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**Swasti R. Khuntia, Student Member, IEEE
**

Graduate Student Dept. of Electrical Engineering Illinois Institute of Technology Chicago, USA - 60616 E-mail: skhuntia@iit.edu

Abstract— In this article, computationally simple and accurate expert system, i.e., neuro-fuzzy system based on the artificial neural network (ANN) is applied to design a static synchronous series compensator (SSSC)-based controller for improvement of transient stability in a three-machine power system. The proposed neuro-fuzzy controller combines the advantages of fuzzy controller as well as quick response and adaptability nature of ANN. The neuro-fuzzy structures were trained using the generated database of fuzzy controller for SSSC. The results prove that the proposed SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller is found to be robust to fault location and change in operating conditions. A thorough comparison with the conventional leadlag controller is carried out, taking into account the results of previous publications. The SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller output provides promising results in terms of accuracy and computation time. Finally, conclusions are duly drawn. Keywords- Artificial neural network (ANN); ,multi-machine power system; neuro-fuzzy controller; static synchronous series compensator (SSSC); transient stability

SSSC so as to improve power system oscillation stability [7]. The applications of SSSC for power oscillation damping, stability enhancement and frequency stabilization can be found in several references [8-11]. In recent years, new artificial intelligence-based approaches have been proposed to design a FACTS-based supplementary damping controller. These approaches include particle swarm optimization [12, 13], genetic algorithm [14], differential evolution [15], multi-objective evolutionary algorithm [16]. Since 1989, artificial neural networks (ANN) methodology has captured the interest in a large number of applications in electrical power engineering. The applications include economical load dispatching, power system stabilizers (PSS), etc. The results have shown that ANNs have great potential in improving power system online and off-line applications [1720]. The proposed controller has been applied and tested under different disturbances for a multi-machine power system. The system consists of three generators divided into two subsystems and are connected via an intertie. The artificial neural network controller based on fuzzy control, i.e., (neurofuzzy controller) is applied for series FACTS device, i.e., static synchronous series compensator (SSSC). For the design purpose, MATLAB/Simulink model of the power system with SSSC controller is developed. Simulation results are presented at different operating conditions and under various disturbances to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller. The results prove that the proposed SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller can improve the voltage profile and transient stability of the test system more efficient than the conventional lead-lag controller of above devices [13]. II. POWER SYSTEM UNDER STUDY The multi-machine power system with SSSC shown in Fig. 1 is considered in this study. It is similar to the power system used in references [21, 22]. The system consists of three generators divided into two subsystems and are connected through an inter-tie. The generators are equipped with hydraulic turbine and governor (HTG) and excitation system. The HTG represents a nonlinear hydraulic turbine model, a PID governor system, and a servomotor. The excitation system consists of a voltage regulator and DC exciter, without the exciter’s saturation function. Following a disturbance, the two

I.

INTRODUCTION

Series capacitive compensation was introduced decades ago to cancel a portion of the reactive line impedance and there-by increase the transmittable power [1]. Recent development of power electronics introduces the use of flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) controllers in power systems [2]. Subsequently, within the FACTS initiative, it has been demonstrated that variable series compensation is highly effective in both controlling power flow in the lines and in improving stability [3, 4]. The voltage sourced converter based series compensator, called static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) provides the virtual compensation of transmission line impedance by injecting the controllable voltage in series with the transmission line. The ability of SSSC to operate in capacitive as well as inductive mode makes it very effective in controlling the power flow of the system [5, 6]. Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) is one of the important members of FACTS family which can be installed in series in the transmission lines. With the capability to change its reactance characteristic from capacitive to inductive, the SSSC is very effective in controlling power flow in power systems [5]. An auxiliary stabilizing signal can also be superimposed on the power flow control function of the

T/F2 and T/F3 represent the transformers and L1. some data is needed. This results in constraints on the possible modifications applicable to the system parameters.. we present a data pattern from training set with fuzzy inputs and fuzzy desired output vectors. ANFIS-Editor in MATLAB is used for realizing the system and implementation of the proposed neuro-fuzzy or ANFIS approach. In Fig. Adaptability due to its inherent property to adopt new conditions. The ANFIS system consists of the components of a conventional fuzzy system except that computations at each stage is performed by a layer of hidden neurons and the neural network’s learning capacity is provided to enhance the system knowledge. In a conventional fuzzy approach the membership functions and the consequent models are fixed by the model designer according to a prior knowledge. G1. This structure of ANN has an input layer. If this set is not available but a set of input-output data is observed from the process. then f1 = p1x + q1y + r1. Rule 2: If x is A2 and y is B2. G2 and G3 represent the generators. These rules are not so close to the identified system. Three-machine power system with SSSC In this paper. i. Using a given input/output data set. Bus2 Bus4 Bus5 T/F2 Load2 L1 Bus6 L1 Bus1 G2 SSSC L1 Bus3 L1 G1 T/F1 G3 T/F3 Load3 Load4 Load1 Figure 1. Hence. Less memory required. the generalized delta rule in the backpropagation algorithm. ANFIS adjusts all the parameters using back propagation gradient descent and least squares type of method for nonlinear and linear parameters. Then update the network weights in a recursive algorithm starting from the output layer and working backward to the first hidden layer. The fuzzy controller uses 49 rules and 7 membership functions in each variable to compute output and exhibits good performance. 18] • • • • • • Capability of synthesizing complex and transparent mappings. • .e. then f2 = p2x + q2y + r2. speed deviation & acceleration uniformly. injected voltage is computed using the fuzzy membership functions depending on the input variables. ANFIS is an adaptive network which works like adaptive network simulator of Takagi-Sugeno’s fuzzy controllers. NEURO-FUZZY APPROACH Neuro-fuzzy or Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) approach is considered to be an adaptive network.e. The three layers Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) structure model of ANN is applied for designing the SSSC-based neurofuzzy controller. The output stabilizing signal. i. there is a need III. respectively.1 Modeling of SSSC-based Neuro-Fuzzy Controller The proposed neuro-fuzzy controller utilizes Sugeno-type Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) controller. Adaptive network has no synaptic weights. The proposed ANN controller uses back propagation-through-time algorithm [27]. Now main aim is to extract a smaller set of rules using ANFIS learning and to do the same the following steps are followed: • Data generation: To design the SSSC-based neurofuzzy controller. and computing the value of stabilized signal for each sampled point. Here. The given concept of ANFIS structure can be explained using a simple example whose rule base is given below. and one hidden layer. the components of a fuzzy system (membership and consequent models) can be represented in a parametric form and the parameters are tuned by neural networks. an output layer. Research has proved that ANNs have a wide number of applications in the power engineering due to many advantages [17. i. which is very similar to neural networks. Rule extraction and membership functions: After generating the data. The learning procedure of ANFIS system takes the semantically properties of the underlying fuzzy system into account. rules are extracted..subsystems swing against each other resulting in instability. Suppose that the rule base contains two fuzzy if-then rules of Takagi and Sugeno’s type [23-26]. Rapidity due to parallel mechanism. the next step is to estimate the initial rules. It is assumed for simplicity that the fuzzy inference system under consideration has two inputs x and y and one output z. the training data has been generated by sampling input variables. The relevant data for the system is given in Appendix. 1. and the injected voltage by SSSC as the output. T/F1. square error between the actual output and the target for each pattern in the training is applied. a set of twodimensional input vectors and the associated set of one-dimensional output vectors are required. In that case the fuzzy system turns into an ANFIS system.. It must be said that adaptive network can be easily transformed to neural networks’ architecture with classical feed forward topology. but so called adaptive and non. In this paper. • • Rule 1: If x is A1 and y is B1. Easy software simulation and hardware implementation. This adaptive network is functionally equivalent to a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The back-propagation is an iterative method employing the gradient decent algorithm for minimizing the min. The neuro-fuzzy controller is designed by taking speed deviation & acceleration as the inputs. To improve the stability the line is sectionalized and a SSSC is assumed on the mid-point of the tie-line. L2 and L3 represent the line sections respectively. application of neuro-fuzzy approach is done in MATLAB/Simulink because the neuro-fuzzy controller provides faster control and enhanced stability than the compared result of lead-lag controller [13]. 3.e. Robustness and fault tolerance. The effectiveness of the proposed approach to modeling and simulation of SSSC controller is implemented in Simulink environment of MATLAB.adaptive nodes. with the parameters inside the FIS decided by the neural-network back propagation method. Then after applying Subtractive Clustering algorithm [28].

The fault is cleared by opening the faulty line.) Simulation studies are carried out for the example power system subjected to various severe disturbances as well as small disturbances. So.8KV are connected to an inter-tie through 3-phase step up transformers.) 25 Uncontrolled Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy 20 15 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tim e (sec. The original system is restored after the fault clearance. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed combination.u. Hybrid learning algorithm is used for training to modify the above parameters after obtaining the Fuzzy inference system from subtracting clustering.2116 p. SIMULATION RESULTS 16 14 0 2 4 6 Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy Local control signals.). 4(a)–4(d) show the variations of the inter-area and local mode of oscillation and the SSSC-injected voltage against time. the wide-area measurement system can realize phasor measurement synchronously and deliver it to the control center even in real time.6095 p. Results: The ANFIS learning has been tested on a variety of linear and nonlinear processes.419 p. load flow is performed with Machine 1 as a swing bus and Machines 2 and 3 as PV generation buses. near Bus 6.u. The generators with output voltages of 13. Qe1 = 2577.8287 p.2. To assess the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed neuro-fuzzy controller. The training is continued until the error measure becomes constant.• of optimization of these rules. Qe2 = 444. The objective here is to justify whether the neuro-fuzzy controller with less number of rules and membership functions can provide the same level of performance as that of the original one (system with 49 rules). After reducing the rules the computation become fast and it also consumes less memory. as well as to assess its performance.).) Machine 2 generation: Pe2 = 1280 MW (0.6 MW (0. In order to optimally tune the parameters of the SSSCbased neuro-fuzzy controller.27 MVAR (0. Owing to the recent advances in optical fiber communication and global positioning systems. 1 is developed using SPS block-set. Figs.δ 1 (deg) The SimPowerSystems (SPS) toolbox is used for all simulations and SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller design [29]. the speed deviation and acceleration of generators G1 and G2 are chosen δ2 . A three-cycle. The simulation results are also compared with the result of lead-lag controller as given by ref. compared to wide-area signals. The initial operating conditions used are: Machine 1 generation: Pe1 = 3480.1221 p. and the line is reclosed after three cycles. the results are reported for system with 25 rules and system with optimized rule base. although easy to get. The ANFIS structure for SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller is shown in Fig. In view of the above.6136 p. All of the relevant parameters are given in the Appendix. as the control input of the SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller in this article. The original system is restored upon the clearance of the fault. Control surface of SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller IV. at t = 1 sec. 26 24 10 5 vsssc 0 -5 -10 20 0 accl -20 -20 0 speed . Qe3 = 256. This algorithm iteratively learns the parameter of the premise membership functions via back propagation and optimizes the parameters of the consequent equations via linear leastsquares estimation.δ 1 (deg) δ3 20 22 20 18 Uncontrolled Figure 2. they are not as highly controllable and observable for the inter-area oscillation modes.).u.u. may not contain the inter-area oscillation modes.) . three-phase fault is applied at one of the line sections between Bus 1 and Bus 6.u. 8 10 Tim e (sec.) Machine 3 generation: Pe3 = 880 MW (0.33 MVAR(0. [13]. which makes the wide-area signal a good alternative for control input. The ratings of the generators are taken as 2100MVA each (G2 and G3) in one subsystem and 4200MVA (G1) in the other subsystem. the model of example power system shown in Fig.u.2 MVAR (0.

26 Uncontrolled δ2 Tim e (sec) 0. The inter-area and local modes of oscillations against time are shown in Figs.δ 1 (deg) Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy 22 20 18 16 2500 2000 PL (MW) 1500 1000 Uncontrolled δ3 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tim e (sec) Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy 500 0 26 Uncontrolled 24 0 2 4 6 8 10 . it can be seen that the inter-area modes of oscillations are highly oscillatory in the absence of both SSSC-based damping controller as well as neuro-fuzzy controller. (d) SSSC-injected voltage. and L-L. Variation of tie-line power flow for a three-cycle.06 0.08 . L-L-G. 6-7. which clearly shows the δ3 Figure 4.04 Vq (p. Variation of inter-area mode of oscillations against time for threecycle unbalanced faults at Bus 1: (a) L-G fault.) 22 20 18 16 0. the proposed controller is also effective in suppressing the local mode of oscillations.u.04 0 2 4 6 8 10 δ3 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tim e (sec) 26 Uncontrolled Tim e (sec) Figure 3. 5 . (c) L-L fault .δ 1 (deg) 24 Uncontrolled Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy 0. It is clear from the figures that the power-system oscillations are poorly damped in the uncontrolled case.effectiveness of the proposed controller to suppress powersystem oscillations. three-phase fault near Bus 6 cleared by a three-cycle line tripping 0 2 4 6 8 10 Tim e (sec) Figure 5. Furthermore. The power flow through the tie-line (at Bus 1) for the above contingency is shown in Fig. and the proposed SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller effectively stabilizes the power angle under various unbalanced fault conditions. and the proposed neuro-fuzzy controller significantly improves the power-system stability by damping these oscillations. Vq 24 . each of three-cycle duration at Bus 1 at t = 1 sec.02 0 -0.02 -0. 5. even for the leastsevere L-G fault. (c) local mode. Variation of inter-area and local modes of oscillations against time for a three-cycle. namely L-G.δ 1 (deg) Tim e (sec) Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy 22 20 18 16 From these figures. (b) L-L-G fault.δ 3 (deg) Uncontrolled Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy 4 3 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 The effectiveness of the proposed controller on unbalanced faults is also examined by applying self-clearing type unsymmetrical faults. three-phase fault near Bus 6: (a) and (b) inter-area mode.

252 . Magnetization reactance: L m = 500 Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy 2.5 .474 .243 .δ 3 (deg) Hydraulic Turbine and Governor: Servo-motor gains and time constants: K = 3./s.00375. T = 2. X '' d = 0. L1 = 0. DC link 10 nominal voltage: V = 40 kV.16. (b) L-L-G fault.5 4 .9337 x 10 -3 H/km. T = 0.0. 3 SSSC: Converter rating: S nom = 100 MVA.2 Loads: Load1 = 7500MW + 1500MVAR. Coefficient of inertia and pair of poles: H =3. It is clear from these figures that the neuro-fuzzy controller improves the stability performance of the example SSSC-based power system and.1 s.07. Stator resistance: R = 2.01 s. E = 7. Regulator gains and time Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy δ2 2. DC link equivalent capacitance C = 375 x DC DC -6 F.1264 x 10 -3 H/ km.5 3 Uncontrolled X d = 1. Load4 = 250MW . ' X '' q = 0. 10 δ2 0 2 4 6 8 APPENDIX System data: All data are in p.105. Nominal voltage: VB = 13.δ 3 (deg) 4 3.053 s. Magnetization resistance: Rm = 500. Maximum rate of change of reference voltage ( V qref ) = 3 p.001 s. Capacitance per unit length: C1 = 12. V.7 s. V2 = 500 kV. the damping following the disturbance has improved significantly. L = 100km. V g min g max Permanent droops: R = 0.74 x 10 -9 F/ km.1 p. (c) L-L fault Inductance per unit length: L1 = 0.8 kV.296 .1 p.67 s w 4 3. limits: Gmin = 0.8 kV. Resistance per unit length: R1 = 0. K = 0. Line lengths: L1 = 175 km. In all cases.001.002.02546 Ω/ km. S B 2 = S B 3 = 2100 MVA.5 3 Uncontrolled Lead-lag Neuro-fuzzy 2. S p = 32 Excitation Systems: Low-pass filter time constant: TLP = 0.1 s.00533. Ta = 0. 1 g δ2 Winding parameters: V1 =13.33.01 s.u.12.163. It is observed that the proposed SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller provides efficient damping to power system oscillations and greatly improves the system voltage profile. also. C0 = 7. p p d Td = 0. Te =0.u.4. K = 20 x 10 -3.5 2 0 2 4 6 constants: K A =200. TA = 0. power system oscillations are well damped out.u.3864 Ω/ km 8 10 Tim e (sec) Figure 6. K i = 0. T = 0 b c 8 10 Damping filter gains and time constants: K = 0. T '' qo = 0.1875.97518. K i = 0. Gmax = 0. CONCLUSION This article presents an SSSC-based neuro-fuzzy controller for transient stability improvement in a three-machine power system. Time constants: Td = 1.u. T d = 0. Injected voltage i magnitude limit: Vq = ± 0. The dynamic performance of proposed SSSCbased controller under various loading and disturbance conditions are analyzed and compared.8544 e -3. Variation of local mode of oscillations against time for three-cycle unbalanced faults at Bus 1: (a) L-G fault. R1 = R2 = 0.5 2 0 2 4 6 Transmission lines: Number of phases: 3-Ph. Load2 = Load3 = 25MW. Frequency: f = 60 Hz.05. Gate opening a = . f f = 0. unless specified otherwise.305 .δ 3 (deg) 3. L2 = 50km. Winding connections: D Y . System nominal voltage: Vnom = 500 Simulation results show that the performance of the neurofuzzy controller is better than that of conventional lead-lag controller. Generators: Nominal powers: S B1 = 4200 MVA. The inter-area and local modes of power system oscillations are effectively damped by using the proposed SSSC controller. K = 0 Regulator output limits and gains: E f min f max p Tim e (sec) 5 4. X q = 0.5 3 Uncontrolled Transformers: Nominal powers: S B1 = 4200 MVA. The effectiveness of the proposed SSSC-based neuro- kV. Hydraulic turbines: β = 0.02 s. Transient gain reduction: T = 0. Converter impedances: R = 0. V = 0. The research work is intended to find the most suitable configurations of the neuro-fuzzy controller for the FACTS device.5 fuzzy controller in improving power-system stability is also demonstrated. Exciter gains and time constants: K e =1. L0 = 4. The superiority of neurofuzzy controller is evident from the simulation results for all types of disturbances.01.1 x 10 -3./s. Reactances: Tim e (sec) 5 4. PID regulators: K = 1. L = 0. DC Voltage regulator gains: K P =0./s. S B 2 = S B 3 = 2100 MVA. X ' d = 0.751 x 10 -9 F/ km. R0 = 0.5 . Nominal frequency: f = 60 Hz. Injected Voltage regulator gains: K P = 0. X ' q = 0.18 . = L2 0.

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