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# Lab 2:Topographic Maps, Outcrop Patterns, and Structure Contours

Topographic Maps • contour maps a 2-dimensional representation of a a 3-dimensional surface • one type of .

Contour Lines • Contour lines 1) lines of equal value (elevation) 2) the intersection of horizontal planes with the ground surface • Index contours contour lines labeled with value (usually a heavier line) .

Contour Intervals intermediate flat steep Contour interval is the difference in the values of adjacent contour lines • Constant contour intervals • • Closely spaced contours => Steep gradient • Widely spaced contours => Gentle gradient .

Calculating Gradient and Angle 1) Measure its length to get the horizontal change (run) 2) Count the number of contour lines cross it to get the vertical change (rise) a traverse line rise Slope Fraction = run Gradient rise = × 100% run ⎛ rise ⎞ Slope Angle φ = arctan ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ run ⎠ .

Rules for Contour Lines • Contour lines generally should not merge or cross • Contours should be either closed within the map area or truncated by the edge of the map • Contour lines are repeated to indicate reversals in gradient direction • Contours “V” point an upstream direction .

Repeated Contour lines .

Rule of “V’s” Contour lines “V” in an upstream direction where rivers or stream are present in the landscape (topography) .

73 × 1 Horizontal Scale 24000 .Topographic Profiles Vertical Exaggeration = 1 Vertical Scale = 1440 = 16.

Intersection of Planes with Topography • planes make distinct outcrop patterns when they intersect irregular topography • patterns depend on the gradient of the topography and the dip of bedding .

Horizontal Planes Vertical Planes .

Bedding dips upstream Bedding dips downstream Dip is less than stream gradient Bedding dips downstream Dip is the same as stream gradient Bedding dips downstream Dip is larger than stream gradient .

contact. unconformity or fault Map View Cross Section .Structure-Contour Maps Surface Projection to • A map on which contour lines represent lines of equal elevation on a structurally significant surface • The surface could be a marker bed.

Bedding Dip Strike Direction 135m structure-contour line 150m structure-contour line Dip Direction .

Bedding Thickness 150m structure-contour line for top surface 150m structure-contour line for bottom surface Cross Section Horizontal Distance between the top and bottom surfaces Dip Angle Thickness .

3-Point Problems • 3 point problems help us determine the attitude of bedding when all we know is the location of three points on the bed .

Outcrop Patterns from Attitudes • by knowing the attitude of bedding at one point with respect to topography. we can predict the outcrop pattern of that unit across the landscape .