymnasia. In addition. hospitals and car parks.

[top]Steel the safe solution Example of a safe system of work with netting and edge protection Image courtesy of Richard Lees Structural Decking Ltd. The issues that need resolving are contextualised in terms of progress through the stages of design development and construction. The importance of dialogue between designers and constructors is developed. This presentation provides information on the safe erection of steel framed buildings. . This CPD is currently only available as an online version [top]Request Form To express interest in in-house technical CPD seminars delivered by our experienced team of Regional Technical Managers please click here to register and use the attached CPD request form. Guidance is given on how competence is assessed and how specifiers may contribute to the selection of a suitably competent steelwork contractor. The presentation begins with some basics about howsafe construction practice is established before moving on to consider the specific health and safety objectives for steel erection and how these can be met.

Category: CPD . Topics covered included: Legislation and trends.[top]Fire Engineering Seminars 2013 Unprotected steel beams at Plantation Place South. London. Leading fire engineering practitioners from the UK shared their knowledge and presented case studies. testing. the design of unusual steel structures. The Association for Specialist Fire Protectionoutlined their work in maintaining standards and supporting specifiers within the construction sector. and how architects and engineers can gain the best value from fire engineering. the work of the Association for Specialist Fire Protection. simplified structural fire engineering. Image courtesy of Arup Fire The BCSA and Tata Steel held two Fire Engineering Seminars during June 2013 to educate architects and engineers in the principles and techniques that they need to know about fire-safe designs and to explain how these are applied in practice. and informative presentations by expert speakers from the BCSA helped to raise awareness on the most recent developments in the most cost-effective methods for designing buildings for fire. including The Shard. Watch the online versions. principles and practice.