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UOTOR PERFORMANCE Surya HARDI*, l. Daut, L Nisya, R.Chan, Musdar Bin Dahlan
STUDY TO IMPROVE DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS PERFORMANCE BY -IO2 THICKNESS AND EXTRACT MANGOSTEEN PERICARP L Daut", M. Fitra, M. lrwanto, N. Gomesh, Suhelmi, Hermansyah Alam

353

silODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM BEEF TALLOW Ranggita Dwi N. Affandi*, Toni RizkiAruan, Taslim, lriany

367

roRrzoNTAL cLAy (soFT cLAy) usrNc vERTtcAL


Basri Syarief

:OEFFICIENT OF CONSOLIDATION BEHAVIOR OF VERTICAL AND


DRATN

379

RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY MICROBIAL FUEL CELL DESIGN WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI BACTERIA AS A BIOCATALYS JTILIZAT]ON Dean Corio, Melda Latif, Endang Punryati CFD SIMULATION OVER AN AHMED CAR MODEL Sanrvo Edhy S*, Amir Zaki Mubarak,

397

408

RazaliThaib
'*,.,ilt

JIE

EFFECT OF MOISTURE CONTENT IN THE WULUNG'S BAMBOO PRESERVATION WITH AIR PRESSURE Rika Deni Susanti EFFECT OF FOAMED BITUMEN ON TENSILE STRENGTH OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENT MIX Herda Yati KATMAN, Mohd Rasdan IBRAHIM, Mohd. Yazip MATORI, Shuhairy NORHISHAM Norlela lSMA|L, Rohayu CHE OMAR

418

]-

428

!E

LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION MODELING IN PACKING COLUMN WITH PERCOLATION METHOD Mustafa /


I
I

442

STUDY TO IMPROVE DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELLS PERFORMANCE BY TIO2 THICKNES$ AND EXTRACT MANGOSTEEN PERICARP
Alamb l. Dauta, M. Fitra"", M. lruanto"o, N.Gomesh", SUhelmib, HermanSyah
"Canfie of Exceltentfor Renewable Energy Scfroot of EleclricaL Sysfem Engineering

lJniversidMataysiaPerlis,thrryarol@,fultis,Malaysia
Dapartmen of Electrical Technology Medan lnstitute of Technotogy, Medan lndonesia
Conesponding author' Telp : 016t1962652
b

E-mailaaa'ess'mhclfii.r?@9rylail.com{M-FitraZambak)
I

pericarp' TiO2 Keywords : Dye-sensitized solar cells' Mangosteen

ABST'RACT

Based on
efftciency

in

the thicpess Titaniuam dioxide. is a very a dye sensitized sorar oerrs can be seen from ffie data type coloring agent efficiency as well gpod use of wa$s sensrfzed dya {Manptegln priarp) wtk 1'1796 pertormance and efficiency as the ffiickness of the titanium dioxide that can improve the good information to of solar celts dye senslfized is 12'14 pm, in this paper can provide so/arcells to make this its dedicated researcherc who want to devolop dye-sensitized a high efficiency of the dye as a guide for ma&ng a dy*sensitizd solar cetts that have aN the ffiic*ness u*fitanium disxi& (Ttob), so teseafcfiets that oonmntrateson concentrate on other than improving the performance of dye sensitized solar cells can (Ti02)' the dye and the thickness of the titanium dioxide

and observaffon of this paper electrical energy conversion hy the dye and dyesensifized sotar cell pertormanceis sfrongty influenced in Eoth of these ifems grcatty affect performance once
fDe

pocess

INTRODUCTION electrical energy takes The development of solar energy conversion systems into

place through

a system known as photovolbic cells' The solar cell is a


in which photons of
the

mechanism that works on the photovoltaic effect

isabsorbedandthenconverted(changed)intoelectrical

energy, Voltaik effect it sslf is an etent cmation of electrical charges within the material as a result of absorption (abeorfilon) of light from the material (Malvino,
1986). Developing

dean energy

alHlgftts to fossit fuets bchnotogy has


mlls Dominate the market, leading
to

Become one of the most lmportant trrsfis undertaken by modern science. So far,

crystalline silicon photovoltiaic eolar shortages

of

highly pure $ilicon Svu4fiwt the world. The dye-sensitized

mesoscopic TiO2 eolar cells haveadvantages over silicon solar Numerous cells.

Such materials as low cost,

eas of production, and Efficiencies

outperforming

amorphous silicon solar cells.A* a reeult, many Researchers in both academia

and industry are focusing Their research on the development and

the

exploitation of the D$0 device$. $ince the firet high performance dye-sensitized
nanocryetalline TiO2 solar cell (D$C) Appeared in 1991 (o'Regan and Gra " tzet,

1991), Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) based on mesoporous nanocrystalline

TiO

films have attracted much attention as apotentiallow-cost alternative

forsingltor polycrystalline silimn p-n junction eolar cells. DS$Cs can reach solar
to electrical energy conversion Efficienciet above 10% [1].

coloring agent or dye is identical to the chromophore group (the group


that produces the color). On natural dyes have a great potential to be used as a
photosensitizer. Dye used to have a conjugated chromophore groups allowing

the electron transfer occurs. ln dye sensitized solar cells, a photochemical dye
serves as a pump that can excite the electrons to a higher level by using energy

from sunlight is abeorbed. Diversity of flora in the world has potential as a


photosensitizer dye, one of which is sensitized plant (Mangosteen pericarp).

Hangosteen peilcarp sensitized absorbing character of certain of the color

354

spectrum. Mangosteen pericarp sensitized absorbs the light spectrum can be


better than some of the other extracts [2].

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Tools and Materials


Tool
Equipment used in this study is a transparent conductive oxide glass, binder clip,

graphite pencil, tape, scissors, glass beads, mortars (grinding), tissue


paper,

filter paper, wire, glass

beaker, pipette drops, mumps pipette,

measuringCUp$; bOwlsdishes, bOwlS Watch, oven, furnace, stirrer rod, aluminium

foil, ampoules, and weigh the balance sheet and pyranometer.

Materiats

The

rnaterials used in

[3], acebyl acetnils, triton

this study were TiOz powder (from Tronox) solution of l? in Kl, the fruit K*100, a

of sensitized, ethanol, HCl, distilled water.

Solution Prcparation
Preparation of TiO2 $uspension TiOz powder (Tronox) as much as 6 grams of crushed using a mortar and then
added into it as muctr as 0.2 mL of acetyl acetone which was dissolved in 1 mL

of water. This mixture was stirred until evenly distributed. Then the mixture was
added with

I mL of distilled water, the entered slowly - land, stirring to evenly. lf


and

it has been uneven, a solution of TiO 2 incorporated in a closed bottle


shaken with glassbeads

to break the particles - particles of TiOz. Then

the

suspension was shaken in 0.1 mltriton X put-100 which was dissolved in 1 mL of


355

water,After the acldition

of triton X-100, the suspension should not be

mechanically shaken again to avoid the occurrence of foam (foaming). Then the suspension allcnred to stand for 15 minuts before use, so that stable and foam (foaming) and the air bubbb is reduced [4].

Preparation of $olvant Dyes


Fruits were weighed as much as 20 grams of sensitized and lhen mashed with
a

mortar, extracted with 15 mL of ethanol as much as he crushed with a modar


settling for

thrw days and then filtered using filter paper. Alltreatnents anangec

in a dark room or with a minimum illumination,

Prcparation of Electrodes \ Preparatlon of Working Elactrodes


Pasta TiO2 coated on conducting glass insulation that has been coated on bolf^

sides until the widest part to be coated

b drltre

4cm2. Coating was done

b1

using doctor-blade until it reaches a thickness of 7-10 pm.Glass that has beer' coated T|OZ disintering the furnace at a temperature of 450 " C for 30 minutes then cooled at a tenpenature of 700 C. Tlo2.sgted glass surfiaces immersed r

sensitized extract

in a petri dish and then stored in a dark place for

one
a

day. After the glass surface soaked, washed again with ethanol, and dried with

tissue on the outside.'

35S

Preparation of Electrode Comparison Conducting glass surface coated with graphite pencil until blended. Then the
o plate was heated for 30 minutes at a temperature of 450 C, slowly cooled,

washed with ethanol and dried in the open air.

Current and Volbge Measurement

ln Direct Sunlight irradiation Solar cells connected to the voltmeter wires on both sides with poles (+) is
elektoda comparators, and polar (-) is the working electrode. Solar cells that

have been strung with wires, and then irradiated with direct sunlight. The
maximum measured current and voltage. Similarly the output current is then
measured by determining the active area of solar cells.
I

lndirectly solar radiation The same procedure carried out in the open space with sunlight irradiation
indirectly (indoors).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

\ Results Preparation of Solar Cell Material Gomposer


Dye sensitized

Substrates
Conductive glass substrate to the electrode is made of soda lime glass that has been coated with transparent conductive oxide material of the fluorine doped tin (lt) oxide.The electrode has a resistivity ot 18-24 ohms per cm2 with a thickness of g Angstroms.The conductive oxide coated on one side of the glass by using a

chemical vapgr mating techniques


357

or

"chemical vapor deposition"

(CVD). Conductive glass eubstrate acts as the colbctor current as well as the supporting structure and the cell boundary layer betwen the cell with the ope'
air" Prior

to use in a geries of dye sensitized edar cells, conductive

glass
-

substrate is first washed with ethanol to clean the glass surface of the impurity

impurity and the open air dried. Ethanol wao chosen as

a cleaning ager:

because it is able to dissolve impurities other than - organic impurities, as well as ethanol is more volatile when compared to the open air with water [5].

Raaults Prepanrtion of TiO2 sucpen*lon

TiO2 suspensions prepared from TiO2 powder of Tronox. Crystalline phase TiO 2 used in this experiment is anatase phase is due to the anatase phase

:'
s

more photoadlve than rutile and bpokite phase (Park, Lagemaat and Franl.
2000).Furthermore

a certain amount of TiO2 powder was added with acety


process w

acetone in

a mortar and then digrinding. By mechanical grinding

separate the teraggregat TiO2 particls due to strong stirring force. The additio-

of acetyl acetone seryes as a

particle stabilizer

to

prevent partic:

reagregasi. Then the mixture was added distilled water slowly, stirring constant\

to make more liquid colloid.Furthermore, the T|OZ suspension was shaken

wr

glass beads in the bottle to break down the TiO2 particles and unifor*
mixing. Surfactant (Triton X-100) which was dissolved

in distilled water wa:

added to the suspension of TiO 2 to louer the surface tension so that it can ce easily coated on the surface of conductive oxide electrodes.The results obtaine: from the above procedure is called a suspension. After the addition of surfaaa-: triton X-100, the su*pension allowed to stand for a while in addition to stable as
vrrell

to eliminate air bubbles or foam (foaming) that arise due to


358

mechanrca

shaking is done on the suspension in the previous stage. Ratio of the amount of

TiO 2 with other liquid material is a factor that is important enough to be


considered during the manufacture of TiOZ suspension" Because if the ratio of

TiO2 and liquid material is too high will cause the resulting TiO2 film becomes

too thick and will tend to be peeled from the glass surface of

the

conductor" Conversely, if the ratio of the mmparison is too small, then the film

would be too thin a layer will result in volatile and the resulting solar cells will not
be strong enough to absorb sunlight.

Thessulb

of the TiO2 electrode coating

Furthermore TiO2 suspensions were prepared surfaces can be coated on conductive glass substrate which will serve as the working electrode. Before

coating, which has been cleaned conductive glass was measured using a
multimeter resistance and acquired resistance for each conductor of the glass to

be used ranges between 18-24 ohm/cm2. Coating method chosen in this study
is the "doctor blade" ttrat uses a stir bar for leveling suspension of TiO 2 which had been dropped on conductive glass. ln the limit of masking tape affixed to the

glass edge which aims to control the thickness of TiO2 layer on the glass and

the size of the glass area to be coakd. ln addition, the boundary edge tape
marks that are not coated in suspensions of TiO2 can be used to attach the

brace

to be connected to the circuit so that the cell can be measured.

Suspension of TiO2 coatings on conductive glass layer using the "doctor blade" is by moving the rod quickly towards the edge of the glass and then move it back towards the opposite of the previous fast. lf the layer does not seem equitable,\
then the coating can be cleaned from the glass surfiace by using a tissue to and the coating proce$s is repeated again.
359

clean \

Varlation in thickness of the nanocrystalline-Tio

2 layer is a crucial factor in

optimizing

the

photovoltaic performances

of DSC. Although precise

mea$uremants of the

exd

layer thicknees is diffcult, to perfonn Following

formation of the "double-layel' electrode, the nanocrystalline-Tio 2 layer can be

Measured prior to sintering using a surface profiler. ln order to facilitate depth estimations and to the make useful proleetions of the final thickness of the nanocrystalline-Tio2 layer comprised in the "double layef' electrode Following sintering,

a calibration curve wag made. The ratio "before sintering" /

"6fter

sintering", describecl by a linear relalionship going frrough the origin, yields a shrinkage factor

of slightly under unity (ie, 0942) for 20 nm sized TiO

particulate films.

By using this

calibration line,

a relationship Between

nanocrystalline-Tio 2 film thickness and the resultant DSC conversion efiiciency

can be obtained, the optimum film thickness to Produce highly efficient DSC
being 12-14 pm (with the Addition of an adhered ARF) [6], After the mating process, which has been coated conductive glass TiO2 open
air to dry for

45 minutes. After drying, the tape is opened slowly

'

land and the

surface of Tio2-coated glass is not cleaned by the liver - the liver using ethanol

to

remove impurities that stick pendiaman immersion process

for

45

minutes. Then the electrodes have been made ready for disintering.

$intering results T|OZ Electrcdes


TiO2 electrode sintering process carried out at a temperature of 450o C for 30

minutes

in a

furnace. After

30 minutes, the furnace temperature is

sloutty

lorered, to prrcnt thennal stress ocorrs and terkelupa$nya TIOZ layer and the

elw{rodes remolrcd from the oven and lefi at room temperature. Sintering
3S0

process

is intended to form the porous TiO 2 film thus formed has a

large

surface area ($mestad, 1998) and formed on the TiO 2 anataoe structure. ln
addition, by heating at high temperature can remove organic compounds trapped

in the pores of TiO2 and TIOZ particles make stronger and able to conduct
electricity.

lf not used immediately, TiOz electrode is

stored

in a

desiccator.Bebre being immersed in the dye, T|OZ electrode is heated again at

a temperature of 70o C, The purpose of this low{emperature heating is to reopen pores - pore TiOz, removing moisture from air that may enter into the pores
- porc

To2, making iteasier tor dye adsorption ff[.

The reeults of dye sensitized extract preparatlon Sensitized dyes in fruit extracted by using liquid or solid extraction technique called simple maceration. Fruit sensitized that has been pounded in a mortar

weighed and then soaked in ethanol in the dark. The extract obtained was filtered with filter paper
sensitized so as not

to remove particles - pieces of coarse particles

of

to damage the thin layer of TiO 2 film at the time of

immersion,Dye solution should be prepared in a fresh condition immediately


before use to soak the TIOZ electrodes, to prevent damage caused by oxidation

or solvent evaporation by sun and air. ln addition, to avoid damage to the


sensitized extract solution should be stored in a sealed dark bottles,

The

lwults of T|OZ electrode immersion

in the seneitized extract

TiO2 elec;trode immersion in the dye extract in this case we use sensitized Fruit (Mangosteen pericarp) since this dye has a high efficiency can be done directly

after the sintering process when the electrode is (titt warm or at about a

361

\ / /

temperature of 70 oC. This is done io prevent tlm possible entry of molsture from

the air particles into the pores . pore TiO2 film. Or if not immediate immersion,

then prior to use TiO2 electrodes can be heated again at 70 o C for some
time. Electrode dipped into the dye Eolution wilh the position of the TiO 2-coated

electrode is at the bottom. Dyeing proeesses canied out for at least 24 hours
prior to the TiO2 elecfroele is white will tum into purplish color extract solution as

a result of the sensitized sensitized dye adsorption on TiO2 surface. Differences that occurred in purple TiO2 layer which has been soaked in the dye sensitized
shows the difrrence in thicknes$ of TiO2 layer. After the dyeing process, TiO2

electrodes cleaned in advance sf the excess dye that sticks around the glass
$ub$trate[8].

The results of the comparison electrode manufacture Comparison electrode (counter electrode) serves

to
13.

accelerate the reaction Comparative electrodes

kinetics in the reduction reaction at the cathde

made of conductive glass substrate coated with

carbon catalyst. Carbon

catalysts used in the form of soft graphite pencil inscribed on one gurface of the

conductive

gla$ coated with conductive oxide. The entire surface of

the

electrode coated with a carbon catalyst. ln this process, there is not cultivated spot. Thin layer of carbon serves as a catialyst for the reaction to the formation of
iodide triodida [9].

Material coupling
Once the matedal making up the

ell

is ready for u8, then assembled into solar


rn

cells.Coupling process begins with washing the Ti02 ebctrode wag imm
3S2

a solution of sensitized and porous carbon electrodes comparators, with ethanol and dried in the open air [10]. TiO2 electrodes placed on a flat surface that has been

coatd with TiO 2 is facing up, then the comparison with the electrode

placed on top facing position. Electrolyte solution is dripped on the sidelines of the two electrodes, until the solution is spread between them. Tues together with binder clips.

CONCLUSIONS Conclusions obtained from this study is based on the process and observation
are:

1. Electrical energy conversion efficiency in dye sensitized solar


performance once

cell

performance is strongly influenced by the dye and the thickness Titaniuam dioxide. Both

of these items greatly affect

in a

dye

sensitized solar cells.

2.

From the data below we can see the type of dye is a very good use of waste

sensitized dye (Mangosteen pericarp) refer with table 1. and the thickness of

the titanium dioxide that can improve the performance and efficiency of dye
sensitized solar cells are 12'14 prm refer with Fig'
1.

rable 1., Photoelectrochemical parameters of the DSCs sensitized by natural dyes


extracted No
1

Natural Dye
Begonia

lsc tmA cm-Z)


0.63 0.74

Voc tV)
0.537 0.592

FF {%I 72.2
63.1

n (%l
0.24 0.28 0.57

2
3

Tangerine psel Rhododendron

161

0,585

60.9

{
4
5

Fructus lyciia
Marigold Perilla

0,53
0.51

0.68S

46.6
83.1

017
4.23 0.50

0.542
0"s2?

6
7

1.36

6S.6

Herba
$copariaea

artemisiae

1.03

4.484

69.2

034

China loropetala Yellow rose Flowery knotweed Bauhinia tree


Petunia Lithospermurn

0.84 0.74 0.60 0.96 0.85

0.51

62.S
57. t

a.27
0.26
0,21

I
10
11

0.609 0,554

62.7 66,0 60.5 58.5 64.5 61.9 63.3

0,572
0.616

0,36 0.32 0.03

12 13
14 15 16

s,14
1.02

s,337
0.498 0.483 0,680

Violet Chine$e rose

033
4.27
1

0,90 2.69

Mangosteen pericarp
(Buah Mangsi)

.17

17
18 19

Rose
Lily

0"97
0.51

0.595
0.498 0,559 0.607

65.S

0.38

66.7 68.7 65.4

aJ7
0.33 o.47

Coffee Broadleaf holly leaf

0.85
1.19

20

-t "f
;*S*
t!h> r.J

-str
irl.F

10 g
8bL

"&.}
c[J]

.g fc qJp
C*J

ft
=tP

tcl 12, "1 4 1e A 6 -f i Q a, th ick rrress f 6r tn*t

1IS

Fig. 1. Photoconversion efficiency as a func{ion of nanocrysklline TiO2 layer Thickness, respectively [1 1 ].


364

3.

ln this

paper can provide good information to its dedicated researchers

who want

to develop dye-sensitized solar cells to mske this as

a guide for of the dye

making

a dye-sensitized eolar cells that have a high efficiency

and the thicl<ness of the titanium dioxide(Ti02),


4.

Researchers

are

concentrating

on improving

the performance

of

dye

sensitized solarcells can concentrate on other than the dye and the thickness
of the titanium dioxide (Ti02).

ACKNOWLEDGE[IENT This work was supported by a grant from the University Malaysia Perlis. Aid in
manuscript preparation by Prof. DR. lsmail Bin daut and experimental assistance

by Muhammad lrwanto Bin Misrun, Gomesh Nair A/L $hasidharan, lr. $uhelmi,
MM and lr, Hermansyah Alam, MT,MM is gratefully acknowledged'

365

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366