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Woven and knitted fabrics are thought of as the traditional textile structures.

There are many other structures that are found in sewn products each with its specific performance character. Aside from non-wovens, which are focused upon in this study tool, there are yarn formed structures, direct solution sheet formed materials, surface applied fabrics, multi-layered textiles and animal hide products. See your swatchbook for more information regarding these miscellaneous structures. on-woven textiles are formed directly from fibers. The fibers are held together by several different methods! entanglement of fibers, applied adhesives, or heat fusion for thermoplastic fibers. The non-wovens industry is a very fast growing segment of the textile industry. "apid growth of the industry is due to the relative low cost of production and the increase in use of disposable textiles which are most often non-wovens. on-wovens are made by the oldest method of textile production #felting$ and some of the newest methods. %or more specific information regarding some of the non-wovens, click onto one of the following.

&'FELTED NON-WOVENS
Structuring Process true felt must contain at least ()* wool fiber or related animal fiber i.e. camel, goat hair. wool is treated in machines to accomplish felting,i.e. heat, moisture and agitation are applied. scales on the wool fiber #see Wool in %iber Section$ become entangled in felting process. wool may be blended with rayon or cotton. Identifying the Knit dense mat of fibers. must be ()* to +))* wool to be true felt. other felt-like structures can be formed by needle punch method. Performance haracteristics higher wool content felts can be blocked and shaped more easily than low wool content felts, e.g. hats. does not ravel. no grain. absorbs sound and shock, provides cushioning. poor draping -ualities. low tensile strength. once stretched out of shape, does not return to original shape. low tear strength. must be dry-cleaned.

ommon Fa!ric haracteristics thickness from +./0 inch to / inches. weight from / o1.s- yd to 2) lbs.s- yd. uses! padding, sound-proofing, insulation, filter, shaped clothing #hats, slippers, snow shoe boot liners$, crafts.

although made in a variety of weights and thicknesses. non-woven fabric. packaging. no grain orientation. landscape containment. Identifying the Knit no yarns or fibers apparent Performance haracteristics impermeable to air. may be punctured with a patterning of holes to provide air permeability. impermeable barrier used for geotextiles. backings.felt 3 &'SP"N#ONDED NON-WOVENS Structuring Process continuous extrusion of filament fibers in a random fashion unto a collection surface. mechanical entanglement.g. vinyl film backings. land-fill liners and filters. moisture and some chemicals. Performance haracteristics Surface of a typical spunbonded. i. further adhered or bonded by thermal bonding. tree root growth containment. does not allow perspiration or moisture to pass. show liners. stiff hand to soft. spunbonded interfacing 3 &'FIL$ Structuring Process polymer solution extruded as a sheet #flat surface$ opa-ue or clear. e. no grain. adhesive bonding or using etched filament surfaces that hold fibers together Identifying the Knit filament fibers randomly swirl through the fabric. varies from firm. mylar films often coated with metallics and used as thermal insulator. ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics impermeable barrier used for wind. wall-paper backings. . boots.g. excellent strength to weight ratio. appears melted and without pattern #spun-laced always has a distinct pattern$ paper-like stiffness and sheen. may be combined with other materials. ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics ma4or use for geotextiles! road bed liners. land fill liners. clothing interlinings. rain resistant slickers.e. carpet backings. smooth or patterned #embossed$ may be reinforced with a scrim. e. safety blanket.

web of fiber formed as first step. used for padding. .film 3 &'T"FTED NON-WOVENS Structuring Process a pile yarn is needled or tufted into a base fabric. geotextile uses! filters. ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics insulating properties for blankets. fake fur #front$ fake fur #back$ 3 &'NEEDLEP"N %ED NON-WOVENS Structuring Process may be formed with any staple fiber. apparel! fake furs. bedspreads. most popular form of indoor-outdoor carpeting made of olefin fibers. padding. Performance haracteristics less costly than like woven or knitted structures.i.e. may use a substrate #cheesecloth-like fabric$ in the middle of the structure for support. less expensive than wool felt. good stability. back of fabric exhibits loops of the tufted yarn pulled tight to the base fabric. ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics most common method of producing carpet. pile is not woven or knitted into the fabric. may be further stabili1ed with addition of a woven or non-woven backing. Performance haracteristics high density fabrics with some bulk. insulation. usually heavy weight structures--5)* of domestic carpets made with this structure. poor draping -ualities. pile may be cut or uncut or hi-lo pile #cut and uncut pile to form a pattern$ after tufting the structure is usually stabili1ed with a coating of latex to the fabric back. barbed needles resembling fish-hooks punch into the web and entangle staple fibers . drainage. needlepunch may be any staple fiber #true felt must be at least ()* wool$ look for tiny pin-point holes in the fabric. web is passed through a needle punch machine. Identifying the Knit pile surface. very -uick method of producing pile fabric. shoulder pads. Identifying the Knit differentiate from felt by identifying fiber content. interior uses! blankets.

open cell foam is more compressible as air cells can be easily collapsed. usually more absorbent than spun bonded. rigid foams #styrofoam$ are not used for textile products because the insulating property is destroyed with one impact. ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics absorbent characteristics used for mattress pads. Identifying the Knit continuous sheet of spongey material with varying degrees of thickness and compressibility. softer hand than spun bonded due to use of staple fibers. Identifying the Knit forms a decorative lace-like pattern. insulation properties depend on thickness of foam and compressibility. Performance haracteristics soft hand and drape. strength varies. no binders #adhesives$ used. softness characteristics used for disposable medical gowns and drapes #nonsurgical$ backing for -uilted tablecloths. Performance haracteristics yields structures able to withstand impact or compression with full recovery. impact protection depends on type of foam and thickness of foam. spun laced pattern formed by entanglement of fibers with water 4ets. provides lightweight padding. sanitary products. ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics insulating properties used for scuba suits. friction of fibers causes mechanical binding. -uilts. cleaning cloths and wipes. spunlaced 3 &'FO&$ Structuring Process rubber or polyurethane #most used$ extruded to incorporate air into an elastic structure #resilient foams$ open cell foam has air cells that open to the surface of the foam.nonwoven felt 3 &'SP"N-L& ED NON-WOVENS Structuring Process wet laid process used to lay up a web of staple fibers. more linting than spun bonded. closed cell foam has closed air cells. . closed cell foam is more resistant to compression because air cells cannot be compressed to expel the air.

tend to adhesives on back for support. open cell urethane foam used as backing for furniture throws because of friction properties. Identifying the Knit malimo! can imitate wovens when using thick yarns for laid in yarns and fine yarns for structure. fake fur. Performance haracteristics malimo! behaves like woven except does not ravel. sportswear$ and industrial fabrics #conveyor belts. malimo! warp and filling laid at right angles with tricot or chain stitch used to hold fabric together. carpeting. similar appearance to needle-punched fabrics.impact protection properties used for athletic e-uipment. other piles or nonwovens. velveteen. less expensive than wovens with similar uses. malipol! upholstery. ommon Fa!rics !y Identifying haracteristics malimo! decorative interior textiles #curtains. apparel #suits. packing materials$ maliwat! apparel and interiors interlinings and backing or insulation for wall coverings and carpeting. upholstery. malipol! sub4ect to abrasion and changes in hand and appearance when cleaned. bonded as backing for fabrics. . maliwat! layer or web of fibers is stitched over to form fabric. foam 3 &'STIT %-#ONDED NON-WOVENS There are three types of stitch bonded fabrics! malimo. maliwat! heavy batting fabrics. wall coverings$. malipol! pile added to prefabricated ground by stitching in place. look for yarns oriented at right angles that are held in place by stitching. towels. malipol! fabrics resemble terrycloth. maliwat! felt-like hand without grain. maliwat and malipol Structuring Process a system of using needles and threads to sew a system of warp and filling yarns together. casements. look for a web of unoriented fibers that are stitched over.