You are on page 1of 9

Communication Methods

Experts say that communication is composed of different methods: words, voice, tone and non-verbal clues. Of these, some are more effective in delivering a message than others. According to research, in a conversation or verbal exchange: Words are 7% effective Tone of voice is 38% effective Non-verbal clues are 55% effective. (see footnotes !on-verbal clues include:
• • •

Body language (e.g., arms crossed, standing, sitting, relaxed, tense), Emotion of the sender and receiver (e.g., yelling, speaking provocatively, enthusiastic) Other connections between the people (e.g., friends, enemies, professional similarities or differences, personal similarities or differences, age similarities or differences, philosophical similarities or differences, attitudes, expectations).

"n other words, WHAT you say is not nearly as important as HOW you say it# A dull message delivered by a charismatic person, filled with energy and enthusiasm will be accepted as brilliant. An excellent message delivered by someone who is not interested in the topic, will not engage the enthusiasm of its intended audience. One of the classic examples of great verbal communications is $r. %artin &uther 'ing(s I Have a Dream speech. )hy was it such a great speech* "t was filled with powerful visual images that provo+e strong emotions, delivered with passion by someone who captured the dreams of an entire race. Over time, the speech has transcended its original message to be a message of hope for all people, regardless of race.

Communication Elements
Elements of speaking:
• • • • • • •

Body language oice !uality "ntention #anner$ directness, sincerity %ress and clothing (style, color, appropriateness for situation) isual aids, animation Eye contact

hearing the underlying message &peaking from the heart Energy &etting.ttitude and confidence +apport . time. centering. looking . strength &elf'concept (oncept of others )istening. place.genda -urpose of communication ' knowing what you want to communicate (larity &ilence. timing *ow the messenger holds the message &ensitivity +hythm and pacing . energy.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Emotional content.

about their message.Elements of Listening: • • • • • • • • • • .eedback Body language (hange in pattern Expectations about person speaking. about their agenda .ttentiveness to speaker Eye contact "ntention be fully awake and aware Openness$ to other person and your own -aying attention )istening to yourself .

eachers who ma+e eye contact open the flow of communication and convey interest.n awareness of nonverbal behavior will allow you to become better receivers of students1 messages. &outhern "llinois 0niversity. if you smile fre0uently you will be perceived as more li+able.urthermore. . but it1s how you say it that can make the difference to students.ffiliation . . . 4his mode of communication increases the degree of the perceived psychological closeness between teacher and student. eye contact with audiences increases the spea+er(s credibility. &t. "t is not only what you say in the classroom that is important.SIX WAYS TO IM !O"E YO#! $O$"E!%AL COMM#$ICATIO$S By icki +itts. And it signals interest in others. 2onverbal messages are an essential component of communication in the teaching process.hus. concern. Edwardsville.lorissant alley and /ames +. !acial e"#ressions /miling is a powerful cue that transmits: • • • • • *appiness .acial expressions • 6estures • -osture and body orientation • -roximity • -aralinguistics • *umor Eye contact Eye contact. 3ou will become a better sender of signals that reinforce learning.eachers should be aware of nonverbal behavior in the classroom for three ma-or reasons: • • • . an important channel of interpersonal communication. helps regulate the flow of communication. &tein. &ome ma5or areas of nonverbal behaviors to explore are$ • Eye contact • . )ouis (ommunity (ollege at . +eprinted by permission.riendliness 7armth )iking . . warmth and credibility.

facilitates learning and provides a bit of entertainment. A lively and animated teaching style captures students( attention. stiff and unanimated. interpersonal closeness results when you and your students face each other. stand and sit.friendly. /tanding erect.or maximum teaching effectiveness. /miling is often contagious and students will react favorably and learn more. but not rigid. ma+es the material more interesting. you may be perceived as boring.urthermore. tal+. %osture and body orientation 2ou communicate numerous messages by the way you wal+. move around the classroom to increase interaction with your students.ypically. $estures "f you fail to gesture while spea+ing. /pea+ing with your bac+ turned or loo+ing at the floor or ceiling should be avoided3 it communicates disinterest to your class. %ro"i&ity 4ultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction with students. in large college classes space invasion is not a problem. warm and approachable. a form of gestures. . /tudents report that they learn less and lose interest more 0uic+ly when listening to teachers who have not . &isteners perceive these instructors as boring and dull. %aralin'uistics . receptive and friendly. communicate positive reinforcement to students and indicate that you are listening. learn to vary these six elements of your voice. One of the ma-or criticisms is of instructors who spea+ in a monotone. 2ou should loo+ for signals of discomfort caused by invading students( space. there is usually too much distance.o counteract this.his facet of nonverbal communication includes such vocal elements as: • • • • • • 4one -itch +hythm 4imbre )oudness "nflection . "n fact. 1ead nods. . "ncreasing proximity enables you to ma+e better eye contact and increases the opportunities for students to spea+. /ome of these are: • • • • +ocking )eg swinging 4apping 6a8e aversion . and leaning slightly forward communicates to students that you are approachable.

. Hu&or 1umor is often overloo+ed as a teaching tool.hen as+ a colleague in communications to suggest refinements. Obviously. record your spea+ing on video tape. . 4reating a climate that facilitates learning and retention demands good nonverbal and verbal s+ills. and it is too often not encouraged in college classrooms. 2ou should develop the ability to laugh at yourself and encourage students to do the same.o improve your nonverbal s+ills. ade0uate +nowledge of the sub-ect matter is crucial to your success3 however. (&ou 1olt5 wrote that when his players felt successful he always observed the presence of good humor in the loc+er room. . it(s not the only crucial element. &aughter releases stress and tension for both instructor and student.learned to modulate their voices. "t fosters a friendly classroom environment that facilitates learning.

those.or at least a few weeks.:<.or example$ 2O4$ "t would be great for them. 0sing the process will make a difference. (onfused listeners often$ o o o o o o o avoid eye contact tilt their heads s!uint their eyes close their mouths lower their eyebrows cross their arms and legs turn away from you 1.ds . hands relaxed :. you may use these words while feeling assured that your listeners know what you are talking about. you should avoid the words above in your speech. that. "f you are speaking clearly and concisely. he. shoulders down.or ways of measuring whether or not your conversations and presentations are clearer.%$ 4he new distribution process will reduce your costs by at least .nother way to speak clearly is to avoid unclear words including it. this. they. 4he solution is easy. . you will reduce wasteful paper handling dramatically. your listeners$ o o o o o o o respond warmly and attentively throughout the conversation or presentation$ their eyebrows are raised.7elcome to our page of tips. 3ou talk as if you and your listeners are looking at the same picture. isit often as we periodically renew this page. their eyes are rounded. them. and they lean forward while you are talking 9 give you more eye contact 9 follow your directions more accurately 9 ask you fewer !uestions for clarification 9 appear more relaxed$ smiling. "2&4E. she. & TI S 'O! C(EC)I$* I' YO# A!E COMM#$ICATI$* CLEA!LY +. A/oid /ague 2o. "f you eliminate excess forms. . Below are several -met. and we.0al signals that others are confused. !ead non/e. 0nfortunately. .ics.

+esearch shows that the average adult listener can hold only sixteen words in short term memory. and observe the reactions of your conversational partners. #ore is not better. 4his techni!ue seems logical. Stop . 3ou may start too far ahead of either what your listeners@ remember about the sub5ect or how much your listeners know. some things. 3ou need to remember to provide brief introductions to your topics to warm up and orient your listeners. insert a pause between sentences so that you can think. One way to reduce speech recycling is to change your thinking about speaking. Sta. you may repeat yourself time after time. 3ou may waste time providing excessive background information and off'topic comments.ack. "f you recogni8e yourself as a =say'it'all= type. so you should not be surprised when your listeners do not remember your >? word sentences. then end the sentence and start a new one. 3. Sa4 one thought in each sentence 4he desire to =say it all= also may plague you.t in the . hoping to =get through= to your listeners.self 7hen you note when others do not understand you. 4his =recycling= of information and comments has got to go. then you probably speak in very long. 5. none of the above. 6. rather than 5ust starting a new sentence immediately.ight place and sta4 on t. but the large volume of speaking caused by repeating compromises success. 4ry this$ say only one idea per sentence.epeating 4ou.Expressions can also be vague$ other areas of interest. overloaded sentences. edit. "n fact. =Brief= means two to five minutes for a presentation and a short phrase for an e'mail or . program yourself to reali8e that you need to say only a few sentences in a conversation before giving your conversational partner a turn. "nstead.

inally8 here are a few !uick ideas to eliminate rambling. -icture your idea in your mind.= before speaking. o o o o o o .inish each idea before proceeding 4olerate silence. &. &horten your sentences. Tips and Techni7ues .voice'mail message. -icture your words on a screen in your mind before you say them. 3ou should always start each conversation with a few sentences to review previous conversations and to remind your listeners of information that they will need to understand the rest of the conversation or presentation. . &low down by as much as A?< to allow more time to think. as if on =video. -ut the most important information in your sentences at the beginning or end.