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by Krystian W. Pilarczyk Rijkswaterstaat Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works Road and Hydraulic Engineering Department april 1987
SEA DEPENCES
DUTCH GUIDELINES ON DIKE PROTECTION by Krystian W. Pilarczyk Report WBNO87110
 A review 
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Ri j kswater staat Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works Road and Hydraulic Engineering Department P.O. Box 5044, 2600 GA Delft, The Netherlands April 1987
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 1 
3 4. Klein Breteler and K. M.3 4. 3. 2. Design criteria for placed block revetments and granular filters J. Bezuijen. Block and impervious revetments impact forces. 4.4 4.6 6. Probabilistic design of waterretaining str uctures 2 . 5. 7.1 4.4 5.2 4.7 4.9 5.2 5.J. INTRODÜCTION DESIGN PHILOSOPHY OP COASTAL DEPENCE STRUCTURES SHAPE AND HEIGHT OF A DIKE Loading zones Dike shape Dike height and runup STRENGTH OP REVETMENTS General approach Failure modes and determinant wave load Wave loading and wave structureinteraction Stability of loosely materials Uplift forces. Asphalt revetments Revetments under ship's induced loads Stability of grassslopes Example of probabilistic calculations of revetment DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS General requirements Dimensioning Choice of revetment Composition of dike and revetment Subsoil requirements Joints and transitions MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES APPENDICES: I II A.5 5. 3.1 5.8 4.2 3.5 4.K.3 5.6 4.1 3.CONTENT ABSTRACT 1. Vrijling. Bakker.
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. dike protection. Box 5044 2600 GA Delft The Netherlands Department . The stability criteria based on small and large scale tests are formulated for the following systems: riprap. concrete units. Pilarczyk. KEYWORDS. revetments. Developments for some other systems are also briefly mentioned.O. Rijkswaterstaat. K. April 1987. CATALOGUE ENTRY. asphalt and grassmats. (1987).DUTCH GUIDELINES ON DIKE PROTECTION ABSTRACT The increased demand on reliable design methods for protective structures nas resulted in the Netherlands in preparing a set of design guidelines for revetments of the sea. The Netherlands.4 . Report WBNO87110. Road and Hydraulic Engineering Dpt. guidelines. and for bank protection. In this report a brief review on general design philosophy.W. and riverdikes. sea defences. Delft. These guidelines are intended for technicians and organizations directly involved in the design and management of protective structures. Sea defences : Dutch guidelines on dike protection. CORRESPONDENCE: Rij kswaterstaat Road and Hydraulic Engineering P. different hydraulic and geotechnical aspects and design criteria for various types of revetments is given.
1 DUTCH COAST. EROSIONAL AREAS landwards foreshore dune (secundary) gro..5 . 1 to 5 m par yaar Fig..ns or t«proteHon o f ^ permeable groins seadike toe /bottom protection seawall Fig.Dutch coast.. arosionat areas . 2 EXAMPLES OF SEAPROTECTION . . sandy beacMas and dunas TÏ5ZSÜ «rosion areas.~^.
daros and dunes (fig. the Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works (Rijkswaterstaat) and the Technical Advisory Committee on Water Defences have initiated a long term research program on preparing the guidelines for the design of sea and river defence structures. Some of these guidelines have been reported recently (26 ) .(28) . 1 en 2 ) . Is is not intended as a scientific work dealing exhaustively with theoretical f undamentals. The following types of revetments are treated: riprap and other loosely systems. compaction.e. and of the base on which they are installed. The design of the shape and the height of a dike are thus also discussed. outright mistakes can be highlighted. For the revetment. Although it is not practicable to give Standard solutions.1. and particularly on constructing of dikes and protection measures (revetments) .or impermeablelayer and what requirements they must satisfy. will be given. as a result of more "hard" safety requirements. i. Driven by the neccessity to withstand the water. The toe construction.e. Por a treatment of these matters in greater depth the reader is referred to the original reports. based on the published and unpublished sources. more particularly with regard to the material properties and composition. Various types of revetment are distinquished with reference to the properties of the materials and/or the units. The shape of the crosssectional profile of the dike is of influence on the type of revetment material suitable for revetment construction. The country is therefore dependent on good (safe) sea defences. In the experience of many dike managers. As an interim result of longterm research being still in progress. new stability criteria) is given. asphalt and grass. and possible special circumstances involved. It has been endeavoured as far as possible to give the general practical design guidelines with some background information but without offering a solution for every conceivable problem. while the circumstances of the job may impose restrictions on applicability.(27 ) . penetration of material into the other layers and the manner of use.e. the technical features of constructing it. concrete units.6 . It is stated what materials can suitable be used for a permeable. However the design of dikes and their revetments was mostly based more on rather vague experience than on the general valid calculation methods. Due to the increasing demand on reliable design methode. ( 29) . the protective covering of a waterretaining structure (dike) requirements are formulated with reference to the purpose of the structure and the revetment. INTRODUCTION A large part of the Netherlands lies below the mean sea level. This set of guidelines is intended for engineers and technicians directly associated with the design and management of dikes. i. In this connection a distinction is drawn between permeable and impermeable bases. ( 32 In the report aset of basic design guidelines for revetments of the sea dikes. ( 30) . Requirements are applied to the base layers of the revetment because these are important in maintaining its stability under wave action and in ensuring that the structure will continue to function permanently. substantial damage is liable to occur at the transition from one type of revetment to another and in zones where the revetment ends. the upper boundary of the hard . it is protected by dikes. during centuries the Outch engineers built up their knowledge on hydraulic engineering. some information concerning the stability of the different revetments (i.
i  .dunes) • grass/day dikes • rigid measures (groins) • loose materialS rockfill.gravel.solutions „ govermental/ research institutions contractors manufacturers consultants COASTAL PROTECTIONINTEORATED APPROACH . SQnd • pitched stone/concrete • asphalt • mattresses/mats alternative measures blocks insite measurements 1 \ \ • models 1 f • calculations •• experience .design ing execution management problems sandy coasts(incl.
All the same. with the aid of the data yielded by theoretical/empirical research. The actual progress in this direction is discussed.8 .revetment and considered. . and the available experience. the basic ingredients of this knowledge are of common value for the whole hydraulic engineering world including the developing countries. it is possible to determine approximately the necessary dimensions of the given types of revetments. the transition to a different type of revetment are Because of the complexity of the subject there are as yet no simpletouse mathematical models available for dealing with various kinds of revetment and subgrade. Although the Dutch guidelines and other reports on the discussed subject are based on the research and experiences of the highly developed country.
RESEARCH POLICY O .9  .
2.AND B0TT0MPROTECTION sliding erosion outer slope 9SC0UR tilting erosion fore shore 10 SETTLEMENT A) DIKE B) DAM F/g. 3 ) : . that may cause the inundation of a polder. In the case of the seadike the following main events can be distinguished (see also fig. are equally important for the overall safety.overflow or overtopping of the dike 1 EROSION OF CREST óvertopping settlement 2 EROSION OF INNER SLOPE wave overtopping slip circle outer slope 3 MICRO STABIUTY za* L " ^ T I slip circle inner stope liquefaction 4 SLIDING ~ ^ ^ 5 INTERNAL EROSION micro instability drtfting ice 6 FLOW SLIOE (LIQUEFACTION) 7 WAVE IMPACT "piping" ship collision 8 TOE. DESIGN PHILOSOPHY OF COASTAL DEFENCE STRÜCTURES __ properly designed. the engineers responsibility responsibility is neers is mainly mainly limited limited to to the the technii technical and structural aspects. Although all categories of events. 3 OVERVIEW OF THE FAILURE MECHANISMS 10 .
4 SIMPUFiED FAULT TREE FOR A DIKE DAMAGE 1 1 — ' — . .LLU L r__L_ THREAT .j i BOUNDARY CONDITIONS MATERIALS GEOMETRY Fig. WATER PRESSURE Fig. TRANSFER  i FUNCTIONS i u___ J i rici n QATA iTHEORETICAL.INUNOATION GENERALLY: FAILURE  LQAD > STRENGTH HUMAN FAILURE EXPLOSION SABOTAGE _ FAILURE DIKESECTION 1 FAILURE DIKE SECTION 2 FAILURE DIKE SECTION N ['ACTS OF GOD'"]—J EROSION INNER SLOPE SLIOE PLANE i l M W M M ^ OVERFLOW FLOOD > DIKE LEVEL HEIGHT OVERTOPPING WAVE RUN UP DIKE HEIGHT SLOPE STABILITY WAVE » REVETMENT ATTACK STRENGTH 3: EROSION OUTER SLOPE 1 REVETMENT FAILURE INTERNAL EROSION PIPING ETC. I M O D E L ! i >_. r 1 IPOTENTIAL J PROBABILITY ' i OF FAILURE i 1— 1 1 I ["RESISTANCE"! ! j ' MODEL TEST OR r. !"•J i—. 5 THE CONCEPT OF THE ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE OF FAILURE MECHANISM 11 .
The different philosophies are currently available in construction practice: 1. As already mentioned. without any imminent danger of failure (e.12  .g. deterministic. theoretical of semiempirical stabilitymodel of grains). These are.) . of the probability of slope (in)stability related to the various soil parameters. In the adapted concept of the ultimate limitstate (fig.g. detoriation of geotextile. this detoriation of constructional resistance can cause an unexpected failure in extreme conditions. The resistance of the construction is derived from the basic variables by means of theoretical or physical models (e. However . quasiprobabilistic and 3. creep or erosion of clay under the revetment. The present Dutch guidelines for dike and dune design follow a philosophy. improved knowledge of the theoretical relation between wave attack (induced pressures) and the strength of the revetment. The category "potential threat" contains bas ie variables that can be defined as threatening boundary conditions for the construction e. where the ever continuing presence of a (frequent) load causes a detoriation of constructional resistance in time.For all these modes of failure. field data of boundary conditions. The ultimate potential threat for the Dutch dikes is derived from extreme storm surge levels with a very low probability of exceedance (1% per century for seadikes and 10% for rivet dikes) and equated with the average resistance of the dike without any apparent safety margin. resistance parameters and damage are . The safety margin between "potential threat" and "resistance" must guarantee a sufficiënt low probability of failure. For fully probabilistic approach more knowledge must still be acquired concerning the complete problems associated with the use of theoretical models relating loads and strength. Of course.probabilistic approach (13) . (35 ) . Besides the ultimate limitstate. 2. the serviceability. fatique of concrete and steel. the fully probabilistic approach for dikes based on the limitstate concept is rather cumbersome because a theoretical description for various failure modes is not available yet. The relations that are used to derive the potential threat from boundary conditions are called transfer functions (i.(31) .g. the probabilitydensity function of the "potential threat" (loads) and the "resistance" (dike strength) are combined. the situation where the forces acting are just balanced by the strength of the construction is considered (the ultimate limitstate). and a ship's impact (colission) . to transform waves or tides into forces on grains or other structural elements) . so called. etc.V. and also of the theory of internal erosion is urgently needed.and fatique limit states which can also be considered as inspection and maintenance criteria. extreme wind velocity (or wave height and period)water levels. The probability of occurence of this situation (balance) for each technical failure mechanism can be found by applying mathematical and statistical technigues. 5 ) . To overcome this problem a scheme to simulate nearly all possible combinations of natural boundary conditions in a scale model of the construction and to correlate the damage done to the boundary conditions can be developed (black box approach). that lies between the deterministic and the quasi. Studies on all these topics are still going on in the Netherlands. corrosion of cabling.g. there are situations. clogging or u. probabilistic. unequal settlements or deformations.
THE EXPECTED LIFE AND SERVICEABILITY. CLAIMS AND IN THE WORST CASE WITH AN INADEGLUATE PRODUCT. _ . CONDITIONS OF USE. THE RISK FOR THE CONTRACTOR IS TO LOSE MONEY ON THE PROJECT OR HIS GOOD NAME. FOR aUALITY ASSURANCE TO BE EFFECTIVE IT IS NECESSARY TO DEFINE THE PURPOSE OF THE SCHEME.aUALITY ASSURANCE / and CQNTROL RELIABILITY ANALYSIS THERE IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE RISK FOR THE CLIENT AND THE RISK FOR THE CQNTRACTOR THE RISK FOR THE CLIENT IS TO END UP WITH DELAYS.13  J . IT IS BECOMING MORE AND MORE COMMONPLACE TO ASK A CONTRACTOR IN ADVANCE HOW THE aUALITY OF THE RESULT WILL BE GUARANTEED AND CONTROLLED = aUALITY ASSURANCE / CONTROL aUALITY ASSURANCE WILL GIVE INCREASED CONFIDENCE THAT THE FINAL JOB IS FIT FOR ITS PURPOSE AND WILL REMAIN SO FOR A STATED PERIOD OF TIME UNDER SPECIFIED CONDITIONS OF USE AND TIME. A FORMAL PROCEDURE SHOULD BE SET UP TO MONITOR EACH STAGE OF THE PROJECT (OLUALITY CONTROL).
it is possible to pay extra attention to those mechanisms which contribute most to the overall probability of failure.(35).14  . (12) . in suffi It has to be also stressed that having quantified (even roughly) the fault tree. The fully description of probabilistic approach for dike design lies to far beyond the scope of this report. revetments) where the necessary input is already available from the recent investigations in the Netherlands (9) .preferred as base for correlation.Moreover. (31) . However . this approach is an important element in the attempt to the total quality control of the dike design and dike execution. the detailed information can be found in the Dutch reports and publications (1). the probabilistic approach can be applied to some important parts of the total defence structure (e. QUALITY total COSTS quality costs x normal 'X v situation optimum! \ situation. (9).g. (31). o» > 3 o c u failure costs appraisal costs pr«v«ntion costs low QUALITY LEVEL •> high . Thus. Taking knowledge of these recent developments can be rather profitable especially for estimation of possible risks involved in the realized projects and for finding the optimum between the risks and the investment. if they are available ciënt amount.
6 LOADING ZONES ON A DIKE .design water levet oading Fig..15  .
For seawalls in the tidal region. the joined frequency distribution of water levels and waves seems to be the most appropriate for the design purposed (also from the economical point of view) . wave energy is dissipated over a greater length. A bank slope revetment in principle functions no differently under normal circumstances than under extreme conditions. this zone can be heavily attacked by waves but the frequency of such attack reduces as one goes higher up the slope.3. the duration and strength of the wind. Crosssection The gradiënt of the bank may not be so steep that the whole slope or the revetment can lose stability (through sliding) . Therefore. For coastal areas there is mostly a certain correlation between the water level (tide plus storm surge and wind setup) and the height of the waves. The optimum 16  . the minimum volume of the embankment can be obtained.and maintenance methods for each zone (fig. By using the wave runup approach for calculations of the crest height of a trapezoidal profile of a dike for different slope gradients. this does not necessarily imply that minimum earthvolume coincides with minimum costs. The division of the slope into loading zones has not only direct connection with the safety against failure of the revetment and the dike as a whole. where there should only be wave runup. An expensive part of the embankment comprises the revetment of the waterside slope and the slope surface (area) increases as the slope angle decreases. but also with different application of materials and execution. More gentle (flatter) slope leads to a reduced waveforce on the revetment and less wave runup.1 SHAPE AND HEIGHT OF A DIKE Loading zones (26) The degree of wave attack on a dike or other defence structure during a storm surge depends on the orientation in relation to the direction of the storm. however. 3. fronting deep water. the following approximate zones can be distinguished (fig. The quality of the seaward slope can. These criteria give. 3. the maximum slope angle. However. III the zone between MHW and the design level. because storm surge and waves are both caused by wind. prior to the occurrence of the extreme situation. 7 ) . therefore.2 Dike shape (21) The shape of the dike needs to be observed in crosssection as well as longitudinally. already be damaged during relatively normal conditions to such a degree that its strength is no longer sufficiënt to provide protection during the extreme storm. The accent is. the extent of the water surface fronting the seawall and the bottom topography of the area involved. IV the zone above design level. the everpresent waveloading of low intensity is of importance for the longterm behaviour of structure. 6 ) : I the zone permanently submerged (not present in the case of a high level "foreshore")j II the zone between MLW and MHW. more on the persistent character of the waveattack rather than on its size.
20m+ 0.L 0.A.00 r«v*tro«trt of concr«tt Mockl 050 xO.P.5. COniCRETE SLAB W.0 ^HfSANDASPHALT RIPIwp 1 1 1r1 1 600 ini^tffB^ 1 kg/m* j ^ S Ö S B * * ^ 020mT KSff • L \020m \ PALE FENCE FASCINE / REED / GEOTEXTILE • 4.80 thick or mineitone 0.50 m + BLOCK PAVEMENT 2.17  .50 x 0. 7 EXAMPLE OF DIKE PROTECTIONS .20 subtayar contlsts of clay 0.20m\2 'TTT* \^JS^^ \ °.50m + FIXTONE .r ^ f f f P * ' ' ^ ' O. T 015m \ .A.40m + ' .10 thick dim«n»ion* in m ktvtlt r«iat«d to N.70 thick undar crushad stona 0. .F» F/g.SOroCLAY ^ 2 \ £ l * ^ J3.0 1 J l ^ K .10m N.
The need to repair great lengths of sea dikes in a short time after the 1953 flooddisaster in the Netherlands. Careful attention is. (27). In both cases the dikes have been protected by a revetment of pitched stones (basalt) or placed concrete blocks. bricks. The core of a modern dike is made of great quantities of sand. The minimum crest width is 2 m. the highest storm flood waves would not break beneath or on the berm and the runup will be inadequately affected. however. However . An important function of the berm can be its use as an access road for dike maintenance. If the berm lies too much below that level. brought into place mostly as hydraulic fill.18  . for steep slopes the heavy protection is necessary while for the mild slopes the (cheaper) grassmat can provide a sufficiënt protection. Longitudinal profile Due to irregularities in the longitudinal profile of an embankment. For the storm flood berms at high design levels as in the Netherlands (freq. In some recent works the clay layer have been replaced by the layer of minestone. The waterside berm is a common element in the Dutch dike construction. Another point of economie optimalisation can be the available space for dike constuction or improvement. This sand is covered mostly with a clay layer of thickness up to 1 m. The original (old) Dutch dikes were made of local clay and as steep as possible to minimize the quantity of soil. when higher frequency of water level is applied leading to more frequent overwashing of the upper part by salt water due to the runup or wavespray (a comon grassmatt can survive only a few salty events a year). stone. 10"^) there are in general no problems with the growth of grass on the berm and the upper slope. Present practice in order to obtain a substantial reduction in wave runup. The abrupt change in roughness may lead to increase of bottom turbulence and more local erosion. Depending on the type of asphalt mixture the special requirements and restrictions can be formulated on the steepness of the slopes and the zone of application (under water of d r y ) . It could in the past lead to a reduction in the expenditure on stone revetments (on a very gently sloping berm a good grassmat can be maintained) and it produced an appreciable reduction in wave runup. is to place the outer berm at (or close to) water level of the design storm flood. The steep outer slopes were protected against wave attack by all kinds of materials like wood. geogrids or other systems allowing vegetation. and the grassmat on the upper slope too heavily loaded by waves leading to possible erosion. The common Dutch practice is to apply the slope 1 on 3 on the inner slope and between 1 on 3 and 1 on 5 on the outer (seaward) slope. grass.e. led to the introduction of asphalt revetments. e. . there can be circumstances which require also the application of a hard revetment on the berm and even on a part of the upper slope i. etc. In general care should be taken to prevent erosion of the grassmat at the junction with the revetment. This has necessitated entirely new dike construction with asphalt revetments overlying directly the sand core. It is advisable to create a transition zone by applying the cellblocks.crosssection (based on costs) can be determined when the costs of earth works per m 3 and those of revetment per m 2 are known. mattresses of willow twigs balasted with stones.g. needed because the revetment costs are not always independent of the slope angle.
9 SETTLEMENT AS FUNCTION OF TIME  19  .e. 8 DETERMINAT/ON OF DIKE HEIGHT construction H stQ 9e H LOG time • i. execution (evet frnat crest heiqht __ ^ V seiche/squall oscillation • gust run up dike after construction final dike shape toe protection Fig. v .S1 S .30years primary settlement (execution stage) settlement secundary settlement Fig.settlement ^ seo level changes.
3. Little was known about the relation between the cost to prevent flooding and the cost of the damage that might result from flooding.5 m. berm) . roughness and permeability of the slope. the mechanical methods for placing of blocks is in practice limited mainly to straight lines or to large radius bends with sufficiently large areas. the frequency of the risk of flooding was studied in the Netherlands in relation to the economie aspects. (18) The effective runup (R) . the stormsurge should be calculated separately and added to design water level.A change in chart datum (NAP) or a rise in the mean sea level (assumed roughly 0. (21) The height of a dike was for many centuries based on the highest known flood level that could be remembered. defined as the vertical . . some reaches of the slopes could be subjected to more than normal wave or current attack.3.g.Settlement of the subsoil and the dikebody during its lifetime (at least 30 years).in connection with the topography of the terrain in front or behind the bank. In the 20th century it was found that the occurrence of extremely high water levels and wave heights could be described adequately in term of frequency in accordance with the laws of probability calculus. on an inclined structure can be defined as R = RnYRYBYB where R n • runup on smooth plane slopes. Besides the design flood level several other elements also play a role in determining the design crest level of a dike (fig.Wave runup (2% of exceedance is applied in the Netherlands) depending. Not all revetments are equally suitable for use on a curved longitudinal profile.3 3. based on a relatively short period of obsevations. . . Finally it was decided to base the design of all sea dikes fundamentally on a water level with a probability of exceedance of 10~ 4 per annum.(see also fig. this margin in the Netherlands varies (depends on location) from 0 to 0.An extra margin to the dike height to take into account seiches (oscillations) and gust bumps (single waves resulting from a sudden violent rush of wind). on wave height and period. 9 ) . After the 1953 disaster.1 Dike height and wave runup General consideration on the height of a dike (16).Also. and profile shape (gradients.3. 8 ) . The recommended minimum freeboard is 0. some (reetangular) block systems may leave gaping joints going around curved. e.20  . . If it is not a case. The combination of all these factors mentioned above defines the freeboard of the dike (called in Dutch as wakeheight) .25 m ) . 3.2 Wave runup (15. angle of approach. It is evident that in this way the real risk of damage or the probability of flooding were unknown. However the curves of extreme values. In the Netherlands the stormsurge is mostly incorporated in the estimated water level.3 m for the seiches and 0 to 0. have to mostly be extrapolated into regions far beyond the field of observations with the risk for some uncertainties.5 m for the gust bumps.
4 . 30.6 .21  .i Ru max/Hs up l" 0^ down 1 Rd max^s V Ru2% Jsmooth slopes Rumax/Hs=0. Rd2%/Hs=0.40mm IRREOULAR WAVES Fig. 10 RUNUP AND RUNDOWN FOR SMOOTH AND RIPRAP SLOPES .8 1i0 gp=tana/]/2TcHs/gTp2 ^ ^ % ^ /nprap Rdmax/Hs=031gp0.2 .25 D5o=20.9gp .17 I 2 smooth slopes.33gp 3h riprap: D 35/015= 2.
22  . Hg » significant wave height.3. i. The values for C n • C2% (runup exceeded by 2% of waves) estimated from the measurements are roughly equal to: c 2 % • 0.5 or R2% .03.3.70 for deter(smooth slopes) .55 a 0. use C2% • 0. and B » 4H for strong breaking waves. basalton 0.70 riprap (min. % = » 1.90 rough. geotextilemats.for a small spectrum and C2% a 0.% . gabions 0. The reduction factors for surface roughness YRcan be roughly estimated as follows: Covering layer _IB asphalt. H/L0 > 0.95 open stoneasphalt. R 2% • 8 Hg tana = 3 and relatively smooth revetments.^ Tp tana < 2. For random waves Rn can be expressed by Rn . In this for g p < 2 a 2. üsing C2% » 0.70 and wave steepness of about 5% (typical. Y B * reduction factor due to berm and YR • reduction factor due to oblique wave attack and £ • breaker index. The reduction factors Y B f o r t n e berm width equal or larger than the minimum width mentioned above.5 for ^ p S 2. 10. « .2.height above still water levelfYR5* reduction factor due to slope roughness and permeability. smooth concrete 1 concrete blocks.for a wide spectrum. viz.e.60 In a case of slopes with a berm the runup will be reduced by a factor B« T n e effect of a berm with a constant width (B) is maximum when the berm is situated approximately at the average water level (dB < 0.top period and a . Tp . .5 riprap slopes are summaand permeability. may be roughly estimated as follows: . see definition scheme in fig.angle of slope. thickness 2XD50) 0.5 H g H7 Some experimental results for smooth and r ized in fig . c n /ÜF 6 p .5 where C n a constant depending on the type of wave spectrum and exceedance percentage. 11).a . 1 0. It has furthermore been found that the runup diminishes with increasing bermwidth although the reduction rapidly falls off once a certain minimum width is exceeded.70 . grassmat ' pitched stone. B • 0.5 C n ip where § p tana 1 . which is valid for ctga As a safe approach it is recommended to mining the runup due to the windwaves case 2 * 2 .and weak breaking waves. storm value for the North Sea Coast) one obtains the so called "Old Delft Formula" commonly used in the past for calculation of 2% runup (R2%) o n t h e Dutch sea dikes.7 T p ]/ g Hs' tana Hl and ^2.60 . permeable block mats 0.5 H.25 .80 gravel.75 p or R2% = > 0.25 L 0 for non.
AND RS~ H V 1.ADEFINITIONS 1.6 0A 0.4 0.8 0.0 0.5 10 15 2.5 Ro FIG.7 t 0. B REDUCTION OF WAVE RUNUP DUE TO BERM AS FUNCTION OF &j.1 n 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 o 90 YR s T^"O «O s cos P • ^2cos32p * FIC f REDUCTION OF RUNUP DUE TO OBLIÜUE WAVE APPROACH Fig.8 (3 o.FIQ.3 0.2 O 0.5 0.23  .0 0.9 0.0 2. 11 REDUCTION OF WA VE RUNUP .2 0.6 0.
60 a 0.W. Proc.75 a 0. on Coastal Engineering. it seems better to assume no reduction of runup in this range or (more safely) to follow the Fig. there is even a slight increase of the runup (see Fig.. S. the runup can vary reasonably and thus.5 Hs for £ i 2. if necessary. the slope protection has to be more or less extended.5 H) 5 to 7 0.50 a 0. Note 2* : depending on the wave spectrum.5 Below this limit. For this reason (at this moment).24  . 11 c. Rn = H s (not less than H s t) (N. .10*).5 Hs and a primary Rd *• ^ £=2. Note 1° : a recent investigation in Gerraany *} on the oblique wave attack indicates that in the range 0<B<35*.e. Wave runup at sea dikes under obligue wave approach. the anticipated maximum wave height and the type and permeability of revetment. E.80 4 0.slope. and Partenscky. ( 3 is reduced by 10* on account of variation of P ) . 18th Conf. 1982.5) for %< 2. H.8g + 0.B. slope protection has to be designed on the base of occurring return flow (shipwaves) or on the base of longshore current or (orbital) velocities of wind waves.  5 = 65* For  3 > 65°. instead of reduction. 11c). The lower limit of slope area attack by waves (where protection is necessary) can be roughly defined by 1 (down) * (0. For particular cases model investigation may give a proper answer.70 3 0. ctga Y B (at d B < 0.60 Oblique wave attack. Kohlhase. type of subgrade. i. under an angle ( 3 can be roughly taken into account by Yp: Yp » cos (  3 . *) Tautenahin.
GRAVEL BLOCKS DESIGN CRITERIA ??? STATIC EQUIUBRIUM GRANULAIR %**** FLOW PATTERN SC FILTER SYNTHETIC TOPLAYER STONES .25  .THICKNESS / WEIGHT ? DYNAMIC EQUIUBRIUM <Öfc %£ OÜR MEASURES CRITICAL SANDPACKING ? FLOW SLIDE? q > CHOICE PROTECT1VE STRUCTURE AND DESIGN PROCESS .
12 FAILURE MECHANISMS OF 5L0PE REVETMENT .26  .a b c d «  farces uplift uplift change die to downrush pressures due to water in filter pressures due to approaching wave front in velocity field Fig.
27  . 13 REVIEW OF GEOTECHNICAL FAILURE MODES OF A DIKE ..s dtformation prof ile sshape) micro initability at tht surfact y phreatic tin* flow stidt dtformation profilt <Y„Yw) consolidation mtirnal filttr transport a) micro mtchanims Fig.GEOTECHNICAL FAILURE MOOES circutar slides suffosion &'/tiWtWfW/ZL dtstruction toptaytr or local iliding due to wave impact piping under claylaytr «trosion pattern »*dirtction groundwater flow b) macromtchanismi lifting up af prottctivt units cyclic compactian dut to wavi impact _.
slope may re A slip circle at inner slope may be caused among other things by a high phreatic plane in a dike. For the dike as a whole. which leads to water entering the polder and to soaking of the dike. Schematically.e. Por a given structure many different modes of failure may be distinguished. A local shear failure (sliding of a revetment) parallel to the slope may also be the consequence of a rapid drawdown or hydraulic gradients perpendicular to the slope. this is shown in fig. A slip circle in the outer slope may occur when a low water follows an extreme high water (or sudden drawdown). 4.28  . Piping (internal erosion) may occur i. This instability can be caused by a rapid drawdown of the water table in the waterway or the presence of weaker or impermeable layers in the subsoil. A brief overview of the failure mechanisms of dikes. Erosion (removal of particles) of the dike/bank protection or the bed may be caused by wave or current induced shear forces sometimes assisted by hydraulic gradiënt forces. When the "pipe" eventually reaches the high waterside the process of internal erosion will accelerate. each with a different critical loading condition. 12 and fig . Each of these failure modes may be induced by geotechnical or hydrodynamical phenomena. 13. The dangerous consequences result from the soaking of the body of the dike and erosion of the inner slope. The body of the dike is heavy with water and slides down. Microinstability of the soil material at the inner sult due to seepage and a high phreatic plane.4. dams or banks is given below (35): An overflow and/or wave overtopping at high waterlevels is a well known mechanism.1 STRENGTH OP RBVETMENTS General approach Once the hydraulic design conditions have been established. A modern (good) engineering pratice requires that attention should be given to all possible modes of failure of the construction under design . Material may also be lost through the revetment when filter requirements are not met. The transport may be parallel to the bank causing local slumping of the revetment or vertical resulting in an Sshaped profile. front or rear slope. actual design loads has to be formulated. the gradual formation of a material entraining flow under an impermeable revetment or through a local concentration of permeable material in the dike body/foundation. . This will be the case when the duration of the high waterlevel is long or permanent. instability may occur due to failure of subsoil. A slip circle in the waterway bank may obstruct the fairway. Migration indicates the transport of material behind the revetment.
waves water level 4 externpl geometry structure external pressures interna! geometry internal pressures resultant load L Fig.29  . U SET UP OF BASIC RESEARCH AND STABIUTY COMPUTATION .
placed block revetments. external pressures on the seaward slope are determined. Ice may severely attack the revetment during wintertime.) of a failure mechanism. If this strenght is inadequate the revetment will deform and may ultimately fail. crystals Ship collision against the dike/bank may cause considerable damage. in this figure the critical mode of failure. 14.A liquefaction may occur in loosely packed sands under influence of a shock or a sudden draw down. asphalt and grass are discussed in more detail in the following sections. In this case the sudden increase of pore pressure reduces the shear strength pratically to zero and the soil behaves as a liquid. compression. one is most interested in the ultimate limit state (U. This state is reached when the acting extreme loads are just balanced by the strenght of the structure. the corresponding determinant loads and the required strength are summarized qualitatively. peat layers). however . water levels) and the description of the structure. moreover only instability as a result of hydrodynamical processes is taken into account. the various processes cannot be described as yet.30  . 5. which can be mobilized to resist these loads. The types of revetments which are presently being studied are shown in fig. In the design process. the structure will collapse or fail. The present section is restricted to the stability of the front slope. Starting with the hydraulic input data (waves. The setup of the studies and stability computation is shown schematically in fig. for rigid structures it is of paramount importance. The flow pressure entrains Settlements are due to consolidation. Therefore a "black box" approach is foliowed in which the relation between critical strength parameters.S. migration. structural characteristics and hydraulic parameters are obtained empirically. . Results obtained for riprap.L. 15. Pumping is seen when the revetment and thus generates a flow of water particles of the soil. Together with the internal characteristics of the structure (porosity of revetment and secondary layers) these pressures result in an internal flow field with corresponding internal pressures. oxidation of organic material (i. The concept of the ultimate limit state is given in fig. Heave of the soil may be caused by the formation of ice within the grain skeleton of the soil during the winter. In many cases. bends under external underneath. The resultant load on the revetment has to be compared with the structural strength. Horizontal sliding or tilting is mostly unlikely for a dike or an earth dam.e. If the ultimate limit state is exceeded.
critical failure mode sand/gravel • inition of mofion • transport of material • prof i Ie formation • erosion • deformation
determinant wave loading
strength
i i
i
• velocity field • weight, friction in waves • dynamic 'stability'
clay/g rass
• max. velocity • impact
4P*
• cohaesion • grassroots • quality of clay • weight, friction • permeability of sublayer/ core • • • • • weight block ing wires large unit permeability incl. sublayer
riprap
• inition of motion • deformation
• max. velocity • seepage
^
\
gabions/ (sand,stone, cement) mattresses incl.geotextiles
• inition of motion • deformation • rock ing • abrasion / corrosion of wires • u.v.
• • • •
max. velocity wave impact climate vandalism
^P^s^
placed blocks • lifting incl. block mats • bending • deformation • sliding
• overpressure • impact
• thickness, friction, interlocking • permeability incl. sublayer/ geotextile • cabling/pins • mechanical strength • weight
asphalt
• erosion • deformation • lifting
• max. velocity • impact • overpressure
Fig. 15 REVIEW OF SLOPE REVETMENTS WITH CRITICAL MODES OF FAILURE
 31 
4.2
Failure modes and determinant wave load
Classical slope revetments may be divided in different categories (see fig. 15) e .g .  Natural material (sand, clay and grass)  Protected by loose units (gravel, riprap)  Protected by interlocking units (concrete blocks and mats)  Protected by concrete and asphalt slabs. In this order the resistance of the protection is derived from friction, cohesion, weight of the units, friction between the units, interlocking and mechanical strength. As a result of the difference of strength properties, critical loading conditions are also different. Maximum velocities will be determined for clay/grass dikes and gravel/riprap, as they cause displacement of the material while uplift pressures and impacts, however, are of more importance for paved revetments and slabs, as they tend to lift the protection. As these phenomena vary both in space and in time, critical loading conditions vary both with respect to the position along the slope and the time during the passage of a wave. Instability for grass/ clay and gravel/riprap will occur around the waterlevel, where velocities are highest during up and down rush. Moreover , wave impacts are more intense in the area just below the still water level. Instability of paved revetments without too much interlock occurs at the pink of maximum down rush, where uplift forces are higher , just before the arrival of the next wave front. If the protection is pervious uplift forces are strongly reduced. Instability will have occurred due to the combined effect of uplift and impact forces, just after wave breaking. Concrete slabs and asphalt will mainly respond to uplift forces at maximum setdown. Due to the internal strength of the protection wave loads are distributed more evenly over a layer area, thus causing a higher resistance against uplift, compared with loose block pavement. 4.3 Wave loading and wave structure  interaction
The interaction between waves and slopes is dependent on the local wave height and period, the external structure geometry (waterdepth at the toe, slope with/without berm, the crest elevation and the internal structural geometry (types, size and grading of revetments and secondary layers). The type of structure wave interaction is conveniently characterized by the so called breaker parameter defined as (see also fig. 1 6 ) :
tga
where H • incident wave height L 0 = wave length at deep water (= 1.56 Tz in metric units) T • wave period a • slope angle of the front face
For large values of the wave length or for large values of ( X (steep slopes), the wave behaves like a long wave, which reflects against the structure without breaking  a so called surging wave. For shorter waves and medium slopes waves will short and break, causing plunging breakers for g values in the range of 1 + 3. This figure is common along the Dutch coasts with slope angles of 1 to 3 + I to 5, wave periods 68 s and wave heights of 3*5 metres.
 32 
STABILITY (STATIC EQUILIBRIUM)
AND PROFILE DEVELOPMENT (DYNAMIC EQUI LIBRIUM)
OF COARSE MATERIALS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN COASTAL ENGINEERING
. . • • • • #
 33 
4. numerical solutions have been obtained. Obviously this zone is varying with the tide. breakwaters and gravel beaches (12). For the design of structures. tpilling Fig. These type of protection were studied experimentally to determine the relationship between the critical strength parameter.34  . 19. D n « nominal grain/stone diameter and A • specific density p s . 16 BREAKER TYPES borm dynomically profil» stabi« Sshapa rock slopas breakwatars groval baaches •and btacto» 1000 •* H 3000 5000 s'A n50 D Fig. and the parameter \ describing the type of wave attack. The value of maximum up and downrush is shown in fig.For mild slopes wave breaking becomes a more continuous process. An example of the general stability criterion involving all design variables is presented for rubble mound revetments in fig. surging and plunging breaker are of main importance. 17 and 18. No reliable formula are available to predict the maximum velocities during uprush and downrush. both for impervious and pervious slopes. (17). however . not yet operational. the rough classification of protective applications is given in figs. 10. which are. the wave loading on grass/clay dikes and gravel (riprap protection) cannot yet be computed properly. The area which suffers from waveloading is bounded by the highers uprush and the lowest downrush point. Por surging and spilling breaker. (19). 17 TYPE OF STRUCTURE AS FUNCTI0N OF Hs /ADn50 New stability formula have been determined for different applications. A solution for the plunging breaker has not yet been obtained. Thus. If the uprush exceeds the crest level. figures are no longer applicable. H s /Aön (H • wave height.4 Stability of loosely materials An extensive research program has been performed recently in the Netherlands on static and dynamic stability of rubble mound revetments. (18). This type of breaking is called "spilling".p w / p w ) . . Using H s / Dn parameter. resulting in a more gradual dissipation of wave energy.
18 APPLICATION OF COARSE MATERIALS IN COASTAL ENGINEERING .prof ec f ion layer homogeneous rockfitl rubblemound breakwaters profile formation strengthened part homogeneous gravel ! "self adjusted" or berm prof i Ie profile formation sandy beaches (nourishment) 10 static stability rockfill 20 H/ADn 40 dynamic stability rockfill dynamic stability gravel Fig.35  .
The "no damage" criterion is taken generally to be when S is between 1 and 3 stones eroded.18 formula for plunging waves Fig. P • 0.1 for the impermeable core and P » 0. m permeable core 0.6 .0 • • J l l 3.0 H s Dn50. P#0.0 P l ^ ^4.0 . 20 four structures are shown with different estimated values for p.0 ' ^ l L 8 B 8É Bj^W *§fc ' »ï<aïY a H^5 S 5.3 S/]/N" SWL ^ 0.g.7 a impermeable core B / B B / ÏÏA' 0.0 1. In fig.0 7.S D » n'50 " A/D r (W50/PS W s o = 5 0 % value of the mass distribution 0.5 average wave period) . a permeability coëfficiënt P is introduced. The final formula for plunging waves (breaker index < 3) is H.2 0.1 0. This permeability in the stability formula e . 2.36  .l/iz". eroded over a width of 1 x D n 5o. In order to obtain stability formula including the permeability of the structure (revetment). For the time being it is left to the engineers judgement to choose the correct value for the structure to be designed. °n50 with S z (T Z • ]/ïT ~ 6 .4 S=A/D2 Thompson (1975) • permeable core * homogeneous structure B N Hs * "/ "7 B k /• m« B B B • number of waves significant wave height T2 a average wave petiod !az< 3(breaking waves) P = » permeability coëfficiënt a 0. 19A GENERAL STABIUTY FORMULA FOR RUBBLE MOUND REVETMENTS A physical description foc S is the number of cubical stones with a side of 1 x D n 5o.0 •• 6.5 0.2 P°' 1 8 (S/]/N)02 tand (2Tt H s /g T z 2)0.6 for the homogeneons (permeable) structure tested.
H.1.nSO H. 19B RIPRAP STABIUTY FORMULAE FOR N=3000 WAVES AND AN IMPERMEABLE CORE .4.9 1 S 6 7 8 9 10 Fig.e 0.25Vcota' ( S 2 / \ Z H ) V S $J" 1 FORcota€3 —*. FORcotQ^3 H.5 ae a7 o./ADnso.37  .t a a / N / z i f H t / g T i 0./ADn501..4(S2/v/ïT)°22 $Z"°M /»/ .^ j .25v 3 ( S 2 / y N ) £. r\ 1/6 _0.1 H./ADn50. Ï D .
e cases. The values of  c r and Bi can be estimated from tables 1 and 2 below: . = slope angle Bi = » stability coëfficiënt. i[tcr = critical Shields parameter. ( W 5 Q / P S ) 1 / 3 > 1 mm. For this purpose the formula developed by pilarczyk (16) can be applied: n Dn50 2 5 V B l /k gjcr gAh' / where: D n 5Q = grain diametre.(25).@ and (d) have been fested. £uJLriLn. 5 . The value of P for @ has been assumed. O. ü c r = critical velocity.2 " <*** no filter no core Dn50A = nominal diameter armour DnSOF = nominal diameter filter Dn50C = nominal diameter core Structures on (a).5 Dn50F/Dn50C = 4 .38  .JL iL^3^. especially regarding the toe and bottom protection in front of the structure. ^ B=oi Dn50A/Dn50C=3. 20 THE PERMEABILITY COËFFICIËNT "P" The methods of improvement of stability of riprap protection and the conceptional transition from the riprap into the block revetments are illustrated in figure 21 (19). Azrelative density k = slope reduction factor = ( 1sin2a/sin2<J>) °. Fig. < t > » angle of internal friction of material. it can be necessary to control the stability of loosely materials against attack of the current.0* \$& Dn50A/Dn50F = 4. h = water depth.^ • I n s o n .
39  .0. BINDERS ARE PLACED PERPENOICULAR TO THE SLOPE BINDERS G ROUTING F. 21 RIPRAP DESIGN AND IMPROVING MEASURES . BASALTON Fig. STONE PITCHING (BASALT) WITH OR WITHOUT GROUTING C. RIPRAP PLACEO STONES t r (l5+2» FILTER (RIPRAP) B STONE OVERUY (ONE TOPLAYERI E. A U STONES ARE PLACED WITH THEIfl LONGEST SlDE PERPENOICLLAR TOTHE SLOPE A.
i. due to grouting. Armorflexmats).5 üplift forces. at present concrete blocks of various sizes and shape are used satisfactorily in coastal (dike) protection under a variety of conditios (especially in countries with shortage of natural materia l s ) .sca_lj5 u ^ t s jinder ^ra_ve att^cjc The quality of concrete blocks was gradually improving in the last decades and the cost diminishing (a. If the blocks are to perform properly. also outer bends of rivers normal turbulence of rivers and channels minor turbulence. etc. often patented. uniform smooth bed conditions flow 810 78 It has to be stressed that.Table 1 state of particles absolute rest 4>cr 0. Flexible interlocked blocks. revetment blocks have actually been used.0.03 Table 2 flow conditions »1 start of instability 0. (i.e. The fact that design rules are still limited in guantity has stimulated investigations in this area. create damage conditions within the range of possibilities of the wave generator (H s • 2. 2. they must adhere to the clay without the presence of too many interstices and cavities. cabling. local 56 disturbances and constrictions. Besides the requirement of good and homogeneous clay a very important execution requirement is the smooting of the slope before the placing of the blocks.15 m thick). whatever method is adapted. shiplap.o. However the calculation methods of uplift are quite different for the both cases. 4.06 major turbulent flow incl. "Rigid" interlocked blocks(i. In respect to the block revetments a distinction can be made between: 1.and impervious revetments The uplift forces are of importance as well for the impervious (asphalt. H m ax " 2 * 6 m ' blocks D * 0.40  . In the case of poor clay (sandy clay) or .) . The large scale tests have shown that rectangular closed blocks placed directly on clay form a very strong revetment. tongue. concrete) as for the pervious (block) revetments.0 m. the experieno? and sound engineering judgement play a large part in a proper design of protective structure. Block. permeable as well as umpermeable (clay) sublayers. Blocjt r e v e ^ n ^ s ^ £arge_ .04 movement 0. The free placed blocks were tested for both. Basalton blocks.and groove.e. Many different kinds of. due to mechanical placing) s that. When there was "good" quality clay (no erosion of the sublayer) it was impossible to. 3. The first two systems (see also figure 22) have been recently teste in the Delta Wave Plume at the Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (DHL) in cooperation with Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory (DSML). etc . Pree blocks of different design.10 .e.
PLACED STONES (VILVOOROSE STONE) PLACED BLOCKS TYPE 'HARINGMAN' STONE f ^ PITCHING (BASALT) GOBI BLOCK ^c^> FW^J BUILDING BLOCKS TONGUEAND GROOVE TYP MODIFIEC TONGUE AND GROOVE TYPE STEPPED TYPE WAFFLE TYPE interlocking blocks 'A BLOCK' BASALTON SIBfiEi • • wiiwrgi wwuff» wwTEM BASALTON REVETMENT fijafc ARMORFLEX BLOCK AND MAT Fig.41  . 22A EXAMPLES OF BLOCKS TESTED ON LARGE SCALE .
An evaluation of all (large scale) empirical data on block revetments.0clk j^ev^jiinenj^s Wave uprush will cause an increase in water table. For schematized geometries of block revetments and steady state conditions uplift pressures can be computad analytically (9) . together with the thickness of the layerr the critical stability number H / A D can be obtained. More information hereabout can be found in (4. This increase in hydraulic head. for which critical uplift conditions are obtained. Por both systems when grouted (filling of surface interspaces by gravel). The Basalton (hexagonal prisms.abj : lj : ty_ £. together with the low external level during downrush. For wave impact no numerical models are available. which are highest near the point of maximum downrush. and empirical data have to be obtained as given in (9). the Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory developed a numerical model.26). in which the internal flow field and related pressures can be computed. polygon connection) and the Armorflexmats (connected by cabling) were tested only on a permeable sublayer. .i.sand (properly compacted). Jjp3 L ijEt_f£r£e£ juid £t. and A • relative density of block material. (9). when the pervious protection is placed upon a granular filter. (26).f__b. The Armorflexmats were tested without cabling to be able to detect the strength of this system without involving the additional strength by cabling. (23). The actual value of these uplift forces is dependent on the external pressure in the breakers wave and the internal pressures due to the ground water flow in the filter and in the dike body. it was impossible to create an instability (damage) within the possibility of the wave generator ( H S / A D S 8 ) . With this model the time dependent flow field can be determined for any given point within the structure (even with a more complicated geometry) . If the specific weight of the fluid and the blocks are known. it is prefereable to use blocks with multilayer geotextile inbetween and H S /AD values about 20% higher than these in the case of a permeable sublayer. (21).25. Where H « critical wave height. using any arbitrary description of the external pressure. obtained from the Dutch research and other studies abroad leads to the design criteria as shown in the table 3 (see also fig. D • thickness of block.42  . 29). will cause uplift presures.(27).9. Parallel to the experimental and analytical studies.
l.l.F R E E PRISMS l.15 m SQUARE BLOCKS _ 0.f OROUTED.l.11m (B)SPECTRUM • GROUTED.43  . ~ t > 8 6 ctga«3 'GOOD' CLAY Jg > 7 • I AD' B ARMORFLEXMAT D0. 22B STABIUTY NUMBERS FOR SOME BLOCK REVETMENTS .1Bm AD i ctga«3 (OSPECTRUM « . ? * > 1 0 AD m i BASALTONPRISMS D0.RJC. SQUARE BLOCKS 0.25 x 0.25 m O » 0.25 m OESTERDAMPROFILE ±5=6 NAP+3£m _ . _a3 (SMAU^ SPECTRUM AJONSIW»" • BPIERSOrTMCHHO C.25 x 0.MAROLLEGAT (OESTER DAM) ctga«4 (OSPECTRUM RIPRAP (OE.) etgo» 3+4 (REGULAR WAVES) «  tga •\f2vtH F/g.
the experience and sound engineering judgement play an important role in applying these design rules. More complicated reactions are being studying starting with a single block. tole rable damage .Table 3: Stability of concrete Hcosa revetment3 for g z < 3 (breaking waves) ctga > 2 definitions i p » strength coëfficiënt defined at e. .D S Q » (W 5 0 /p g ) V 3 For long term loading effects the thickness D should be increased by 25% a = slope angle AD category 2 < i p < 3 V f& V /F cover layer rip. V must be carefully designed and examined Mechanically interlocked blocks Notes blocks/systems with a well defined interlock have got a very high stability (category V ) . In all cases. Once this has been determined. < II ^ < 4 III < l p < IV < 6 q > >6 Blocks interlocked by friction . Blocks placed directly on geotextile and well compacted sand: max.rap (2 layers) N i 3000 waves v p . Pitched stone Loose blocks .3 denotes max. With these data a probabilistic design approach can be developed.5 D • thickness of the block Por riprap D . Cat. The behaviour of the sublayer/filter can be a restrictive factor however.= 1 . The structural strength of the block forms the final stage of this study. . The adequate design criteria on internal stability of sublayers/filters related to the level of hydraulic loading are necessary. where the weight of the block delivers the stabilizing force.1. H s . the resultant loads on the elements can be determined. Blocks connected by geotextile. Research is now being directed towards a better description of the time dependent external pressure during the passage of the waves. Filter requirements of the soil Grouted blocks have to be met by the geotextile connected by geoand/or granular sublayer (9).2 m Loose blocks directly on "good . "Good clay" = » according to reclay" quirements given in (26) Grouted cabled blocks . .44  . textile (26) Cabled blocks . n _ lz = * tafia (2 T t Hg/gTz2)°.
. ._. .^ ^ • • •  i i nonstationary flow Nf — ...— .0 H. _._.i \ ._ _ 1^ .c w : p w . j ..  V i N .1 ...6 0.._ .8 ! // / r ' i (slopej • i 1 1 t \ j ^ . 23 SCHEMA TIZA TION OF THE WA TER PRESSURE UNDER AN IMPERMEABLE REVETMENT . 9 l p t hcosa) trianglerule schematization of the water pressure under a sealed revetment —vfeg^ V¥* E: ~ öxarctg(n)*~max «"Pv n=1 2 3 6 1...4 0.8 0.9 1.5 0.4 0. .— — .._.JL X X \ — triangle rule X •    •  • — 0 0.3 0.. •— X *4j X C• v ai= 1 .2 0..1 0.... —..7 0....i...0 0. ^ 1 E^ ..• • Z — ^ .2 0.3 0.02 stationary flow j ...I •  \ X \ ) •  — i n 0 ••I 0.9 0. Fig.7 0. \— •jV^ 1 •.6 0.5 0.
m e t h o d elem ent c a l c u l a t i o n . should be 3. The real uplift water p r e s s u r e . (25. the slope angle in p l a c e s where water is likely to occur behind the r e v e t m e n t . H y d r a u l i c uplift p r e s sur e s can be caused by: . Por r e l a t i v e l y impermeable revetment.(27) an e l e c t r i c a l a n a l o g u e or a finite Van de V e e r .H . Uplift c r i t e r i o n C"wo h > p a .g . p .e.cosa where A Pa Pw P A cosa Pw To prevent the revetment as a whole against sliding. off the dike body (equilibrium c r i t e r i o n ) . is defined by (fig. the uplift pressure wo Pw cosa the revetment can be obtained using the following The d i m e n s i o n s of formulas ( 2 7 ) : 1. E q u i l i b r i u m tg a s tg<t> criterion Pw (1 .r u l e (fig.viojas r_£vetinent£ ( i « e « c o n c r e t e or dense a s "phTlt) "" • ~ ' Hydr aulic uplift p r e s s u r e s d e v e l o p under a b s o l u t e l y or r e l a t i v e l y wate rimpermeable dike revetment as a result of d i f f e r e n c e s in water level inside and o u t s i d e the dike b o d y . CT w o .e. when p = 0.e. uplift p r e s s u r e d e v e l o p s in the dike body wh en the water level o u t s i d e is lowered l o c a l l y .s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i. Sliding h > pa g criterion f • °wo (f c o s a . 2 3 ) : g (p + h c o s a ) J 'wo w which indicated that h.Qu a s i .46  .sina ) 2. 2 3 ) : max where 0 V is a position of the phreatic line above still water level (assuming that this p o s i t i o n is k n o w n ) .) Pn . over a shore time p e r i o d . at the surface of the r eve tment can be c a l c u l a t e d by simplified a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d s (i. by a passing ship (water d e p r e s s i o n ) or uplift p r e s s u re s d e v e l o p when wind waves produce c h a n g e s in water level on the di keface . the g r o u n d w a t e r level in the dike la gs behind the ebb and flood of the tide or after a storm surge wh en the water level o u t s i d e the dike body falls r a p i d l y and the gr oundwater in the dike falls more s l o w l y . the slope angle must be less than the angle of internal f r i c t i o n .U p l i f t f o r c e s for irope£. . The first a p p r o x i m a t i o n can be obtained by the tria n g l e .Dy namic c o n d i t i o n s i. The (quasi)static p o t e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e .
.V. FILTER FUNCTIONS OPEN STONEASPHALT SANDASPHALT STONE SAND Fig.'!".•. Wl1 U 1 I 9 ^ S H.W. JJÜL f i i i i w i i i j l i ' i ' i i j i i I I i i"i«w i t i i . i 11 iwi^ri'wrrrp^w 1111 in i'ri'i rrii'J"! 11 iPiiWTTPPf < OPEN STONEASPHALT SANDASPHALT (FILTERLAYER) BLOCK ' .". BITUMINOUS SEAL OF DAMS REDUCTION OF GROUNDWATER FLOW/HYDRAULIC GRAOIENTS H.OIKES AND BANKS PROTECTION SLOPE PROTECTION OF DAMS BOTTOM PROTECTION OF CLOSURESTRUCTURES W ^ W W ^ W T T T T I T J I i • 11 i'i iTTfi r ivw* i Fiii'riy^PPP* BOTTOM PROTECTION OF DISCHARGE SLUICES ""•^•. 11. i . .W. i ••« . _L»L ><^ [. 2k APPLICATION AND FUNCTIONS OF ASPHALT 47 .'!^V.SÜWIM:** SEAL FUNCTIONS RESERVOIRS/CANALS '••••^"•:::S!S?!¥SW?OTW. REVETMENT SANDASPHALT [ (FILTERLAYER) ^///.SANDASPHALT y&mwmtmssr^^ W^>>„ SANDASPHALT '.i ' ^ zSi& ^ DAM CONSTRUCTION .•.O:U.
S • stiffness modulus of the asphalt (N/m 2 ).Symbols used: h • revetment thickness (m) . The p 3 a density of water (kg/m ).7 for 1:3. g * acceleration due to gravity (m/s 2 ).e.6 impact forces.* (1V2) \<Jb ) 9 4 0.48  . f • coëfficiënt of friction: f » tg 0 if c  ) > 0. c modulus of subgrade reaction (N/m3) and 0. p .g.2. <7D = asphalt stress at failure (N/m 2 ).5).e. 25 . in particular the compressibility.a factor related to the slope e.3 for 1:4 and q • 2 for slope 1:6. .75 • reduction factor. q • 2. P • wave impact (N/m 1 ). The acting width is assumed equal to: b = 0. _ of dike face. H « wave height (m) and q . protective elements closingdams. wave impacts are also affected by the physical properties of the water and the revetment. V = Poisson ratio for asphalt ( ~ 0. Empirical data are used therefore. a_* slope pressure (N/m2. 24). called impacts. A wave impact (P) is in fact regarded as a pressure (p) which acts V maximum lil O A X Hl Udl pressure ^ 1 COO J T 6 P ( N / l i l ) XS over a certain width (b): P * p. £7wo • maximum uplift ) .2 in which: h . g given by p»pw. 4.thickness of revetment (m) . dense asphalt) and to the less extend for the pervious revetments (i. else f » tg9 . . p w * density of water (kg/m 3 ). Asphalt revetments Waves breaking on the slope cause high forces of short duration.4 H.75 27 1 (.H in which : p w • 2 acceleration due to gravity (m/s ). a _ • concrete or asphalt 3 density bulk density (kg/m ). Results of these tests are summarized below. p n of wet soil (kg/m 3 ).b. Although the basis equations are available solutions cannot be obtained due to lack of measured data for the material properties. obtained from large scale model test performed in Holland and Germany. Wave impacts cannot be computed. The formula reads: h * 0. q • . It is evident that the stability of asphalt revetment should also be controlled regarding the uplift and sliding criteria which can be found in (27) (see also paragraph 4. as yet. breakwaters and banks of navigation channels (see fig. Bitumuous mixtures are placed on a large scale in dry as well as under water as of Dutch seadikes. For water this figure is determined highly by its air content.35). The different mixtures are applied as shown in fig . Impact forces are of primarily importance for the impervious revetments (i.g.q. Plate thickness of an asphalt revetment can be determined using the calculation model developed in (27). Apart from the wave conditions and the structural geometry. block revetments). More information hereabout can be found in (27). used data mentioned in the guidelines for the design of asphalt (27). < t > • angle of internal friction of the subsoil and 0 • angle of friction between the revetment and the subsoil.
i\ w A • 11 <o 1. 10 B Necessary layer thickness for a revetment of open stone asphalt plotted against the modulus of subgrade reaction and for various significant wave heights and slopes flxtont on IMttr Manktt I T .«n«^.03 MC • T • 4.15 W A \ \ \V. M l H C O T < 4. to* ^ 109 t o 107 0 107 . RW MC « •44 i * i .„ /v^ a Fig.4 £ Hs(ml ^^6 ^ . ^ ^ H Fig.5 4 0.6 slope 1:6 0.4 lml 0.6 r 02 0.4 \H 0.2 Hs(m)  ^0^6 —~J—s 10" 1 .6 slope 1 : 2 / 1 : 4 0. ^ = ? 109 0 :==* 107 10« 109 F/O A Necessary layer thickness for a revetment of dense stone asphalt plotted against the "' modulus of subgrade reaction and for various significant wave heights and slopes 107 108 109 "lO 7 10a modulus of subgrade reaction (N/m3) Fig.10 MC O T i S.8 slope 1 : 3 0.2 s 0. C Fixtone®: damageparameter versus breakerparameter 'O .12 MC fixtont on wn« atpnaH » T i 3.10 MC • T .6 ij 0.10. 26 DIMENSIONING OF ASPHALT REVETMENTS AGAINST WAVE IMPACT .49  .
As an example of the calculation method mentioned before (fig. depth 7 m.OVEMIUEO MIX Q v o *M % . can resist the current attack up to 6 m/s and the wave attack up to H s • 3 m ( 6 ) . underfilled mixtures are very permeable to water. The design criteria in respect to this aspect are still scarce. However. The prototype measurements took place in the Hartel Canal (Rotterdam) j bottom width 75 m. 5 m. 4. in respect to the inland vessels.65 0.and prototypetests indicated that the openstone asphalt. special attention should be paid to the preparation of sandbody (compaction). equipped with geotextile filter. 10 3 0. It is also reasonable to expect that openstone asphalt revetment on the thick bed of sandasphalt can be designed even to unfrequent loading of waves of H. with slope 1 on 3 and the bed constant c •' 10 8 N / m .90 0. the systematic modeland prototype researach on this subject is being carried out in the Netherlands. The following test embankments. 26) . were purposely constructed on slope 1:4 for the measurements campaigns (see fig. (3) . if properly designed. 25 Z?£ïï/?£f 0 f BITUMEN FILLING OF AGGREGA TE In overfilled mixtures the viscoelastic properties of the bitumen dominate. 40 The detailed information on design and execution methods for different applications of asphalt can be found in (20) and (27). Reference should be made to Blaauw et al (1984) and Pilarczyk (1984) . However .80 0. The resistance of the sandasphalt is limited to the velocity of 3 m/s and the wave height of 2 m. the following layer thickness can be given as an indication: wave height asphalt open sand concrete stone asphalt asphalt * s (m) 2 0.(25). Revetments under snip 1 s induced load Por design of bank protection of navigation channels and harbour entraces is not only the laod due to the windwaves but also the load induced by ship movement (waves and currents) of major i i Lmportance. in underfilled mixtures the properties of the mineral aggregates are dominant.50  .20 0. The large scale. asphalt concrete belongs to the category exactly filled mixtures. The described overfilled mixtures are mastic asphalt and overfilled stone asphalt. 30 5 0.aUNMftFIUCO MIX tINTERMEOMTE FIUINO I EITUMEN EZ3 MMEML AMMOATE • .3 (compaoted sand b e d ) . for some asphalt revetments.7. 2 7 ) : .40 0. (20. 20 4 0. in such extreme cases.40 0.
27 PROTOTYPE TESTS HARTEL CANAL (ship's waves) .4 Schematized setup of prototype ! saüing paraid te HM emtraliM measurements .3 Crossprofile at central measurement stage + 500. — «auo* i—» •MrMvX iMUr • «atarvaloetty meter • f low dlractfon m»t«r m «cho soundvr F/V7.HARTELCAHAL fflB m*«ting cabfn potitfOMnf tyitwn Ptaced .0 Examples of constructions tested F/g. f Typical crosssection of prototype embankments Sandmattrass on gravel Fixtone on sandasphalt Fig.15m) gaotaxtil* F/p.btacks F/j. Example of a Reno mattnns ACZ0«tta mat Fiitons (o.
Hi (cos B ) 0 . Both. calculation methods based on model results give a proper approximation of the prototype values. velocity of return flow [ms" 1 ) . The gravel embankments (3080 mm and 8 02 00 mm) were applied to verify the model relations describing the beginning of movement and transport of loose materials under shipinduced water motions. The behaviour of the other revetment types.15 m) on sand 6. Z 0. four loaded and empty barges and six loaded barges in 3 x 2 and 2 x 3 formation have been used.85 m. The typical maximum values of watermotioncomponents induced by these testships were as follows: maximum velocity of return flow. blocks on gravel.1 to 1. approach. riprap (540 kg) on clay 2. R = slope factor and 0 » 1.8 to 2. blocks on sand 5. blocks (0. ü r • 2 m s " 1 . $ = angle of internal friction. in general.12 m) on silex/sand 10. The hydraulic components of ship induced water motion (ü r . It has been proved that. riprap (540 kg) on sand 7. was rather satisfactory.52  . 2* Zmax/AD 5 0 = § 2.11 m) on gravel/sand 13. . sandmattresses (0. ö • angle of wave j i s 55'.17 m) on sand 14.20 m) on gravel/sand 12.85 m and maximum height of secundary waves. armorflexmats (0. Zmax> Hi) can be calculated accordingly to Blaauw. 5 3' — ! S 1. on sand 4. H * 0. testships and wet crosssection of the test location were equipped with various instruments.15 m) on sand asphalt on sand 11.3 AD 50 where: Hi * height of secundary waves. D50 •" average sieve value diameter (50%) .4. With some exceptions. The tests have been carried out with tugs (700 hp and 1120 hp) and with pushtows (pushing units 4500 hp and 5400 hp) . basalton (0.15 m) on Clay 3. PVCReno matresses (0.(3). basalton (0. no instability was detected. a • angle of slope. These test ships sailed both along the central axis and close to the embankment of the canal at different speeds to study the relationship between the.shipinduced water motion and the forces exerted on the banks. coarse gravel (80200 mm) on sand 8. ACZ Delta blockmats (0. fixton (0.3 where: Z m a x * waterlevel depression in front of transverse sternwave . used in the prototype tests. et al (1984).16 m) on gravel/sand The test embankments (toplayer and subsoil) . maximum waterlevel depression. fine gravel (3080 mm) on sand 9.1. The following stability criteria have been established: 1° 050 =T *r2 "2gS C O S 0C 1  t a n 2 c t 1 tan2(> where: ü.
53  .CUTTING OF THE SOOS FROM A DIKE .
The erosion on the upper part of slope was for both claytypes the same and equal to about 2 .6 sec. During the tests. velocity 3 m / s ) . the durability of the grass and the enlargement of holes previously dug in the grass were studied. concrete or asphaltic protection. rather than stone. max. T p • 12 s. Special equipment was used to simulate the runup and rundown velocities on this slope. One of the options for reinforcement is a slope pcotection of grass on a bed of clay.After the completion of the shortterm measurements in the Hartel Canal it was decided to keep all these prototype embankments for further studies on long term behaviour in the coming years. The grassmats were tested with the average velocity of 2 m/s (average over 40 hours of test) and the thickness of a water layer of about 0. Erosion speed of the clay surface was 1 to 2 mm per hour up to 20 hours depending on quality of grassmat. (plunging breaker falling on a water cushion). The model consisted of a sand core covered with a clay layer on a slope 1 on 8. In the Delta Flume. Moreover. After 30 hours of continuous random wave attack the condition of the grass dike was still exceptional well. the residual strength of the dike was such that its collapse was far from imminent (7). the wave action in the Wadden Sea is much reduced by a row of barrier islands.85 m with Tp • 5. The surgingbreaker conditions were applied to eliminate the effect of wave impact (Ha • 1.3 cm after about 5 hours of loading. the wave heights and periods and water levels (tidal cyclus) were varied continuously according to predetermined boundary conditions during the design storm surge. a five metre wide section of the grass dike was reproduced on full scale. The detailed information on the results and grassmat specification can be found in (8). Two investigations have been performed. The surface erosion speed of clay protected by grass was not more than 1 mm per hour. Also in this case two qualitatively different clays were used (fat and lean clay). . This option is feasible because vast mudflats (high foreshore) and grasslands stretch away on the seaside of the existing dikes and are inundated only during storm surges.54  . Some additional information on resistance of unprotected claysurface (slope 1 on 3. Two qualitatively different grassmats on clay were used. 4. Sods of grass with the depth of the roots of approximately 40 cm were laid on top of the clay layer (the grass was taken from an existing dike that was reinforced ten years ago). Although wave action considerably enlarged some of these holes.6 m.05 m. The Delft Hydraulic Laboratory was commissioned to assess the stability of such a grass dike by means of a full scale model study which was an absolute requirement as grass cannot be scaled down. Due to these factors the design wave height does not exceed 2 m. Similar process took place for a good quality grassmat but after 40 hours of loading.8 Stability of grassslopes Some of the existing dikes along the Wadden Sea (Northern part of the Netherlands) need still reinforcement as these do not yet meet the specific safety requirements. The measured maximum velocity on the slope (1:8) was about 2 m/s. The maximum velocity was about 4 m/s. The maximum H s was equal to 1. After 20 hours of loading the erosion speed started to grow much progressively for a bad quality grassmat. The second investigation was carried out in a large (site) f1urne on slope 1 on 4.5) were obtained during the investigation carried out for the Eastern Scheldt dikes (10). In a number of additional tests.
55  .FULLSCALE STABILITY TESTS OF A "GRASS DIKE" .
these informations can be of a great value for the designing of grass dikes at the present time.s (Xi). Approximate fulldistribution approach. This latest probably because of the local nonhomogenity of clay. while for a lean qlay a local cavity of about 0. The mean value \Xz and Standard deviation Cfz can be evaluated as: . and a report will be presented by PIANC workinggroup no.W. based on traditional practice or the designer's personal experience. First order designpoint approach. 3 later in 1987. It goes beyond the scope of this report to deal with all the methods in detail.After the sarae time. For constructional design the use of probabilistic calculations is preferred. Mutually independent normally distributed variables are assumed. 2. Level II: j^nüproj3aj3rlist_£c a£p£oa_c£j approximation methods are applied* in whTch normal probability distributions are assumed for both strength and laoding: 1. There are three internationally agreed levels on which the limit state equations may be solved (31). Level III: Fulldistribution approach. where R * resistance function. First order mean value approach. this method accounts for the exact joint probability distribution functions including the correlations among the parameters. S • load function and Xi * basic variables.L. clay) at locally damaged toplayers (some protective units were removed) were performed.(35): Level I : jc[u£S_i^j)rj3babil^Sjtic £P£r£ac_h. provided a good (and verified) theoretical model is available. The limit state of the considered component occurs at Z * 0. was about 7 cm for a good clay. The reliability function z may be defined as Z • R (Xj) . The design method is based on the assumption that the structure will not fail if the loads are less than the strength. In this method the reliability function Z is linearized about the expected mean value of the parameters involved. 4. It usually requires a considerable computational effort. A factor of safety is used to cover uncertainties. The designer selects values of load parameters that are assumed to be adequately high and thus safe.4 m depth was created at the impact point. The choice of load and strength parameters is often subjective. 3.9 Example of semiprobabilistic calculation of revetment The deterministic approach is the most traditional design method ( ) . the erosion below S. However. A probabilistic procedure for revetments is currently under development. The probabilistic method is a systematic approach using statistical techniques. but the mean value approach will be discussed because of its simplicity and its illustrative value for studying the effect of the value of various strength and load parameters involved. Some additional information on this subject can be found in (5). present construction desig"n"~ methods witlï relevant" partial safety factors.56  . Also during this investigation a number of additional tests on the erosion of different sublayers (incl. The general design rules cannot be defined yet. the failure state is related to Z < 0. All the tests mentioned above indicated that the strength of the grass slopes is strongly affected by the guality of clay and the condition of grass and its rooting.
ISITENOUGH? .57  .
(x n >) ^z" The reliability index  i = iz/ G"z is the distance between Z • 0 and the 3Z=HZ/C7 mean value.iz . D » p p * stability factor.. A • relative density of blockunits.25 Tp tana cosa The derivative of Z according 6z 3 .A. * (top)wave period (LT wave length).25 T p tana and ^Hs/Lp' where: H s ° significant wave height.— • ip .p w ) / p w . A = ( p g . then for Z • °s0N(i). This method is less accurate then a more detailed elaboration and better approximations of the reliability function but is i l l u s t r a t i v e Flg.58  . The next example may illustrate this: stability of block revetments.S *t p . measured in Standard deviation units and is as such a measure of the probability that Z will be less then zero. length) . Now the probability of failure can be read from tabulated normal distribution. Thus the probability of failure is now: P(Z < 0 ) = <3>N((3) . also valid for riprap on relatively impermeable sublayer): l s AD cosa j / f Ê tana 1 . . according to the Pilarczyk formula (for 2 s i p < 3 .• « breaker index and i The limit state function: H Z • R .(XT ) and 0 5 V. 28 RELIABILITY INDEX for becoming aware of t h e most important parameters.Hs 1 .z ( M . Assuming the normal distribution for Z: 4>N(Z [1/(7). 5 T p tana to each variable: 9H S dz .D  sVf£ cosa • i p . • thickness of block. D . D 8 cosa 3A 3z H s ^ 5 Tp/4 1 2 c t g a i/ctga' c o s a sina ]/ctga" c o s 2 a (1+ctg2a) 3(ctga) . A . a= angle of slope.
? 59  .
2. 10~3 112.95 0.0 1 m D(assumed) 0.50 0. 65.31 . 1 0 .23. 12.3 1 ./ ( 7 Z * 0 . 4. D = 0. When the uncer tainties regarding the H s and i p are taken into account.256 0.05 0.36 m with (per definition) 50% probability of failure (in this case the mean value for Z is 0: !z • 0. 4T p /Hs* 2 cosa AD  The following steps are taken to calculate the mean value of Z (  i ) z and the Standard deviation G"z as a result of the weighed partial Standard deviation of each stochastic parameter .5 s) < S i s 0.AD 3 z / 3 D = q>.25 5.0 m Hs 0.05 1 .595 yT <ÖCi 9z GV.250 0.g.5(1 . 103 315.555 0. 103 7 0 .90.630 7.5 = 4. 103 103 103 103 103 103 256. 103 0.25 1 .506 Ti. 25 ctga 1. 1 5 .B.512 0. The deterrainistic calculation provides in this case D » 0.1/3 3 . 5 9 5 / 0 # 5 0 6 = 1 m 176 gz m the of. 5 tand.4)0.66. 22 5 6 26 39 2 100% Hs A ctga T P D 0.45.01 240. the determinist ie calculation provides D » 0.000 & N' 57.47) 5 s or (0.25 m or (0. 2 5 = 2. 3XÏ 3z/3Hs 3z/3A • ^ « D 3z/3<ct9°0 3z/3Tp 3 z / 3 9 .45 m. « 2 + 0 . 103 256.45 m N. . 2 8 .00 0.es (Xi) on C7Z .54.45 2. Assuming.25 m and i p= » 5 .4 A 3 (cos a =0.38. e. x i e.6. H.960 2.0 0.0. 99.95 1. so { i • Mz/^z a 0 ) .25 0. The assumed values of input variables are as follows: CT(Xi) variable 0. the probability of failure will be calculated in the following way: iz . as a first approximation.5. 103 <TZ2  iz p.50 5 0.60  . 16.az 3Tp — 39 vpA 3D H.D * * * 0.10 n) 2.
3* Ik (o) frcqucncy § •= £ of toading  *• * c *> o \ •f intcnsity of tooding(P) (b) r«spen*« function intensity of loading(P) (e) damag» domogo S « fcs.f.T inttnsity of lood ing (P) % <?* OUTUNES OF A PROBABIUSTIC DESIGN APPROACH 61 .
The lay down of the criterion of acceptable probability of failure is mostly left to the responsible authorities. there is still a lack of data and insight in many of the above aspects. The resulting total damage is a measure of the expected maintance of the slope protection works for a given size of the top layer and revetment composition. The general outlines of the probabilistic approach are shown in Fig. and economical consequentes of failure. In this case the variability (or uncertaintly) about the actual wave conditions (wave height and wave period) is most important (assuming that the accuray of the formule.e. 29 One may relate this to the design of slope protection by loosely materials (i . Besides this minimum integral cost criterion. A process of economical optimalization. P Sa • I s. The resultant damage (Sd) during the lifetime of the construction is obtained as shown in Fig 29c. . f • frequence of occurence of a given load intensity. based on the costs of construction and maintance. can not be improved). one should als restrict the "expected total damage". The maximumn acceptable damage depends on: the relationship between "expected total damage". where the costs of each decision and its consequences are weighed by the probability of these events. Such an approach can easily be used for decisional analysis. the repeating of this calculations provides p * 1. s * damage per unit time and p » intensity of load.5 sec.29b). the response function should be obtained from hydraulic model tests or by applying known "transport" relationships (Fig. leading to the selection of the optimum size of the revetment. Of course if one takes a larger thickness of block.495 and the probability of failure equal to about 7%.f. The actual state of the knowlegde allows to apply this approach only for slope protection by loosely materials where the adequate transferfunctions (transport formulae) have been developed in the recent years. which is an average over the total protection length and the "maximum possible damage" that may take place at a certain location. the summation of the damage should be computed by integration over the various load combinations and their probabilities. However. a lower probability of failure can be expected. First of all one shoul'd be able to "predict" the frequencies of occurence of hydraulic loads during the lifetime of construction (Fig. Therefore the research programmes in the Netherlands for the coming years are being systematically directed towards economically justified design criteria for different protective structures and different applications. the risk of progressive damage if repair in time is impossible for technical. can further be carried out. the best way is to calculate the probability of failure for various design alternatives in combination with some economical studies regarding the execution and maintance costs.Further research for lowering the probability of failure may then focussed on the characteristics of these parameters. r iprap) . organisational or financial reasons. where: T * lifetime of the construction. However in general.T. the type of"construction and the vulnerability of the subsoil.62  .) Secondly. a more safe situation and thus. thus . Assuming that in this case the prediction of the actual wave conditions can be improved nl.29a. If more than one type of loading is acting.1 m and G"Tp • 0. G"Hg=i 0.
undesired top event
collopse of
embankment/
revetment
probability of faiture/damage
single element
ac
transitions
segments of structure
shear stress
pressure head
probabilistic calculations with density of events, or: events and effects guesses
s
element weight
r4~i\
JT^L
ship traffic river ftow
ship traffic groundwater flow filter characteristics wind setup
bank slope — cohesion
surges
— friction
wind woves
L
toleronce in alignment
J l_.
I
F/g. A Example of simplified fault tree for a riverbank and dike revetment
faitun sta dikt Mttp wattri wtrtopping GCNERALLY: FAILURE[ brtaeh LOAD > STRENGTH (S) IR) «rosion inner slopt
«won auhrsloa
wavt ottack
inttrrwl troiion
M
>R
rtvthntnt stitnglh
X
r#*thii#nt
rafi luit
tlip cirtlt
liqutfotrion
x
m
htod rabbi tMM
*Tp'ptn«" ,—I length grainsin
M
flood
ovtrtoppinq
WQVt
£
dikthtight slop*
OMtrtopping,
5zfc X
WQVt
rWlowl
durarion
H
(lip crew
hraht
run up
friction phrta plant
5*1
53E
5'""
_—I l—' *—I
stttlcffltnt DonrtrucMor
ntQnT
bom
hol»
nLn
ortock
fhickn*» rtvttmtnt
(ow t i l t
friction guwtffy tro*nn fort «hom
X
(ow tidt
loost sent phrta, ptam troswn fortthort
S>R
/ v ^ . ft^w faulMre»
of o dike section
cumott
ëf^
pront non ttrtngtt)
F/g. 30 FAULT TREES FOR WATER DEFENCE STRUCTURES
 63 
5.
5.1
DESIGN
CONSIDERATIONS
General requirements for revetments
By definition, a revetment is a slope ptotection designed to protect and stabilize a slope that may be subject to action by water currents and waves. To fulfil this function, the following aspects have to be taken under consideration in the design process: a) stability (toplayer, sublayer, subsoil, foundation). b) flexibility (e.g. following the settlement without influencing the stability). c) durability (toplayer, asphalt, concrete, geotextile, cables, etc.) . d) possibility of inspection of failure (monitoring of damage) . e) easy placement and repair (local damage). f) low cost (construction/maintenance). g) overall safety (primary or secondary defence, geometry of foreshore , etc .) . h) additional functional requirements, i.e. special measures for reduction of runup and/or roads for maintenance activities (berm requirements, e t c , ) . The best revetment is one which combines all these functions. An essential part of the design of revetments, which as a rule can only fully be applied quantatively at this design stage, is the fault tree. This is a scheme in which the events and their consequences or the errors and causes, which contribute to the probability of failure, are arranged in a clear way (fig. 3 0 ) . Por some events in the fault tree it is not yet possible to calculate with mathematical models or to measure in physical models or actual practicethe probability of occurrence. Then, a best guess based on engineering judgement has to be made. Whatever the origin of the probabilities, there are always many uncertainties. Therefore the probabilistic calcülations should also be made for both optimistic and pessimistic sets of assumptions. Only in this way does it become possible to investigate the contribution of the probability of a potential failure to the probability of the "undesired top event" . If this contribution is significant then it becomes relevant to put more effort into making a "better guess" either by means of more engineering expertise or further research, in order to rule out this uncertainty by changing the design. This means that this technique also provides a guideline for the selection of (additional) necessary research and, finally, for the proper selection and design of the final protective structure.(Fig. 31) 5.2 Dimensioning
Por revetments it is essential to distinguish the nature of the attack and the duration of time; short loading times and loadings with a long cycle time. To the fir'st category belongs the wave attack from wind and ships waves; to the second category belongs the variation of the waterlevel caused by tidal and seasonal influences, which can induce ground water flows. The first type of load (wave impact) is of importance for all types of revetments, while the second type of load (slow variation in ground water flow and in phreaticline) is of primarily importance for impermeable revetments only. The variation of the pressure due to the variation of phreaticline can be determined using an electric analogue or a finite element calculation. The uplift pressure due to wave attack has to be de
 64 
boundarv conditions
technicQl optimal
alternative
alternafive design I
____r__i
(see to fhe left)
finat design execution
I
Fig. 31 DESIGN OEVELOPMENT
65 
15) it is obvious that there are very many possible combinations that can lead to a large number of possible constructions.) is an important condition for the design of a revetment. Sliding criteria: the revetment should be designed so that it does not slide under frequently occurring loading situations. the component of the weight of the revetment. technical and financial) with the help of the demands that are made. 2. It seems to be wise to make the choice in a group so that the sub jective aspect can play the least possible part. This problem is actually treated by a special working group in the Netherlands. in a more or less arbitrary way below.termined mostly by model (or prototype) tests for each revetment type under consideration. Uplift criteria: in loading situations which occur rarely. The choice of a berm yes of no can be of a great influence to the choice of the upper part of the slope. as well as to ensure that the used safety factor is sufficiënt to cover the secondary effects and inaccuracies in the used data and boundary conditions. Besides. can be used (9) . normal to the dike face should be greater than the uplift pressure caused by water. On the other side this can restrict the freedom of design concerning the revetment. the choice of the main revetment construction has its own repercussions for the transitions and the other parts of the dike. subjective experiences and/or prejudice can be decisive.4 Composition of dike and revetment Composition of the construction (profile. Even the best design may fail as a result of poor workmanship and bad management. This does not simplify the choice of a revetment. Por the dimensions of the revetments the following (genetal) design criteria can be set out ( 26. 4. On one side this can influence the division of the wave forces on a dike. as developed in the Netherlands. 5. Thus.66  . etc. Som e possible aspects and solutions that can play a part in the choice of the construction of the revetment will be mentioned. the aspects which are concerned with construction and with management and maintenance should also be involved in this stage. criteria for judging need to be formulated (functional . 27 en 28) : 1. and the execution and maintenance method. Equilibrium criteria: the revetment including sublayers and subsoils must be in equilibrium as a whole. such as storm surges. The hollow shape of a slope can increase the clenching forces (and so stability) of .3 Choice of revetment From the classification of revetments (see fig. yes/no berm. Por permeable revetments on permeable sublayer the mathematical model "Steenzet". 3. 5. Surfaceresistance criteria: the surface partiele of revetment should have enough resistance against wave and current attack. Por the different aspects weighing factors can be made so that a more objective choice might be possible. The models selected to establish the dimensions of a structure will have to prove itself in practive to ensure that this represents the primary behaviour of the prototype. To make a choice out of various and in a certain situation possible alternatives. Because all the various criteria have not been defined equally well and do not play an equally prominent part in the definite choice.
geotextïle Fig.67  . 32 DESIGN PRINÜPLES .
to an acceptable minimum . They themselves are influenced by the degree of compacting. from the large scale tests (9). A relative proctor density degree of 95100%. can in sand reduce the possibility of liquefaction. As an example.the bearing capacity is large than the thickness of the revetment can bè reducéd (especially for asphalt revetments).inc_ip_le_s_oJ[ ^oinpc^s^t^oii a) Stability of top layers strongly depend on the sort/composition of sublayers and they must therefore be regarded as a whole. slags.68 . composition according to criteria of internal stability (9)). the bedding constant and Poissons' ratio. Thus. compacted. among others. Both aspects must therefore already be taken along within the stadium of designing. . . The stability of toplayers and sublayers must therefore be designed steadily (with an equal opportunity of failure) . Conclusion: the design of a slope revetment must be seen as an integral part of the total dikedesign. In this respect the following aspects are important: . for example wave attack. the type and state of subsoil or dike body can be decisive for the choice of the revetment type. silex. j?r. A high or a low foreshore can be decisive for the level of extending the riprap and the sort of underlayer and/or toe construction. If . (26) it appears that a block revetment on a sublayer of "good clay" provides more stability than one on a permeable sublayer (see also table 3 on stability of concrete revetments) . A good and cheaper solution can also be realized by applying a thick layer of broadly graded waste products as minestone. avert the liquefaction of a saturated or almost saturated soil by impact loads. in general. down to a depth of about 2 m. The granular filters are mostly more expensive and difficult to realize (especially under water) within the requirement limits (fig.block revetments and at the same time decrease the followup of foundationtransformations.(27) Subsoils as dike or bank body play an important role in the stability of revetments and in the total stability of protective structure. b) Instability (erosion) of sublayers and/or subsoil can lead to failure of a toplayer. The extend review on geotextiles can be found in (23) and (32). 3 3 ) . This principle is illustrated in figure 32 for block revetments. The permeability (k) of the different parts of the construction must increase from toe to top:k ground < k sublayer/ filter < k toplayer. A substitutional solution is a geotextile {filter function) with a certain thickness of graded stone layer (with function to dump the internal hydraulic loads). c) A good tuning of the permeability of the top layer and sublayers (including geotextiles) is an essential condition for an equal design. etc. 5. Of importance are the properties of the soil such as the modulus of elasticity.5.5 m for high hydraulic loads.the bearing capacity of the dike/bank body determines among other the performance of a revetment under wave and current attack. Subsoil requirements (26). The design also needs to be made (executed) and maintained. (range 0.A high degree of compaction can.
33 CHOICE OF FILTER/SUBLAYER .GRANULAR FILTERS FILTER RULES GEOTEXTILES THIN TYPES WOVEN NONWOVEN MULTILAYER TYPES FILTER.AND THICKNESS FUNCTION COMPDSED FILTERS GRANULAR LAYER THICKNESSDAMPING FUNCTION GEOTEXTILE FILTER FUNCTION Fig.69  .
70  . To obtain a good compaction the sandbody can be built up in this layers using bulldozers for compacting and for profiling of the dike face. as asphalt concrete. Under impermeable mixes. It is also possible to dump an excess of material. Erosion or damage often starts at joints and transitions.Por placement of block revetments on clay subsoil (or sublayer) besides the requirement of right composition and homogenity. as example. good drainage in this case is essential. (26). Very often a new slope protection has to be connected to an already existing protective construction which involves another protective system. upper slope protection (very often grassmat) . main protection in the area of heavy wave and current attack.After construction the dike body will tend to settle. berm for runup reduction or as maintenance road. Por loads higher than H s • 1. This effect must certainly be taken into account with clayey subsoils. after this has been compacted (for example by a vibration roller) to make the required profile. .g.The permeability of the sand bed is important in connection with groundwater flow in the dike body and . This holds for differences in elastic and plastic behaviour and in the permeability or the sand tight . all parts of protective structure has to be taken under consideration. which requires special attention. joints onto the same material and onto other revetment materials. in the case of "poor clay" (concerning composition or surface preparation) it should be recommended to protect the clay surface with a geotextile.A general design guideline is that transitions should be avoided as' much as possible. With very permeable materials the situation does not develop. the proper compaction and smooth surface (blocks placed as close as possible to the clay surface) are of primarily importance (26). Different materials and different execution principles are mostly applied for these specific parts (see. the occurring of uplift pressures under a relatively watertight revetments and the softening of the sand body. The good compaction of sand is essential to avoid sliding or even liquefaction. slope protection of dike or bank consists of a number of structural parts such as: toe protection. The dry placing of an open asphalt mix on a satucated sand bed through the influx of water will result in the early development of stripping.2 m. uplift pressures can develop while the asphalt is still soft when placed on hydraulically filled sand bed. If the bed is at the same time badly permeable then it is possible that the grain stress only recovers slowly and that the bearing capacity of the bed temporarily appears to be insufficiënt. If it has not been well compacted or if there are clay of peat layers in the subsoil.The compaction by vibration in a loosely packed saturated sandbody can cause a liquefact ion..2 m <H S <2.The use of open top layers directly on sand body (with geotextile in between) is restricted to wave height of H s • 1. . the settlement can be large and irregular.alayer 0. (27) In general. and transitions onto other structures or revetment parts. .3 m for 1. Therefore.5 m) 5. are the joints and the transitions. To obtain a homogeneous strong protection. . If they are inevitable the discontinuities introduced should be minimized.2 m a well graded layer of stone on a geotextile is recommendable (e. and then. an important aspect of revetment construction. dike construction in figure 7 ) .6 Joints and transitions (21). therefore.20.
concrete blocks gravel minestone dumped stone asphaltconcrete penetration A Penetration of sand info the minewaste stone geofexfile bet ween sand and minestone /gravel is necessary concrete blocks separation basalt columns board penetration B Transition from basalt columns f o concrete blocks separation board too short Fig.71  . 54 ILLUSTRATION OF TRANSITION PROBLEMS .
35 EXAMPLES OF TOEPROTECTION .clay ^ c l o s e pilerow rubble PLACED BLOCKS sea bottom geotextile 510cm gravel 520mm (broken stone) spaced piles and wooden plank (board) 77777* blocks with penetration geotextile sand asphalt concrete \ .ness.wooden sheetpile F/g. When these guidelines are not foliowed the joints or transitions may influence loads in terms of forces due to differences in stiffness or settlement. Examples to illustrate the problem of transitions are given in figures 34 and 35.72  . Proper execütion is essential in order to obtain satisfactory joints and transitions. or strong pressure gradients due to a concentrated ground water flow. migration of subsoil from one part to another (erosion) . BASALT (traditional/old Dutch solution) geotextile dumped stone (rubble) brick layers ^ .
73  .technical the modical checkup as alarmbell prevention is better than cure .
an integral approach is required since various disciplin es and techniques are involved in the anal ysis of the coastal prob lems and their potential solutio ns. creation of alternative coastal protection plans. 5. that is a coherent set of measures. a certain spatial integrat ion is required becau se of the po tential physical interac tions between adjacent coastal sections.6. co astal protection measures and the daily m anagement and control. A new philosophy in coastal monitoring involves the combination of mathematical simulation models and measurements. mathematica 1 and physical modelling techniq ues . Inform ation about the actu al s tate of the coastal area including coasta 1 str uctures is indi spen sabl e for optimal coastal management ( Fig. definition of coastal sections. identification of coastal protection measures. Firstly. cal culati on of the cost s of the monitoring network. the following steps can be distinguished: 1. the results of measurements are compared with the forecast of the mathematical model. 2. 5. which is similar to that applied in the control of industrial processes. It will lead very often to development of the new types of monitoringinstruments. often high. economics. impact assessment (full specification of all relevant effects). 6. creation of basic alternatives. S econdly. In generating and analysing a coastal protection plan. A gene rally applicabl e met hod for the design and optimalization of monito r ing n etworks b eing actu ally developed in the Netherlands consis ts of the five main step s : 1. etc. 4. to achieve a certain extend of protection against existing or anticipated damage. Based on the results of analyse done in the second step. its design s hould yield an optim al s yste i n which provides the responsible agenci es wit h suffici ent i nf or raati on at minimal costs. land use planning . 3. MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING Coastal zone management involves management and decisionmakig regarding: • a coastal ptotection plan. an integ ral approach to the coastal problems is required because of the in ter relations hip between land use. Coastal zone mana gement is ch aracterized by its integ ral nature. To red uce th e. by section. evaluation (by the decisionmakers). the necessary instruments for monitorig can be defined. screening of measures.ef fectiveness analysis. in this approach. 3 6 ) . cos ts o f the monitoring system. for exam ple. 7. specified in time and space. ide ntifie ation and quan tif icati on of the objectives. Coast al ma nage ment . 74 . Th irdly. • a monitoring and control system (inspection system. coastal engineering . is therefore intimately connected wi th mon itoring a ctivi ties and the design of routine monitoring networ ks and . environmental science. exe cution of a cos t. measurements). 4. 2 ide ntifie ation of the r elev ant proces dynamics. 3 det ermina tion of t he ef fect iven ess of the information provided by the ne twork./or speci fic f ield sur veys.
AIM FUNCTION Lhrg iUt DESIGN CRITERIA ••CONSTRUCTION (tolerante) CRITERIA HMAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT ~/\ rp RESPONSE MODEL PREDICTION FUTURE CHANGES SUPERVISION EXECUTON iquality contrd INSPECTION MONITORING CONSTRUCT»* AS BUILT briginal state! ±_1 HAINTENANCE SCENARIO ACTUAL STATE OF tONSTRUCTION] 3 lL BOUNOARY CONOITIONS (LOAOS) F/g. 36A MANAGEMENT MODEL .75  .
.The main activities on the subjects mentioned above are carried out by the Rijkswaterstat and the Technical Advisory Comittee on Water Defences in cooperation with the Centre for Civil Egineering. and some other organization. 36B INSPECTION CRAPH . Codes and Specifications.76  . the Delft Hydraulics and the Delft Geotechnics (laboratories) . Research.o m X) o observation limit (warning) ' J 5 1 *=inspection \ (minimum) acceptable Standard time Fig.
77  . APPLICATIONS APPLICATIONS MODEL(S) i : VERIFICATION FILTERS/ MATERIAL MODIFICATION SUBSOIL PROPERTIES LONG TERM EFFECTS FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS / DESIGN RULES CONSTRUCT. 37 SEADIKES AND BANK PROTECTION RESEARCH RESEARCH APPROACH ./COSTS MAINTENANCE =1 Fig. EXTERNAL LOAD INTERNAL LOAD x BANKS EXTERNAL LOAD u NATURE SEMI BLACKBOX J t DESK STUDIES MODELS U y •*—(SCALE EFFECTS> LARQE FLUME(S) i r LARGE MODEL (S) NATURE SEMI BLACKBOX F ANALYTICAL SOLUTION i MATHEM.BOUNDARY CONDITIONS SEADIKES.
waste products of industry: minestone.g.78  . the (local) experience and sound engineering judgement play an important part in a proper design of protective structures.monitoring of damage. and desired function of constructionThe local conditions in respect to availability and price of manpower. this brief evaluation seems to be sufficiënt for the designers and institutions involved in this problem to find a way to the detailed informations. Because of the worldwide interest and the complexity of. better understanding of the failure mechanisms. economical aspects of design and optimal choice of constructions applied incorporating future maintenance aspects. It has to be stressed that. whatever calculation method and protective system is adapted. The guidelines presented will bring designers closer to the solution of the typical problem of the design of dikes and the proper choice of revetments in respect to design hydraulic load. materials and equipment will be decisive for the final choice of construction. but it will increase the reliability of the design and in this way it may guarantee more safety for the population and the economical values to be protected all over the world. The research on dikes construction (sea and river dikes and other sear and bankdefence systems) is still going on in the Netherlands. ability of materials and skill. All these aspects are being treated in accordance with the terms of the current research on bank and dike revetments (fig. CONCLUSIONS The limitation of this report does not allow to prepare a fully (detailed) evaluation of the available Dutch data on the dike protection. the proper design and management of the water defence systems the international cooperation in this field should be stimulated.7. Research is now being directed towards a better probabilistic description of the design. However .) . slags. . application of new or alternative materials (e. 37). etc. It will not only safe money. The problem is too wide and too complicated for that.
P. K. London. J. 18. Febr. on Fleixible Armoured Revetments Incorp. Klein Breteler. 10. XXVI PIANC Congress. and D. and Pilarczyk. Evaluation report M 1741. summary of results 19801984. Graaff. K. chapter 124. Sydney.T. van der. 378. K. (1985). Publ. Keynots International Symposium "Polders of the World". Pilarczyk. Washington. Coastal Structures 1983.(Also.C. Vrijling (1980). 14. M. van de (1983. Publ. Static and dynamic stability under wave attack.. Meer. van.no. Stability of the Eastern Scheldt dikes under wave attack at the fixed water level . Geotextiles.T. 15. Large Scale tests on a block revetment placed on sand with a geotextile as separation layer . and Pilarczyk... no. 19th International Conference on Coastal Engineering. Volume III. no. . J. (1984). K. 17. K. report M 1725/M 1881 (in Dutch) (the final report will be published in 1988). 3rd Int. Kenter. 274. A. Gravel beached: equilibrium profile and logshore transport of coarse material under regular and irregular wave attack. Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA. Stuip. (1983). .W. The development of the Dutch polder dikes. J. P. K. (1986). K.research (in Dutch). H. Conf. London. In: Proceedings Coastal Structures 1983.T. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. Erosion control of navigation embankments. Serie reports under M 1983. Probabilistic design of sea defences. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (1984). Published by Thomas Telford Ltd. Arlington. Blaauw. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. 4.W. 7. the Netherlands. (1982). E.no. rock slopes and gravel beaches. van and Pilarczyk. 3. 1985. Publ.C. technical note 120. M. Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory (1983) Bitumarin B.W. (1985). 13. Reinforcement of steep grassed waterways. Virginia. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. Mature. H. (1984). 11. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (1987). D. Large scale model tests on placed blocks revetments. and Verhey. Austr ia. 1987). 12. on Geotextiles. Publ.J. . and Pilarczyk. Conf. 1985).. report M1942. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (1985). 9. Taipei. Report M 1980. K. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (1985). Van der Knaap. 332 (see also Breakwaters 1985 Conference. 20th International Conference on Coastal Engineering. In: Proceedings 17th Coastal Engineering Conference. Stability of the grassdike during superstorm (in Dutch). 16. Hijum. Den.K. E. (1982).V. Probabilistic design of dunes. Slope protection by loosely materials. and J.H. v.W. De Groot. report M 2036. Hydraulic design criteria for rockfill closuce of tidal gaps. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory (1984). van der. Hijum. De Groot. Delft Soil Mechanics Laboratory (1984).REFERENCES 1..W. Brussels.G.. Bezuijen. (1984). 6. 1984. M and Pilarczyk.d. October 1985.. Pilarczyk. March 1987).L. Fixtone: Stability under wave attack. K. Vienna. Prototype tests of slope protection systems. Meer.L. Kaa. Int.W. Design of bank protection of inland navigation fairways. Resistance of grass on clay slopes. Lelystad. Bakker. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. W.W.79  2. Boer.W. Slope protection by placed blocks. C. Stability of rubble mound slopes under random wave attack. 5.K.M. London).W. and Pilarczyk. 379. E. 8.W. Houston. Dynamic stability of breakwaters.H. Report M 1930 (in Dutch).J.
K. Guide for design of river dikes. Editor (1986). Helbourne. Part I: Opperriverreaches.H.W. Balkema. Probabilistic Design of Waterretaining Structures. K. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering. Pilarczyk. (1984). Vrijling. Delft university of Techn. Misdorp. Permanent International Association of Navigation Congresses (PIANC. Manual on Artificial Beach Nourishment.. Guidelines for the design and construction of flexible revetments incorporated geotextiles for inland waterways. the Netherlands. 293 (see also "Gravel beaches: D. Mississippi. (1984). Guide to the judgement of the safety of dunes as a sea defence system. 1986). Doctor thesis. Department. Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. Vellinga. (1983). P (1986). 274. Virginia. Civil Eng. P (1983).80  . Arizona. den. Technical advisory Committee on water defences/Rijkswaterstaat. English translation available). London. K.W. Internal report TAW 10 (in Dutch). The Closure of Tidal Basins. Postgraduate course on bank and dike protection. Predictive computational model for beach and dune erosion during storm surges. the Netherlands. Delft. A. Rotterdam/Boston . Flexible armoured revetments incorporated geotextiles. Stability and profile development of coarse materials and their application in coastal engineering. K. (1985). Technical Advisory Committee on water defences. 21st International Association for Hydraulic Research Congress (IAHR). no. Probabilistic design of sea defences.S. the Netherlands. R. International Conference on Coastal and Port Engineering in Developing Countries. Centre for Civil Engineering Research. Design aspects of block revetments. . Delft University Press. Beach and dune erosion during storm surges. (1985). Stability of revetments under wave and current attack. (1986). 37. R. Report 119. publ. Technical Advisory Committee on water defences (TAW). Rijkswaterstaat Communications. Guide to concrete dike revetments.372 Dec. Strategy to erosion control of Dutch estuaries. Delft. . (1986). no. Technical Advisory Committee on water defences. The Hague. 1985. (1984). Netherlands Committee for Research. Vellinga.W. Civil Engineering Department (PATO).K. Geotextiles and Geomembranes in Civil Engineering (Handbook). no. the Netherlands. Veldhuijzen van Zanten. Pilarczyk. Pilarczyk. and Visser. 1982). Lewis. Codes and Specifications for concrete and Technical Advisory Committee on water defences. the Netherlands (in Dutch). (1985). The Hague. In: Proceedings Coastal Structures 1983. 1984 (in Dutch. Jackson. J (1986). 3rd Int.A. Codes and Specifications. Symposium on River Sedimentation. Sri Lanka.W. the Netherlands. public. Staatsuitgeverij.J. Arlington. K. 1986). (1984). Tucson. Report of a working group of the Permanent Technical Committee 1 (be published in 1987). D. London 1985). Delft University of Technology.Pilarczyk.A. U.L. The Hague. (1985). and Boer.. J. Governmental Publication Office (in Dutch).no.H. in the Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute: Conference on the Engineering Reliability and Risk in Water Resources. Proceedings of the International Conference organised by the Institution of Civil Engineers. R.L. (1985).(Also DHL Publ. March 1984 (published by Thomas Telford Ltd. Rijkswaterstaat.. 1985.
Div . Delft Geotechnics M. Rijkswaterstaat.J. Bakker . Klein Breteler. Hydraulic Eng. Bezuijen . Delft Hydraulics K.APPENDIX I DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PLACED BLOCK REVETMENTS AND GRANULAR FILTERS by A.
The loads on the coverlayer are used to evaluate its stability. The Netherlands M.DESIGN CRITERIA FOR PLACED BLOCK REVETMEMTS AND GRANULAR FILTERS by A. 2]. but are not discussed in this paper. The design steps are closely interrelated. but which will be stable for the hydraulic loads .1  . Therefore fundamental knowledge of revetment failure mechanisms is essential. the latter to investigate individual failure measurements in detail. To acquire the knowledge necessary for the design of placed block revetments the Dutch Department of Public Works commissioned Delft Hydraulics and Delft Geotechnics to carry out a research project on the stability of this type of revetments. The uplift pressures are compared with the strength of the coverlayer against lifting and the hydraulic gradients with the strength of the subsoil against filter erosion. The geotechnical stability of the structure is also important and there must be no possibility that the sublayer can be washed out through the coverlayer. The results will be especially useful when a revetment has to be built with local materials for which there is llttle experience. It is shown that the hydraulic loading in the filter layer can be described with equations of quasistationary flow. Klein Breteler. Public Works Department (Rijkswaterstaat). This paper describes the theoretically based steps in the design procedure for placed block revetments: the calculation of the uplift pressures below the coverlayer and the hydraulic gradients in the sublayers and subsoil. These design criteria were derived on the basis of large scale model tests on revetments and tests on granular filters. Information about the hydraulic loads in filter layers and the subsoil can be used to design a filter which is not sand tight according to geometrie rules.J. Delft Geotechnics. General filter criteria are developed on the basis of the similarity between flow in channels and flow in the pores of a filter. This research programme has increased the qualitative and quantitative knowledge about possible failure mechanisms in a placed block revetment. The design of the revetment was formerly based on tradition and experience. Bakker. The Netherlands K. These steps are not the only steps in revetment design. Large scale model tests and detailed tests have been performed in this research project. 1 . the Dutch Department of Public Works (Rijkswaterstaat) has the task of guaranteeing safety of dikes in conditions that are outside our experience. Delft Hydraulica. The results will be used to assess the safety of existing revetments in the Netherlands and also for the design of new revetments. These geotechnical steps have been studied in the research programme [1. INTRODUCTION In several areas of the world the land has to be protected against the sea by dikes. the filter layer (the granular sublayer directly below the coverlayer) and subsoil are described in Chapter 2. For the Deltaplan. however. This is discussed in Chapter 3. Bezuijen. These dikes themselves must be protected against wave action by a revetment. The hydraulic loads on the coverlayer. The Netherlands ABSTRACT Design criteria for the coverlayer and filter layer of a placed block revetment are presented. In addition to these tests analytical and numerical models have been developed to determine the pore pressure response under the coverlayer when it is subjected to waves.
using less stringent filter rules.2  . Although the wave impact is the most visually impressive loading. This is because of the great strength of the coverlayer parallel to the slope. is dealt with in Chapter 4. This type of revetment comprises blocks placed on a filter layer of gravel or minestone laid on the subsoil. see Figure 1. In order to design such a filter. it is not necessarily the most dangerous. HYDRAULIC LOADS 2.shear forces on the grains of the subsoil due to water movement in the filter layer. In fact. In this paper we focus on a type of block revetment frequently used in the Netherlands. generated by the impact and transferred in the opposite direction can damage the revetment. How this knowledge was gained.quasistationary pressure forces on the coverlayer caused by the difference between the pore pressures in the filter layer and the wave pressures on the revetment . For placed block revetments. The duration of wave impact loading is generally less than a second (0. however. this type of loading can be neglected. it was necessary to obtain more detailed information on the strength of nongeometrical granular filters.dynamic pressure forces caused by wave impact .4 s) and to move a block more than just a few millimeters out of the revetment in such a short period would require enormous acceleration forces. The loading forces in this direction are unimportant. There are only small joints between the blocks. the forces perpendicular to the revetment surface are decisive for coverlayer stability.expected.1 Loads which can contribute to failure Wave attack on a revetment is a complicated process. 2.1 to 0. phreatic line Figure 1: Placed block revetment with granular filter layer This type of revetment may be subjected to the following types of hydraulic loads: . In addition the force caused by the wave impact is transferred inside the revetment and only the considerably damped reaction forces. .shear forces on the coverlayer caused by wave runup and rundown on the revetment surface . The shear forces on the coverlayer are a dominant type of hydraulic loading on breakwaters.
which can be usefully applied in the design of a revetment.sina /(bDk/k') where: et b D k' k the the the the the slope of the thickness of thickness of permeability permeability revetment the filter layer the coverlayer of the coverlayer of the filter layer C] Cm] Cm] Cm/s] Cm/s] (4) Solutions for Equation (3) are presented in the following sections. the permeability of the filter layer is often much larger than the permeability of the subsoil which can therefore be neglected. An analytical solution is presented in Section 2. (3) z the the the the vertical axis potential on the surface of the revetment mean potential in the filter layer leakage factor Cm] Cm] Cm] Cm] The leakage factor is defined as: \ . In this situation the mean potential ( < j > ) can be derived using: < ( > .The two hydraulic loads last mentioned are of major importance when analysing the stability of the revetment: .shear forces on the grains of the subsoil due to water flow in the filter layer which can cause filter erosion.3  . The knowledge that quasistationary phenomena are dominant simplifies the description of the hydraulic loads on a revetment due to wave attack considerably. necessary for the calculation of uplift pressures and the water velocities in the filter layer.2. the results of which are confirmed by comparison with results of large scale model tests. .3. and .quasistationary pressure differences which result In uplift pressures that can exist long enough to lift blocks out of the revetment. A numerical solution is presented in Section 2. In most structures the pore pressure distribution will be dominated by the flow in the filter layer which is parallel to the slope. can be described with a quasistationary flow model which is governed by the equation: V'kV$ = 0 where: < J > : the potential piezometric head k : the permeability Cm] [m/s] (1) For the type of revetment shown in Figure 1.l/b < j > dx (2) Cm] with: b : the thickness of the filter layer Equation (1) then simplifies to. The pore pressure distribution in the filter layer. d20 dz z where: 4 > < j ) .
If turbulent flow is expected in the filter layer. 1 . In the computer programme STEENZET/1 this set of equations is solved iteratively in order to take into account turbulent flow.i> Cm] Em] Cm] (5) where: < { > . using the wave pressures and permeabilities measured in the model. whereas a linear description is used for the filter layer. has been compared with the pore pressure measured in the model. A result of such a pore pressure response simulation is presented in Figure 3. A turbulent flow description is used for the joints of the revetment. ^ 1 + 2 kbD FÏ7 <ïïïï7Ki + *i + i) •kbD + *t. Data recorded in model tests have been used. Equation (5) can be used for every joint in the revetment. This leads to the following equation: <J>. in the numerical calculations. it is necessary to know the permeabilities of the coverlayer and the filter layer and the pressure distribution generated by wave attack on the surface of the coverlayer.2 Numerical calculations Equation (3) can be solved discretisation (see Figure 2 ) . These experiments have led to permeability formulas described in [8]. See Equations (2) and (H) With some modifications for the highest and lowest joint in the revetment and at any phreatic surface. In order to solve the pressure distribution.2. In the research programme mentioned above permeability experiments have been performed to determine the permeability of coverlayer and filter layer. in the filter layer with STEENZET/1. _ H i . : the potential on the revetment near joint i L ' : the length of the blocks For the other parameters. : the potential in the filter layer near joint i < j > . or potential. the permeability at mean hydraulic gradiënt is used. These model tests were performed at scales of 1:1 or 1:2 in the Delta Flume of Delft Hydraulics and made it possible to test the validity of the numerical model. The pore pressure response calculated. using a rather simple finite difference Figure 2: Finite difference discretisation used in the STEENZET/1 program Near a joint in the coverlayer the flow to the joint raust be equal to the flow from the joint plus the flow through the joint. To date an adequate description of the timedependent pressure distribution on the coverlayer (the wave pressures) has not been made.
3m K =0.A best fit calculation is also presented in addition to a calculation with measured values of the permeabilities.02 m/s Hj = 0.0.01 m/s best fit k' = 0. STEENZET/2. 0. In a structure without a filter layer a different model has to be used [33. 11 0 1 2 pressure [kN/m2]7800 — measured calculated k' = 0. has been developed and is described in [4]. The best fit result gives an indication of the uncertainty in the determination of the permeabilities and of the accuracy of the numerical model for describing the measured phenomena. From Figure 3 it can be concluded that this accuracy is good for this type of revetment.08: Figure kt Calculated revetment hydraulic gradiënt at maximum uplift pressures on the .04 .60 Q205 82 50 time [si Figure 3: Measured and calculated pore pressure response f indicates the point where measured and calculated pressures are compared 008 0.04.90 7935 7^80 8025 8070 8115 81. Such a model.41 7845 78.5  .1 m/s 5 =2.
Using the schematisation shown in Figure 5 and some simplifications in the description of the pore pressures near the hydraulic surface the following formula for the maximum difference in potential ($_ ) has been derived: max A<t> X max H H (1 .exp(tana tanB y).exp(2z.From the pore pressure distribution in the filter layer it is easy to calculate the hydraulic gradiënt and the local filter velocity.Results obtained with the 'Wolsink' solution and used A long leakage factor X and a small value ' o f 6 will result in high uplift pressures. As an alternative analytical solutions are also possible if a linear relationship between filter velocity and hydraulic gradiënt is assumed and if wave pressures on the revetment are schematized. 2. as presented in Figure 5 is relatively accurate at the moment of maximum run down when the maximum uplift pressures are expected. The solution derived by Wolsink [5] gives a good indication of the maximum uplift pressure that can be expected on a coverlayer loaded by wind waves.6  . the model can be too complicated to apply in the early stages of the design. In this type of solution the leakage factor U ) is an important parameter. In [6] it is shown that the schematization of the wave pressures. is presented in Figure H together with the uplift pressures over the coverlayer at that moment.Hv ï ï Hb/X l i 6 i è » 1 0 the schematization Figure 5:.)+ ~] [ 1 .3 Analytical oaloulations Although the numerical calculations showed the validity of the calculation model./A)] Cm] Cm] [°] 2tana tanB b a 6 :6) where: the position of the phreatic surface wave height the slope of the revetment the angle of the wave (see Figure 5) A graphical presentation of Equation (6) is also shown in Figure 5 for Zj . the hydraulic gradiënt in the filter layer at the time of maximum uplift pressure. Values of between 20 and 60 degrees were found for the angle B. The result of such a calculation. .
This stability has probably been due to friction and clamping forces. The stability of a loose block is determined by its weight. however. The drawn Unes give the minimum stability calculated. however. This means that in most cases the maximum negative hydraulic gradiënt is so small that it is not necessary to apply geometrie filter criteria.7  . When analysing the stability of a coverlayer the clamped blocks are unimportant since the stability is determined by the incidental presence of loose blocks. a factor which is decisive for the stability of a revetment with a long leakage factor. To date the stability of a loose block in a block revetment has been analysed analytically using Equation (3) and stability factors which depend on the mass of the block. Where H is the incoming wave height. this situation the stability is determined by the local steepness of the measured wave pressures at run down which varies more than the general wave pressure distribution on the revetment. Friction and clamping forces between the blocks lead to increased coverlayer strength. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THE COVERLAYER After the uplift pressures have been calculated the stability of the coverlayer can be calculated provided that a strength criterion for it is known.4H and 0. Normally the slope of a revetment varies between 1:2 and 1:7 and the maximum negative hydraulic gradiënt possible between 0. The stability is presented as a dimensionless parameter H/AD against 5. but simply lies in the revetment. about the latter aspect. In an early stage of our research project a simple stability criterion was suggested: the uplift pressure should never exceed the underwater weight of the blocks per square metre. A more detailed numerical analysis is.5 cm was allowed is presented in Figure 6 and compared with the results of a large scale model test. the clamping forces especially. the surf similarity parameter.14. the friction force. In spite of this the stability of these revetments has been quite satisfactory in these conditions. A result of such a stability calculation. 3. can rarely be quantified and it is always possible that they do not occur between all blocks. In. [93. It can never be less than the value sinci. the friction force etc. A the relative density of the blocks ((p p)/p) and D the thickness of the blocks. in which a maximum block movement of 1.The maximum negative hydraulic gradiënt in the filter layer is reached if there is no pressure building up under the coverlayer. It should be noted that the scatter in the calculated values of H/AD is much larger for the shorter leakage factor. With such a criterion Equation (6) becomes very useful. This higher measured value is due to the difference between the failure criterion used in the model and that used in the calculations and the fact that there is clamping between the blocks in the model tests. In this situation the potential in the filter layer in each pöint is equal to the position of that point. This minimum is important in the design of a revetment. . More experimental evidence is needed. The hydraulic gradiënt present in the filter layer is often even less. From Figure 6 it is clear that the measured stability is higher than the calculated value. but also by the duration of the pressure difference and probably also by the fact that water has to flow out of the filter layer to 'push' the block out of the revetment. which can be used. Occasionally a block is not clamped between its neighbours. Analysis of the stability of various revetments built in the Netherlands indicates that these do not in fact meet this stability criterion for storm conditions which frequently occur. Less stringent hydraulic criteria. are presented in Chapter H. possible with special versions of STEENZET/1 which includes the calculation of the block movement and acceleration forces if uplift pressures exceed the pressure corresponding to the weight of the block [7]. The maximum negative hydraulic gradiënt is therefore determined by the slopeof the revetment. see Figure 4.
8  . dealt with in Chapter 3. such as uplift of the coverlayer. presented in this chapter. This means that if the hydraulic gradiënt in the filter is sufficiently small. if the pores are smaller than the grains of the base material then no erosion can ever ocour. Granular filters have a much wider field of application than placed block revetments. Conventional design criteria for granular filters rely completely on the geometrical condition that the pores of the filter have to be smaller than the base material grains. refer specially to granular filters between a block revetraent coverlayer and the core (sand) of a dike or bank protection. For this reason investigations on filter stability have been included in our research program on placed block revetments. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR GRANULAR FILTERS 4.19m • cülculated X = 0 32 m © measured X estimated O 3m +• *©. is that no knowledge of the loading condit ion is necessary in order to design a granular filter.1 Theoretlcal background Instability of a placed block revetment can be caused by several failure mechanisms. the base material will only be set into motion if the current near the interface is sufficiently large. offshore structures. They are used in bed protection. The latter causes deformation of the coverlayer. As occurs in an open channel.4 3  2JH_ AD x calculQted X = 0. rubble mound breakwaters. leading to the loss of the regular pattern of the blocks which decreases the stability enormously. etc. but are applicable to any granular filter. or unacceptable erosion of the base material under the filter layer. even at an unrealistically high hydraulic gradiënt. An uneconomic consequence of this conventional design criterion is that in many applications several layers of filter material have to be used to guarantee sand tightness. However. even if the pores in the filter are much bigger than the grains of the base material. no erosion will take place. however. The results. . An advantage of the convent ional design criterion. © 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Figure 6: Stability calculations for a loose block in a block revetraent U. This criterion leads to what is referred to as a "geometrically sand tight" gran ular filter. in front of seawalls.
A filter which is not geonetrically sand tight can still perform satisfactorily up to a certain filter velocity (and accompanying pressure gradiënt in the filter).1 By introducing the shear velocity.n) f er per s ° b50 with: n e v porosity of filter coëfficiënt . • n v . The figure is derived6for a sand bed wfth relative density A » T?55 and for a water viscosity v . assuming a simple v„/v ratio: v^. In Chapter 2 it is shown that the maximum gradiënt in the filter layer (directed downward along the slope) is never larger than sina.5 Db50 1 2 ^ ^ 5mm]10 4 > . Information about the loading conditions is available. even at the threshold of sediment transport. more economie design criteria can be applied which take into account this information. v. ./(x/p).s 0. In case of a filter there is hardly any development of a boundary layer at the interface due to the irregular flow area between the grains.10 m 2 /s. given a granular filter with pores much wider than the grains in the base layer. found the following (empirical) formula for the critical shear: er with: i  > Ag D b50 .03 / ( *cr *s A* W (8) An equation for the critical filter velocity in a granular filter v„ can be derived from Equation (8).n/e /(\D Ag DHt. for example. Equation (7) can be rearranged as follows: 0. conventional design criteria are too stringent.3 0. see for example [15] and C U ] .9  .v * / v D critical pore velocity Figure 7: Shields parameter (9) []• per [] [m/s] The coëfficiënt e takes into account the differences between granular filters and open channels. The threshold of sediment motion in open channels has been investigated very thoroughly by various scientists in the past.Since in many cases. Consequently the shear velocity is bigger than at the bottom of an open . er v (7) [N/ma] [] ( ) [m/s2] critical shear Shields parameter relative density of sand grains (p p)/p gravity grain size corresponding to 50% by weight b50 of finer particles mass density of water mass density of sand Cm] [kg/m3] [kg/m3] The Shields parameter \  > was determined empirically by Shields and depends. the critical shear over the sand interface is equal to the critical shear in a channel with the same bed material. Model tests have been carried out on filters which in fact demonstrate that in this situation. such as block revetments. on thesgrain size and specific weight of the base material. the fact that the current distribution in the pores of the filter near the interface is different from that in an open channel. The basic assumption behind the design criteria proposed here is that the flow in the pores of a filter is similar to the flow in channels. among other things.05 z^_ 0. i  > is plotted against D 5 Q in Figure 7. 0. It is assumed that.15 0. Shields [10] for example.
a) F. see Figure 8. The magnitude of the coëfficiënt e has been de. (12) A g *cr in which: [v* ] 0 . the coëfficiënt of friction (10) with: < j > : natural angle of repose of single grains of the base material a : slope angle C°3 [°] The influence of the sloping interface is represented by the force ratio (F /F ) relative to this force ratio at o.0 and i . assuming that* at threshold of sediment motion. The influence of oscillatory flow can be estimated by considering an open channel. Equations (10) and (11) can be used equation which describes the influence of the perpendicular gradiënt component: rvT~! *cr sin(<J> . It is assumed to be eqBal8to the critical shear stress T relative to the critical shear stress at er a . since there is no development of a boundary layer or of an ordinary velocity distribution with either stationary or oscillatory flow. it is expected that the critical filter velocity amplitude with oscillatory flow will be equal to the critical filter velocity with stationary flow. This is because there is no time for a boundary layer or an ordinary velocity distribution to develop during each wave period. there is an equilibrium of three forces [ 1 1 ] . Fj_ : perpendicular force assumed to be induced by the perpendicular gradiënt component ij_ [N] F : parallel force induced by the flow parallel P to the interface [N] F : gravitational force [N] o Figure 8 F F + F since g cosa + Fi x P g tan<)>.2.0.0: T or F /F p g (11) to derive the following sloping interface and the Since T . *cr j _ sin<f> A first order approximat'ion for the quotiënt Fj/F can be given by using Equation (13) which describes the critical vertical gradiënt for fluidization [12]: Ml "b> [] [ 3 (13) with: if = the critical vertical gradiënt for fluidization n£ = porosity of the base tnaterial .critical shear velocity at a .0 and i j _ . This is discussed in Section M. which causes a higher shear velocity. The threshold of sediment motion in an open channel is usually encountered at a smaller velocity amplitude with oscillatory flow than with stationary flow. Equation (9) is derived for stationary flow parallel to a horizontal interface.0.channel. can be derived as follows.termined empirically. With filters however.10  . A formula describing the influence o f a sloping interface and a perpendicular gradiënt component. .0 and i j _ .p vj.
Figure 9: Delft Hydraulics Filterbox test setup Some of the results of the model investigations using a horizontal interface and stationary flow are presented in Figure 10. in fact.2 gr/s/m of dry sand was considered to bè critical.2. the test setup with a sloping interface is shown schematically in Figure 9. The hydraulic gradiënt was increased step by step until considerable erosion took place.16mm V 0550= . The tests were performed using sand with steep sieve curves and which were well compacted. With this fact. 1.2 Model investigations Model investigations have been performed on various filters under different loading conditions to measure the critical hydraulic gradiënt and filter velocity. after which the transported sand was collected and dried. is the maximum velocity in the filter at which the sediment motion is such tnat the stability of the total structure is not yet in danger.11  . This appears. . were . The critical filter velocity. (9) and (12) the following formula has been derived: v fcr " n / e *^*g Ag D b50 (sln(<(> " a ) / s i n * " l y ^ d . As an example. During each step the hydraulic gradiënt was kept constant for at least half an hour. The investigations with stationary flow were performed in the Delft Hydraulics Filterbox. MEASUREO: A Db50= 82mm o Db50= .For the situation with a horizontal interface the critical filter velocity is zero if i f « ij_. A test was completed without interruption.K)mm CALCULATEO: 30 AO 50 Figure 10: Filterbox interface. and Equations (8).nb))) (11) This r'esult is compared with results of model investigations in Section 1. to be comparable to the criterion used by Shields. Sand transport of 0. tests stationary 70 90 —' to a horizontal flow parallel The values for the coëfficiënt e determined empirically from Figure 10. v. with an estimated porosity of approximately 10*.
which confirms the validity of Equation (14) for 1 _ L * 0. b50 < 0.0. 2 .1 < if 0. . Both tests resulted in the same value for the natural angle of repose $. 4 . 7 1 1 .5 mm } 0b50= .T H ! " " ^ ! i i ! 0 > [°] 20 4 : j MEASURE0 i j ' 0 cot(a)= 3 T 1 1 j 1 i • cot(a)=3 i Db50 Immjl < r * ) ! V [111 1 1 1 . 5 2 Figure 11: Stat.2 mm: b50 < 1 mm: b50 e e 0.50 .6 ST«* 0 O o ! f ! o Df 15 = 1. • ' : 1— 40 1 j 1. 5 . The calculated values of the critical hydraulic gradiënt given in Fig.Beek [11]. .0 .5mm Db50= 82mm 1^? 1 • .2 r_ iero ! i i 1 1 1 0 »x l 1 11 0 . Gradients are used here because filter velocities were not measured in most of the tests. 2 . 3 . .2' (15) to the filter grain size as The Reynolds number Re is shown to be related follows: Re v f Df15 / v A dependency of the Reynoldsnumber Re for small values of Dh_n could be expected from a theoretical point of view [13]. . 8 1 .7 the value of e can be calculated by a linear interpolation. 0 Figure 12: Stationary flow with vertical gradiënt component. The test results which show the influence of the vertical gradiënt component are presented in Fig. Two tests were performed with fine base material (D.22 •0. 4.4 .8 .12  . together with the results of FernandezLugue 4 v.15mm • Df 15 = 3. Tests on sloping interfaces were performed to test Equation (1*1). 12.15 mm) with cota .3 mm t>Dfl5=10. From measurements of Brauns [14] it can be concluded that for 0. > TT"r"—• 1 .. 6 .3 and 3. that the 80 60 1 •—.2 < D .75 Re 0.r 1 i : . i . The critical horizontal gradiënt component for l± * 0 is given relative to the critical horizontal gradiënt at ij_ . using the permeability law of Forchheimer [14]. The results are shown in Figure 11. . flow along a sloping interface The coefficients of the permeability law were adjusted in such a way inaccuracy of these coefficients did not affect the aocuracy of i .if 0.2 ! 0 er  o > » MEASURED E v E } CALCULATED 0 1. who performed tests on a sand bottom in a pipe. • '. 12 have been calculated from v. 1.7 < < 0.0.
8 2 . it can be concluded that the theory is correct. which are the velocity and accompanying shear stress between the pores of the . Most of earlier work did not investigate the basic causes of erosion. except for the tests with a vertical gradiënt component.Dfi5 = 3.Frotn the figures it is clear that the calculated results are in good agreement with the measured values. Finally the formulas have been verified successfully carried out at a prototype scale in a wave flume. since they give a safe approximation. even for this small wave period. The present investigation was basically different from most previous work in this field. From the large variance in the measured values shown in Figure 12 one oan conclude that there are influences which are not yet completely understood. The coëfficiënt e is fitted to the measurements.16. From the fact that the measured trends correspond very well with the trends calculated for the critical filter velocities.8mm T ° b 5 0 = . which was aimed directly at a description of the critical hydraulic gradiënt. Nevertheless Equations (14) and (15) can be used for design purposes. The tests were performed with a wave period of 2 sec. The test setup and test results are shown in Figures 13 and 14.3 Discussion of results From the previous sections it can be concluded that the calculated critical filter velocity agrees with the measured values. which results in a useful formula. From the results of the measurements it is clear that the critical filter velocity amplitude for cyclic flow is equal to the critical filter velocity for stationary flow. The tests with cyclic flow and with a oombination of cyclic and stationary flow were performed in the Delft Hydraulics pulsating water tunnel.13  . 50 Imm/s O) 30 20 CYCLIC COMPONENT 10 v by model investigations "ö"Db50= . TUNNEL ROOF 3 BALLAST LASERDOPPLER VELOCITY METER to pulsating piston PRESSURE CELL lm TUNNEL BOTTOM Figure 13: Vertical cross section of Pulsating water tunnel. which is relatively small compared with wave periods experienced on dikes and bank protection. D f 1 5 = 20mm vfcr i oA — MEASURED CALCULATED \ ! \ f 0 10 20 30 401mm/s] STATIONARY COMPONENT Figure 14: Results from measurements with nonstationary flow 4.
35. which simplified the investigation. 0. that in order to analyse the strength and stability of placed block revetments it is not sufficiënt to look at the external hydraulic loads alone.2) via the filter porosity.15 mm) and find the critical hydraulic gradiënt (here 0. for example. it is possible to evaluate the stability.8 mm for a base material of 0. . The also presented hydrodynamic solution for filter stability. it has been possible to compare the erosion in granular filters with the erosion in open channels. Using an approach in which the hydraulic load is taken into account gives a much less stringent criterion enabling perhaps local material to be used instead of other materials at high costs. it seems that for this type of structure the hydraulic gradients are relatively low. This analysis can be made successfully using the model techniques employed when analysing groundwater flow. Figure 15: Design diagram 5. based on the analogy between filter flow near an interface and channelflow. One can start in this diagram. Concerning the filter stability.14  .4. at a certain characteristic grain size of the filter (here 3. It is also necessary to analyse the internal water flow underneath the coverlayer of the revetment. as is indicated by the broken line (example) or one can start at a desired critical gradiënt and find the necessary filter characteristics. A design diagram for practical use is given in Figure 15. By aiming in the present investigation at the critical filter velocity only. CONCLUSIONS In this paper it has been shown. For placed block revetments on a granular filter especially it appears to be possible to derive simple analytical solutions for the potential distribution in the filter. This led to the need to solve two problems at the same time: an equation for the critical filter velocity and a permeability equation. Comparison with the results of the model tests and more detailed numerical solutions has shown that the method is accurate for calculating the maximum uplift pressures. and so an approach based on geometrically sand tight filter criteria will be too strict. The diagram is based on Equations (14) and (15) and the Forchheimer permeability law [11]. and slope angle. Depending on the strength criterion against uplifting for a loose block. in which the slope angle and perpendicular gradiënt are taken into account leads to less stringent filter criteria. coto .filter near the interface.
Nonstationary flow using the Finite Element Method. van." de. No. Delft Hydraulics Report M1881/hl95. Pilarczyk. 1986. Permeability of the coverlayer (in Dutch).. Beek.S.. 2. Proc. 1985. A. January 1983.A. Hoogeveen.. Bezuijen. 9th Int. Klein Breteler. 1. February 1982. internal report. Report CO286010/4. A. R. R. Klein Breteler. Graauw. A. T..d.07. HjortnaesPedersen. Paintal. Publication No. A. 1984 Duits. 1986. 1987. Report M1881/ XIV. Concept of critical shear stress in loose boundary open channels. E. M. M. Klein Breteler. 1986. Estuary Physics. M. te.. Meulen. Sensitivity analysis (in Dutch). Best.... Bezuijen. Vienna. Analytical solutions for judging the geotechnical stability of block . Proc. Conf. van der. Fernandez Luque R.. Design criteria for granular filters. A. Large scale model tests on a block revetment placed on sand with a geotextile as separation layer. 1985. October 1985..15  . Delft Hydraulics Report M188104. de. CO272500/7. Report M 1488. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [II] [12] [13] [14] [15] . Summary report (in Dutch). Delft Geotechnics Report CO28570/7. Delft Hydraulics. Bezuijen. M. A..I. M. Washing of filter grains through the coverlayer (in Dutch). 287. Delft Geotechnics.revetments (in Dutch). Delft Hydraulics. No. Brauns. Erosion and transport of bedload sediment. on Geotechnics and Foundation Engineering. Stability of granular filters for stationary gradients (in Dutch). 1986. Delft Hydraulics/Delft Geotechnics. Illrd Int. 1986.W. J. Does de Bye.. Coverlayer stability without clamping or interlocking. Graauw.REFERENCES [I] Hoogeveen. Klein Breteler. Wasserwirtschaft 10/85. on Geotextiles. Critical hydraulic gradiënt for filters with horizontal flow (in German). Journal of Hydraulic Research 9 (197D. R. K. Conf.G. 1987. M.. A. Volume 1. Report M188116B. Delft Hydraulios. Eur. Placed block revetments. v. Koenders. H. Delft Geotechnics Report CO276920/5. Hydraulic Criteria for filters. Storm surge barrier Oosterschelde... Design charts with STEENZET/1 (in Dutch).. Journal of Hydraulic Research 14 (1976). research 1980198*1..
APPENDIX II PROBABILISTIC DESIGN OP WATERRETAINING STRUCTURES by J.K. Locks and Weirs Division . Vrijling Rijkswaterstaat.
Dordrecht. Ouckstein and E. The Netherlands 1986 .J. Plate. Eds.ENGINEERING RBLIABILITY AND RISK IN WATER RESOURCES L. Martinus Nijhoff.
ir.K. Now the probabilities of the base events (failure mechanisms and other causes) may be combined in the fault tree to derive the probability of the failure of the water retaining system And in the end the question arises if this probability is acceptable from social economie point of view. a method to assess the probability of failure of a system of water retaining structures has to be developed. error. The rich tradition in the field of dikes in Holland as well as the history of dam disasters shows that complete safety is unattainable. The fault tree is a very helpful tooi to solve this problem.1 PROBABILISTIC DESIGN OF WATBRRJ5TAINING STRÜCTORJBS drs.. First all possible failure mechanisms of the structures and all other possible causes (management.) have to be determined. . Realizing this. Thirdly the probability of failure of the various mechanisms has to be calculated by means of probabilistic calculations and the probability of occurence of the other causes has to be estimated on the basis of historical data. Vrijlinq ABSTRACT Water retaining structures are designed to keep the water in the basin and out of habitated areas. Then the relation between the failure mechanisms and the other causes on one hand and the ultimate consequence a flood or complete draw down has to be analyzed. J. human error etc.
2
INTRODUCTION In this paper the developments in the field of the probabilistic design of water retaining atructures in Holland, are outlined. Although the theoretical methode were already known, the practical application of probabiliatic methods was stimulated by the design of the storm surge barrier Oosterschelde. The good experience with these methods, that enabled the designers to unify the design of structures, mechanical eguipment and management in one approach, sparked off developments in the field of dike design. At this stage the methods are well known but the application is limited to difficult cases. Thus the new dune design regulation is based on probabilistic reaaoning. And a purapstorage scheme with 50 m. high dams currently under design will be evaluated along probabilistic linea. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION A probabilistic analysis aims at identifiing all possible causes of failure of the water retaining system. Every case may eventually lead to inundation of the hinterland or to the loss of precious water. The depth of the analysis depends on the description of the water retaining in detail. A complete analysis is only possible if a very detailed description (e.q. as built files and on site measurements) is avaible. In the design stage the analysis is necessarily siroplified. In this paper we will confine ourselves to the very schematic description of the flood defence system of Holland. Holland is in principle lying at or below the low tide level of the sea. It is protected from sea floods by a system of defences that consists of dikes and dunes. The dikes are partly shielded from severe wave attack by shoals (see fig. 1 ) .

3

HILLS
'seadike
/ / / / shool
'XkT
/SYdune <&>_ seodike
otd H H, sluice
fig 1
Schematic
sifuafion
 4 
The system is continued along the river. Here the dike changes gradually from sea dike into a river levee as the tidal movement dampens upstream. In the dike along the river a sluice gives access to an old harbour. The sluice has to be closed by hand at waterlevels exceeding mean high water. The main harbours are situated outside the dikes at a high level and are thus of no concern.for this study. The typical crosssection of a modern sea dike consists of a body of sand covered with mattresses and asphalt constructions in the zone attacked by waves and current. The crest and the inside slope are covered by a layer of clay with grass on top (see fig. 2 ) . A dune is a natuarally deposited mass of sand (see fig. 3), which is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. During heavy weather sand is lost to the sea in a reshaping process that enables the dune to withstand wave attack. Ouring thesummer the loss is regained by accretion. The wave transport sand to the beach and the wind takes it further inland. A typical crosssection of a river levee is given in fig. 4. The dike stands mostly on a layer of alluvial clay and is also covered with clay. On the clay grows grass. PAILÜRB MBCHAMISMS Good engineering practice requires that attention should be given to all possible modes of failure of the construction under design. This is a conunon approach in the design of concrete or steel structures. In the design of waterretaining structures as dams, dikes and dunes the approach is gaining ground especially in combination with probabilistic reasoning. This is the result of the influence of the design of the storm surge barrier in the Oosterschelde. A non exhaustive overview of the failure mechanisms of dikes or dams is given below.
. 4 River levee V # // 6 . 2 Seo dike storm fig... 3 Oune high low w. .. . 7/ // tig.5  aipholhc cone«tt «torm f lood hv^" 0 * cbb fig./ // S.
For rigid structures it is of paramount importance. the gradual formation of a material entraining well.6  Overtopping ia a well known mechanism. A slip circle at inner slope may be caused amoung other things by a high freatic plane in the dike* This will be the case when the duration of the high waterlevel is long or permanent. which leads to water entering the polder and to eoaking of the dike. Subsidence of the crest may occur due to settlement of the dam and the subsoil. . Settlement may however also be caused by internal erosion by oxidation of peat layers.e. Micro instability of the soil material at the inner slope may result due to seepage and a high freatic plane. When the "pipe" eventually reaches the high water side the process of internal erosion will accelerate. However this mechanism of failure is extremely unlikely to occur for an earth dam. Wave overtopping ie also a mechanisn that gete a lot of attention in dike design. Sliding or tilt ing of the body of the dike may happen. so the dangeroue conaequencee. The body of the dike is heavy with water and slides down. result frora the eoaking of the body of the dike and eroeion of the inner slope. In this case the aroount of water entering the polder ie negligible. Erosion of the outer slope may be caused by wave attack. Piping may occur i. A slip circle in the outer slope may occur when a low water follows an extreme high water (or sudden draw down). The waves may be wind waves or displacement wave8 from ships* Erosion of the foreshore is caused by tidal or wave induced currents.
overtopping settlement wave overtopping slip eire Ie outer slope slip circle innerslope liquetaction micro instability drifting ice .pipmg ship collision erosion outer slope tilting fig 5 Overview of the tailure erosion foreshore mechanisms of o dike .
In the design process one is most interested in the ultimate limit state (ü. In the case of the dike the mechanisms "erosion of the foreshore" and "settlement" are examples.8  A liquefaction may occur in the same situation. However the serviceability of the structure is often hampered before failure (excessive leakage due to piping). This state describes the situation wherein the acting extreme loads S are just balanced by the strength R of the construction. During this reshaping process material of the dune is deposited on the near foreshore to flatten the profile. This deterioration of constructional resistance may cause unexpected failure in etreme conditions.S. Due to accretion and erosion the position of the beach and the foot of the dune is changing continually. The failure mechanisms of a dune are fairly similar to the already mentioned mechanisms for dikes. The evergrowing traffic on the waters and the increase in the displacement of ships makes a collision a non negligible risk.L. Different phenomena occur if in this erratical process the underlying trend is accretion.S. No material is lost. 7.L. Erosion of the outer slope is however essentially different. erosion or dynamic equilibrium. The concept of the ultimate limit state is given in fig. . Rere however also the presence of a loosely packed sand and a steep foreshore is neceaaary. The serviceability limit state (S. Beside the ultimate state there are situations where the ever continuing presence of a load causes a deterioration of constructional resistance over time without imminent danger of failure.) of a failure mechanism.) is treated in the same way as the ultimate limit state. If the ultimate limit state is exceeded the construction will collapse or fail. During winter time the dike may be severely damaged by drifting ice especially on rivers. The body of the dune contains enough material to take a special shape during storm surges: "the storm profiIe".
6 Failure mechanisms ot o dune .9  ef ö'S f óh"' óü'tèr* 'sïópë wave overtopping overtopping y i slip circle „piping" öynamic equilibrium fig..
the deterioration of the resistance can be controlled by inspection and maintenance procedures. i. In the field of dike and dune design this is not generall/ true. So in reality the breakwater collapsed as a consequence of armour unit breakage.. the results will be unreliable. Here the simulation of the limit state in a scale model may bring a solution (see fig. 7) are mathematically known and manageable. 2. although often economically feasible. A scale model of the structure is exposed to combinations of the natural boundary conditions. If the assumption is not correct. introduces a certain risk because the constructional safety now depends partly on the care of other people. increasing the resistance to guarantee sufficiënt strenght during the service life.10  A point of great practical imnportance is that a serviceability limit state. can be improved in two ways: 1. . 8). Secondly the scaling is only correct for one mechanism. deterioration of constructional resistance over time. First the scaling is done on the basis of the assumed physical laws of the limit state. The second solution. However model tests require utmost care in the interpretation of the results for a number of reasons. that the transfer functions to transform boundary conditions into loads and the theoretical models defining the resAance (see fig. E. The application of limit state analysis presupposes in a certain way.e. Especially for erosion and scour processes neither the transfer function to transform waves and current into forces nor the theoretical models for the stability of grains are exactly known. The amount of damage done to the model is correlated to the boundary conditions to develop a limit state eguation. in breakwater tests the armour units are far stronger than in prototype.g.
_.. _ .F..L._J j f  —  1 FIELD DATA .... _ . i i ' OR L j ! 1 1 i 1 ... 1 BOUNDARY CONDITIONS NATURE  STRENGTH PARAMETERS tig..L.7 The concept of the ultimate limit state (U..... STRENQTH TRANSFER FUNCTION THEORETICAL MODEL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS NATURE STRENGTH PARAMETERS fig..8 BLACK BOX APPROACH of a limit state . F.D. LOAD P...—: 1 SCALE TEST J 1 J 1 1 L.. i r.SJ FAILURE PROBABILITY 1— 1 r ....11 FAILURE PROBABILITY CONVOLUTION P D. 1 L .
RISK ANALYSIS OFTHE SYSTBM BY.) where field data are missing.. MEANS OF THB FAOLT TREE APPRCACH The goal of designing a flood defence system is to provide' a certain safe protection against inundation for the people and their property. In some cases. The same fault tree is also suited to desprible the failure of a dune. The link between failure of a dike section and the limit states of the failure mechanisms is analysed in a more detailed tree (see fig. The main difference is that erosion of the outer slope immediately under wave attack as a protecting revetment is generally not present. Now the total probability of inundation of the polder (see fig. .L. 9. In the foregoing paragraph the modes of failure of dikes and dunes were listed. For the dune erosion the field data where extrepolated by extensive scale model (Vellinga 1983). In scale tests only daniage is observable. Looking at the defense system it is clear that it is a seriessystem.12  Thirdly limit state equations concentrate on equilibrium bet ween load and resistance. the seadike. resistance parameters and damage are prefered as a base for correlation. field data of boundary conditions. If during a storm surge one of the elements fails. loads have to exceed resistance by a margin. Difficulties may however arise in extrapolating the limit state equation to extreme loads (ü. the sluice or the dikes along the river. the dune. Thus in the test. For this simple case the main fault tree is given in fig. then the polder will inundate.S. 1) has to be assessed taking into account the mentioned mechanisms and the sluice. where the physical laws governing the phenomena are not exactly known. 10).
It will be clear that the analysis of the sluice is very schematic because no detailed description of the structure is available. On one hand the sluice may fail due to technical failure mechanism. 13  FAILURE SEADIKE (deep water) FAILURE SEAOIKE (shoal) FAILURE DUNE FAILURE SEAOIKE (river) FAILURE SLUICE FAILURE LEVEE fig. . collapse of the doors. 9 The mam faulttree of the f lood defence system Further the actual position of the beach and the dune at the moment of the storm surge is uncertairi due to the dynamic equilibrium of accretion and erosion under normal conditions. The influence of human action is evident in the case of the sluice. However if the beach and the dune recede too far as a result of gradual erosion. or piping or on the other hand due to human error the sluice may stay open during a storm (see fig. 12). the original profile will be reestablished by beach nourishment (maintenance. see fig. such as loss of stability.
ptpirig ' foHur* r«v»tm»nt si* tifti* I liqu» fottion h*od es roboit hol*i low tid» ov»rfoppmg rtvt ov*r topping Hip cirtl» SMpflgt l*nght g/oinin» f lood l*v»l cETEn t*tti*m*nr dik* hught wovt run up EH^ *»ttl»rti»nt J^EL fleee t*v»l durgtion dik* htight. curr»nfs • tg 10 Th» fautttr*» ol o dik» s»ction prottction sfr*njtft .. bar» hol*» loet» isnd frcotic pion» gtom»try 2TB U& constructen htight ars conttruihon g*cm»lry WO»* Ottock thickn»n nifolt slop» tov tidt frieten frtatit plan» o»oirntry tronon 'or« snort •rosion tor» thor» JU. tl op* fntficn frtatir MQ J.14  failgr» (»«tH»OHfl ov»rtoppmg brroch trosion out*r slop* i>» WQV« int»rnol «rosion ï trotion inntr tlop* ottock r«v*tm»nt jtr*ngtti ..
currenrs groinsize geometry maintemonce 11 The process ot dun e erosion during storm surge modelled by two limit states .15  DUNE BREACH mathematical model based on scale tests and field data U.S.. TRANSFER FUNCTlON THEORETICAL MODEL storm surge waves gram si ze geometry change ot geometry stochastic model based on field data S.L. tide. wind waves.L.S.
16 EVALOATION OP TBB PROBABILITY OP PAILORB To evaluate the probability of inundation the probabilities of failure of all theroechanismsmust be known. 1. Por electrical and mechanical components historical failure frequencies are very important. % of cases 30% 38% 15% 17% . In the field of large dams a lot of work has been done (Middlebrooks 1953) to derive average probabilities of failure from historical failure cases. The table below gives some results. For constructional design the use of probabilistic calculations is preferred. assessment of historical data 2. These data are not useful in the design of dikes because they do not reflect constructional improvements or simply other circumstances. There are. probabilistic calculations. Every possible limit state contributes in principle to the total probability of a disaster.three internationally agreed levels on which the limit state eguations may be solved. cause overtopping internal erosion slipcircles other Table I Causes of dam failure The average probability of failure is 10~4 per dam per year. The probability of failure of a mechanism may be found along two ways..
.f. Thereafter the expectation and Standard deviation of Z are calculated by means of the equation y~(z) z (yi(xi) m * » ^(xn)) »* 3) 4) and if Z is normally distributed Pr (Z <: 0) .17  The limit state equation is mostly written as Z .dxi L.d. 2) *M Z < 0 where f (XJ[) • p..d.'s of the basic varibales are if necessary approximated by a normal distribution in a more or less refined manner.f.$(f) 5) ) • Standard normal distribution (3 « reliability index .. of Xj. d3 Pr ( Z ^ O ) fff fXi(Xi) . At level II the p... .R(Xi .1$  £~1~ where ^>( 1 .S(X n+1 Xm) « 0 where R • resistance S • load Xi« basic variable 1) A level III calculation takes the probability density function (p.X^) .f.) of all basic varibales into account and calculates the exact probability of failure in case of independent variables.d. fXw(Xm).
d. A physical model (see fig.18  Iterative computer programs are available that give good approximations of the exact failure probability for nonnormal basic variables and nonlinear Zfunctions (advanced first order second moment approach.d.33 The conditional p.p..f.96 £ « 0. of significant wave heights is modelled by f HSHW (Hs) * N (>c. The joint probability density function of wave sprectra and storm surge levels is evaluated at level III. approximate full distribution approach). load The analyses of dikes is performed on level II and III. (Vrijling and Bruinsma 1980).692) 7) 8) . The distribution of the storm surge level HW is of the Gumbel type (h) • e" e " F ^ HW wtiere oi .1. 0. 13) is used to extrapolate the historical data set of storm surges to the mentioned j. The normal design calculations which use characteristic values for the basic variables and partial safety coefficients according to some format are indicated with level I.f. where Rkar» skar " characteristic strength.
.Z 2 % .V 3.s .45 HW .50 m The wave steepness is normally diatributed.0375.19  where .50 for HW > 2.67 + 4. Z * h c .HW . 0.N(0.o . f(üf) .7.1 10) where h c * construction height HW » storm surge level 1 75 H Z2* * firjV 8 • t9«.0062) L 9) With this 8et of natural boundary conditons the limit state of wave overtopping for the sea dike on deep water is calculated as follows.wave runup Hs * significant wave height s » settlement 0 * oscillation 1 » sea level rise .
J local windfields eastern scheldt locai wavegeneration 1 wave north seo storm surgelevel £ dike I ri woves fig. 13 Model to predict wave spectra in conjunction with storm surge levels =l£ é HW fig. H The conditional probability density function of wave energie on storm surge level . 20 astro nomica tide windfields £ windsetup £ £ shools generation oeep woter .
60 0. prof) 11) where B E( ) prof D50 M * dune breadth * erosion (computer program) « beach level • grain size of the sand • » model factor (m) (m) (m 3 ) (ym) .101 Hs/I* 8 b 1 P = 2.031 0. The fact that the erosion is only known as a computer program is no problem.10 0. Z .51 0.00 0.10 0.03 0.10 0. o.10 Gumbel * Xi 15.69 0. H s .50 0.006 0.35 10 _3 Table II The result of the level II calculation of the mechanism wave overtopping The dune erosion may be calculated along the same lines.41 0.40 0.M * E (HW.43 pf * 7.19 0.00 0.8 0 0. 1.0375 0.80 3.00 15.21 The result of the level II calculation is summarized in Table II jc *c HW H8 er 0.00 0.14 % 0.B .753 0. D 5 0 .20 0.
86 0.01 0.03 0 0.02 0.0 1.00 0.0 0.03 (i.91 0.3 0.1.00 0.10 1 D50 Prof M 225 0.28 Gumbel 2.51 0.57 p f .007 103 103 103 103 Table IV An overview of the probabilities of failure of the most important mechanisms of a river levee.  The level II result is given in table III r b RW Hs 0 G * *i 59.78 10"4 Table III The result of the level II calculation of the mechanism dune erosion.0 0.10 0.02 0.0 2 60 0.06 0.15 200 30 0. .40 0.32 0. mechanism "i overtopping slipcircle piping micro instability 4.42 0. Por a typical river levee the probability of failure for the relevant limit states may also be calculated on level II (see Table IV).69 0.3.04 21.72 4. I*.10 % 60.
000 years. 10~3 secL For practical purposes these boundaries are sufficiently narrow. the dune and the river levee leads to an unacceptable high probability of failure. but not the least important. The problem of the length of the total system is not so easily solved. In Dutch dike design the Standard is a storm surge level with a return period of 10. Studies are performed to find a more objective basis for the acceptable probabilities of inundation.23  The total probability of failure of the levee aection lies between the following boundaries 4 ^ jl max jl **3 Pf < sect Pf j 12) 21.ist which probability of inundation is acceptable for society. Therefore at this moment sections are checked on their own. To accommodate the probabilistic calculations as shown in this paper an acceptable probability of failure 10times smaller than the design frequency is advised (i. which must be fully withstood by the sea defense system. . The summing up of the probabilities of failure of the dike stretches. Zf the correlations between the mechanisme caused by the storm surge Ievel HW are taken into account one finds a total probability of failure that equals the upper boundary. 10~ 5 ).e..0 • 103 ^ Pf 4 25. In these studies tw0 approaches are foliowed. ACCEPTABLE RISK LEVELS FRON SOCIOBCONOMIC POINT OF VIEW The last question.3 .
CT(Nd) « B* . The assumption is that society finds a risk acceptable if the expected number of deaths is with some certainy below B*. Then the total coat formed by the investment in a safer dike and the present value of the risk is minimised. population).100 where k * confidence limit (»3) For one large polder this leads to: 2 2 Pf ^ B* . This number may be looked at from two points of view. 104 acc^ — — (13) Pdlf where 0. Mathematically this is expressed as E (Nd) • k.1 « B * « 10 « policy factor p óiïf " probability to drown given inundation The second point of view is that of society. The other approach looks only to the number of people that will drovm in the case of inundation.24 One approach translates all daroage done by the inundation in monatary units. An acceptable probability by inundation is from this viewpointi PI f < B* .1 and k * 3 the expression is (14) (15) .. 100 (for the Dutch situation. The first is the point of view of the indivudual. in general 10~ 5 . who equates the probability to drown with the normal risk to die in an accident (10~ 4 ).100 ACC k2Nd2 If B* • 0.
Coastal Structures Conf. Soc. J. and Bruinsma. Sydney. 1980.. Transactions Am.A. and Vrijling. 1953. Graaff. Coastal Engin.. Middelbrooks.T. on Hydraulic Aspects of Coastal Structures Delft. P. 1983. 1983. J.d. Vrijling. Symp.25  Although this last criterium is more strict for central Holland than the already mentioned 10~ 5 . of Civ. Engin. dam practice in the United States. REFERENCES Vellinga.. Probabilistic design of dunes. J. Centennial Volume. the criteria advised for environmental risks are generally far lower and of the order Pf <r 104 r acc* —Nd* This would lead howeyer to somewhat unrealistic dike design which underscores the difficulties in this field. 1980. Bakker.. J. W. . Hydraulic Boundary Conditions. A lot more thought and discussion is needed before a clear view of the acceptable risk level is reached. Predictive computational model for beach and dune erosion during storm surges. 697722.K. T..K. Probabilistic design of seadefences. Coastal Structures Conf. pp. V. Conf.