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Chapter 6 PROCESS CONTROL

Parameters such as temperature, pressure, level, and flow rates are crucial for a plant to achieve an optimum production with the necessary quantity and quality. To maintain operating conditions, thermocouples, pH meters, and level meters controllers are strategically positioned in the equipment. These controllers are connected to valves and openings to directly implement necessary changes. Feed forward control is applied to the flow controllers of the feed streams to the sterilization tank, a type of control that anticipates possible changes in the desired settings. A temperature controller is connected to a valve controlling the heating medium. A significant rise in the set temperature in the sterilization tank would prompt a change in the opening of the valve to decrease the flow of the heating medium. A level transmitter (LT) measures the level in the tank and transmits a signal associated with the level reading to a controller (LC). The controller compares the reading to a predetermined value, in this case, the maximum tank level established by the plant operator, and finds that the values are equal. The controller then sends a signal to the device that can bring the tank level back to a lower level —a valve at the bottom of the tank. The valve opens to let some liquid out of the tank. The pH in the tank is also monitored and maintained at pH 5.3-5.5 by adding an acid or a base. The fermenter in Figure 6.2 also uses feed forward control in the incoming culture medium, inoculum, and air streams. A level controller is used to maintain the level at the predetermined value and to avoid overflowing in the tank. A cooling medium is provided to absorb the heat released during respiration of S. cerevisiae in the fermenter. The cooling medium is used to maintain the temperature for optimum growth. Two pH controllers are each attached to acid and base tanks to adjust and maintain the pH at 5.3-5.5. Figures 6.1 and 6.2 illustrate the process control for the sterilization tank and the fermenter.

1 Process control for dilution/sterilization tank M01 . kPa Stream number M01 FC TC LC Agitated tank Flow control Temperature control Level control pHC T01 T02 pH control Acid tank Base tank Figure 6.325 1 1 FC LC Nutrients 90 1 01 . °C Pressure.25 1 01 .325 9 FC Glucose-rich filtrate 25 1 01 .325 TC 1 2 Culture medium Heating medium Mo1 To drain LEGEND Temperature.325 1 0 FC T01 T02 pHC Process water 25 1 01 .

kPa Stream number R01 FC TC LC Fermenter Flow control Temperature control Level control pHC T01 T02 pH control Acid tank Base tank Figure 6. °C Pressure.16 90 101.325 13 FC T01 T02 pHC Inoculum 25 101.325 14 FC LC Air 25 101.2 Process control for fermenter R01 .325 TC 15 Fermentation broth Cooling water R01 To drain LEGEND Temperature.325 12 FC Flue gas Culture medium 25 101.